339 relations: Abbreviation, Abjad, Abugida, Abusir, Academy of Fine Arts, Munich, Achaemenid Empire, Adolf Hitler, Akkadian language, Aleph, Alphabet, Amaravathi (village), Andhra Pradesh, Anatolian hieroglyphs, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Ancient Near East, Ancient South Arabian script, Andhra Pradesh, Anglo-Saxons, Antiqua (typeface class), Antiquarian, Apabhraṃśa, Apollonius of Rhodes, Apostolic Chancery, Apulia, Arabic, Arabic alphabet, Arabic script, Aramaic alphabet, Aramaic language, Arameans, Archaic Greek alphabets, Archetype, Aristotle, Armand Colin, Asemic writing, Ashoka, Augustine of Canterbury, Austria, Émile Chatelain, Śāradā script, Babylonia, Baltimore, Banavasi, Barry B. Powell, Beneventan script, Benevento, Bengal, Bengali language, Bernard de Montfaucon, Bernhard Bischoff, ..., Berthold Ullman, Bible, Blackletter, Bobbio Abbey, Book hand, Brahmi script, British Museum, Buddhism, Byzantine text-type, Cairo, Calligraphy, Cambridge University Press, Capitulary, Carolingian minuscule, Chalukya dynasty, Chancery hand, Charlemagne, Chera dynasty, Chola dynasty, Christendom, Christian literature, Cicero, Cluny Abbey, Codex Alexandrinus, Codex Marchalianus, Codex Sinaiticus, Codex Vaticanus, Codicology, Coluccio Salutati, Columba, Comma, Common Era, Constantinople, Constitution of the Athenians (Aristotle), Corbie, Corbie Abbey, Coronis (textual symbol), Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, Cuneiform script, Cursive, Dakshina Kosala, Dalmatia, Daniel Papebroch, Darius I, Dáibhí Ó Cróinín, Devanagari, Diocletian, Diplomatics, Ductus (linguistics), Dura, Hebron, Early modern period, Edicts of Ashoka, Edward Maunde Thompson, Egyptian hieroglyphs, Elephantine, Elephantine papyri, Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, England, Epigraph (literature), Epigraphy, Epistulae ad Atticum, Exsultet, Facsimile, Flinders Petrie, Florence, Forgery, Fragmentology (manuscripts), France, Gaul, Germany, Giovanni Boccaccio, Glyph, Gothic alphabet, Gothic architecture, Gothic War (535–554), Graffiti, Grantha script, Grapheme, Greek alphabet, Greek diacritics, Greek language, Greek minuscule, Gupta Empire, Gupta script, Halmidi inscription, Handwriting, Hebrew alphabet, Hebrew language, Hellenistic period, Herculaneum, Herculaneum papyri, Historian, Historical document, History of architecture, History of Rome, Hittite cuneiform, House of Medici, Humanism, Idris Bell, Ikshvaku dynasty, India, Inscriptiones Graecae, Insular script, Ireland, Isogloss, Italic script, Italic type, Italy, Jean Mabillon, Jean Mallon, Jewish military history, Kadamba dynasty, Kannada, Kannada alphabet, Karl Franz Otto Dziatzko, Karl Wessely, Karnataka, Kashmir, Kerala, Kharosthi, Kolezhuthu, Kurrent, Kushan Empire, Late Middle Ages, Latin alphabet, Latin script, Léopold Victor Delisle, Letter case, Letterform, Library, Library of Alexandria, List of New Testament papyri, List of New Testament uncials, Lombardic capitals, Lombardic language, Lombards, Lombardy, Ludwig Traube (palaeographer), Luxeuil Abbey, Madhya Pradesh, Malayalam, Malayalam script, Mandaic alphabet, Manuscript, Mater lectionis, Maurya Empire, Mediterranean Sea, Merovingian script, Mesopotamia, Metz, Micropædia, Middle Ages, Monastery of Stoudios, Mongolia, Monte Cassino, Moors, Morphology (linguistics), Munshiram Manoharlal, Nabataean alphabet, Nagarjunakonda, Nandinagari, Nāgarī script, Near East, Neo-Assyrian Empire, New Testament, Niccolò de' Niccoli, Notary, Notary public, Numismatics, Odisha, Odyssey, Old English, Old Italic script, Order of Saint Benedict, Orthography, Oxford, Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, Oxyrhynchus Papyri, Palatine, Palestine (region), Pali, Pallava dynasty, Palmyrene dialect, Pandyan dynasty, Papal bull, Papyrology, Papyrus, Paragraphos, Parchment, Parthia, Patriarch of Alexandria, Persian language, Petrarch, Phaedo, Philology, Phoenician alphabet, Plato, Poggio Bracciolini, Pompeii, Pontifical Gregorian University, Pope, Pope Gregory I, Pope Honorius II, Prakrit, Pronunciation, Proto-Sinaitic script, Ptolemy II Philadelphus, Public domain, Punctuation, Punjab, Ravenna, Reims, Renaissance, Renaissance humanism, Roșia Montană, Roman Curia, Roman cursive, Roman square capitals, Romanesque architecture, Rome, Rustic capitals, Saint Gall, Saint-Denis, Seine-Saint-Denis, Saka, Sanskrit, Sütterlin, Scribal abbreviation, Scribe, Scriptorium, Secretary hand, Semi-cursive script, Shalankayana, Sharabhapuriya dynasty, Sherd, Society for Classical Studies, Sogdian alphabet, South India, Southeast Asia, Spain, Stanley Morison, Story of Ahikar, Style (sociolinguistics), Stylometry, Syntax, Syracuse University Press, Syria, Syriac alphabet, Syro-Hittite states, Tamil language, Tamil script, Telugu language, Telugu people, Telugu script, Telugu-Kannada alphabet, Terence, Textual scholarship, The National Archives (United Kingdom), Theodor Mommsen, Tibet, Timotheus of Miletus, Tours, Transylvania, Typeface, Typographic ligature, Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Uncial script, United Kingdom, University College London, Vakataka dynasty, Vatteluttu alphabet, Vellum, Veneto, Verona, Vespasiano da Bisticci, Victor Gardthausen, Virgil, Visigothic script, Vocabulary, Western Satraps, Wiesbaden, Wilhelm Wattenbach, William Schniedewind, World War II, Writing material, Writing system, Yajna Sri Satakarni, Zagreb. 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An abbreviation (from Latin brevis, meaning short) is a shortened form of a word or phrase.
An abjad (pronounced or) is a type of writing system where each symbol or glyph stands for a consonant, leaving the reader to supply the appropriate vowel.
An abugida (from Ge'ez: አቡጊዳ ’abugida), or alphasyllabary, is a segmental writing system in which consonant–vowel sequences are written as a unit: each unit is based on a consonant letter, and vowel notation is secondary.
Abusir (ابو صير; Egyptian pr wsjr; ⲃⲟⲩⲥⲓⲣⲓ, "the House or Temple of Osiris"; Βούσιρις) is the name given to an Egyptian archaeological locality – specifically, an extensive necropolis of the Old Kingdom period, together with later additions – in the vicinity of the modern capital Cairo.
The Academy of Fine Arts, Munich (Akademie der Bildenden Künste München, also known as Munich Academy) is one of the oldest and most significant art academies in Germany.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Akkadian (akkadû, ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: URIKI)John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages.
Aleph (or alef or alif) is the first letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician 'Ālep 𐤀, Hebrew 'Ālef א, Aramaic Ālap 𐡀, Syriac ʾĀlap̄ ܐ, Arabic ا, Urdu ا, and Persian.
An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that is used to write one or more languages based upon the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language.
Amaravathi is a village in Guntur district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.
Anatolian hieroglyphs are an indigenous logographic script native to central Anatolia, consisting of some 500 signs.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The ancient Near East was the home of early civilizations within a region roughly corresponding to the modern Middle East: Mesopotamia (modern Iraq, southeast Turkey, southwest Iran, northeastern Syria and Kuwait), ancient Egypt, ancient Iran (Elam, Media, Parthia and Persia), Anatolia/Asia Minor and Armenian Highlands (Turkey's Eastern Anatolia Region, Armenia, northwestern Iran, southern Georgia, and western Azerbaijan), the Levant (modern Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Israel, and Jordan), Cyprus and the Arabian Peninsula.
The Ancient South Arabian script (Old South Arabian 𐩣𐩯𐩬𐩳 ms3nd; modern المُسنَد musnad) branched from the Proto-Sinaitic script in about the 9th century BC.
Andhra Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India.
The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.
Antiqua is a style of typeface used to mimic styles of handwriting or calligraphy common during the 15th and 16th centuries.
An antiquarian or antiquary (from the Latin: antiquarius, meaning pertaining to ancient times) is an aficionado or student of antiquities or things of the past.
Apabhranśa (अपभ्रंश,, Prakrit) is a term used by vyākaraṇin (grammarians) since Patañjali to refer to the dialects prevalent in the Ganges (east and west) before the rise of the modern languages.
Apollonius of Rhodes (Ἀπολλώνιος Ῥόδιος Apollṓnios Rhódios; Apollonius Rhodius; fl. first half of 3rd century BCE), was an ancient Greek author, best known for the Argonautica, an epic poem about Jason and the Argonauts and their quest for the Golden Fleece.
The Apostolic Chancery (Cancellaria Apostolica; also known as the "Papal" or "Roman Chanc(ell)ery") was a dicastery of the Roman Curia at the service of the Supreme Pontiff of the Roman Catholic Church.
Apulia (Puglia; Pùglia; Pulia; translit) is a region of Italy in Southern Italy bordering the Adriatic Sea to the east, the Ionian Sea to the southeast, and the Strait of Òtranto and Gulf of Taranto to the south.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Arabic alphabet (الأَبْجَدِيَّة العَرَبِيَّة, or الحُرُوف العَرَبِيَّة) or Arabic abjad is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing Arabic.
The Arabic script is the writing system used for writing Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Azerbaijani, Pashto, Persian, Kurdish, Lurish, Urdu, Mandinka, and others.
The ancient Aramaic alphabet is adapted from the Phoenician alphabet and became distinct from it by the 8th century BCE.
Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.
The Arameans, or Aramaeans (ܐܪ̈ܡܝܐ), were an ancient Northwest Semitic Aramaic-speaking tribal confederation who emerged from the region known as Aram (in present-day Syria) in the Late Bronze Age (11th to 8th centuries BC).
Many local variants of the Greek alphabet were employed in ancient Greece during the archaic and early classical periods, until they were replaced by the classical 24-letter alphabet that is the standard today, around 400 BC.
The concept of an archetype appears in areas relating to behavior, modern psychological theory, and literary analysis.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Armand Colin is a French publishing house founded in 1870 by Auguste Armand Colin.
Asemic writing is a wordless open semantic form of writing.
Ashoka (died 232 BCE), or Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty, who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from to 232 BCE.
Augustine of Canterbury (born first third of the 6th century – died probably 26 May 604) was a Benedictine monk who became the first Archbishop of Canterbury in the year 597.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
Émile Chatelain (25 November 1851 – 26 November 1933) was a French Latinist and palaeographer.
The Śāradā, Sarada or Sharada script is an abugida writing system of the Brahmic family of scripts.
Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).
Baltimore is the largest city in the U.S. state of Maryland, and the 30th-most populous city in the United States.
Banavasi is an ancient temple town in Uttara Kannada in the South Indian state of Karnataka.
Barry B. Powell is the Halls-Bascom Professor of Classics Emeritus at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, author of the widely used textbook Classical Myth and many other books.
The beneventan script was a medieval script which originated in the Duchy of Benevento in southern Italy.
Benevento (Campanian: Beneviénte; Beneventum) is a city and comune of Campania, Italy, capital of the province of Benevento, northeast of Naples.
Bengal (Bānglā/Bôngô /) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in Asia, which is located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal.
Bengali, also known by its endonym Bangla (বাংলা), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in South Asia.
Dom Bernard de Montfaucon, O.S.B. (13 January 1655 – 21 December 1741) was a French Benedictine monk of the Congregation of Saint Maur.
Bernhard Bischoff (20 December 1906 – 17 September 1991) was a German historian, paleographer, and philologist; he was born in Altendorf (administrative division of Altenburg, Thuringia), and he died in Munich.
Berthold Louis Ullman (August 18, 1882 in Chicago, Illinois – June 26, 1965 in Vatican City) was an American Classical scholar.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
Blackletter (sometimes black letter), also known as Gothic script, Gothic minuscule, or Textura, was a script used throughout Western Europe from approximately 1150 to well into the 17th century.
Bobbio Abbey (Italian: Abbazia di San Colombano) is a monastery founded by Irish Saint Columbanus in 614, around which later grew up the town of Bobbio, in the province of Piacenza, Emilia-Romagna, Italy.
A book hand was any of several stylized handwriting scripts used during ancient and medieval times.
Brahmi (IAST) is the modern name given to one of the oldest writing systems used in Ancient India and present South and Central Asia from the 1st millennium BCE.
The British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
The Byzantine text-type (also called Majority Text, Traditional Text, Ecclesiastical Text, Constantinopolitan Text, Antiocheian Text, or Syrian Text) is one of several text-types used in textual criticism to describe the textual character of Greek New Testament manuscripts.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
Calligraphy (from Greek: καλλιγραφία) is a visual art related to writing.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
A capitulary (medieval Latin capitularium) was a series of legislative or administrative acts emanating from the Frankish court of the Merovingian and Carolingian dynasties, especially that of Charlemagne; the first emperor of the Romans in the west since the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the late 5th century.
Carolingian minuscule or Caroline minuscule is a script which developed as a calligraphic standard in Europe so that the Latin alphabet could be easily recognized by the literate class from one region to another.
The Chalukya dynasty was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries.
The term "chancery hand" can refer to either of two very different styles of historical handwriting.
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.
The Cheras were the ruling dynasty of the present-day state of Kerala and to a lesser extent, parts of Tamil Nadu in South India.
The Chola dynasty was one of the longest-ruling dynasties in the history of southern India.
Christendom has several meanings.
Christian literature is writing that deals with Christian themes and incorporates the Christian world view.
Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.
Cluny Abbey (formerly also Cluni, or Clugny) is a former Benedictine monastery in Cluny, Saône-et-Loire, France.
The Codex Alexandrinus (London, British Library, MS Royal 1. D. V-VIII; Gregory-Aland no. A or 02, Soden δ 4) is a fifth-century manuscript of the Greek Bible,The Greek Bible in this context refers to the Bible used by Greek-speaking Christians who lived in Egypt and elsewhere during the early history of Christianity.
Codex Marchalianus designated by siglum Q is a 6th-century Greek manuscript copy of the Greek version of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh or Old Testament) known as the Septuagint.
Codex Sinaiticus (Σιναϊτικός Κώδικας, קודקס סינאיטיקוס; Shelfmarks and references: London, Brit. Libr., Additional Manuscripts 43725; Gregory-Aland nº א [Aleph] or 01, [Soden δ 2]) or "Sinai Bible" is one of the four great uncial codices, an ancient, handwritten copy of the Greek Bible.
The Codex Vaticanus (The Vatican, Bibl. Vat., Vat. gr. 1209; no. B or 03 Gregory-Aland, δ 1 von Soden) is regarded as the oldest extant manuscript of the Greek Bible (Old and New Testament), one of the four great uncial codices.
Codicology (from Latin, genitive, "notebook, book"; and Greek, -logia) is the study of codices or manuscript books written on parchment (or paper) as physical objects.
Coluccio Salutati (16 February 1331 – 4 May 1406) was an Italian humanist and man of letters, and one of the most important political and cultural leaders of Renaissance Florence; as chancellor of the Republic and its most prominent voice, he was effectively the permanent secretary of state in the generation before the rise of the Medici.
Saint Columba (Colm Cille, 'church dove'; Columbkille; 7 December 521 – 9 June 597) was an Irish abbot and missionary credited with spreading Christianity in what is today Scotland at the start of the Hiberno-Scottish mission.
The comma is a punctuation mark that appears in several variants in different languages.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
The Constitution of the Athenians or the Athenian Constitution (Greek: Ἀθηναίων πολιτεία, Athenaion Politeia; Latin: Atheniensium Respublica) is a work by Aristotle or one of his students.
Corbie is a commune of the Somme department in Hauts-de-France in northern France.
Corbie Abbey is a former Benedictine monastery in Corbie, Picardy, France, dedicated to Saint Peter.
A coronis (κορωνίς, korōnís, κορωνίδες, korōnídes) is a textual symbol found in ancient Greek papyri that was used to mark the ends of entire works or major sections in poetic and prose texts.
The Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum (CIL) is a comprehensive collection of ancient Latin inscriptions.
Cuneiform script, one of the earliest systems of writing, was invented by the Sumerians.
Cursive (also known as script or longhand, among other names) is any style of penmanship in which some characters are written joined together in a flowing manner, generally for the purpose of making writing faster.
Dakshina Kosala (IAST: Dakṣiṇa Kosala, "southern Kosala") is a historical region of central India.
Dalmatia (Dalmacija; see names in other languages) is one of the four historical regions of Croatia, alongside Croatia proper, Slavonia and Istria.
Daniel Papebroch, S.J., (17 March 1628 – 28 June 1714) was a Flemish Jesuit hagiographer, one of the Bollandists.
Darius I (Old Persian: Dārayava(h)uš, New Persian: rtl Dāryuš;; c. 550–486 BCE) was the fourth king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire.
Dáibhí Iarla Ó Cróinín (born 29 August 1954) is an Irish historian, and professor of history at the National University of Ireland, Galway (N.U.I. Galway).
Devanagari (देवनागरी,, a compound of "''deva''" देव and "''nāgarī''" नागरी; Hindi pronunciation), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group,, page 83 is an abugida (alphasyllabary) used in India and Nepal.
Diocletian (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus), born Diocles (22 December 244–3 December 311), was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305.
Diplomatics (in American English, and in most anglophone countries), or diplomatic (in British English), is a scholarly discipline centred on the critical analysis of documents: especially, historical documents.
In linguistics, ductus is the qualities and characteristics of speaking or writing instantiated in the act of speaking or the flow of writing the text.
Dura (دورا) is a Palestinian city located eleven kilometers southwest of Hebron in the Hebron Governorate in the southern West Bank.
The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.
The Edicts of Ashoka are a collection of 33 inscriptions on the Pillars of Ashoka as well as boulders and cave walls made by the Emperor Ashoka of the Mauryan Empire during his reign from 269 BCE to 232 BCE.
Sir Edward Maunde Thompson, GCB, FBA (1840 – 14 September 1929) was a British palaeographer and Principal Librarian and first Director of the British Museum.
Egyptian hieroglyphs were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt.
Elephantine (Gazīrat il-Fantīn; Ἐλεφαντίνη) is an island on the Nile, forming part of the city of Aswan in Upper Egypt.
The Elephantine Papyri consist of 175 documents from the Egyptian border fortresses of Elephantine and Syene (Aswan), which yielded hundreds of papyri in Hieratic and Demotic Egyptian, Aramaic, Greek, Latin and Coptic, spanning a period of 2000 years.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–11) is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
In literature, an epigraph is a phrase, quotation, or poem that is set at the beginning of a document or component.
Epigraphy (ἐπιγραφή, "inscription") is the study of inscriptions or epigraphs as writing; it is the science of identifying graphemes, clarifying their meanings, classifying their uses according to dates and cultural contexts, and drawing conclusions about the writing and the writers.
Epistulae ad Atticum (Latin for "Letters to Atticus") is a collection of letters from Roman politician and orator Marcus Tullius Cicero to his close friend Titus Pomponius Atticus.
The Exsultet (spelled in pre-1920 editions of the Roman Missal as Exultet) or Easter Proclamation, in Latin Praeconium Paschale, is the hymn of praise sung, ideally by a deacon, before the paschal candle during the Easter Vigil in the Roman Rite of Mass.
A facsimile (from Latin fac simile (to 'make alike')) is a copy or reproduction of an old book, manuscript, map, art print, or other item of historical value that is as true to the original source as possible.
Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie, FRS, FBA (3 June 1853 – 28 July 1942), commonly known as Flinders Petrie, was an English Egyptologist and a pioneer of systematic methodology in archaeology and preservation of artifacts.
Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.
Forgery is the process of making, adapting, or imitating objects, statistics, or documents with the intent to deceive for the sake of altering the public perception, or to earn profit by selling the forged item.
Fragmentology is the study of surviving fragments of medieval or renaissance manuscripts.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Giovanni Boccaccio (16 June 1313 – 21 December 1375) was an Italian writer, poet, correspondent of Petrarch, and an important Renaissance humanist.
In typography, a glyph is an elemental symbol within an agreed set of symbols, intended to represent a readable character for the purposes of writing.
The Gothic alphabet is an alphabet for writing the Gothic language, created in the 4th century by Ulfilas (or Wulfila) for the purpose of translating the Bible.
Gothic architecture is an architectural style that flourished in Europe during the High and Late Middle Ages.
The Gothic War between the Byzantine Empire during the reign of Emperor Justinian I and the Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy took place from 535 until 554 in the Italian peninsula, Dalmatia, Sardinia, Sicily and Corsica.
Graffiti (plural of graffito: "a graffito", but "these graffiti") are writing or drawings that have been scribbled, scratched, or painted, typically illicitly, on a wall or other surface, often within public view.
The Grantha script (Kiranta eḻuttu; ഗ്രന്ഥലിപി; grantha lipi) is an Indian script that was widely used between the sixth century and the 20th centuries by Tamil and Malayalam speakers in South India, particularly in Tamil Nadu and Kerala, to write Sanskrit and the classical language Manipravalam, and is still in restricted use in traditional Vedic schools (Sanskrit veda pāṭhaśālā).
In linguistics, a grapheme is the smallest unit of a writing system of any given language.
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.
Greek orthography has used a variety of diacritics starting in the Hellenistic period.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The minuscule script was a Greek writing style which was developed as a book hand in Byzantine manuscripts during the 9th and 10th centuries.
The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire, existing from approximately 240 to 590 CE.
The Gupta script (sometimes referred to as Gupta Brahmi Script or Late Brahmi Script)Sharma, Ram.
The Halmidi inscription is the oldest known Kannada language inscription in the Kannada script.
Handwriting is the writing done with a writing instrument, such as a pen or pencil, in the hand.
The Hebrew alphabet (אָלֶף־בֵּית עִבְרִי), known variously by scholars as the Jewish script, square script and block script, is an abjad script used in the writing of the Hebrew language, also adapted as an alphabet script in the writing of other Jewish languages, most notably in Yiddish (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-German), Djudío (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-Spanish), and Judeo-Arabic.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
Located in the shadow of Mount Vesuvius, Herculaneum (Italian: Ercolano) was an ancient Roman town destroyed by volcanic pyroclastic flows in 79 AD.
The Herculaneum papyri are more than 1,800 papyri found in the Herculaneum Villa of the Papyri, in the 18th century, carbonized by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79.
A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past, and is regarded as an authority on it.
Historical documents are original documents that contain important historical information about a person, place, or event and can thus serve as primary sources as important ingredients of the historical methodology.
The history of architecture traces the changes in architecture through various traditions, regions, overarching stylistic trends, and dates.
Roman history has been among the most influential to the modern world, from supporting the tradition of the rule by law to influencing the American Founding Fathers to the creation of the Catholic church.
Hittite cuneiform is the implementation of cuneiform script used in writing the Hittite language.
The House of Medici was an Italian banking family and political dynasty that first began to gather prominence under Cosimo de' Medici in the Republic of Florence during the first half of the 15th century.
Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition.
Sir Harold Idris Bell (2 October 1879 – 22 January 1967) was a British papyrologist (specialising in Roman Egypt) and scholar of Welsh literature.
The Ikshvaku dynasty, in Puranic literature, was a dynasty founded by the legendary king Ikshvaku.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Inscriptiones Graecae (IG), Latin for Greek inscriptions, is an academic project originally begun by the Prussian Academy of Science, and today continued by its successor organisation, the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften.
Insular script was a medieval script system invented in Ireland that spread to Anglo-Saxon England and continental Europe under the influence of Irish Christianity.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
An isogloss, also called a heterogloss (see Etymology below), is the geographic boundary of a certain linguistic feature, such as the pronunciation of a vowel, the meaning of a word, or the use of some morphological or syntactic feature.
Italic script, also known as chancery cursive, is a semi-cursive, slightly sloped style of handwriting and calligraphy that was developed during the Renaissance in Italy.
In typography, italic type is a cursive font based on a stylized form of calligraphic handwriting.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Dom Jean Mabillon, O.S.B., (23 November 1632 – 27 December 1707) was a French Benedictine monk and scholar of the Congregation of Saint Maur.
Jean Mallon (20 June 1904, Le Havre – 16 November 1982, aged 78) was a French palaeographer, specialist of Latin palaeography.
Jewish military history focuses on the military aspect of history of the Jewish people from ancient times until the modern age.
The Kadambas (Kannada: ಕದಂಬರು) (345–525 CE) were an ancient royal family of Karnataka, India, that ruled northern Karnataka and the Konkan from Banavasi in present-day Uttara Kannada district.
Kannada (ಕನ್ನಡ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Kannada people in India, mainly in the state of Karnataka, and by significant linguistic minorities in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Kerala, Goa and abroad.
The Kannada Script (IAST: Kannaḍa lipi) is an abugida of the Brahmic family, used primarily to write the Kannada language, one of the Dravidian languages of South India especially in the state of Karnataka, Kannada script is widely used for writing Sanskrit texts in Karnataka.
Karl Franz Otto Dziatzko (27 January 1842 - 13 January 1903, Göttingen) was a German librarian and scholar, born in Neustadt, Silesia.
Karl Wessely (Carl Wessely; 27 June 1860, Vienna – 21 November 1931) was an Austrian palaeographer and papyrus scholar.
Karnataka also known Kannada Nadu is a state in the south western region of India.
Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent.
Kerala is a state in South India on the Malabar Coast.
The Kharosthi script, also spelled Kharoshthi or Kharoṣṭhī, is an ancient script used in ancient Gandhara and ancient India (primarily modern-day Afghanistan and Pakistan) to write the Gandhari Prakrit and Sanskrit.
Kolezhuthu (கோலெழுத்து, കോലെഴുത്ത്) is one of the oldest writing systems in South India.
Kurrent is an old form of German-language handwriting based on late medieval cursive writing, also known as Kurrentschrift, Alte Deutsche Schrift ("old German script") and German cursive.
The Kushan Empire (Βασιλεία Κοσσανῶν; Κυϸανο, Kushano; कुषाण साम्राज्य Kuṣāṇa Samrajya; BHS:; Chinese: 貴霜帝國; Kušan-xšaθr) was a syncretic empire, formed by the Yuezhi, in the Bactrian territories in the early 1st century.
The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from 1250 to 1500 AD.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
Léopold Victor Delisle (24 October 1826, Valognes (Manche) – 21 July 1910, Chantilly, Oise), was a French bibliophile and historian.
Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case (also uppercase, capital letters, capitals, caps, large letters, or more formally majuscule) and smaller lower case (also lowercase, small letters, or more formally minuscule) in the written representation of certain languages.
A letterform, letter-form or letter form, is a term used especially in typography, paleography, calligraphy and epigraphy to mean a letter's shape.
A library is a collection of sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing.
The Royal Library of Alexandria or Ancient Library of Alexandria in Alexandria, Egypt, was one of the largest and most significant libraries of the ancient world.
A New Testament papyrus is a copy of a portion of the New Testament made on papyrus.
A New Testament uncial is a section of the New Testament in Greek or Latin majuscule letters, written on parchment or vellum.
Lombardic capitals is the name given to a type of decorative upper-case letters used in inscriptions and, typically, at the start of a section of text in medieval manuscripts.
Lombardic or Langobardic is an extinct West Germanic language that was spoken by the Lombards (Langobardi), the Germanic people who settled in Italy in the 6th century.
The Lombards or Longobards (Langobardi, Longobardi, Longobard (Western)) were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774.
Lombardy (Lombardia; Lumbardia, pronounced: (Western Lombard), (Eastern Lombard)) is one of the twenty administrative regions of Italy, in the northwest of the country, with an area of.
Ludwig Traube (June 19, 1861 – May 19, 1907) was a paleographer and held the first chair of Medieval Latin in Germany (at the Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich).
Luxeuil Abbey was one of the oldest and best-known monasteries in Burgundy, located in what is now the département of Haute-Saône in Franche-Comté, France.
Madhya Pradesh (MP;; meaning Central Province) is a state in central India.
Malayalam is a Dravidian language spoken across the Indian state of Kerala by the Malayali people and it is one of 22 scheduled languages of India.
Malayalam script (/ Malayalam: മലയാളലിപി) is a Brahmic script used commonly to write the Malayalam language, which is the principal language of Kerala, India, spoken by 35 million people in the world.
The Mandaic alphabet is thought to have evolved between the 2nd and 7th century CE from either a cursive form of Aramaic (as did Syriac) or from the Parthian chancery script.
A manuscript (abbreviated MS for singular and MSS for plural) was, traditionally, any document written by hand -- or, once practical typewriters became available, typewritten -- as opposed to being mechanically printed or reproduced in some indirect or automated way.
In the spelling of Hebrew and some other Semitic languages, matres lectionis (from Latin "mothers of reading", singular form: mater lectionis, אֵם קְרִיאָה), refers to the use of certain consonants to indicate a vowel.
The Maurya Empire was a geographically-extensive Iron Age historical power founded by Chandragupta Maurya which dominated ancient India between 322 BCE and 180 BCE.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Merovingian script or Gallo-Roman script was a medieval variant of the Latin script so called because it was developed in Gaul during the Merovingian dynasty.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
Metz (Lorraine Franconian pronunciation) is a city in northeast France located at the confluence of the Moselle and the Seille rivers.
The 12-volume Micropædia is one of the three parts of the 15th edition of Encyclopædia Britannica, the other two being the one-volume Propædia and the 17-volume Macropædia.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Monastery of Stoudios, more fully Monastery of Saint John the Forerunner "at Stoudios" (Greek Μονή του Αγίου Ιωάννη του Προδρόμου «εν τοις Στουδίου» Monē tou Hagiou Iōannē tou Prodromou "en tois Stoudiou"), often shortened to Stoudios, Studion, or Stoudion, (Studium), was historically the most important monastery of Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul), the capital of the Byzantine Empire.
Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.
Monte Cassino (sometimes written Montecassino) is a rocky hill about southeast of Rome, in the Latin Valley, Italy, to the west of the town of Cassino and altitude.
The term "Moors" refers primarily to the Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, and Malta during the Middle Ages.
In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.
Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt.
The Nabataean alphabet is a consonantal alphabet (abjad) that was used by the Nabataeans in the 2nd century BC.
Nagarjunakonda (IAST: Nāgārjunikoṇḍa, meaning Nagarjuna Hill) is a historical town, now an island located near Nagarjuna Sagar in Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Nandinagari is a Brahmic script derived from Nāgarī script which appeared in the 7th century AD.
The Nāgarī script is the ancestor of Devanagari, Nandinagari and other variants, and was first used to write Prakrit and Sanskrit.
The Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.
The Neo-Assyrian Empire was an Iron Age Mesopotamian empire, in existence between 911 and 609 BC, and became the largest empire of the world up till that time.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
Niccolò de' Niccoli (1364 – 22 January 1437) was an Italian Renaissance humanist.
A notary is a person licensed by the government to perform acts in legal affairs, in particular witnessing signatures on documents.
A notary public (or notary or public notary) of the common law is a public officer constituted by law to serve the public in non-contentious matters usually concerned with estates, deeds, powers-of-attorney, and foreign and international business.
Numismatics is the study or collection of currency, including coins, tokens, paper money, and related objects.
Odisha (formerly Orissa) is one of the 29 states of India, located in eastern India.
The Odyssey (Ὀδύσσεια Odýsseia, in Classical Attic) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
Old Italic is one of several now extinct alphabet systems used on the Italian Peninsula in ancient times for various Indo-European languages (predominantly Italic) and non-Indo-European (e.g. Etruscan) languages.
The Order of Saint Benedict (OSB; Latin: Ordo Sancti Benedicti), also known as the Black Monksin reference to the colour of its members' habitsis a Catholic religious order of independent monastic communities that observe the Rule of Saint Benedict.
An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.
Oxford is a city in the South East region of England and the county town of Oxfordshire.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The Oxyrhynchus Papyri are a group of manuscripts discovered during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries by papyrologists Bernard Pyne Grenfell and Arthur Surridge Hunt at an ancient rubbish dump near Oxyrhynchus in Egypt (modern el-Bahnasa).
A palatine or palatinus (in Latin; plural palatini; cf. derivative spellings below) is a high-level official attached to imperial or royal courts in Europe since Roman times.
Palestine (فلسطين,,; Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Palaestina; פלשתינה. Palestina) is a geographic region in Western Asia.
Pali, or Magadhan, is a Middle Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian subcontinent.
The Pallava dynasty was a South Indian dynasty that existed from 275 CE to 897 CE, ruling a portion of southern India.
Palmyrene or Palmyrenean was a Western Aramaic dialect spoken in the city of Palmyra, Syria, in the early centuries AD.
The Pandyan dynasty was an ancient Tamil dynasty, one of the three Tamil dynasties, the other two being the Chola and the Chera.
A papal bull is a type of public decree, letters patent, or charter issued by a pope of the Roman Catholic Church.
Papyrology is the study of ancient literature, correspondence, legal archives, etc..., as preserved in manuscripts written on papyrus, the most common form of writing material in the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Greece, and Rome.
Papyrus is a material similar to thick paper that was used in ancient times as a writing surface.
A paragraphos (παράγραφος, parágraphos, from para-, “beside”, and graphein, “to write”) was a mark in ancient Greek punctuation, marking a division in a text (as between speakers in a dialogue or drama) or drawing the reader's attention to another division mark, such as the two dot punctuation mark.
Parchment is a writing material made from specially prepared untanned skins of animals—primarily sheep, calves, and goats.
Parthia (𐎱𐎼𐎰𐎺 Parθava; 𐭐𐭓𐭕𐭅 Parθaw; 𐭯𐭫𐭮𐭥𐭡𐭥 Pahlaw) is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran.
The Patriarch of Alexandria is the archbishop of Alexandria, Egypt.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Francesco Petrarca (July 20, 1304 – July 18/19, 1374), commonly anglicized as Petrarch, was a scholar and poet of Renaissance Italy who was one of the earliest humanists.
Phædo or Phaedo (Φαίδων, Phaidōn), also known to ancient readers as On The Soul, is one of the best-known dialogues of Plato's middle period, along with the Republic and the Symposium. The philosophical subject of the dialogue is the immortality of the soul.
Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.
The Phoenician alphabet, called by convention the Proto-Canaanite alphabet for inscriptions older than around 1050 BC, is the oldest verified alphabet.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Gian Francesco Poggio Bracciolini (11 February 1380 – 30 October 1459), best known simply as Poggio Bracciolini, was an Italian scholar and an early humanist.
Pompeii was an ancient Roman city near modern Naples in the Campania region of Italy, in the territory of the comune of Pompei.
The Pontifical Gregorian University (Pontificia Università Gregoriana; also known as the Gregoriana) is a higher education ecclesiastical school (pontifical university) located in Rome, Italy.
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Pope Saint Gregory I (Gregorius I; – 12 March 604), commonly known as Saint Gregory the Great, Gregory had come to be known as 'the Great' by the late ninth century, a title which is still applied to him.
Pope Honorius II (9 February 1060 – 13 February 1130), born Lamberto Scannabecchi,Levillain, pg.
The Prakrits (प्राकृत; pāuda; pāua) are any of several Middle Indo-Aryan languages formerly spoken in India.
Pronunciation is the way in which a word or a language is spoken.
Proto-Sinaitic, also referred to as Sinaitic, Proto-Canaanite, Old Canaanite, or Canaanite, is a term for both a Middle Bronze Age (Middle Kingdom) script attested in a small corpus of inscriptions found at Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt, and the reconstructed common ancestor of the Paleo-Hebrew, Phoenician and South Arabian scripts (and, by extension, of most historical and modern alphabets).
Ptolemy II Philadelphus (Πτολεμαῖος Φιλάδελφος, Ptolemaîos Philádelphos "Ptolemy Beloved of his Sibling"; 308/9–246 BCE) was the king of Ptolemaic Egypt from 283 to 246 BCE.
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply.
Punctuation (formerly sometimes called pointing) is the use of spacing, conventional signs, and certain typographical devices as aids to the understanding and correct reading of handwritten and printed text, whether read silently or aloud.
The Punjab, also spelled Panjab (land of "five rivers"; Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi); Πενταποταμία, Pentapotamia) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India.
Ravenna (also locally; Ravèna) is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna, in the Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy.
Reims (also spelled Rheims), a city in the Grand Est region of France, lies east-northeast of Paris.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Renaissance humanism is the study of classical antiquity, at first in Italy and then spreading across Western Europe in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries.
Roșia Montană ("Roșia of the Mountains"; Alburnus Maior; Verespatak,; Goldbach, Rotseifen) is a commune of Alba County in the Apuseni Mountains of western Transylvania, Romania.
The Roman Curia is the administrative apparatus of the Holy See and the central body through which the Roman Pontiff conducts the affairs of the universal Catholic Church.
Roman cursive (or Latin cursive) is a form of handwriting (or a script) used in ancient Rome and to some extent into the Middle Ages.
Roman square capitals, also called capitalis monumentalis, inscriptional capitals, elegant capitals and capitalis quadrata, are an ancient Roman form of writing, and the basis for modern capital letters.
Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
Rustic capitals (littera capitalis rustica) is an ancient Roman calligraphic script.
Saint Gall, or Gallus (550 646, Sankt Gallus) according to hagiographic tradition was a disciple and one of the traditional twelve companions of Saint Columbanus on his mission from Ireland to the continent.
Saint-Denis is a commune in the northern suburbs of Paris, France.
Saka, Śaka, Shaka or Saca mod. ساکا; Śaka; Σάκαι, Sákai; Sacae;, old *Sək, mod. Sāi) is the name used in Middle Persian and Sanskrit sources for the Scythians, a large group of Eurasian nomads on the Eurasian Steppe speaking Eastern Iranian languages.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Sütterlinschrift ("Sütterlin script") is the last widely used form of Kurrent, the historical form of German handwriting that evolved alongside German blackletter (most notably Fraktur) typefaces.
Scribal abbreviations or sigla (singular: siglum or sigil) are the abbreviations used by ancient and medieval scribes writing in Latin, and later in Greek and Old Norse.
A scribe is a person who serves as a professional copyist, especially one who made copies of manuscripts before the invention of automatic printing.
Scriptorium, literally "a place for writing", is commonly used to refer to a room in medieval European monasteries devoted to the writing, copying and illuminating of manuscripts by monastic scribes.
Secretary hand is a style of European handwriting developed in the early sixteenth century that remained common in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries for writing English, German, Welsh and Gaelic.
Semi-cursive script is a cursive style of Chinese characters.
The Shalankayana (IAST: Śālaṇkāyana) dynasty of ancient India ruled a part of Andhra region in India from 300 to 440 CE.
The Sharabhapuriya (IAST: Śarabhapurīya) dynasty ruled parts of present-day Chhattisgarh and Odisha in India, during 5th and 6th centuries.
In archaeology, a sherd, or more precisely, potsherd, is commonly a historic or prehistoric fragment of pottery, although the term is occasionally used to refer to fragments of stone and glass vessels, as well.
The Society for Classical Studies (SCS), formerly known as the American Philological Association (APA), founded in 1869, is a non-profit North American scholarly organization devoted to all aspects of Greek and Roman civilization.
The Sogdian alphabet was originally used for the Sogdian language, a language in the Iranian family used by the people of Sogdia.
South India is the area encompassing the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Puducherry, occupying 19% of India's area.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Stanley Morison (6 May 1889 – 11 October 1967) was an influential British typographer, printing executive and historian of printing.
The Story of Ahikar, also known as the Words of Ahikar, is a story first attested in Aramaic from the fifth century BCE that circulated widely in the Middle and Near East.
In sociolinguistics, a style is a set of linguistic variants with specific social meanings.
Stylometry is the application of the study of linguistic style, usually to written language, but it has successfully been applied to music and to fine-art paintings as well.
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.
Syracuse University Press, founded in 1943, is a university press that is part of Syracuse University.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The Syriac alphabet is a writing system primarily used to write the Syriac language since the 1st century AD.
The states that are called Neo-Hittite or, more recently, Syro-Hittite were Luwian-, Aramaic- and Phoenician-speaking political entities of the Iron Age in northern Syria and southern Anatolia that arose following the collapse of the Hittite Empire in around 1180 BC and lasted until roughly 700 BC.
Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.
The Tamil script (தமிழ் அரிச்சுவடி) is an abugida script that is used by Tamils and Tamil speakers in India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Singapore and elsewhere to write the Tamil language, as well as to write the liturgical language Sanskrit, using consonants and diacritics not represented in the Tamil alphabet.
Telugu (తెలుగు) is a South-central Dravidian language native to India.
The Telugu people or Telugu Praajalu are the people who speak Telugu as a first language.
Telugu script (Telugu lipi), an abugida from the Brahmic family of scripts, is used to write the Telugu language, a Dravidian language spoken in the South Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana as well as several other neighbouring states.
Between 1100 CE and 1400 CE Kannada script and Telugu script separated from Old-Kannada script (Halegannada script) or Kadamba script or Bhattiprolu script.
Publius Terentius Afer (c. 195/185 – c. 159? BC), better known in English as Terence, was a Roman playwright during the Roman Republic, of Berber descent.
Textual scholarship (or textual studies) is an umbrella term for disciplines that deal with describing, transcribing, editing or annotating texts and physical documents.
The National Archives (TNA) is a non-ministerial government department.
Christian Matthias Theodor Mommsen (30 November 1817 – 1 November 1903) was a German classical scholar, historian, jurist, journalist, politician and archaeologist.
Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.
Timotheus of Miletus (Τιμόθεος ὁ Μιλήσιος; c. 446 – 357 BC) was a Greek musician and dithyrambic poet, an exponent of the "new music." He added one or more strings to the lyre, whereby he incurred the displeasure of the Spartans and Athenians (E. Curtius, Hist of Greece, bk. v. ch. 2).
Tours is a city located in the centre-west of France.
Transylvania is a historical region in today's central Romania.
In typography, a typeface (also known as font family) is a set of one or more fonts each composed of glyphs that share common design features.
In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more graphemes or letters are joined as a single glyph.
Enno Friedrich Wichard Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff (22 December 1848 – 25 September 1931) was a German classical philologist.
Uncial is a majusculeGlaister, Geoffrey Ashall.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
University College London (UCL) is a public research university in London, England, and a constituent college of the federal University of London.
The Vakataka Empire was a dynasty from the Indian subcontinent that originated from the Deccan in the mid-3rd century CE.
The Vaṭṭeḻuttu alphabet, also spelled Vattezhutthu (literally "rounded script", வட்டெழுத்து,,; വട്ടെഴുത്ത്) is an abugida writing system originating from the ancient Tamil people of South India.
Vellum is prepared animal skin or "membrane" used as a material for writing on.
Veneto (or,; Vèneto) is one of the 20 regions of Italy.
Verona (Venetian: Verona or Veròna) is a city on the Adige river in Veneto, Italy, with approximately 257,000 inhabitants and one of the seven provincial capitals of the region.
Vespasiano da Bisticci (1421–1498) was an Italian humanist and librarian of the early Renaissance period.
Victor Emil Gardthausen (26 August 1843 – 27 December 1925) was a German ancient historian, palaeographer, librarian, and Professor from Leipzig University.
Publius Vergilius Maro (traditional dates October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period.
Visigothic script was a type of medieval script that originated in the Visigothic kingdom in Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula, modern Spain and Portugal).
A vocabulary is a set of familiar words within a person's language.
The Western Satraps, Western Kshatrapas, or Kshaharatas (35–405 CE) were Indo-Scythian (Saka) rulers of the western and central part of India (Saurashtra and Malwa: modern Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh states).
Wiesbaden is a city in central western Germany and the capital of the federal state of Hesse.
Wilhelm Wattenbach (22 September 1819 – 20 September 1897), was a German historian.
William M. Schniedewind (born 1962, New York City) holds the Kershaw Chair of Ancient Eastern Mediterranean Studies and is a Professor of Biblical Studies and Northwest Semitic Languages at the University of California, Los Angeles.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Writing material refers to the materials that provide the surfaces on which humans use writing instruments to inscribe writings.
A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication.
Yajna Sri Satakarni, also known as Gautamiputra Yajna Sri, was an Indian ruler of the Satavahana dynasty.
Zagreb is the capital and the largest city of Croatia.