219 relations: A Short History of Pakistan, A. K. Fazlul Huq, Abdullah Haroon, Abdur Rab Nishtar, Aga Khan III, Ahmad of Kalat, Ali Mazrui, Aligarh Movement, Aligarh Muslim University, All-India Muslim League, Allahabad Address, Alvin Robert Cornelius, Arabic, Arain, Ashraf Ali Thanwi, Azad Kashmir, Bacha Khan, Balochistan, Pakistan, Baluchistan (Chief Commissioner's Province), Bangal, Bangladesh Liberation War, Bannu, Baradari (brotherhood), Barelvi, Battle of Plassey, Bengal, Bengali language, Bengali renaissance, Bihar, Bombay Presidency, British Raj, Burma Campaign, Chaudhry Naseer Ahmad Malhi, Chhotu Ram, Choudhry Rahmat Ali, Christianity in Pakistan, Clement Attlee, Constituent Assembly of India, Cripps Mission, Deobandi, Dhaka, Direct Action Day, Earl of Minto, Earl Wavell, East Bengal, East Pakistan, Education in the United Kingdom, Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan, Energy transformation, Faiz Ahmad Faiz, ..., Fatima Jinnah, Federal parliamentary republic, Financial endowment, Fourteen Points of Jinnah, Fourth Anglo-Mysore War, George Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston, Ghulam Bhik Nairang, Government of India Act, 1935, Great Britain, Gurjar, Hakim Ajmal Khan, Hindu, Hindu studies, History of Pakistan, History of the Republic of India, Husain Ahmad Madani, Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy, Independence Day (Pakistan), India, Indian Army, Indian Civil Service (British India), Indian Councils Act 1909, Indian Department, Indian general election, 1945, Indian Independence Act 1947, Indian independence movement, Indian National Congress, Indian provincial elections, 1937, Indian Rebellion of 1857, Industry of Pakistan, Integrating factor, Ishtiaq Hussain Qureshi, Islamic studies, Jahanara Shahnawaz, Jalal-ud-din Jalal Baba, Jallianwala Bagh massacre, Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind, Jat Muslim, Jawaharlal Nehru, Jogendra Nath Mandal, John Locke, John Milton, Khaksars, Khan of Kalat, Khanate of Kalat, Kharan (princely state), Khawaja Nazimuddin, Khilafat Movement, Khudai Khidmatgar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Kingdom of Mysore, Kolkata, Lahore, Lahore Resolution, Language Movement, Las Bela (princely state), Latin, Liaquat Ali Khan, List of historical separatist movements, List of Urdu-language poets, Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, Lucknow Pact, Madrasa, Maharashtra, Mahatma Gandhi, Majlis-e-Ahrar-ul-Islam, Makran (princely state), Malik Khizar Hayat Tiwana, Masood Ashraf Raja, Military history of the United Kingdom during World War II, Minar-e-Pakistan, Minister for Law and Justice (Pakistan), Ministry of Labour (Pakistan), Ministry of Law and Justice (Pakistan), Mir Jafar, Mohammad Abdul Ghafoor Hazarvi, Monarchy of the United Kingdom, Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms, Moses, Muhajir people, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Muhammad bin Qasim, Muhammad Iqbal, Muhammad Muzammilullah Khan, Muhammad Shafi Deobandi, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan, Muslim nationalism in South Asia, National day, Nawab Mohammad Ismail Khan, Nazi Germany, Nehru Report, Neville Chamberlain, New world order (politics), Noakhali District, Nowshera, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Nuclear power in Pakistan, Nurul Amin, Pakistan, Pakistan Declaration, Pakistan Monument, Pakistan Movement, Pakistan National Movement, Pakistan studies, Pakistan Zindabad, Pakistani Instrument of Surrender, Pakistani nationalism, Pakistani textbooks controversy, Pamphlet, Partition of Bengal (1905), Partition of Bengal (1947), Partition of India, Pashtunistan, Pashtuns, Persian language, Pir (Sufism), Prime Minister of Pakistan, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Princely state, Provincial Assembly of the Punjab, Punjab, Punjab, Pakistan, Quit India Movement, Quran, Ra'ana Liaquat Ali Khan, Republicanism, Robert Clive, Rohingya conflict, Rohingya people, Round Table Conferences (India), Secularity, Shabbir Ahmad Usmani, Sikandar Hayat Khan (Punjabi politician), Simon Commission, Sindh, Sir David Baird, 1st Baronet, Sittwe, South India, South Sudan Liberation Movement, Soviet Union, Stephen P. Cohen, Sufism in India, Supermajority, Syed Ahmad Khan, Syed Nabiullah, Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan, Thomas Babington Macaulay, Thomas Paine, Turkish language, Two-nation theory, Ulama, Unionist Party (Punjab), United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine, United Provinces (1937–50), United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, United Provinces of British India, Urdu, Urs, Vali Nasr, Victor Turner (civil servant), Waqf, West Punjab, Western philosophy, Western world, Winston Churchill, World War I, World War II, Zafar Ali Khan, 1946 Cabinet Mission to India, 1958 Pakistani coup d'état. Expand index (169 more) » « Shrink index
A Short History of Pakistan is an edited book published by University of Karachi Press and comprises four volumes.
Abul Kasem Fazlul Huq (26 October 1873—27 April 1962); was a Bengali lawyer, legislator and statesman in the 20th century.
Sir Abdullah Haroon (1872–1942) (عبداللہ ہارون) was a British Indian politician who contributed a lot towards developing and defining the role of Muslims in economic, educational, social and political fields in the Indian subcontinent.
Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar (13 June 1899 – 14 February 1958; سردار عبد الرب نښتر) was a Muslim League stalwart, a Pakistan movement activist and later on a Pakistani politician.
Sir Sultan Muhammed Shah, Aga Khan III (2 November 187711 July 1957) was the 48th Imam of the Nizari Ismaili religion.
Mir Sir Ahmad Yar Khan Ahmedzai (1902–1979) was the last Khan of Kalat, a semi-autonomous state within Britain's Indian Empire, serving from 10 September 1933 to 14 October 1955.
Ali Al'amin Mazrui (24 February 1933 – 12 October 2014), was an academic professor, and political writer on African and Islamic studies and North-South relations.
The Aligarh Movement was the push to establish a modern system of education for the Muslim population of British India, during the later decades of the 19th century.
Aligarh Muslim University (AMU) is an Indian public central university.
The All-India Muslim League (popularised as Muslim League) was a political party established during the early years of the 20th century in the British Indian Empire.
The Allahabad Address (خطبہ الہ آباد) is a speech by Pakistani scholar Sir Muhammad Iqbal, one of the best-known in Pakistan history.
Chief Justice Alvin "Bobby" Robert Cornelius (8 May 1903 – 21 December 1991), ''HPk'', was a Pakistani jurist, legal philosopher and judge, serving as the 4th Chief Justice of Pakistan from 1960 until 1968.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Arain (آرائیں) are a Pakistani tribe who are found mainly in the provinces of Punjab and Sindh.
Ashraf 'Ali Thanwi (August 19, 1863 – July 4, 1943) was an Indian Islamic scholar of the Deobandi movement.
Azad Jammu and Kashmir (آزاد جموں و کشمیر Āzād Jammū̃ o Kaśmīr, translation: Free Jammu and Kashmir), abbreviated as AJK and commonly known as Azad Kashmir, is a nominally self-governing polity administered by Pakistan.
Abdul Ghaffār Khān (6 February 1890 – 20 January 1988), nicknamed Fakhr-e-Afghān, lit.
Balochistan (bəloːt͡ʃɪs't̪ɑːn) (بلوچِستان), is one of the five provinces of Pakistan.
The Chief Commissioner's Province of Balochistan (Urdu: بلوچستان,چیف کمشنر صوبہ) was a province of British India, and later Pakistan, located in the northern parts of the modern Balochistan province.
Bangal is a term used to refer to the people of East Bengal (usually from regions around Dhaka and Barisal), now in Bangladesh (as opposed to the Ghotis of West Bengal).
The Bangladesh Liberation War (মুক্তিযুদ্ধ), also known as the Bangladesh War of Independence, or simply the Liberation War in Bangladesh, was a revolution and armed conflict sparked by the rise of the Bengali nationalist and self-determination movement in what was then East Pakistan during the 1971 Bangladesh genocide.
Banū or Bannu (باني ګل / بنو, بنوں) is the principal city of the Bannu District in southern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Barādarī or Birādrī (برادری) means Brotherhood originating from the Persian word برادر Baradar meaning "Brother".
Barelvi (بَریلوِی) is a movement following the Sunni Hanafi school of jurisprudence, with over 200 million followers in South Asia.
The Battle of Plassey was a decisive victory of the British East India Company over the Nawab of Bengal and his French allies on 23 June 1757.
Bengal (Bānglā/Bôngô /) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in Asia, which is located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal.
Bengali, also known by its endonym Bangla (বাংলা), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in South Asia.
The Bengali renaissance or simply Bengal renaissance, (বাংলার নবজাগরণ; Bānglār nabajāgaraṇ) was a cultural, social, intellectual and artistic movement in Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent during the period of the British Indian Empire, from the nineteenth century to the early twentieth century.
Bihar is an Indian state considered to be a part of Eastern as well as Northern India.
The Bombay Presidency, also known as Bombay and Sind from 1843 to 1936 and the Bombay Province, was an administrative subdivision (presidency) of British India.
The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
The Burma Campaign was a series of battles fought in the British colony of Burma, South-East Asian theatre of World War II, primarily between the forces of the British Empire and China, with support from the United States, against the invading forces of Imperial Japan, Thailand, and the Indian National Army.
Chaudhry Naseer Ahmad Malhi (چودھری نصیر احمد ملہی) (15 August 1911 – 12 July 1991) was a Pakistani politician, known for playing a pivotal role in the formation of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
Sir Chhotu Ram, (born Ram Richpal; 24 November 1881 – 9 January 1945) was a prominent politician in British India's Punjab Province, an ideologue of the peasants of pre-Indepenence India, who belonged to the peasants of Jat community and could transform peasantry in an unprecedented fashion in Indian sub-continent he could champion the interest of much oppressed peasants.
Chaudhry Rehmat Ali (In Punjabi and) (16 November 1893 – 3 February 1951) was a Pakistani Punjabi Muslim nationalist who was one of the earliest proponents of the creation of the state of Pakistan.
Christians make up one of the two largest (non-Muslim) religious minorities in Pakistan, along with Hindus.
Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was a British statesman of the Labour Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1935 to 1955.
An idea for a Constituent Assembly of India was proposed in 1934 by M. N. Roy, a pioneer of the Communist movement in India and an advocate of radical democracy.
The Cripps Mission was a failed attempt in late March 1942 by the British government to secure full Indian cooperation and support for their efforts in World War II.
Deobandi (Pashto and دیو بندی, دیو بندی, দেওবন্দী, देवबन्दी) is a revivalist movement within Sunni (primarily Hanafi) Islam.
Dhaka (or; ঢাকা); formerly known as Dacca is the capital and largest city of Bangladesh.
Direct Action Day (16 August 1946), also known as the Great Calcutta Killings, was a day of widespread communal rioting between Muslims and Hindus in the city of Calcutta (now known as Kolkata) in the Bengal province of British India.
Earl of Minto, in the County of Roxburgh, is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
Earl Wavell was a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
East Bengal (পূর্ব বাংলা Purbô Bangla) was a geographically noncontiguous province of the Dominion of Pakistan covering Bangladesh.
East Pakistan was the eastern provincial wing of Pakistan between 1955 and 1971, covering the territory of the modern country Bangladesh.
Education in the United Kingdom is a devolved matter with each of the countries of the United Kingdom having separate systems under separate governments: the UK Government is responsible for England; whilst the Scottish Government, the Welsh Government and the Northern Ireland Executive are responsible for Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, respectively.
The Eighteenth Amendment of the Constitution of Pakistan (Urdu: آئین پاکستان میں اٹھارہویں ترمیم) was passed by the National Assembly of Pakistan on April 8, 2010, removing the power of the President of Pakistan to dissolve the Parliament unilaterally, turning Pakistan from a semi-presidential to a parliamentary republic, and renaming North-West Frontier Province to Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
Energy transformation, also termed as energy conversion, is the process of changing energy from one of its forms into another.
Faiz Ahmad Faiz MBE, NI (فَیض احمد فَیض), (born 13 February 1911 – 20 November 1984) was a Pakistani leftist poet and author, and one of the most celebrated writers of the Urdu language.
Fatima Jinnah English IPA: fətɪ̈mɑ d͡ʒinnəɦ, (فاطمہ جناح; 31 July 1893 – 9 July 1967) was a Pakistani dental surgeon, biographer, stateswoman and one of the leading founders of Pakistan.
A federal parliamentary republic refers to a federation of states with a republican form of government that is, more or less, dependent upon the confidence of parliaments at both the national and subnational levels.
A financial endowment is a donation of money or property to a nonprofit organization for the ongoing support of that organization.
The Fourteen Points of Jinnah were proposed by Muhammad Ali Jinnah drafted by C Rajagopalachari as a constitutional reform plan to safeguard the political rights of Muslims in a self-governing India.
The Fourth Anglo–Mysore War was a conflict in South India between the Kingdom of Mysore against the British East India Company and the Hyderabad Deccan in 1798–99.
George Nathaniel Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston, (11 January 1859 – 20 March 1925), known as Lord Curzon of Kedleston between 1898 and 1911 and as Earl Curzon of Kedleston between 1911 and 1921, and commonly as Lord Curzon, was a British Conservative statesman.
Syed Ghulam Bhik Nairang (26 September 1876 – 16 October 1952), also known as Mir Nairang, was a distinguished lawyer, a poet and a prominent Indian Muslim leader.
The Government of India Act,1935 was originally passed in August 1935 (25 & 26 Geo. 5 c. 42), and is said to be the longest Act (British) of Parliament ever enacted by that time.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
Gurjar or Gujjar are a pastoral agricultural ethnic group with populations in India, Nepal, Pakistan, and a small number in northeastern Afghanistan.
Mohammad Ajmal Khan better known as Hakim Ajmal Khan was a famous physician in Delhi, India and one of the founders of the Jamia Millia Islamia University.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
Hindu studies is the study of the traditions and practices of the Indian subcontinent, especially Hinduism.
The history of Pakistan encompasses the history of the region constituting modern-day Pakistan.
The history of the Republic of India begins on 26 January 1950.
Hussein Ahmed Madani (6 October 1879 - 1957) was an Islamic scholar from the Indian subcontinent.
Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy (English IPA: ɦusæŋ ʃɑid sɦuɾɑwɑɾdɪə; حسین شہید سہروردی; হোসেন শহীদ সোহ্রাওয়ার্দী; 8 September 18925 December 1963) is a Bengali politician and a lawyer who served as the fifth Prime Minister of Pakistan, appointed in this capacity on 12 September 1956 until resigning on 17 October 1957.
Independence Day (یوم آزادی; Yaum-e Āzādī), observed annually on 14 August, is a national holiday in Pakistan.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian Army is the land-based branch and the largest component of the Indian Armed Forces.
The Indian Civil Service (ICS) for part of the 19th century officially known as the Imperial Civil Service, was the elite higher civil service of the British Empire in British India during British rule in the period between 1858 and 1947.
The (9 Edw. 7 c. 4), commonly known as the Morley-Minto Reforms (or as the Minto-Morley Reforms), was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that brought about a limited increase in the involvement of Indians in the governance of British India.
The Indian Department was established in 1755 to oversee relations between the government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and those First Nations in British North America.
General elections were held in British India in December 1945 to elect members of the Central Legislative Assembly and the Council of State.
The Indian Independence Act 1947 (1947 c. 30 (10 & 11. Geo. 6.)) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that partitioned British India into the two new independent dominions of India and Pakistan.
The Indian independence movement encompassed activities and ideas aiming to end the East India Company rule (1757–1857) and the British Indian Empire (1857–1947) in the Indian subcontinent.
The Indian National Congress (INC, often called Congress Party) is a broadly based political party in India.
Provincial elections were held in British India in the winter of 1936-37 as mandated by the Government of India Act 1935.
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a major uprising in India between 1857–58 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown.
Pakistan ranked as number 43-44 among the countries of the world in nominal GDP, 26th in GDP with purchasing power parity and Pakistan's industrial sector accounts for about 24% of GDP.
In mathematics, an integrating factor is a function that is chosen to facilitate the solving of a given equation involving differentials.
Ishtiaq Hussain Qureshi (اشتیاق حسين قریشی.) (20 November 1903 – 22 January 1981) popularly known as I.H. Qureshi), ''SP'', ''HI'', was a Pakistani historian, scholar, writer, and a professor of political history, first at the University of the Punjab and then at the Karachi University. Retrieved 22 April 2018 An early activist of the historic Pakistan Movement, Qureshi served in the ministries of education and frontier regions as the secretary; in addition, he was elected a member of the parliament of Pakistan. But, due to his association with academia, he resigned from his government appointments and joined the academic faculty at the Columbia University as a professor of South Asian history. But soon, he returned to Pakistan and founded the National Language Authority (NLA) in the 1970s and helped set up the History Department at the University of the Punjab. Later, Qureshi joined the faculty of history at the University of Karachi where he remained there the remainder of his life. Qureshi is also credited for editing a four-volume series on history of Pakistan.
Islamic studies refers to the study of Islam.
Begum Jahanara Shahnawaz (1896-1979) was a politician and Muslim League activist.
Jalaluddin (Urdu: جلال الدین, March 3, 1901 – January 21, 1981), aka Jalal Baba (Urdu: جلال بابا), was a Muslim League stalwart and a Pakistan movement activist.
The Jallianwala Bagh massacre, also known as the Amritsar massacre, took place on 13 April 1919 when troops of the British Indian Army under the command of Colonel Reginald Dyer fired rifles into a crowd of Indians, who had gathered in Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar, Punjab.
Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind or Jamiat Ulama-I-Hind (Urdu:, जमीयत उलेमा-ए-हिन्द, translation: Organisation of Indian Islamic Scholars) is one of the leading Islamic organisations in India.
Jat Muslim or Musalman Jat (مسلمان جٹ) are patrilineal descendants of Jat people of Northern regions of the Indian Subcontinent who are followers of Islam.
Jawaharlal Nehru (14 November 1889 – 27 May 1964) was the first Prime Minister of India and a central figure in Indian politics before and after independence.
Jogendra Nath Mandal (যোগেন্দ্রনাথ মণ্ডল; 29 January 1904 – 5 October 1968), was one of the central and leading Founding Fathers of modern state of Pakistan, and legislator serving as country's first minister of law and labour, and also was second minister of commonwealth and Kashmir affairs.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
John Milton (9 December 16088 November 1674) was an English poet, polemicist, man of letters, and civil servant for the Commonwealth of England under its Council of State and later under Oliver Cromwell.
The Khaksar movement (تحریکِ خاکسار) was a social movement based in Lahore, Punjab, British India, established by Allama Mashriqi in 1931, with the aim of freeing India from the rule of the British Empire and establish a Hindu-Muslim government in India.
Khan of Kalat or Khan-e-Qalat (خان قلات) is the title of the former baloch rulers of the Khanate of Kalat.
The Khanate of Kalat (خانات ءِ قلات) was a princely state that existed from 1666 to 1955 in the centre of the modern-day province of Balochistan, Pakistan.
The State of Kharan (Urdu: ریاست خاران) was an autonomous princely state in a subsidiary alliance with British India, until the departure of the British from the subcontinent in August 1947.
Sir Khawaja Nazimuddin(خواجہ ناظِمُ الدّین; খাজা নাজিমুদ্দীন; 19 July 1894 – 22 October 1964),, was a Bengali politician, conservative figure, and one of the leading founding fathers of Pakistan.
The Khilafat movement (1919–22) was a pan-Islamist, political protest campaign launched by Muslims of India to influence the British government not to abolish the Ottoman Caliphate.
Khudai Khidmatgar (خدايي خدمتگار) literally translates as the servants of God, represented a non-violent struggle against the British Empire by the Pashtuns (also known as Pathans, Pakhtuns or Afghans) of the North-West Frontier Province of British India (now in Pakistan).
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (abbreviated as KP; خیبر پختونخوا; خیبر پښتونخوا) is one of the four administrative provinces of Pakistan, located in the northwestern region of the country along the international border with Afghanistan.
The Kingdom of Mysore was a kingdom in southern India, traditionally believed to have been founded in 1399 in the vicinity of the modern city of Mysore.
Kolkata (also known as Calcutta, the official name until 2001) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal.
Lahore (لاہور, لہور) is the capital city of the Pakistani province of Punjab, and is the country’s second-most populous city after Karachi.
The Lahore Resolution (قرارداد لاہور, Karardad-e-Lahore; Bengali: লাহোর প্রস্তাব, Lahor Prostab),was a declaration written by Muhammad Zafarullah Khan and others and presented by A. K. Fazl ul Huq, the Prime Minister of Bengal, was a formal political statement adopted by the All-India Muslim League on the occasion of its three-day general session in Lahore on 22–24 March 1940.
The Language Movement (ভাষা আন্দোলন Bhasha Andolôn) was a political movement in former East Bengal (currently Bangladesh) advocating the recognition of the Bengali language as an official language of the then-Dominion of Pakistan in order to allow its use in government affairs, the continuation of its use as a medium of education, its use in media, currency and stamps, and to maintain its writing in the Bengali script.
Las Bela (Urdu: ریاست لسبیلہ) was a princely state in a subsidiary alliance with British India (later a princely state of Pakistan) which existed until 1955.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan (Næʍābzādāh Liāqat Alī Khān,لِیاقت علی خان; born October 1895 – 16 October 1951), widely known as Quaid-e-Millat (Leader of the Nation) and Shaheed-e-Millat (شہِیدِ مِلّت Martyr of the Nation), was one of the leading founding fathers of Pakistan, statesman, lawyer, and political theorist who became and served as the first Prime Minister of Pakistan; in addition, he also held cabinet portfolio as the first foreign, defence, and the frontier regions minister from 1947 until his assassination in 1951.
This is a list of historical separatist movements around the world.
Admiral of the Fleet Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, (born Prince Louis of Battenberg; 25 June 1900 – 27 August 1979) was a British Royal Navy officer and statesman, an uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, and second cousin once removed of Queen Elizabeth II.
The Lucknow Pact was an agreement reached between the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League at the joint session of both the parties held in Lucknow in December 1916.
Madrasa (مدرسة,, pl. مدارس) is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious (of any religion), and whether a school, college, or university.
Maharashtra (abbr. MH) is a state in the western region of India and is India's second-most populous state and third-largest state by area.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule.
Majlis-e Ahrar-e Islam (مجلس احرارلأسلام), also known in short as Ahrar, was a religious Muslim political party in the Indian subcontinent during the British Raj (prior to the Partition of India) founded December 29, 1929 at Lahore.
Makran was an autonomous princely state in a subsidiary alliance with British India until 1947, then from 1948 a princely state of Pakistan.
Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Malik Khizar Hayat Tiwana KCSI, OBE (7 August 1900 - 20 January 1975) (نواب ملک خضرحیات تیوانہ) was a Punjabi statesman, army officer, and landowner who served as the Unionist Premier of the Punjab between 1942 and 1947.
Masood Ashraf Raja (Urdu: مسعود اشرف راجہ) is an associate professor of postcolonial literature and theory at the University of North Texas.
The United Kingdom, along with most of its Dominions and Crown colonies declared war on Nazi Germany in September 1939, after the German invasion of Poland.
Minar-e-Pakistan (مینارِ پاکستان) is a public monument located in, adjacent to the Walled City of Lahore, in the Pakistani province of Punjab.
The Law Minister of Pakistan heads the Ministry of Law, Justice & Human Rights.
The Ministry of Labour of Pakistan is a government ministry responsible for Labour relations in Pakistan.
The Ministry of Justice (وزارت انصاف; abbreviated as MoJ) is a Cabinet-level ministry of Pakistan, responsible and for the enforcement of law and administration of justice.
Mir Jafar Ali Khan Bahadur (মীর জাফর আলী খান বাহাদুর; c. 1691 — 5 February 1765) was the first Najafi Nawab of Bengal with support from the British East India Company.
Akhundzada Mohammad Abdul Ghafoor Hazarvi (اخوندزادہ محمد عبدالغفور ہزاروی چشتی.) was a Muslim theologian, faqīh, and mufassir in Pakistan (South Asia).
The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories.
The Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms or more briefly known as Mont-Ford Reforms were reforms introduced by the British colonial government in India to introduce self-governing institutions gradually to India.
Mosesמֹשֶׁה, Modern Tiberian ISO 259-3; ܡܘܫܐ Mūše; موسى; Mωϋσῆς was a prophet in the Abrahamic religions.
The Muhajir people (also spelled Mahajir and Mohajir) (مهاجر) are Muslim immigrants, of multi-ethnic origin, and their descendants, who migrated from various regions of India after the independence of Pakistan.
Muhammad Ali Jinnah (محمد علی جناح ALA-LC:, born Mahomedali Jinnahbhai; 25 December 1876 – 11 September 1948) was a lawyer, politician, and the founder of Pakistan.
‘Imād ad-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Qāsim ath-Thaqafī (عماد الدين محمد بن القاسم الثقفي; c. 695715) was an Umayyad general who conquered the Sindh and Multan regions along the Indus River (now a part of Pakistan) for the Umayyad Caliphate.
Muhammad Iqbal (محمد اِقبال) (November 9, 1877 – April 21, 1938), widely known as Allama Iqbal, was a poet, philosopher, and politician, as well as an academic, barrister and scholar in British India who is widely regarded as having inspired the Pakistan Movement.
Nawab Sir Muhammad Muzammilullah Khan, Khan Bahadur (1865–1935) was a noted Zamindar and politician from United Province of British India.
Muḥammad Shafī‘ ibn Muḥammad Yāsīn ‘Us̱mānī Deobandī (محمد شفیع بن محمد ياسین عثمانی دیوبندی; محمد شفيع بن محمد ياسين العثماني الديوبندي, Muḥammad Shafī‘ ibn Muḥammad Yāsīn al-‘Uthmānī ad-Diyūbandī; 25 January 18976 October 1976), often referred to as Mufti Muhammad Shafi, was a South Asian Sunni Islamic scholar of the Deobandi school of Islamic thought.
Chaudhry Sir Muhammad Zafarullah Khan (محمد ظفر اللہ خان‎; 6 February 1893 – 1 September 1985) was a Pakistani jurist and diplomat who served as the first Foreign Minister of Pakistan and the first Asian and the only Pakistani to preside over the UN General Assembly and the International Court of Justice.
Muslim nationalism in South Asia is the political and cultural expression of nationalism, founded upon the religious tenets and identity of Islam, of the Muslims of South Asia.
A national day is a designated date on which celebrations mark the nationhood of a nation or non-sovereign country.
Nawab Mohammad Ismail Khan (Urdu) was an eminent Muslim politician and a leading activist of the All-India Muslim League, who stood in the forefront of the Khilafat Movement and Pakistan Movement.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
of 28-30 August, 1928 was a memorandum outlining a proposed new dominion status constitution for India.
Arthur Neville Chamberlain (18 March 1869 – 9 November 1940) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from May 1937 to May 1940.
The term "new world order" has been used to refer to any new period of history evidencing a dramatic change in world political thought and the balance of power.
Noakhali (নোয়াখালী জেলা.) is a district in South-eastern Bangladesh.
Nowshera (Pashto: نوښار, pr. Nowkhaar) is the chief city of Nowshera District in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan, and is one of the largest cities in the province.
As of 2017, nuclear power in Pakistan is provided by 5 commercial nuclear power plants.
Nurul Amin (English IPA:nʊɾul əmin, নূরুল আমীন, نورالامین; 1893–1974), referred to as the Patriot of Pakistan, was a prominent Pakistani leader, and a jurist.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Pakistan Declaration (titled Now or Never; Are We to Live or Perish Forever?) was a pamphlet written and published by Choudhary Rahmat Ali, on 28 January 1933, in which the word Pakstan (without the letter "i") was used for the first time and was presented in the Round Table conferences in 1933.
The Pakistan Monument (یادبود پاکستان) is a national monument and heritage museum located on the western Shakarparian Hills in Islamabad, Pakistan.
The Pakistan Movement or Tehrik-e-Pakistan (تحریک پاکستان –) was a religious political movement in the 1940s that aimed for and succeeded in the creation of Pakistan from the Muslim-majority areas of the British Indian Empire.
The Pakistan National Movement was founded in 1933 by Choudhry Rahmat Ali who is also credited with creating the name "Pakistan", for a separate Muslim homeland in South Asia.
Pakistan studies curriculum (Urdu: مطالعہ پاکستان) is the name of a curriculum of academic research and study that encompasses the culture, demographics, geography, history, and politics of Pakistan.
Pakistan- (پاکستان زِنده باد —,; lit.) is a slogan used by Pakistanis as an expression of victory or patriotism, often used in political speeches.
The Pakistani Instrument of Surrender (পাকিস্তানের আত্মসমর্পণের দলিল, Pākistānēr Atmasamarpaṇēr Dalil) was a written agreement that enabled the surrender of the Pakistan Armed Forces on 16 December 1971 at the Ramna Race Course garden in Dhaka, thereby ending the Bangladesh Liberation War.
Pakistani nationalism refers to the political, cultural, linguistic, historical, religious and geographical expression of patriotism by the people of Pakistan, of pride in the history, heritage and identity of Pakistan, and visions for its future.
The Pakistani textbooks controversy relates to the reported inaccuracy of some Pakistani textbooks and the existence of historical revisionism in them.
A pamphlet is an unbound booklet (that is, without a hard cover or binding).
The decision to effect the Partition of Bengal (বঙ্গভঙ্গ.) was announced on 19 July 1905 by the Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon.
The Partition of Bengal in 1947, part of the Partition of India, divided the British Indian province of Bengal based on the Radcliffe Line between India and Pakistan.
The Partition of India was the division of British India in 1947 which accompanied the creation of two independent dominions, India and Pakistan.
Pashtūnistān (پښتونستان; also called Pakhtūnistān, or Pathānistān, meaning the "land of Pashtuns") is the geographic historical region inhabited by the indigenous Pashtun people of modern-day Afghanistan and Pakistan, wherein Pashtun culture, language, and national identity have been based.
The Pashtuns (or; پښتانه Pax̌tānə; singular masculine: پښتون Pax̌tūn, feminine: پښتنه Pax̌tana; also Pukhtuns), historically known as ethnic Afghans (افغان, Afğān) and Pathans (Hindustani: پٹھان, पठान, Paṭhān), are an Iranic ethnic group who mainly live in Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Pir or Peer (پیر, literally "old ", "elder") is a title for a Sufi master or spiritual guide.
The Prime Minister of Pakistan (وزِیرِ اعظم —,; lit. "Grand Vizier") is the head of government of Pakistan and designated as the "chief executive of the Republic".
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.
A princely state, also called native state (legally, under the British) or Indian state (for those states on the subcontinent), was a vassal state under a local or regional ruler in a subsidiary alliance with the British Raj.
The Provincial Assembly of the Punjab is a unicameral legislature of elected representatives of the province of Punjab, which is located in Lahore, Pakistan.
The Punjab, also spelled Panjab (land of "five rivers"; Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi); Πενταποταμία, Pentapotamia) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India.
Punjab (Urdu, Punjabi:, panj-āb, "five waters") is Pakistan's second largest province by area, after Balochistan, and its most populous province, with an estimated population of 110,012,442 as of 2017.
The Quit India Movement or the India August Movement, was a movement launched at the Bombay session of the All-India Congress Committee by Mahatma Gandhi on 8 August 1942, during World War II, demanding an end to British Rule of India.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
Begum Ra'ana Liaqat Ali Khan (رعنا لياقت على خان, born Sheila Irene Pant; February 1905 – 13 June 1990), was one of the leading woman figures in the Pakistan Movement along with her husband Liaquat Ali Khan, and a career economist, and prominent stateswoman from the start of the cold war till the fall and the end of the cold war.
Republicanism is an ideology centered on citizenship in a state organized as a republic under which the people hold popular sovereignty.
Major-General Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive, (29 September 1725 – 22 November 1774), also known as Clive of India, Commander-in-Chief of British India, was a British officer and privateer who established the military and political supremacy of the East India Company in Bengal.
The Rohingya conflict is a series of violent clashes in northern Rakhine State, Myanmar (formerly known as Arakan, Burma).
The Rohingya people are a stateless Indo-Aryan-speaking people who reside in Rakhine State, Myanmar (also known as Burma).
The three Round Table Conferences of 1930–32 were a series of conferences organized by the British Government to discuss constitutional reforms in India.
Secularity (adjective form secular, from Latin saeculum meaning "worldly", "of a generation", "temporal", or a span of about 100 years) is the state of being separate from religion, or of not being exclusively allied with or against any particular religion.
Shabbir Ahmad Usmani (شبیر احمد عثمانی, Shabbīr Aḥmad ‘Usmānī; October 11, 1887December 13, 1949) was an Islamic scholar who supported the Pakistan Movement in the 1940s.
Captain (retired) Sardar Sir Sikandar Hayat Khan, KBE (also written Sikandar Hyat Khan or Sikander Hyat-Khan at times) (5 June 1892 in Multan–25/26 December 1942) was a statesman from the Punjab.
The Indian Statutory Commission, commonly referred to as the Simon Commission was a group of seven British Members of Parliament of United Kingdom under the chairmanship of Sir John Allsebrook Simon assisted by Clement Attlee.
Sindh (سنڌ; سِندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, in the southeast of the country.
General Sir David Baird, 1st Baronet GCB (6 December 1757 – 18 August 1829) was a British military leader.
Sittwe (formerly Akyab) is the capital of Rakhine State, Myanmar (Burma).
South India is the area encompassing the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Puducherry, occupying 19% of India's area.
The South Sudan Liberation Movement (SSLM) is an armed group that operates in the Upper Nile Region of South Sudan.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Stephen Philip Cohen (born 1936) is an American political scientist and professor of security studies.
Sufism has a history in India evolving for over 1,000 years.
A supermajority or supra-majority or a qualified majority, is a requirement for a proposal to gain a specified level of support which is greater than the threshold of one-half used for majority.
Syed Ahmad Taqvi bin Syed Muhammad Muttaqi KCSI (سید احمد خان.; 17 October 1817 – 27 March 1898), commonly known as Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, was an Indian Muslim pragmatist, Islamic reformist, philosopher of nineteenth century British India and the first who named the term "Two Nation theory" to the theory of separate nation of Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Born into a family with strong ties with Mughal court, Syed studied the Quran and sciences within the court. He was awarded honorary LLD from the University of Edinburgh. In 1838, Syed Ahmad entered the service of East India Company and went on to become a judge at a Small Causes Court in 1867, and retired from service in 1876. During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, he remained, loyal to the British Empire and was noted for his actions in saving European lives.Glasse, Cyril, The New Encyclopedia of Islam, Altamira Press, (2001) After the rebellion, he penned the booklet ''The Causes of the Indian Mutiny'' – a daring critique, at the time, of British policies that he blamed for causing the revolt. Believing that the future of Muslims was threatened by the rigidity of their orthodox outlook, Sir Syed began promoting Western–style scientific education by founding modern schools and journals and organising Muslim entrepreneurs. In 1859, Syed established Gulshan School at Muradabad, Victoria School at Ghazipur in 1863, and a scientific society for Muslims in 1864. In 1875, founded the Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College, the first Muslim university in South Asia. During his career, Syed repeatedly called upon Muslims to loyally serve the British Empire and promoted the adoption of Urdu as the lingua franca of all Indian Muslims. Syed heavily critiqued the Indian National Congress. Syed maintains a strong legacy in Pakistan and Indian Muslims. He strongly influenced other Muslim leaders including Allama Iqbal and Jinnah. His advocacy of Islam's rationalist (Muʿtazila) tradition, and at broader, radical reinterpretation of the Quran to make it compatible with science and modernity, continues to influence the global Islamic reformation. Many universities and public buildings in Pakistan bear Sir Syed's name. Aligarh Muslim University celebrated his 200th birth centenary with much enthusiasm on 17 October 2017. Former President of India shri Pranab Mukherjee was the chief guest.
Syed Nabiullah (سيد نبي الله) was a prominent Barrister of Lucknow, India, and one of the eminent leaders of All India Muslim League.
The Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan (Urdu: آئین پاکستان میں تیرہویں ترمیم) was a short-time amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan, adopted by the elected Parliament of Pakistan in 1997 by the government of people elected Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif.
Thomas Babington Macaulay, 1st Baron Macaulay, FRS FRSE PC (25 October 1800 – 28 December 1859) was a British historian and Whig politician.
Thomas Paine (born Thomas Pain; – In the contemporary record as noted by Conway, Paine's birth date is given as January 29, 1736–37. Common practice was to use a dash or a slash to separate the old-style year from the new-style year. In the old calendar, the new year began on March 25, not January 1. Paine's birth date, therefore, would have been before New Year, 1737. In the new style, his birth date advances by eleven days and his year increases by one to February 9, 1737. The O.S. link gives more detail if needed. – June 8, 1809) was an English-born American political activist, philosopher, political theorist and revolutionary.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
The two-nation theory is the basis of the creation of Pakistan.
The Arabic term ulama (علماء., singular عالِم, "scholar", literally "the learned ones", also spelled ulema; feminine: alimah and uluma), according to the Encyclopedia of Islam (2000), in its original meaning "denotes scholars of almost all disciplines".
The Unionist Party was a political party based in the Punjab Province during the period of British rule in India.
The United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine was a proposal by the United Nations, which recommended a partition of Mandatory Palestine at the end of the British Mandate. On 29 November 1947, the UN General Assembly adopted the Plan as Resolution 181 (II). The resolution recommended the creation of independent Arab and Jewish States and a Special International Regime for the city of Jerusalem. The Partition Plan, a four-part document attached to the resolution, provided for the termination of the Mandate, the progressive withdrawal of British armed forces and the delineation of boundaries between the two States and Jerusalem. Part I of the Plan stipulated that the Mandate would be terminated as soon as possible and the United Kingdom would withdraw no later than 1 August 1948. The new states would come into existence two months after the withdrawal, but no later than 1 October 1948. The Plan sought to address the conflicting objectives and claims of two competing movements, Palestinian nationalism and Jewish nationalism, or Zionism. Molinaro, Enrico The Holy Places of Jerusalem in Middle East Peace Agreements Page 78 The Plan also called for Economic Union between the proposed states, and for the protection of religious and minority rights. The Plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency for Palestine, despite its perceived limitations. Arab leaders and governments rejected it and indicated an unwillingness to accept any form of territorial division, arguing that it violated the principles of national self-determination in the UN Charter which granted people the right to decide their own destiny.Sami Hadawi, Olive Branch Press, (1989)1991 p.76. Immediately after adoption of the Resolution by the General Assembly, a civil war broke out and the plan was not implemented.
The United Provinces (UP) was a province of British India and, subsequently, Independent India.
The United Provinces of Agra and Oudh was a province of India under the British Raj, which existed from 1902 to 1947; the official name was shortened by the Government of India Act 1935 to United Provinces (UP), by which the province had been commonly known, and by which name it was also a province of independent India until 1950.
The United Provinces of British India, more commonly known as the United Provinces, was a province of British India, which came into existence on 3 January 1921 as a result of the renaming of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
Urs (from), is the death anniversary of a Sufi saint in South Asia, usually held at the saint's dargah (shrine or tomb).
Vali Reza Nasr (ولی رضا نصر, born 20 December 1960) is an Iranian-American academic and author specializing in the Middle East and the Islamic world.
Sir Victor Alfred Charles Turner, CSI, CIE, MBE, SI (12 March 1892 – 16 October 1974Obituary, The Times, issue 59220, 17 October 1974 p. 18.) was an English-Pakistani civil service officer, statistician and economist, and one of the founding fathers of the Civil Service of Pakistan, serving as the first Finance Secretary of Pakistan in the government of Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan, as well as Chairman of the Central Board of Revenue from 14 August 1947 until 1 February 1950.
A waqf (وقف), also known as habous or mortmain property, is an inalienable charitable endowment under Islamic law, which typically involves donating a building, plot of land or other assets for Muslim religious or charitable purposes with no intention of reclaiming the assets.
West Punjab was a province of Pakistan from 1947 to 1955.
Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Zafar Ali Khan (1873– 27 November 1956) (ظفرؔ علی خان –), also known as Maulana Zafar Ali Khan, was a writer, poet, translator and a journalist who played an important role in the Pakistan Movement against the British Raj.
The United Kingdom Cabinet Mission of 1946 to India aimed to discuss the transfer of power from the British government to the Indian leadership, with the aim of preserving India's unity and granting it independence.
The 1958 Pakistani coup d'état refers to the events between October 7, when the President of Pakistan Iskander Mirza abrogated the Constitution of Pakistan and declared martial law, and October 27, when Mirza himself was deposed by Gen.
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