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Pakistani general election, 1970

Index Pakistani general election, 1970

General elections were held in Pakistan on 7 December 1970. [1]

87 relations: Abul A'la Maududi, Agartala Conspiracy Case, Asma Jahangir, Ayub Khan (President of Pakistan), Balochistan, Balochistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bangladesh Awami League, Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami, Bangladesh Liberation War, Bangladeshi general election, 1973, Chief Justice of Pakistan, Chief of Army Staff (Pakistan), Commonwealth of Nations, Constituency NA-204, Constitution of Pakistan, Constitution of Pakistan of 1956, Constitution of Pakistan of 1962, Convention Muslim League, Council Muslim League, Democratic socialism, Dhaka, Dieter Nohlen, Direct election, Dominion, East Pakistan, Electoral college, Exclusive mandate, Faiz Ahmad Faiz, Field marshal, G. M. Syed, Ghulam Azam, Independent politician, India, Indian general election, 1945, Indirect election, Iskander Mirza, Islam in Pakistan, Islamic republic, Islamism, Jalaludin Abdur Rahim, Jamaat-e-Islami Pakistan, Jamiat Ulema-e Islam (F), Jamiat Ulema-e-Pakistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Legal Framework Order, 1970, Marxism, Minister of Foreign Affairs (Pakistan), Muhammad Musa, Muhammad Shahabuddin, ..., Muslim League (Qayyum), Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal, National Assembly of Pakistan, National Awami Party (Wali), One Unit, Pakistan, Pakistan Army, Pakistan Democratic Party, Pakistan Muslim League, Pakistan Peoples Party, Pakistani general election, 1977, Pakistani presidential election, 1965, Parliament of Pakistan, Parliamentary system, Political Islam, Presidential system, Pressure politics, Prime Minister of Pakistan, Punjab, Pakistan, Representation (politics), Sedition, Sharia, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, Sindh, Six point movement, Socialism, Socialism in Pakistan, Tropical cyclone, Two-party system, Unicameralism, West Pakistan, Yahya Khan, Yale University Press, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, 1958 Pakistani coup d'état, 1969 Mass uprising in East Pakistan, 1970 Bhola cyclone. Expand index (37 more) »

Abul A'la Maududi

Syed Abul A'la Maududi Chishti (ابو الاعلی مودودی – alternative spellings of last name Maudoodi, Mawdudi, also known as Abul Ala Maududi; –) was a Muslim philosopher, jurist, journalist and imam.

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Agartala Conspiracy Case

The Agartala Conspiracy Case was a sedition case in Pakistan during the Ayub Regime against Awami League, brought by the government of Pakistan in 1968 against Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the then leader of the Awami League and East Pakistan, and 34 other persons.

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Asma Jahangir

Asma Jilani Jahangir (عاصمہ جہانگیر|ʿĀṣimah Jahāṉgīr; 27 January 1952 – 11 February 2018) was a Pakistani human rights lawyer and social activist who co-founded and chaired the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan.

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Ayub Khan (President of Pakistan)

Mohammad Ayub Khan (محمد ایوب خان; 14 May 1907 – 19 April 1974),, was a Pakistani military dictator and the 2nd President of Pakistan who forcibly assumed the presidency from 1st President through coup in 1958, the first successful coup d'état of the country. The popular demonstrations and labour strikes which were supported by the protests in East Pakistan ultimately led to his forced resignation in 1969., Retrieved 25 August 2015 Trained at the British Royal Military College, Ayub Khan fought in the World War II as a Colonel in the British Indian Army before deciding to transfer to join the Pakistan Army as an aftermath of partition of British India in 1947. His command assignment included his role as chief of staff of Eastern Command in East-Bengal and elevated as the first native commander-in-chief of Pakistan Army in 1951 by then-Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan in a controversial promotion over several senior officers., Retrieved 25 August 2015 From 1953–58, he served in the civilian government as Defence and Home Minister and supported Iskander Mirza's decision to impose martial law against Prime Minister Feroze Khan's administration in 1958., Retrieved 27 August 2015 Two weeks later, he took over the presidency from Mirza after the meltdown of civil-military relations between the military and the civilian President., Retrieved 25 August 2015 After appointing General Musa Khan as an army chief in 1958, the policy inclination towards the alliance with the United States was pursued that saw the allowance of American access to facilities inside Pakistan, most notably the airbase outside of Peshawar, from which spy missions over the Soviet Union were launched. Relations with neighboring China were strengthened but deteriorated with Soviet Union in 1962, and with India in 1965. His presidency saw the war with India in 1965 which ended with Soviet Union facilitating the Tashkent Declaration between two nations. At home front, the policy of privatisation and industrialization was introduced that made the country's economy as Asia's fastest-growing economies. During his tenure, several infrastructure programs were built that consisted the completion of hydroelectric stations, dams and reservoirs, as well as prioritizing the space program but reducing the nuclear deterrence. In 1965, Ayub Khan entered in a presidential race as PML candidate to counter the popular and famed non-partisan Fatima Jinnah and controversially reelected for the second term. He was faced with allegations of widespread intentional vote riggings, authorized political murders in Karachi, and the politics over the unpopular peace treaty with India which many Pakistanis considered an embarrassing compromise. In 1967, he was widely disapproved when the demonstrations across the country were led by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto over the price hikes of food consumer products and, dramatically fell amid the popular uprising in East led by Mujibur Rahman in 1969. Forced to resign to avoid further protests while inviting army chief Yahya Khan to impose martial law for the second time, he fought a brief illness and died in 1974. His legacy remains mixed; he is credited with an ostensible economic prosperity and what supporters dub the "decade of development", but is criticized for beginning the first of the intelligence agencies' incursions into the national politics, for concentrating corrupt wealth in a few hands, and segregated policies that later led to the breaking-up of nation's unity that resulted in the creation of Bangladesh., Retrieved 25 August 2015.

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Balochistan

Balōchistān (بلوچستان; also Balūchistān or Balūchestān, often interpreted as the Land of the Baloch) is an arid desert and mountainous region in south-western Asia.

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Balochistan, Pakistan

Balochistan (bəloːt͡ʃɪs't̪ɑːn) (بلوچِستان), is one of the five provinces of Pakistan.

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Bangladesh

Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.

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Bangladesh Awami League

The Bangladesh Awami League (BAL) (বাংলাদেশ আওয়ামী লীগ; translated from Urdu: Bangladesh People's League), often simply called the Awami League or AL, is one of the two major political parties of Bangladesh.

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Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami

Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami (বাংলাদেশ জামায়াতে ইসলামী), previously known as Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh, or Jamaat for short, is the largest Islamist political party in Bangladesh.

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Bangladesh Liberation War

The Bangladesh Liberation War (মুক্তিযুদ্ধ), also known as the Bangladesh War of Independence, or simply the Liberation War in Bangladesh, was a revolution and armed conflict sparked by the rise of the Bengali nationalist and self-determination movement in what was then East Pakistan during the 1971 Bangladesh genocide.

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Bangladeshi general election, 1973

General elections (প্রথম জাতীয় সংসদ নির্বাচন ১৯৭৩) were held in newly independent Bangladesh on 7 March 1973.

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Chief Justice of Pakistan

The Chief Justice of Pakistan (initials as CJP) is the head of the court system of Pakistan (the judicature branch of government) and the chief judge of the Supreme Court of Pakistan.

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Chief of Army Staff (Pakistan)

The Chief of Army Staff (سربراہ پاک فوج) (reporting name: COAS), is a military appointment and statutory office held by the four-star rank army general in the Pakistan Army, who is appointed by the Prime Minister of Pakistan and final confirmation by the President of Pakistan.

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Commonwealth of Nations

The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.

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Constituency NA-204

Constituency NA-204 (Larkana-I) (این اے-۲۰۴، لاڑکانہ-۱) was a constituency for the National Assembly of Pakistan.

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Constitution of Pakistan

The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (Urdu), also known as the 1973 Constitution is the supreme law of Pakistan.

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Constitution of Pakistan of 1956

The Constitution of 1956 was the fundamental law of Pakistan from March 1956 until the 1958 Pakistani coup d'état.

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Constitution of Pakistan of 1962

The Constitution of 1962 was the fundamental law of Pakistan from June 1962 until martial law was declared in March 1969.

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Convention Muslim League

The Convention Muslim League (CML) was a faction of the Pakistan Muslim League that split-off in 1962, in support of the military regime of the President of Pakistan, General Ayub Khan.

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Council Muslim League

The Council Muslim League was a faction of the Pakistan Muslim League that divided from the Convention Muslim League that was supportive of the military regime of the President of Pakistan Gen.

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Democratic socialism

Democratic socialism is a political philosophy that advocates political democracy alongside social ownership of the means of production with an emphasis on self-management and/or democratic management of economic institutions within a market socialist, participatory or decentralized planned economy.

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Dhaka

Dhaka (or; ঢাকা); formerly known as Dacca is the capital and largest city of Bangladesh.

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Dieter Nohlen

Dieter Nohlen (born 6 November 1939 in Oberhausen) is a German academic and political scientist.

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Direct election

Direct election is a system of choosing political officeholders in which the voters directly cast ballots for the person, persons, or political party that they desire to see elected.

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Dominion

Dominions were semi-independent polities under the British Crown, constituting the British Empire, beginning with Canadian Confederation in 1867.

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East Pakistan

East Pakistan was the eastern provincial wing of Pakistan between 1955 and 1971, covering the territory of the modern country Bangladesh.

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Electoral college

An electoral college is a set of electors who are selected to elect a candidate to a particular office.

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Exclusive mandate

An exclusive mandate is a government's assertion of its legitimate authority over a certain territory, part of which another government controls with stable, de facto sovereignty.

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Faiz Ahmad Faiz

Faiz Ahmad Faiz MBE, NI (فَیض احمد فَیض), (born 13 February 1911 – 20 November 1984) was a Pakistani leftist poet and author, and one of the most celebrated writers of the Urdu language.

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Field marshal

Field marshal (or field-marshal, abbreviated as FM) is a very senior military rank, ordinarily senior to the general officer ranks.

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G. M. Syed

Ghulam Murtaza Syed (Sindhi: غلام مرتضي سيد, Jan 17,1904 – April 25, 1995), known as G.M Syed was a prominent Sindhi politician, who is infamously known for his scholarly work, passing only constitutional resolution in favor of the establishment of Pakistan from British Sindh Assembly (which is now Sindh Assembly) in 1943, proposing ideological groundwork for separate Sindhi identity and laying the foundations of Sindhudesh movement.

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Ghulam Azam

Ghulam Azam (গোলাম আযম; 7 November 192223 October 2014) was a Bangladeshi politician convicted of war crimes by a Bangladeshi tribunal.

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Independent politician

An independent or nonpartisan politician is an individual politician not affiliated with any political party.

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India

India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indian general election, 1945

General elections were held in British India in December 1945 to elect members of the Central Legislative Assembly and the Council of State.

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Indirect election

An indirect election is an election in which voters do not choose between candidates for an office, but elect people who then choose.

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Iskander Mirza

Sahibzada Iskander Ali Mirza (اسکندر مرزا, ইস্কান্দার মির্জা); 13 November 1899 – 13 November 1969),, was the first President of Pakistan, elected in this capacity in 1956 until being dismissed by his appointed army commander General Ayub Khan in 1958. Mirza was educated at the University of Mumbai before attending the military academy in Sandhurst in the United Kingdom. After a brief military service in the British Indian Army, he joined the Indian Political Service and spent the majority of his career as a political agent in the Western region of the British India until elevated as joint secretary at the Ministry of Defence in 1946. After the independence of Pakistan as result of the Partition of India, Mirza was appointed as first Defence Secretary by Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan, only to oversee the military efforts in first war with India in 1947, followed by failed secessionism in Balochistan in 1948. In 1954, he was appointed as Governor of his home province of East Bengal by Prime Minister Mohammad Ali of Bogra to control the law and order sparked as a result of the popular language movement in 1952, but later elevated as Interior Minister in Bogra administration in 1955. Playing a crucial role in ousting of Governor-General Sir Malik Ghulam, Mirza assumed his position in 1955 and was elected as the first President of Pakistan when the first set of Constitution was promulgated in 1956. His presidency, however, marked with political instability which saw his unconstitutional interferences in the civilian administration that led to the dismissal of four prime ministers in a mere two years. Facing challenges in getting the political endorsements and reelection for the presidency, Mirza surprisingly suspended the writ of the Constitution by having imposed martial law against his own party's administration governed by Prime Minister Feroze Khan on 8 October 1958, enforcing it through his army commander General Ayub Khan who dismissed him when the situation between them escalated, also in 1958. Mirza lived in the United Kingdom for the remainder of his life and was buried in Iran in 1969. His legacy and image is viewed negatively by some Pakistani historians who believe that Mirza was responsible for political instability in the country.

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Islam in Pakistan

Islam is the largest and the state religion of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.

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Islamic republic

An Islamic republic is the name given to several states that are officially ruled by Islamic laws, including the Islamic Republics of Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan, and Mauritania.

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Islamism

Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts.

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Jalaludin Abdur Rahim

Jalaludin Abdur Rahim (Urdu: جلال الدين عبدالرحيم; Bengali: জালালুদ্দিন আবদুর রহিম; also known as J. A. Rahim) (1905–1977) was a Bengali communist and political philosopher who was renowned as one of the founding members of the Pakistan People's Party—a democratic socialist political party.

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Jamaat-e-Islami Pakistan

Jamaat-e-Islami, (Urdu:; meaning "Islamic Congress") abbreviated JI, is a socially conservative and Islamist political party based in Pakistan.

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Jamiat Ulema-e Islam (F)

Jamiat Ulema-e Islam (F) (Urdu: (English: Assembly of Islamic Clerics; Acronym: JUI(F), JUI-F, or JUIF) is a Sunni Deobandi political party in Pakistan. Established as JUI (Jamiat Ulema-e Islam) in 1945, it is the result of a factional split of 1988, F standing for the name of its leader, Maulana Fazal-ur-Rehman. JUI-F is as of 2013 Pakistan's 5th largest party, winning 3.2% of the popular vote, or 15 out of 272 general seats in the National Assembly. It is entirely based in southern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and northern parts of Baluchistan. The party is in coalition with Pakistan's current ruling party Pakistan Muslim League (N). The JUI-S faction, led by Samiul Haq, is of regional significance in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa but has no representation on the national level. The split of JUI into two factions was due to dissent over the policy of president Zia-ul-Haq of supporting Mujahideen outfits in the Afghanistan war during the 1980s. A more recent faction known as JUI-N, split off JUI-F in 2008, is also unrepresented at the national level.

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Jamiat Ulema-e-Pakistan

The Jamiat Ulema-e-Pakistan (JUP) (جميعت علماء پاکستان) (Assembly of Pakistani Clergy) is a political party in Pakistan usually seen as being political vehicle for the religious Barelvi strain of Sunni Islam.

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Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (abbreviated as KP; خیبر پختونخوا; خیبر پښتونخوا) is one of the four administrative provinces of Pakistan, located in the northwestern region of the country along the international border with Afghanistan.

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Legal Framework Order, 1970

The Legal Framework Order, 1970 (LFO) was a decree issued by then-President of Pakistan Gen.

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Marxism

Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.

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Minister of Foreign Affairs (Pakistan)

The following is the list of all the previous foreign ministers of Pakistan to date.

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Muhammad Musa

General Muhammad Musa Khan Hazara (جنرل محمد موسی خان ہزارہ, جنرال محمد موسی خان هزاره) (1908 – 12 March 1991),, was a four-star rank army general, politician, and the Commander in Chief of Pakistan Army, serving under President Ayub Khan from 1958 until 1966.

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Muhammad Shahabuddin

Muhammad Shahabuddin (Urdu: محمد شہاب الدین) was the Chief Justice of Pakistan and Governor of East Pakistan.

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Muslim League (Qayyum)

Muslim League (Qayyum) was a party created by Khan Abdul Qayyum Khan when he split with the Council Muslim League to run for the 1970 Pakistani general elections.

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Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal

The Muttahida Majlis–e–Amal (MMA) (Urdu:; lit. United Council of Action), is a political alliance consisting of ultra–conservative, Islamist, religious, and far-right parties of Pakistan.

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National Assembly of Pakistan

Qaumi Assembly Pakistan (قومی اسمبلئ پاکستان or National Assembly of Pakistan (ایوانِ زیریں پاکستان) is the lower house of the bicameral Majlis-e-Shura, which also comprises the President of Pakistan and Aiwan-e Bala (upper house). The Qaumi Assembly and the Aiwan-e Bala both convene at Parliament House in Islamabad. The National Assembly is a democratically elected body consisting of a total of 342 members who are referred to as Members of the National Assembly (MNAs), of which 272 are directly elected members and 70 reserved seats for women and religious minorities. A political party must secure 172 seats to obtain and preserve a majority. Members are elected through the first-past-the-post system under universal adult suffrage, representing electoral districts known as National Assembly constituencies. According to the constitution, the 70 seats reserved for women and religious minorities are allocated to the political parties according to their proportional representation. Each National Assembly is formed for a five-year term, commencing from the date of the first sitting, after which it is automatically dissolved. Currently the National Assembly can not be dissolved by the President of Pakistan, it is dissolved by the Prime Minister of Pakistan. Election for 13th National Assembly was held on 18 February 2008. On March 17, 2013 13th National Assembly was dissolved on completion of its five-year term under Article 52 of the Constitution. Pakistani general election, 2013 (for the 14th National Assembly) was held on May 11, 2013. Members of 14th National Assembly took oath on June 1, 2013. The 14th National Assembly dissolved on 31 May 2018 after completing its 5 year term.

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National Awami Party (Wali)

The Wali Khan faction of the National Awami PartyThe National Awami Party of Pakistan: Leftist Politics in Crisis M. Rashiduzzaman Pacific Affairs, Vol.

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One Unit

The One Unit (ایک وحدت) was a geopolitical program launched by the government of Pakistan led by then-Prime Minister Muhammad Ali Bogra on 22 November 1954.

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Pakistan

Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.

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Pakistan Army

Pakistan Army (پاک فوج Pak Fauj (IPA: pɑk fɒ~ɔd͡ʒ); Reporting name: PA) is the land-based force of the Pakistan Armed Forces.

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Pakistan Democratic Party

The Pakistan Democratic Party is a political party in Pakistan.

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Pakistan Muslim League

The Pakistan Muslim League (پاکستان مسلم لیگ; known as PML), is the name of several Pakistani political parties that have dominated the Right-wing platform since the 1960s.

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Pakistan Peoples Party

The Pakistan Peoples Party (پاکِستان پیپلز پارٹی, commonly referred to as the PPP) is a left-wing, socialist-progressive political party of Pakistan.

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Pakistani general election, 1977

General elections were held in Pakistan on 7 March 1977 to elect the 200 parliamentarians to both houses (Senate and National Assembly) of the Parliament of Pakistan.

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Pakistani presidential election, 1965

Pakistan's first ever Presidential Elections were held on January 2, 1965.

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Parliament of Pakistan

The Parliament of Pakistan (مجلس شوریٰ پاکستان —) is the federal and supreme legislative body of Pakistan.

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Parliamentary system

A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.

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Political Islam

"Political Islam" is a recently developed term used to label the wide-scale activities of individuals or organizations advocating transformation of the state and entire society according to "Islamic" rules.

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Presidential system

A presidential system is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.

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Pressure politics

Pressure politics generally refers to political action which relies heavily on the use of mass media and mass communications to persuade politicians that the public wants or demands a particular action.

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Prime Minister of Pakistan

The Prime Minister of Pakistan (وزِیرِ اعظم —,; lit. "Grand Vizier") is the head of government of Pakistan and designated as the "chief executive of the Republic".

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Punjab, Pakistan

Punjab (Urdu, Punjabi:, panj-āb, "five waters") is Pakistan's second largest province by area, after Balochistan, and its most populous province, with an estimated population of 110,012,442 as of 2017.

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Representation (politics)

In the common view, political representation is assumed to refer only to the political activities undertaken, in representative democracies, by citizens elected to political office on behalf of their fellow citizens who do not hold political office.

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Sedition

Sedition is overt conduct, such as speech and organization, that tends toward insurrection against the established order.

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Sharia

Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.

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Sheikh Mujibur Rahman

Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (শেখ মুজিবুর রহমান);; (17 March 1920 – 15 August 1975), shortened as Sheikh Mujib or just Mujib, was a Bengali politician and statesman.

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Sindh

Sindh (سنڌ; سِندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, in the southeast of the country.

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Six point movement

The Six Point Movement was a movement in East Pakistan, spearheaded by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, which called for greater autonomy for East Pakistan.

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Socialism

Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.

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Socialism in Pakistan

The influences of socialism and socialist movements in Pakistan have taken many different forms as a counterpart to political conservatism, from the groups like Lal Salam which is the Pakistani section of the International Marxist Tendency, The Struggle, to the Stalinist group like Communist Party through to the reformist electoral project enshrined in the birth of the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) While capitalism has always held its sway, the prevalence of the socialist ideology has nevertheless continued to be found in a number of instances in Pakistan's political past and prominent personalities.

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Tropical cyclone

A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain.

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Two-party system

A two-party system is a party system where two major political parties dominate the government.

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Unicameralism

In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.

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West Pakistan

West Pakistan (مغربی پاکستان,; পশ্চিম পাকিস্তান) was one of the two exclaves created at the formation of the modern State of Pakistan following the 1947 Partition of India.

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Yahya Khan

Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan (آغا محمد یحییٰ خان; 4 February 1917 – 10 August 1980), widely known as Yahya Khan,, was the third President of Pakistan, serving in this post from 25 March 1969 until turning over his presidency in December 1971.

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Yale University Press

Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.

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Zulfikar Ali Bhutto

Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (5 January 1928 – 4 April 1979) was a Pakistani politician who served as the 9th Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, and prior to that as the 4th President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973.

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1958 Pakistani coup d'état

The 1958 Pakistani coup d'état refers to the events between October 7, when the President of Pakistan Iskander Mirza abrogated the Constitution of Pakistan and declared martial law, and October 27, when Mirza himself was deposed by Gen.

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1969 Mass uprising in East Pakistan

1969 uprising in East Pakistan (ঊনসত্তরের গণঅভ্যুত্থান) was a democratic political movement in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) that took place in 1969.

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1970 Bhola cyclone

The 1970 Bhola cyclone was a devastating tropical cyclone that struck East Pakistan (present-day Bangladesh) and India's West Bengal on November 12, 1970.

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Redirects here:

1970 General Election in Pakistan, 1970 Pakistan general elections, Pakistan general elections in 1970, Pakistani general elections, 1970.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pakistani_general_election,_1970

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