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The Aérospatiale Alouette III (Lark) is a single-engine, light utility helicopter developed by French aircraft company Sud Aviation.
An able seaman (AB) is a naval rating of the deck department of a merchant ship with more than two years' experience at sea and considered "well acquainted with his duty".
Active measures (активные мероприятия) is a term for the actions of political warfare conducted by the Soviet and Russian security services (Cheka, OGPU, NKVD, KGB, FSB) to influence the course of world events, in addition to collecting intelligence and producing "politically correct" assessment of it.
Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navies, and in many navies is the highest rank.
An admiral of the fleet or fleet admiral (sometimes also known as admiral of the navy or grand admiral) is a military naval officer of the highest rank.
The Admiralty, originally known as the Office of the Admiralty and Marine Affairs, was the government department responsible for the command of the Royal Navy firstly in the Kingdom of England, secondly in the Kingdom of Great Britain, and from 1801 to 1964, the United Kingdom and former British Empire.
Aerial warfare is the battlespace use of military aircraft and other flying machines in warfare.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Vice-Admiral Afzal Akram Rahman Khan (Urdu: افضل رحمان خان; born: 1921— 2005; popularly known as Admiral A. R. Khan), HQA, HPk, HJ, was a three-star rank admiral, politician, and the Commander in Chief of Pakistan Navy, serving under President Ayub Khan from 1959 until 1966.
The Agosta-class submarine is a class of diesel-electric fast-attack submarine developed and constructed by the French DCNS in 1970s to succeed the ''Daphné'' submarines.
Vice-Admiral Ahmad Tasnim (Urdu:احمد تسنيم; b. 1935),, is a retired three-star rank admiral in the Pakistan Navy who is notable for his command of the ''Hangor'', a submarine, that sank the INS Khukri on 8 December 1971 during the third war with India, off the Diu, Gujarat in India.
Air Headquarters (AHQ) is the Headquarters of Pakistan Air Force, located at Islamabad.
Air-independent propulsion (AIP) is any marine propulsion technology that allows a non-nuclear submarine to operate without access to atmospheric oxygen (by surfacing or using a snorkel).
An aircraft carrier is a warship that serves as a seagoing airbase, equipped with a full-length flight deck and facilities for carrying, arming, deploying, and recovering aircraft.
The Aiwan-e-Sadr or Presidency Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the President of Pakistan.
Al-Qaeda (القاعدة,, translation: "The Base", "The Foundation" or "The Fundament" and alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qæda and sometimes al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national organization founded in 1988.
Anti-submarine warfare (ASW, or in older form A/S) is a branch of underwater warfare that uses surface warships, aircraft, or other submarines to find, track and deter, damage, or destroy enemy submarines.
An anti-submarine weapon (ASW) is any one of a number of devices that are intended to act against a submarine and its crew, to destroy (sink) the vessel or reduce its capability as a weapon of war.
The Arabian Sea, also known as Sea of Oman, is a region of the northern Indian Ocean bounded on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Gulf of Aden, Guardafui Channel and the Arabian Peninsula, and on the east by India.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that employs the principles of physics and chemistry "to ascertain the nature of the astronomical objects, rather than their positions or motions in space".
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
The ATR 72 is a twin-engine turboprop, short-haul regional airliner developed and produced in France and Italy by aircraft manufacturer ATR (Aerei da Trasporto Regionale or Avions de transport régional), a joint venture formed by French aerospace company Aérospatiale (now Airbus) and Italian aviation conglomerate Aeritalia (now Leonardo S.p.A.). The number "72" in its name is derived from the aircraft's standard seating configuration in a passenger-carrying configuration, which could seat 72–78 passengers in a single-class arrangement.
The awards and decorations of the Pakistan Armed Forces recognize a service member's service and personal accomplishments while a member of the Pakistan armed forces.
Mohammad Ayub Khan (محمد ایوب خان; 14 May 1907 – 19 April 1974),, was a Pakistani military dictator and the 2nd President of Pakistan who forcibly assumed the presidency from 1st President through coup in 1958, the first successful coup d'état of the country. The popular demonstrations and labour strikes which were supported by the protests in East Pakistan ultimately led to his forced resignation in 1969., Retrieved 25 August 2015 Trained at the British Royal Military College, Ayub Khan fought in the World War II as a Colonel in the British Indian Army before deciding to transfer to join the Pakistan Army as an aftermath of partition of British India in 1947. His command assignment included his role as chief of staff of Eastern Command in East-Bengal and elevated as the first native commander-in-chief of Pakistan Army in 1951 by then-Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan in a controversial promotion over several senior officers., Retrieved 25 August 2015 From 1953–58, he served in the civilian government as Defence and Home Minister and supported Iskander Mirza's decision to impose martial law against Prime Minister Feroze Khan's administration in 1958., Retrieved 27 August 2015 Two weeks later, he took over the presidency from Mirza after the meltdown of civil-military relations between the military and the civilian President., Retrieved 25 August 2015 After appointing General Musa Khan as an army chief in 1958, the policy inclination towards the alliance with the United States was pursued that saw the allowance of American access to facilities inside Pakistan, most notably the airbase outside of Peshawar, from which spy missions over the Soviet Union were launched. Relations with neighboring China were strengthened but deteriorated with Soviet Union in 1962, and with India in 1965. His presidency saw the war with India in 1965 which ended with Soviet Union facilitating the Tashkent Declaration between two nations. At home front, the policy of privatisation and industrialization was introduced that made the country's economy as Asia's fastest-growing economies. During his tenure, several infrastructure programs were built that consisted the completion of hydroelectric stations, dams and reservoirs, as well as prioritizing the space program but reducing the nuclear deterrence. In 1965, Ayub Khan entered in a presidential race as PML candidate to counter the popular and famed non-partisan Fatima Jinnah and controversially reelected for the second term. He was faced with allegations of widespread intentional vote riggings, authorized political murders in Karachi, and the politics over the unpopular peace treaty with India which many Pakistanis considered an embarrassing compromise. In 1967, he was widely disapproved when the demonstrations across the country were led by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto over the price hikes of food consumer products and, dramatically fell amid the popular uprising in East led by Mujibur Rahman in 1969. Forced to resign to avoid further protests while inviting army chief Yahya Khan to impose martial law for the second time, he fought a brief illness and died in 1974. His legacy remains mixed; he is credited with an ostensible economic prosperity and what supporters dub the "decade of development", but is criticized for beginning the first of the intelligence agencies' incursions into the national politics, for concentrating corrupt wealth in a few hands, and segregated policies that later led to the breaking-up of nation's unity that resulted in the creation of Bangladesh., Retrieved 25 August 2015.
Babur (Urdu: بابر; named after the first Mughal Emperor Zahir-ud-Din Babur), also designated Hatf VII, is a short range turbojet powered subsonic cruise missile that can be launched from land or mobile underwater platforms.
The Central Treaty Organization (CENTO), originally known as the Baghdad Pact or the Middle East Treaty Organization (METO), was formed in 1955 by Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Balochistan (bəloːt͡ʃɪs't̪ɑːn) (بلوچِستان), is one of the five provinces of Pakistan.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
The Bangladesh Awami League (BAL) (বাংলাদেশ আওয়ামী লীগ; translated from Urdu: Bangladesh People's League), often simply called the Awami League or AL, is one of the two major political parties of Bangladesh.
The Bangladesh Liberation War (মুক্তিযুদ্ধ), also known as the Bangladesh War of Independence, or simply the Liberation War in Bangladesh, was a revolution and armed conflict sparked by the rise of the Bengali nationalist and self-determination movement in what was then East Pakistan during the 1971 Bangladesh genocide.
The Bangladesh Navy (বাংলাদেশ নৌবাহিনী; Bangladesh Nou Bahini) is the naval warfare branch of the Bangladesh Armed Forces, responsible for Bangladesh's of maritime territorial area, and the defense of important harbors, military bases and economic zones.
The Bay of Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গোপসাগর) is the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean, bounded on the west and north by India and Bangladesh, and on the east by Myanmar and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India).
Benazir Bhutto (بينظير ڀُٽو; 21 June 1953 – 27 December 2007) was a Pakistani politician who served as Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1988 to 1990 and again from 1993 to 1996.
A blockade is an effort to cut off supplies, war material or communications from a particular area by force, either in part or totally.
The Boeing Insitu ScanEagle is a small, long-endurance, low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) built by Insitu, a subsidiary of Boeing, and is used for reconnaissance.
Bombay Dockyard—also known as Naval Dockyard—is an Indian shipbuilding yard at Mumbai.
The Breguet Br.1050 Alizé (French: "Tradewind") was a French carrier-based anti-submarine warfare aircraft.
The Breguet Br.1150 Atlantic is a long-range maritime patrol aircraft designed and manufactured by Breguet Aviation.
The Brooke class was a United States Navy frigate class that is based on the, but with the addition of the Tartar Guided Missile System.
The term brown-water navy refers in its broadest sense to any naval force capable of military operations in fluvial or littoral environments, especially those carrying heavy sediment loads from soil runoff or flooding.
The C class was a class of 32 destroyers of the Royal Navy that were launched from 1943 to 1945.
The Cape of Good Hope (Kaap die Goeie Hoop, Kaap de Goede Hoop, Cabo da Boa Esperança) is a rocky headland on the Atlantic coast of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa.
Captain is the name most often given in English-speaking navies to the rank corresponding to command of the largest ships.
Cash and carry wholesale represents a type of operation within the wholesale sector.
The Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee (CJCSC) is, in principle, the highest-ranking and senior most military officer, typically at four-star rank, in the Pakistan Armed Forces who serves as a principal military adviser to the civilian government led by elected Prime minister of Pakistan and his/her National Security Council.
The Project 670 Skat submarine (NATO classification Charlie class) was a nuclear-powered cruise missile submarine built for the Soviet Navy and later operated by the Russian Navy.
The Chief of Army Staff (سربراہ پاک فوج) (reporting name: COAS), is a military appointment and statutory office held by the four-star rank army general in the Pakistan Army, who is appointed by the Prime Minister of Pakistan and final confirmation by the President of Pakistan.
The Chief of the Naval Staff ((سربراہ پاک بحریہ (reporting name as CNS), is a military appointment and a Statutory office held by the four-star rank admiral in the Pakistan Navy, who is nominated and appointed by the Prime Minister of Pakistan and confirmed by the President of Pakistan. The Chief of Naval Staff is one of the senior-most appointments in the Pakistan military who is one of the senior members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee in a separate capacity, providing senior consultation to the Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee to act as a principle military advisor to the Prime Minister of Pakistan and its civilian government in the line of defending and safeguarding the expedition, maritime and sealine borders of the nation. The Chief of Naval Staff exercise its responsibility of command and control of the operational, combatant, logistics, administration, and training commands within the Pakistan Navy, in a clear contrast to the U.S. Navy's Chief of Naval Operations (CNO). Due to its responsibility and importance, the Chief of Naval Staff plays a critical role in assessing the coastal defence and conducting reconnaissance to insure its strike capability against aggressive forces. In Principle, the appointment is constitutionally subjected for three years but extensions may be granted by the President upon recommendations and approvals from the Prime Minister. The Chief of Naval Staff is based on the Navy NHQ, and the current Chief of Naval Staff is Admiral Admiral Z.M. Abbasi serving as chief of naval staff, who took over the command as chief of naval staff on 6 October 2017.
A chief petty officer is a senior non-commissioned officer in many navies and coast guards.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
China–Pakistan Economic Corridor (پاكستان-چین اقتصادی راہداری; also known by the acronym CPEC) is a collection of infrastructure projects that are currently under construction throughout Pakistan.
Circumnavigation is navigation completely around an entire island, continent, or astronomical body (e.g. a planet or moon).
The Pakistan Civil Awards were established on March 19, 1957, following the proclamation of Pakistan as an independent republic on March 23, 1956.
Civilian control of the military is a doctrine in military and political science that places ultimate responsibility for a country's strategic decision-making in the hands of the civilian political leadership, rather than professional military officers.
Combined Task Force 150 (CTF-150) is a multinational coalition naval task force working under the 25-nation coalition of Combined Maritime Forces and is based in Bahrain established to monitor, board, inspect, and stop suspect shipping to pursue the "Global War on Terrorism" and in the Horn of Africa region (HOA) (includes operations in the North Arabia Sea to support operations in the Indian Ocean. These activities are referred to as Maritime Security Operations (MSO). Countries presently contributing to CTF-150 include Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Pakistan, Japan, Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States. Other nations who have participated include Italy, India, Malaysia, Netherlands, New Zealand, Portugal, Singapore, Spain, Thailand and Turkey. The command of the task force rotates among the different participating navies, with commands usually lasting between four and six months. The task force usually comprises 14 or 15 ships. CTF-150 is coordinated by the Combined Maritime Forces (CMF), a 25-nation coalition operating from the US Navy base in Manama, Bahrain.
Combined Task Force 151 (CTF-151) is a multinational naval task force, set up in 2009 as a response to piracy attacks in the Gulf of Aden and off the eastern coast of Somalia.
Commander is a common naval and air force officer rank.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
Commodore is a naval rank used in many navies that is superior to a navy captain, but below a rear admiral.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
The Constituent Assembly of Pakistan (পাকিস্তান্ গণপরিষদ্ Pākistān Gaṇapariṣad; آئین ساز اسمبلی, Aāin Sāz Asimblī.), was formed to write Pakistan's constitution and serve as its first parliament.
The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (Urdu), also known as the 1973 Constitution is the supreme law of Pakistan.
The Constitution of 1956 was the fundamental law of Pakistan from March 1956 until the 1958 Pakistani coup d'état.
After the dismissal of Benazir Bhutto's first government on 6 August 1990 by President Ghulam Ishaq Khan on grounds of corruption, the government of Pakistan issued directives to its intelligence agencies to investigate the allegations.
The Damen Group is a Dutch defence, shipbuilding, and engineering conglomerate company based in Gorinchem, South Holland, the Netherlands.
The Daphné class was a type of diesel-electric patrol submarines built in France between 1958 and 1970 for the French Navy and for export.
The Dassault Mirage 5 is a supersonic attack aircraft designed in France by Dassault Aviation during the 1960s and manufactured in France and a number of other countries.
In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast, maneuverable long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, convoy or battle group and defend them against smaller powerful short-range attackers.
Dhaka (or; ঢাকা); formerly known as Dacca is the capital and largest city of Bangladesh.
Pakistan (পাকিস্তান অধিরাজ্য; مملکتِ پاکستان), also called the Dominion of Pakistan, was an independent federal dominion in South Asia that was established in 1947 as a result of the Pakistan movement, followed by the simultaneous partition of British India to create a new country called Pakistan.
Dress uniform (often referred to as full dress uniform, to distinguish it from mess dress, and from semi-formal uniforms, such as the British Army's Service Dress), is the most formal military uniform, typically worn at ceremonies, official receptions, and other special occasions; with order insignias and full size medals.
Dwarka is an ancient city and a municipality of Devbhoomi Dwarka district in the state of Gujarat in northwestern India.
East Pakistan was the eastern provincial wing of Pakistan between 1955 and 1971, covering the territory of the modern country Bangladesh.
The Eastern Naval Command of the Indian Navy is one of its three major formations.
Elmo Russell "Bud" Zumwalt Jr. (November 29, 1920 – January 2, 2000) was an American naval officer and the youngest man to serve as Chief of Naval Operations.
Luna X 2000 is a German unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in service with the Bundeswehr (German Army) and produced by EMT Penzberg of Germany.
The Exocet (French for "flying fish" The missile's name was given by M. Guillot, then technical director at Nord Aviation, after the French name for flying fish.) is a French-built anti-ship missile whose various versions can be launched from surface vessels, submarines, helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft.
The F-22P or Zulfiquar-class frigate (ذوالفقار Sword class), is a class of frigates currently in service with the Pakistan Navy (PN).
Fasih Bokhari (Urdu:فصىح بخارى; b.1942), is a retired four star rank admiral in the Pakistan Navy, pacifist, and a political figure who served as the Chief of Naval Staff from taking over the Navy's command in 1997 until voluntarily tendering resignation in 1999. In 1999, Admiral Bokhari publicly disagreed and revolted against the public decision of Prime minister Nawaz Sharif over the appointment of Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee after he was superseded by the Chief of Army Staff General Pervez Musharraf. He is notable for his war opposition stance, having called for public introspections about the Kargil War in 2000. In 2011, Bokhari was appointed as the chairman of the National Accountability Bureau by President Asif Ali Zardari but his appointment was mere with public controversies and was eventually removed by the Supreme Court of Pakistan in 2013.
A fast attack craft (FAC) is a small, fast, agile and offensive warship armed with anti-ship missiles, gun or torpedoes.
The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.
A five-star rank is a very senior military rank, first established in the United States in 1944, with a five-star general insignia, and corresponding ranks in other countries.
Flag Officer Sea Training (FOST) is a Royal Navy training organisation responsible for ensuring that Royal Navy and Royal Fleet Auxiliary vessels are fit to join the operational fleet.
Fleet chief petty officer is a non-commissioned naval rank, typically senior to chief petty officer and ranking with army warrant officers.
Flightglobal is an online news and information website which covers the aviation and aerospace industries.
A flotilla (from Spanish, meaning a small flota (fleet) of ships, and this from French flotte, and this from Russian "флот" (flot), meaning "fleet"), or naval flotilla, is a formation of small warships that may be part of a larger fleet.
FN-6 or Feinu-6 is a third generation passive infrared homing (IR) man portable air defence system (MANPADS).
The Fokker F27 Friendship is a turboprop airliner developed and manufactured by the Dutch aircraft manufacturer Fokker.
Foreign relations or foreign affairs is the management of relationships and dealings between two countries.
A four-star rank is the rank of any four-star officer described by the NATO OF-9 code.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
A frigate is any of several types of warship, the term having been used for ships of various sizes and roles over the last few centuries.
The Indian Navy has been focusing on developing indigenous platforms, systems, sensors and weapons as part of the nation's modernisation and expansion of its maritime forces.
Garcia-class frigates were United States Navy warships.
Gölcük Naval Shipyard (Gölcük Donanma Tersanesi) is a naval shipyard of the Turkish Navy within the Gölcük Naval Base on the east coast of the Sea of Marmara in Gölcük, Kocaeli.
General Headquarters (GHQ) is the headquarters of Pakistan Army located at Rawalpindi.
The Geography of Pakistan (جغرافیۂ پاکِستان) is a profound blend of landscapes varying from plains to deserts, forests, hills, and plateaus ranging from the coastal areas of the Arabian Sea in the south to the mountains of the Karakoram range in the north.
George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 41st President of the United States from 1989 to 1993.
The GIDS Uqab (lit. GIDS Eagle) is a tactical unmanned reconnaissance aerial vehicle built and developed by the Global Industrial Defence Solutions (GIDS) for the joint drone program of the Pakistan Navy and Pakistan Army.
The Government of India (IAST), often abbreviated as GoI, is the union government created by the constitution of India as the legislative, executive and judicial authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories of a constitutionally democratic republic.
The Government of Pakistan (حکومتِ پاکستان) is a federal government established by the Constitution of Pakistan as a constituted governing authority of the four provinces of a proclaimed and established parliamentary democratic republic, constitutionally called the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
The Government of the United Kingdom, formally referred to as Her Majesty's Government, is the central government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
Ground warfare or land warfare is the process of military operations eventuating in combat that take place predominantly on the battlespace land surface of the planet.
A gunboat is a naval watercraft designed for the express purpose of carrying one or more guns to bombard coastal targets, as opposed to those military craft designed for naval warfare, or for ferrying troops or supplies.
Gwadar (Balochi and گوادر) is a port city on the southwestern coast of Balochistan, Pakistan.
Vice-Admiral Haji Mohammad Siddiq Choudri (Urdu: حاجى محمد صديق چودھری; b. 1912—27 February 2004),, popular as HMS Choudhri, was a three-star rank admiral in the Pakistan Navy who was the first native chief of staff of Pakistan Navy.
The Harbin Z-9 (NATO reporting name "Haitun", for Dolphin) is a Chinese military utility helicopter with civilian variants.
The harbour defence motor launch (HDML) was a British small motor vessel of the Second World War.
The Hawker 800 is a mid-size twinjet corporate aircraft.
The history of Pakistan encompasses the history of the region constituting modern-day Pakistan.
HMIS Narbada (U40) was a Modified Bittern class sloop, later known as the ''Black Swan'' class, which served in the Royal Indian Navy (RIN) during World War II.
HMS Alacrity was a Type 21 frigate of the Royal Navy.
HMS Cadiz was a of the Royal Navy.
HMS Charity was a destroyer of the Royal Navy laid down by John I. Thornycroft and Company of Woolston, Southampton on 9 July 1943.
HMS Chivalrous was a destroyer of the Royal Navy launched by Denny, Dumbarton on 22 June 1945.
HMS Diadem was a light cruiser of the Bellona subgroup of the Royal Navy.
HMS Offa was an O-class destroyer of the Royal Navy which entered service in 1941 and was scrapped in 1959.
HMS Onslaught was an O-class destroyer of the Royal Navy which entered service in 1941.
HMS Onslow was an O-class destroyer flotilla leader of the Royal Navy.
HNLMS Poolster (Hr.Ms.) was a replenishment ship serving with the Royal Netherlands Navy.
Hydrographer of the Navy is a Royal Naval appointment.
Admiral Iftikhar Ahmed Sirohey (Urdu: ایڈمرل افتخار احمد سروہی; b. 1934), is a retired four-star rank admiral, strategist, and a memoirist who is currently tenuring his fellowship at the Institute of Strategic Studies (ISS) in Islamabad, Pakistan.
Independence Day (یوم آزادی; Yaum-e Āzādī), observed annually on 14 August, is a national holiday in Pakistan.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Relations between India and Pakistan have been complex and largely hostile due to a number of historical and political events.
India–United States relations (or Indo-American relations) refers to the international relations that exist between the Republic of India and the United States of America.
The Indian Air Force (IAF; IAST: Bhāratīya Vāyu Senā) is the air arm of the Indian armed forces.
The Indian Army is the land-based branch and the largest component of the Indian Armed Forces.
The Indian Navy (IN; IAST: Bhāratīya Nau Senā) is the naval branch of the Indian Armed Forces.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1947–1948, sometimes known as the First Kashmir War, was fought between India and Pakistan over the princely state of Kashmir and Jammu from 1947 to 1948.
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 was a culmination of skirmishes that took place between April 1965 and September 1965 between Pakistan and India. The conflict began following Pakistan's Operation Gibraltar, which was designed to infiltrate forces into Jammu and Kashmir to precipitate an insurgency against Indian rule. India retaliated by launching a full-scale military attack on West Pakistan. The seventeen-day war caused thousands of casualties on both sides and witnessed the largest engagement of armored vehicles and the largest tank battle since World War II. Hostilities between the two countries ended after a United Nations-mandated ceasefire was declared following diplomatic intervention by the Soviet Union and the United States, and the subsequent issuance of the Tashkent Declaration. Much of the war was fought by the countries' land forces in Kashmir and along the border between India and Pakistan. This war saw the largest amassing of troops in Kashmir since the Partition of British India in 1947, a number that was overshadowed only during the 2001–2002 military standoff between India and Pakistan. Most of the battles were fought by opposing infantry and armoured units, with substantial backing from air forces, and naval operations. Many details of this war, like those of other Indo-Pakistani Wars, remain unclear. India had the upper hand over Pakistan when the ceasefire was declared. "Satisfied that it had secured a strategic and psychological victory over Pakistan by frustrating its attempt to seize Kashmir by force, when the UN resolution was passed, India accepted its terms... with Pakistan's stocks of ammunition and other essential supplies all but exhausted, and with the military balance tipping steadily in India's favour." "Losses were relatively heavy—on the Pakistani side, twenty aircraft, 200 tanks, and 3,800 troops. Pakistan's army had been able to withstand Indian pressure, but a continuation of the fighting would only have led to further losses and ultimate defeat for Pakistan." Quote: The invading Indian forces outfought their Pakistani counterparts and halted their attack on the outskirts of Lahore, Pakistan's second-largest city. By the time the United Nations intervened on 22 September, Pakistan had suffered a clear defeat. Although the two countries fought to a standoff, the conflict is seen as a strategic and political defeat for Pakistan, "... the war itself was a disaster for Pakistan, from the first failed attempts by Pakistani troops to precipitate an insurgency in Kashmir to the appearance of Indian artillery within range of Lahore International Airport." – U.S. Department of State, – Interview with Steve Coll in United States House of Representatives 12 September 1994South Asia in World Politics By Devin T. Hagerty, 2005 Rowman & Littlefield,, p. 26 as it had neither succeeded in fomenting insurrection in Kashmir "... after some initial success, the momentum behind Pakistan's thrust into Kashmir slowed, and the state's inhabitants rejected exhortations from the Pakistani insurgents to join them in taking up arms against their Indian "oppressors." Pakistan's inability to muster support from the local Kashmiri population proved a disaster, both militarily and politically." nor had it been able to gain meaningful support at an international level. "Mao had decided that China would intervene under two conditions—that India attacked East Pakistan, and that Pakistan requested Chinese intervention. In the end, neither of them obtained." Internationally, the war was viewed in the context of the greater Cold War, and resulted in a significant geopolitical shift in the subcontinent. Before the war, the United States and the United Kingdom had been major material allies of both India and Pakistan, as their primary suppliers of military hardware and foreign developmental aid. During and after the conflict, both India and Pakistan felt betrayed by the perceived lack of support by the western powers for their respective positions; those feelings of betrayal were increased with the imposition of an American and British embargo on military aid to the opposing sides. As a consequence, India and Pakistan openly developed closer relationships with the Soviet Union and China, respectively. The perceived negative stance of the western powers during the conflict, and during the 1971 war, has continued to affect relations between the West and the subcontinent. In spite of improved relations with the U.S. and Britain since the end of the Cold War, the conflict generated a deep distrust of both countries within the subcontinent which to an extent lingers to this day."In retrospect, it is clear that the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 represented a watershed in the West's association with the subcontinent.""By extending the Cold War into South Asia, however, the United States did succeed in disturbing the subcontinent's established politico-military equilibrium, undermining British influence in the region, embittering relations between India and Pakistan and, ironically, facilitating the expansion of communist influence in the developing world." "The legacy of the Johnson arms cut-off remains alive today. Indians simply do not believe that America will be there when India needs military help... the legacy of the U.S. "betrayal" still haunts U.S.-Pakistan relations today.".
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was a military confrontation between India and Pakistan that occurred during the liberation war in East Pakistan from 3 December 1971 to the fall of Dacca (Dhaka) on 16 December 1971.
Infrared homing is a passive weapon guidance system which uses the infrared (IR) light emission from a target to track and follow it.
INS Arihant (Sanskrit for "Slayer of Enemies" (S-73)) is the lead ship of India's of nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines.
INS Khukri was a British Type 14 (''Blackwood''-class) frigate of the Indian Navy.
INS Vikrant (from Sanskrit vikrānta, "courageous") was a of the Indian Navy.
The insurgency in Balochistan is a guerrilla war waged by Baloch nationalists against the governments of Pakistan and Iran in the Balochistan region, which covers Balochistan Province in southwestern Pakistan, Sistan and Baluchestan Province in southeastern Iran, and the Balochistan region of southern Afghanistan.
An internally displaced person (IDP) is someone who is forced to flee his or her home but who remains within his or her country's borders.
The International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) is a British research institute (or think tank) in the area of international affairs.
Interservice rivalry is the rivalry between different branches of a country's armed forces, in other words the competition for limited resources among a nation's land, naval, and air forces.
Balochistan is a region divided between three countries Pakistan, Iran and Afghanistan.
Islamabad (اسلام آباد) is the capital city of Pakistan located within the federal Islamabad Capital Territory.
An Islamic republic is the name given to several states that are officially ruled by Islamic laws, including the Islamic Republics of Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan, and Mauritania.
A jack is a national (originally naval) flag flown from a short jackstaff at the bow of a vessel, while the ensign is flown on the stern.
Vice Admiral James Wilfred Jefford CB, CBE, RN, RIN, RPN (22 March 1901 - 1 January 1980) was the first Commander-in-Chief of the Royal Pakistan Navy, serving from its inception in 1947 until 1953.
Jang Group of Newspapers (colloquially known as simply the Jang Group) is a subsidiary of the Independent Media Corporation.
Jinnah Naval Base is a strategic naval base of the Pakistan Navy located at Ormara, Balochistan, Pakistan.
Jiwani or Jwani (جِيوانى), is a town and commercial port that is located along the Gulf of Oman in the Gwadar District of the Balochistan province in Pakistan.
The Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee (جوانٹ چيفس ﺁف اسٹاف كميٹى; JCSC), is an administrative body of senior high-ranking uniformed military leaders of the unified Pakistan Armed Forces who advises the civilian Government of Pakistan, National Security Council, Defence Minister, President and Prime minister of Pakistan on important military and non-military strategic matters.
The Joint Staff Headquarters (reporting name:JS HQ), is the combatant joint-field operations secretariat and principal headquarters of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee established after Indo-Pakistani war of 1971 in Rawalpindi.It is situated neighborhood to GHQ.
The Judge Advocate General Branch of the Pakistan Armed Forces is composed of Pakistan's Military senior officers, lawyers and judges who provide legal services to the Army, Air Force, Navy, and Marines at all levels of command.
Junior Commissioned Officer (JCO) is a term describing a group of military ranks found in the Indian Army, Pakistan Army, Bangladesh Army and Nepal Army.
Kalmat Naval Base is a proposed naval base of the Pakistan Navy at Khor Kalmat, Balochistan, Pakistan.
Karachi (کراچی; ALA-LC:,; ڪراچي) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Sindh.
The Karachi Naval Dockyard, also refers as PN Dockyard, is a naval submarine base located adjacent to the commercial Karachi Shipyard and the PNS Qasim.
Admiral Karamat Rahman Niazi (Urdu:كرامت رحمان نيازى; usually shortened to K.R. Niazi),, is a retired four-star rank admiral who served as the Chief of Naval Staff (CNS) from 1979 to 1983 in Pakistan.
The Kargil War (करगिल युद्ध, kargil yuddh, کرگل جنگ kargil jang), also known as the Kargil conflict, was an armed conflict between India and Pakistan that took place between May and July 1999 in the Kargil district of Kashmir and elsewhere along the Line of Control (LOC).
The landing craft mechanized (LCM) also landing craft mechanical is a landing craft designed for carrying vehicles.
Larry Lee Pressler (born March 29, 1942) is a Republican U.S. politician from South Dakota.
Leading rating (or leading rate) is the most senior of the junior rates in the Royal Navy.
Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan (Næʍābzādāh Liāqat Alī Khān,لِیاقت علی خان; born October 1895 – 16 October 1951), widely known as Quaid-e-Millat (Leader of the Nation) and Shaheed-e-Millat (شہِیدِ مِلّت Martyr of the Nation), was one of the leading founding fathers of Pakistan, statesman, lawyer, and political theorist who became and served as the first Prime Minister of Pakistan; in addition, he also held cabinet portfolio as the first foreign, defence, and the frontier regions minister from 1947 until his assassination in 1951.
LieutenantThe pronunciation of lieutenant is generally split between,, generally in the United Kingdom, Ireland, and Commonwealth countries, and,, generally associated with the United States.
Lieutenant commander (also hyphenated lieutenant-commander and abbreviated LCdr, LCdr. or LCDR) is a commissioned officer rank in many navies.
Lieutenant general, lieutenant-general and similar (abbrev Lt Gen, LTG and similar) is a three-star military rank (NATO code OF-8) used in many countries.
List of active Pakistan Navy ships is a list of ships, submarines and other watercraft currently in service with the Pakistan Navy.
This is a list of diplomatic missions of Iraq.
This is a list of intelligence gathering disciplines.
The Lockheed P-3 Orion maritime surveillance aircraft underwent a number of variants and specific unique design elements.
The Nuclear testing series programme refers to an active military programme directed towards the development of techniques of experimenting nuclear forces and further investigations of the blast effects.
This is a list of television channels in Pakistan.
The Lockheed P-3 Orion is a four-engine turboprop anti-submarine and maritime surveillance aircraft developed for the United States Navy and introduced in the 1960s.
Major general (abbreviated MG, Maj. Gen. and similar) is a military rank used in many countries.
The Maldives (or; ދިވެހިރާއްޖެ Dhivehi Raa'jey), officially the Republic of Maldives, is a South Asian sovereign state, located in the Indian Ocean, situated in the Arabian Sea.
Man-portable air-defense systems (MANPADS or MPADS) are shoulder-launched surface-to-air missiles (SLSAMs).
Maritime interdiction (or naval interdiction) operations (MIOs) are naval operations, that aim to delay, disrupt, or destroy enemy forces or supplies en route to the battle area before they do any harm against friendly forces, similar to air interdiction.
*For the other organisation previously known as the Maritime Security Agency see: Pakistan Coast Guard The Pakistan Maritime Security Agency; (reporting name: PMSA) is a law enforcement service and the one of the six uniform service branch of the Paramilitary command of Pakistan.
U.S. Coast Guardmaster chief petty officercap and collar device U.S. Coast Guardmaster chief petty officersleeve rating insignia United States Navymaster chief petty officershoulderboard United States Navygood conduct rating badge for amaster chief boatswain's mate United States Navymaster chief petty officercap and collar insignia Master chief petty officer (MCPO) is the ninth, and highest, enlisted rate (pay grade E-9) in the United States Navy and United States Coast Guard, just above senior chief petty officer (SCPO).
A mid-life update, particularly in the context of defence, is maintenance or renovation designed to extend the usefulness and capability of an item.
A midshipman is an officer of the junior-most rank, in the Royal Navy, United States Navy, and many Commonwealth navies.
The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 (Микоян и Гуревич МиГ-21; NATO reporting name: Fishbed) is a supersonic jet fighter and interceptor aircraft, designed by the Mikoyan-Gurevich Design Bureau in the Soviet Union.
The Ada class (also known as the MILGEM project), is a Turkish national warship program, the purpose of which was to build a modern littoral combat ship with indigenous anti-submarine warfare and high-seas patrol capabilities, extensively using the principles of stealth technology in its design.
Military Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG) is a designation for United States military advisers sent to other countries to assist in the training of conventional armed forces and facilitate military aid.
A military base is a facility directly owned and operated by or for the military or one of its branches that shelters military equipment and personnel, and facilitates training and operations.
This article specifically addresses US armed forces military computers and their use.
Military logistics is the discipline of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of military forces.
Military rations are the food served to military personnel.
A minesweeper is a small naval warship designed to engage in minesweeping.
The Minister of Defence heads the Ministry of Defence and who Pakistan Army, Pakistan Air Force, and Pakistan Navy.
The Ministry of Defence (وزارت دفاع, Wazarat-e-Difa, abbreviated as MoD), is a ministry of the Government of Pakistan, tasked in defending Pakistan's interests and values at home and abroad.
The Ministry of Finance, Revenue & Economic Affairs or Ministry of Finance (وزارت مالیات, Wazarat-e-Malyat, abbreviated as MoF) is a ministry of the Government of Pakistan tasked to ensure a strong Pakistani economy by developing policies of sound economic management and providing expert advice to the government.
A missile boat or missile cutter is a small fast warship armed with anti-ship missiles.
Mistral is an infrared homing MANPADS manufactured by the European multinational company MBDA missile systems (formerly by Matra BAe Dynamics).
Admiral Mohammad Shariff Khan (Urdu: ايڈمرل محمد شريف; b.1920–7 July 2015,, was a four-star rank admiral and a memoirist who was at the center of all the major decisions made in Pakistan in the events involving the war with India in 1971, the enforcement of martial law in the country in 1977, and the decision in covertly intervening against Soviet Union in Afghanistan. Gaining commission in the Royal Indian Navy, he participated in the World War II on behalf of Great Britain before joining the Pakistan Navy in 1947 as one of the senior staff officer. In 1969, he was appointed Flag Officer Commanding of the Eastern Command of the Pakistan military in the East-Pakistan and led by the Eastern Naval Command during the civil war in East, followed by the foreign intervention by India in 1971. After the war, he was taken as war prisoner alongside with Lieutenant-General A.A.K Niazi after conceding of the surrender of Eastern Command to the Indian Army. He resumed his active military service in the Navy after his repatriation from India and was appointed the Chief of Naval Staff in 1975 after the sudden death of Vice-Admiral Hasan Ahmed. He has the distinction of being the first four-star admiral in the navy and was the first admiral to be appointed as Chairman joint chiefs committee in 1978 until 1980. As the Chairman Joint Chiefs Committee, he continued to advocate for an aggressive foreign policy and a strong nuclear deterrent against the foreign intervention. After retiring from the military in 1980, Shariff was appointed as chairman of Federal Public Service Commission while he continued his role as military adviser to President Zia-ul-Haq until 1988 when he retired from public service. After living a quiet life in Islamabad, he announced to publish his memoirs, "Admiral's Diary", on providing further accounts, causes, and failure of military crackdown in East Pakistan.
The Muhajir people (also spelled Mahajir and Mohajir) (مهاجر) are Muslim immigrants, of multi-ethnic origin, and their descendants, who migrated from various regions of India after the independence of Pakistan.
Muhammad Ali Jinnah (محمد علی جناح ALA-LC:, born Mahomedali Jinnahbhai; 25 December 1876 – 11 September 1948) was a lawyer, politician, and the founder of Pakistan.
The Mukti Bahini (মুক্তি বাহিনী translates as 'Freedom Fighters', or Liberation Forces; also known as the Bangladesh Forces) is a popular Bengali term which refers to the guerrilla resistance movement formed by the Bangladeshi military, paramilitary and civilians during the War of Liberation that transformed East Pakistan into Bangladesh in 1971.
Mumbai (also known as Bombay, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra.
The Mutual Defense Assistance Act was a United States Act of Congress signed by President Harry S. Truman on 6 October 1949.
Vice-Admiral Muzzafar Hassan (مظفر حسن; b. 1920–24 May 2012), was a three-star rank admiral who served as the last Commander-in-Chief of Pakistan Navy from 1969 until 1972, serving under first President Yahya Khan and then under President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto.
A nation state (or nation-state), in the most specific sense, is a country where a distinct cultural or ethnic group (a "nation" or "people") inhabits a territory and have formed a state (often a sovereign state) that they predominantly govern.
The National Command Authority, (Urdu: نيشنل كمانڈ اتھارٹى; abbreviated as NCA), is the apex civilian led command to oversee the employment, policy formulation, exercises, deployment, research and development, and operational command and control of Pakistan's nuclear arsenals.
The National Defence University (جامعہ قومی دفاع) or NDU, is a publicly funded military institution located in Islamabad, Pakistan dedicated to the study and research in military science, geo-strategy and international relations.
The National Security Council (شورا قومی حفاظتی) (reporting name: NSC) is a federal institutional and consultative body chaired by the Prime Minister of Pakistan as its chairman.
National University of Sciences and Technology (قومی جامعہ علوم اور صنعت و حرفت), commonly referred to as NUST, is a public research university with main campus in Islamabad, Pakistan and other subsidiary campuses in different cities of Pakistan.
The Nationalization process in Pakistan (or historically simply regarded as the "Nationalization in Pakistan") was a policy measure programme in the economic history of Pakistan, first introduced, promulgated and implemented by people-elected Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and the Pakistan Peoples Party to lay the foundation of socialist economics reforms to improve the growth of national economy of Pakistan.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
NATO reporting names are code names for military equipment of Russia, China, and, historically, the former Eastern Bloc (Soviet Union and other nations of the Warsaw Pact).
A naval base, navy base, or military port is a military base, where warships and naval ships are docked when they have no mission at sea or want to restock.
Naval Headquarters (NHQ) is the headquarters of Pakistan Navy established in 1947 at Karachi.
The Directorate for Naval Intelligence, known as "Naval Intelligence" and its acronym "NI", is the intelligence arm of the Pakistan Navy.
The Naval Secretary is the Royal Navy appointment of which the incumbent is responsible for policy direction on personnel management for members of the RN.
The Naval Strategic Forces Command (بحریہ حکمت عملی افواج reporting name:'''NSFC'''), is one of the three major unified commands of the Pakistan Armed Forces responsible for the defence and protection of naval and naval-nuclear assets in the country.
A naval trawler is a vessel built along the lines of a fishing trawler but fitted out for naval purposes.
Naval warfare is combat in and on the sea, the ocean, or any other battlespace involving major body of water such as a large lake or wide river.
A navy or maritime force is the branch of a nation's armed forces principally designated for naval and amphibious warfare; namely, lake-borne, riverine, littoral, or ocean-borne combat operations and related functions.
Several nations observe or have observed a Navy Day to recognize their navy.
Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif (Urdu/میاں محمد نواز شریف, born 25 December 1949) is a Pakistani business magnate and former politician who has served as the Prime Minister of Pakistan for three non-consecutive terms, all of the three terms were unsuccessful.
The Neptun-class submarine was a Swedish submarine class built by Kockums.
Nishan-e-Haider (نشان حیدر) (abbreviated as "NH") is Pakistan's highest military gallantry award.
A non-commissioned officer (NCO) is a military officer who has not earned a commission.
Nuclear navy, or nuclear-powered navy consists of naval ships powered by relatively small onboard nuclear reactors known as naval reactors.
Nuclear propulsion includes a wide variety of propulsion methods that fulfill the promise of the Atomic Age by using some form of nuclear reaction as their primary power source.
A nuclear submarine is a submarine powered by a nuclear reactor.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
The O and P class was a class of destroyers of the British Royal Navy.
An officer is a member of an armed force or uniformed service who holds a position of authority.
The Oliver Hazard Perry class is a class of guided missile frigates named after the U.S. Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry, the hero of the naval Battle of Lake Erie.
An officer of one-star rank is a senior commander in many of the armed services holding a rank described by the NATO code of OF-6.
Operation Barisal was a code-name of naval operation conducted by Pakistan Navy intended to free the city of Barisal, East Pakistan from Mukti Bahinis and the dissidents of the Pakistan Defence Forces.
Operation Cyclone was the code name for the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) program to arm and finance the mujahideen, in Afghanistan from 1979 to 1989, prior to and during the military intervention by the USSR in support of its client, the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan.
Operation Dwarka was a naval operation by the Pakistan Navy to attack the Indian coastal town of Dwarka on 7 September 1965.
Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) is the official name used by the U.S. government for the Global War on Terrorism.
Operation Gibraltar was the codename given to the strategy of Pakistan to infiltrate Jammu and Kashmir, and start a rebellion against Indian rule.
Operation Jackpot was the codename for several military operations during the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971.
The Pakistan Army General Headquarters attack (Codename: Operation Janbaz; فوجی آپریشن جانباز), was a hostage-rescue mission carried by SSG Division during which, on 10 October 2009, when 10 gunmen in military uniform opened fire on the General Headquarters in Rawalpindi, Punjab, Pakistan.
Operation Madad, (lit. Operation Help), was a non-combative and assistance military operation commenced and executed by Pakistan Navy after the massive national floods hit the country.
Operation Python, a follow-up to Operation ''Trident'', was the code name of a naval attack launched on West Pakistan's port city of Karachi by the Indian Navy during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971.
Operation Trident was an offensive operation launched by the Indian Navy on Pakistan's port city of Karachi during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971.
Operation United Shield was the codename of a military operation, conducted 9 January to 3 March 1995, bringing a conclusion to the United Nations Operation in Somalia II (UNOSOM II).
Ordinary seaman is a military rank used in naval forces.
Ormara (Balochi, اورماڑا), is a town in Gwadar District in Balochistan province of Pakistan.
The Project 205 Moskit (mosquito) more commonly known by their NATO reporting name Osa, are a class of missile boats developed for the Soviet Navy in the late 1950s.
The P-15 Termit (П-15 "Термит"; termite) is an anti-ship missile developed by the Soviet Union's Raduga design bureau in the 1950s.
PAF Base Faisal (پی اے ایف بیس فیصل) is Pakistan Air Force airbase located at Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Pakistan Air Force (PAF) (پاک فِضائیہ—, or alternatively پاکیستان هاوایی فوج, reporting name: PAF) is the aerial warfare branch of the Pakistan Armed Forces, tasked primarily with the aerial defence of Pakistan, with a secondary role of providing air support to the Pakistan Army and the Pakistan Navy.
Pakistan is one of nine states to possess nuclear weapons. Pakistan began development of nuclear weapons in January 1972 under Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, who delegated the program to the Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) Munir Ahmad Khan with a commitment to having the bomb ready by the end of 1976. Since PAEC, consisting of over twenty laboratories and projects under nuclear engineer Munir Ahmad Khan, was falling behind schedule and having considerable difficulty producing fissile material, Abdul Qadeer Khan was brought from Europe by Bhutto at the end of 1974. As pointed out by Houston Wood, Professor of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, in his article on gas centrifuges, "The most difficult step in building a nuclear weapon is the production of fissile material"; as such, this work in producing fissile material as head of the Kahuta Project was pivotal to Pakistan developing the capability to detonate a nuclear bomb by the end of 1984.Levy, Adrian and Catherine Scott-Clark, Deception: Pakistan, the United States, and the Secret Trade in Nuclear Weapons. New York. Walker Publishing Company. 1977: page 112. Print. The Kahuta Project started under the supervision of a coordination board that oversaw the activities of KRL and PAEC. The Board consisted of A G N Kazi (secretary general, finance), Ghulam Ishaq Khan (secretary general, defence), and Agha Shahi (secretary general, foreign affairs), and reported directly to Bhutto. Ghulam Ishaq Khan and General Tikka Khan appointed military engineer Major General Ali Nawab to the program. Eventually, the supervision passed to Lt General Zahid Ali Akbar Khan in President General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq's Administration. Moderate uranium enrichment for the production of fissile material was achieved at KRL by April 1978. Pakistan's nuclear weapons development was in response to the loss of East Pakistan in 1971's Bangladesh Liberation War. Bhutto called a meeting of senior scientists and engineers on 20 January 1972, in Multan, which came to known as "Multan meeting". Bhutto was the main architect of this programme, and it was here that Bhutto orchestrated nuclear weapons programme and rallied Pakistan's academic scientists to build the atomic bomb in three years for national survival. At the Multan meeting, Bhutto also appointed Munir Ahmad Khan as chairman of PAEC, who, until then, had been working as director at the nuclear power and Reactor Division of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in Vienna, Austria. In December 1972, Abdus Salam led the establishment of Theoretical Physics Group (TPG) as he called scientists working at ICTP to report to Munir Ahmad Khan. This marked the beginning of Pakistan's pursuit of nuclear deterrence capability. Following India's surprise nuclear test, codenamed Smiling Buddha in 1974, the first confirmed nuclear test by a nation outside the permanent five members of the United Nations Security Council, the goal to develop nuclear weapons received considerable impetus. Finally, on 28 May 1998, a few weeks after India's second nuclear test (Operation Shakti), Pakistan detonated five nuclear devices in the Ras Koh Hills in the Chagai district, Balochistan. This operation was named Chagai-I by Pakistan, the underground iron-steel tunnel having been long-constructed by provincial martial law administrator General Rahimuddin Khan during the 1980s. The last test of Pakistan was conducted at the sandy Kharan Desert under the codename Chagai-II, also in Balochistan, on 30 May 1998. Pakistan's fissile material production takes place at Nilore, Kahuta, and Khushab Nuclear Complex, where weapons-grade plutonium is refined. Pakistan thus became the seventh country in the world to successfully develop and test nuclear weapons. Although, according to a letter sent by A.Q. Khan to General Zia, the capability to detonate a nuclear bomb using highly enriched uranium as fissile material produced at KRL had been achieved by KRL in 1984.
The Pakistan Antarctic Programme (پاکستان جنوبی قطب برنامه, abbreviated as PAP) is a scientific administrative division of the Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST) which represents the Government of Pakistan on the continent of Antarctica.
The Pakistan Armed Forces (پاکستان مُسَلّح افواج, Pākistān Musallah Afwāj) are the military forces of Pakistan.
The Eastern Military High Command of the Pakistan Armed Forces was a field-level military command headed by an appointed senior 3-star officer, who was designated the Unified Commander of the Eastern Military High Command.
Pakistan Army (پاک فوج Pak Fauj (IPA: pɑk fɒ~ɔd͡ʒ); Reporting name: PA) is the land-based force of the Pakistan Armed Forces.
The Pakistan Army Corps of Engineers, (Urdu: ﺁرمى انجنيرينگ كور; Army Engineering Corps), is an active military administrative staff corps, and a major science and technology command of the Pakistan Army.
The Pakistan Coast Guards (پاک ساحلی محافظ; reporting name: PCG) is a law enforcement organization and one of the six uniform services of the Paramilitary command functioning and operating under the civilian control of the Interior Ministry (MoI).
Pakistan International Airlines (پاکستان انٹرنیشنل ایئر لائنز) commonly referred to by the abbreviation PIA (پیآئیاے) is the national flag carrier of Pakistan.
The Pakistan Marines (Urdu); English IPA: pɑkʰ məriːniz (or/ simply Marines سمندریوں); reporting name PM), is an expeditionary and naval warfare uniform service branch of the Pakistan Navy that consists of active duty, high-ranking officers and other personnel of the Navy. The Pakistan Marines are responsible for providing force projection from the sea, using the mobility of the Pakistan Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces. Established in 1990, it is estimated to comprise about 3,200 active-duty personnel from the Navy as of 2017. In the Pakistani military leadership structure, the Marines are a component of the Pakistan Navy, often working closely with the Navy for training, executing expeditionary operations and logistics purposes. They are not a separate branch of the armed forces. The Marines were first formed as an amphibious battalion on 1 June 1971, in East-Pakistan as naval infantry to execute operations; however after poor performance in the 1971 war with India, they were disbanded in 1974. In 1990, the Marines were re-established by Commander Obaidullah; since then they have been a part of Navy, often conducting operations with other Pakistani naval forces. Pakistan Marines are primarily tasked with defending naval installations while also guarding and monitoring the disputed Sir Creek border with India. During their training at the Marines Training School, military exercises are occasionally conducted in conjunction with the United States Marine Corps. As befits their close association with the Navy, the PM share the same ranks as the rest of the Pakistan Navy but, their military codes and training are the same as in the Pakistan Army. In 2010, Marines, in close co-ordination with the Pakistan Army, Navy, and Air Force, were working around the clock to rescue villagers trapped by the country's worst deluge in 80 years.
The Pakistan Movement or Tehrik-e-Pakistan (تحریک پاکستان –) was a religious political movement in the 1940s that aimed for and succeeded in the creation of Pakistan from the Muslim-majority areas of the British Indian Empire.
The Pakistan Naval Academy (پاڪستان ناول اڪيڊمي) also known as Pakistan Naval Station Rahbar (PNS Rahbar) is a federal military academy located in Manora Island, Sindh Province, Pakistan.
The Pakistan Naval Air Arm (unofficially Pakistan Naval Aviation) is the naval aviation and naval warfare service branch of the Pakistan Navy.
The Pakistan Naval War College is a staff college providing training and education primarily to the mid-career officers of Pakistan Navy as well as to a limited number of officers from Pakistan Air Force, Pakistan Army and various Allied forces.
The Pakistan Navy Engineering College (Urdu: نيوى انجنيريگ كالج; initials: PNEC) is an accredited research college operated by the Pakistan Navy.
The Pakistan Navy Hydrographic Department (reporting name: PN Hydrographic Department), is an active-duty and non-combatant naval administrative staff command, and one of the major science and technology command of the Pakistan Navy.
Pakistan Navy School (پاکستان بحریہ مدرسه) was established by the Pakistan Navy (PN) for the education of the children of its officers, sailors, and civilian employees at Karachi, Sindh.
The Pakistan Navy School of Logistics and Management, is an accredited and an academic university operated by the Pakistan Navy.
The Defence Secretary of Pakistan is the Federal Secretary for Ministry of Defence of Pakistan.
Pakistan's role in the War on Terror is a widely discussed topic among policy-makers of various countries, political analysts and international delegates around the world.
The Pakistani Instrument of Surrender (পাকিস্তানের আত্মসমর্পণের দলিল, Pākistānēr Atmasamarpaṇēr Dalil) was a written agreement that enabled the surrender of the Pakistan Armed Forces on 16 December 1971 at the Ramna Race Course garden in Dhaka, thereby ending the Bangladesh Liberation War.
The Pakistani rupee (روپیہ / ALA-LC:; sign: ₨; code: PKR) is the currency of Pakistan.
The Parliament of Pakistan (مجلس شوریٰ پاکستان —) is the federal and supreme legislative body of Pakistan.
Pasni (پسنى), is a medium-sized city and a fishing port in Gwadar District, Balochistan, Pakistan.
The People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN), also known as the PLA Navy, is the naval warfare branch of the People's Liberation Army, which is the armed wing of the Communist Party of China and, by default, the national armed forces of the People's Republic of China.
Pervez Musharraf (پرویز مشرف; born 11 August 1943) is a Pakistani politician and a retired four-star army general who was the tenth President of Pakistan from 2001 until tendering resignation, to avoid impeachment, in 2008.
A petty officer (PO) is a non-commissioned officer in many navies and is given the NATO rank denotion OR-6.
Piracy off the coast of Somalia has been a threat to international shipping since the second phase of the Somali Civil War, around 2000, when foreign ships exploited the absence of an effective national coast guard by invading the fishing grounds and also dumping illegal waste that would further diminish the local catch.
Pakistan Naval Station Ahsan or PNS Ahsan (پایگاه بحریہ احسن) is a Logistics-Intelligence Naval base located in Makran, Balochistan Province.
PNS Ghazi (previously USS Diablo (SS-479); reporting name: Ghazi),, was a diesel-electric and the first fast-attack submarine of the Pakistan Navy, leased from the United States in 1963.
PNS Hangor (nicknamed "The Shark") was a diesel-electric submarine that served in the Pakistan Navy from 1969 until its decommissioning in 2006.
PNS Hashmat is the lead ship of her class of submarine for the Pakistan Navy.
PNS Hurmat is a of Pakistan Navy, commissioned on 18 February 1980.
Pakistan Naval Station Makran, known as PNS Makran (پایگاه بحریہ مکران) formerly known as Coastal Naval Air Station, Pasni, is a Naval air station and a military airport located in Coastal city of Pasni of Balochistan.
Pakistan Naval Station Mehran (abbreviated to PNS Mehran) is a Pakistani naval station and headquarters of the Naval Air Arm.
PNS Muhafiz was an of the Pakistan Navy.
The Pakistan Naval Station Qasim, or PNS Qasim, is the major naval special operations base for the Amphibious Special Operations Forces in the Pakistan Navy.
PNS Tariq is a Type 21 frigate of the Pakistan navy.
PNS Zulfiqar was a of the Pakistan Navy, originally built for the Royal Navy during the Second World War as HMS Deveron.
The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history and are native speakers of the Polish language.
The Port of Karachi (کراچی بندرگاہ Bandar gāh Karāchī) is one of South Asia's largest and busiest deep-water seaports, handling about 60% of the nation's cargo (25 million tons per annum) located in Karachi, Pakistan.
The presidency of Ronald Reagan began at noon EST on January 20, 1981, when Ronald Reagan was inaugurated as 40th President of the United States, and ended on January 20, 1989.
The President of Pakistan (صدر مملکت پاکستان —), is the ceremonial head of state of Pakistan and a figurehead who represents the "unity of the Republic." in Chapter 1: The President, Part III: The Federation of Pakistan in the Constitution of Pakistan.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
The Prime Minister of Pakistan (وزِیرِ اعظم —,; lit. "Grand Vizier") is the head of government of Pakistan and designated as the "chief executive of the Republic".
The Qasim Fort is a small fort constructed in the 18th century by the Talpur dynasty when the port of Karachi traded with Oman and Bahrain.
The Qatar Armed Forces are the military forces of Qatar.
A quartermaster general is the staff officer in charge of supplies for a whole army.
The Rann of Kutch is a large area of salt marshes located mostly in Gujarat (primarily the Kutch district), India and the southern tip of Sindh, Pakistan.
Rear admiral is a naval commissioned officer rank above that of a commodore (U.S equivalent of Commander) and captain, and below that of a vice admiral.
For the boot menu, see rEFIt. Refitting or refit of boats includes repairing, fixing, restoring, renewing, mending, and renovating an old vessel.
A replenishment oiler or replenishment tanker is a naval auxiliary ship with fuel tanks and dry cargo holds which can supply both fuel and dry stores during underway replenishment (UNREP) at sea.
A river delta is a landform that forms from deposition of sediment carried by a river as the flow leaves its mouth and enters slower-moving or stagnant water.
The Royal Indian Navy (RIN) was the naval force of British India and the Dominion of India.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
The Royal Netherlands Navy (Koninklijke Marine, “Royal Navy”) is the navy of the Netherlands.
The Royal Saudi Navy, sometimes referred to as the Royal Saudi Naval Forces (RSNF), is the naval force of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
The Sea of Marmara (Marmara Denizi), also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea, and in the context of classical antiquity as the Propontis is the inland sea, entirely within the borders of Turkey, that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating Turkey's Asian and European parts.
Search and rescue (SAR) is the search for and provision of aid to people who are in distress or imminent danger.
In nuclear strategy, a second-strike capability is a country's assured ability to respond to a nuclear attack with powerful nuclear retaliation against the attacker.
Admiral Shahid Karimullah (Urdu: شاهد كريم الله; b. 14 February 1948),, is a retired four-star rank admiral, diplomat, and a defence columnist who briefly tenured as the Chief of Naval Staff from 2002 until 2005.
Signals intelligence (SIGINT) is intelligence-gathering by interception of signals, whether communications between people (communications intelligence—abbreviated to COMINT) or from electronic signals not directly used in communication (electronic intelligence—abbreviated to ELINT).
Sir Creek is a 96 km (60 mi) tidal estuary on the border of India and Pakistan.
A sloop (from Dutch sloep, in turn from French chaloupe) is a sailing boat with a single mast and a fore-and-aft rig.
The Somali Civil War (Dagaalkii Sokeeye ee Soomaaliya, الحرب الأهلية الصومالية) is an ongoing civil war taking place in Somalia.
Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.
Sonmiani flight test range is a rocket launch facility operated by Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO) located at Sonmiani, Balochistan province in Pakistan.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) was an international organization for collective defense in Southeast Asia created by the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty, or Manila Pact, signed in September 1954 in Manila, Philippines.
The Soviet Navy (Military Maritime Fleet of the USSR) was the naval arm of the Soviet Armed Forces.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The final and complete withdrawal of Soviet combatant forces from Afghanistan began on 15 May 1988 and ended on 15 February 1989 under the leadership of Colonel-General Boris Gromov.
The Soviet–Afghan War lasted over nine years, from December 1979 to February 1989.
The Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO) is an executive and bureaucratic space agency of the Government of Pakistan, responsible for the nation's public and civil space programme and for aeronautics and aerospace research.
Special forces and special operations forces are military units trained to conduct special operations.
Special operations (S.O.) are military operations that are "special" or unconventional and carried out by dedicated special forces and other special operations forces units using unconventional methods and resources.
The Special Service Group (SSG) (عساکرء خدمات خصوصی) is the primary special operations force of the Pakistan Army.
The Special Service Group (Navy) (خصوصی خدمات انجمن بحریہ), abbreviated SSG(N), is the Pakistan Navy's principal special operations force.
The Special Service Wing (SSW), codename the SS Wing, or previously known as 312th Special Service Wing or Maroon berets, is a special operations aerospace unit of the Pakistan Air Force (PAF).
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
A military staff (often referred to as general staff, army staff, navy staff, or air staff within the individual services) is a group of officers, enlisted and civilian personnel that are responsible for the administrative, operational and logistical needs of its unit.
Sub-lieutenant is a junior military officer rank.
A submarine (or simply sub) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.
thumb The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Vice-Admiral Syed Mohammad Ahsan (ﺴﻴﺩ ﻣﺤﻣﺪ ﺍﺣﺴﻦ b. 1920 – d. 1989), often known as S. M. Ahsan, was a three-star rank admiral in the Pakistan Navy, politician, and the Commander in Chief of the Pakistan Navy, serving under President Ayub Khan from 1966 until 1969.
Tariq Ali (Punjabi, طارق علی; born 21 October 1943) is a British Pakistani writer, journalist, historian, filmmaker, political activist, and public intellectual.
The Tariq-class destroyers are ex-Royal Navy Type 21 frigates acquired by the Pakistan Navy from the United Kingdom in 1993-94.
Technology transfer, also called transfer of technology (TOT), is the process of transferring (disseminating) technology from the places and ingroups of its origination to wider distribution among more people and places.
Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP; تحریک طالبان پاکستان; "Taliban Movement of Pakistan"), alternatively referred to as the Taliban, is a terrorist group which is an umbrella organization of various militant groups based in the northwestern Federally Administered Tribal Areas along the Afghan border in Pakistan.
Tench-class submarines were a type of submarine built for the United States Navy (USN) between 1944 and 1951.
The News International, published in broadsheet size, is the largest English language newspaper in Pakistan.
An officer of three-star rank is a senior commander in many of the armed services holding a rank described by the NATO code of OF-8.
The Tripartite class is a class of mine warfare vessel used by the navies of Belgium, France and the Netherlands, as well as Pakistan, Indonesia, Latvia, and Bulgaria.
A tsunami (from 津波, "harbour wave"; English pronunciation) or tidal wave, also known as a seismic sea wave, is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, generally in an ocean or a large lake.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Turkish Naval Forces (Türk Deniz Kuvvetleri), or Turkish Navy (Türk Donanması) is the naval warfare service branch of the Turkish Armed Forces.
An officer of two-star rank is a senior commander in many of the armed services holding a rank described by the NATO code of OF-7.
The Type 037 corvette is a series 400-500 ton corvette type classes in service with the Peoples Liberation Army Navy.
The Type 039A submarine (NATO reporting name: Yuan-class) is a class of diesel-electric submarine in China's People's Liberation Army Navy.
The Type 053H3 (NATO codename Jiangwei II) were Chinese frigates that entered service with the People's Liberation Army Navy Surface Force in the 1990s and 2000s.
The Type 054A (NATO codename Jiangkai II) frigate is a class of Chinese multi-role frigates, the first of which entered service with the People's Liberation Army Navy Surface Force in 2007.
The Type 091 (Chinese designation: 09-I; NATO reporting name: Han class) was the first class of nuclear-powered submarines (SSN) deployed by the China's People's Liberation Army Navy Submarine Force.
The Type 21 frigate, or Amazon-class frigate, was a British Royal Navy general-purpose escort that was designed in the late 1960s, built in the 1970s and served throughout the 1980s into the 1990s.
The Type 905 Fuqing-class auxiliary oiler replenishment is a class of auxiliary oiler replenishment (AOR) vessels used by the People's Liberation Army Navy and Pakistan Navy to resupply ships at sea with food, munitions, fuel and spare parts.
The Unified Task Force (UNITAF) was a US-led, United Nations-sanctioned multinational force, which operated in Somalia between 5 December 1992 – 4 May 1993.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), also called the Law of the Sea Convention or the Law of the Sea treaty, is the international agreement that resulted from the third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS III), which took place between 1973 and 1982.
United Nations Operation in Somalia II (UNOSOM II) was the second phase of the United Nations intervention in Somalia, from March 1993 until March 1995.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
United States Army Officer rank insignia in use today.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the United States Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting amphibious operations with the United States Navy.
The United States Naval Academy (also known as USNA, Annapolis, or simply Navy) is a four-year coeducational federal service academy in Annapolis, Maryland.
United States Naval Forces Central Command (NAVCENT) is the United States Navy element of United States Central Command (USCENTCOM).
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
The United States Navy's Sea, Air and Land Teams, commonly abbreviated as the Navy SEALs, are the U.S. Navy's primary special operations force and a component of the Naval Special Warfare Command.
The USS Hector (AR-7) was a repair ship that served in the United States Navy from 1944 to 1987 and as PNS Moawin in the Pakistan Navy from 1989 to 1994.
Vice admiral is a senior naval flag officer rank, equivalent to lieutenant general and air marshal.
A war diary is a regularly updated official record kept by military units of their activities during wartime.
The War in North-West Pakistan, also known as the War in Waziristan, is an armed conflict involving Pakistan, and armed militant groups such as the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP), Jundallah, Lashkar-e-Islam (LeI), TNSM, al-Qaeda, and their Central Asian allies such as the ISIL–Khorasan (ISIL), Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan, East Turkistan Movement, Emirate of Caucasus, and elements of organized crime.
The War on Terror, also known as the Global War on Terrorism, is an international military campaign that was launched by the United States government after the September 11 attacks in the United States in 2001.
The Department of Defence Production of the Ministry of Defence is responsible for the indigenous production of equipment used by the Indian Navy and the other armed forces.
West Pakistan (مغربی پاکستان,; পশ্চিম পাকিস্তান) was one of the two exclaves created at the formation of the modern State of Pakistan following the 1947 Partition of India.
The Westland Lynx is a British multi-purpose military helicopter designed and built by Westland Helicopters at its factory in Yeovil.
The Westland WS-61 Sea King is a British licence-built version of the American Sikorsky S-61 helicopter of the same name, built by Westland Helicopters.
The White Ensign, at one time called the St George's Ensign due to the simultaneous existence of a cross-less version of the flag, is an ensign flown on British Royal Navy ships and shore establishments.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan (آغا محمد یحییٰ خان; 4 February 1917 – 10 August 1980), widely known as Yahya Khan,, was the third President of Pakistan, serving in this post from 25 March 1969 until turning over his presidency in December 1971.
Admiral Zafar Mahmood Abbasi (Urdu: ظفر محمود عباسى),, is a four-star rank admiral in the Pakistan Navy who is currently serving as the Chief of the Naval Staff (CNS) of Pakistan Navy.
The 1970s operation in Balochistan was a five-year military conflict in Balochistan, the largest province of Pakistan, between the Pakistan Army and Baloch separatists and tribesmen that lasted from 1973 to 1978.
The 1973 discovery of arms in the Iraqi Embassy in Pakistan refers to an armed conflict between the State of Pakistan and the Iraqi Embassy situated in Islamabad.
The 1999 Pakistani coup d'état was a bloodless coup d'état in which the Pakistan Army and then-Chief of Army Staff and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, General Pervez Musharraf, seized the control of the civilian government of publicly elected Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif on 12 October 1999.
The 2001–2002 India–Pakistan standoff was a military standoff between India and Pakistan that resulted in the massing of troops on either side of the border and along the Line of Control (LoC) in the region of Kashmir.
The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake occurred at 00:58:53 UTC on 26 December with the epicentre off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia.
The floods in Pakistan began in late July 2010, resulting from heavy monsoon rains in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Sindh, Punjab and, Balochistan regions of Pakistan, which affected the Indus River basin.