185 relations: Adyghe language, Afrikaans, Afrikaans phonology, Alternation (linguistics), Americanist phonetic notation, Ancient Greek, Arabic, Arabic alphabet, Arabic phonology, Aragonese language, Armenian alphabet, Armenian language, Assamese alphabet, Assamese language, Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, Azerbaijani alphabet, Azerbaijani language, Basque alphabet, Basque language, Bengali alphabet, Bengali language, Bengali phonology, Bulgarian language, Bulgarian phonology, Cantonese, Cantonese phonology, Catalan language, Catalan orthography, Catalan phonology, Chechen language, Chinese characters, Chinese language, Close central unrounded vowel, Close front unrounded vowel, Consonant, Corsican alphabet, Corsican language, Cyrillic script, Czech language, Czech orthography, Czech phonology, Danish language, Danish orthography, Danish phonology, Devanagari, Diphthong, Distinctive feature, Dutch language, Dutch orthography, Dutch phonology, ..., Eastern Armenian, English language, English orthography, English phonology, Esperanto, Esperanto orthography, Esperanto phonology, Estonian language, Estonian orthography, Estonian phonology, Finnish language, Finnish orthography, Finnish phonology, French language, French orthography, French phonology, Front vowel, Gallurese dialect, German language, German orthography, Gurmukhi script, Hallelujah, Hangul, Hebrew alphabet, Hebrew language, Hindustani language, Hindustani phonology, Hiragana, History of Greek, Hungarian language, Hungarian orthography, Hungarian phonology, Index of phonetics articles, International Phonetic Alphabet, Inverted breve, Iota, Irish language, Irish orthography, Irish phonology, Italian language, Italian orthography, Italian phonology, J, Jalapa Mazatec, Japanese language, Japanese phonology, Jägermeister, Jyutping, Kabardian language, Korean language, Korean phonology, Language, Latin, Latin spelling and pronunciation, Lithuanian language, Lithuanian orthography, Lithuanian phonology, Macedonian alphabet, Macedonian language, Macedonian phonology, Malay alphabet, Malay language, Mapuche language, Mapudungun alphabet, Marathi language, Marshallese language, Modern Hebrew phonology, Modern Standard Arabic, Nasal palatal approximant, Norwegian language, Norwegian orthography, Norwegian phonology, Palatal lateral approximant, Persian language, Persian phonology, Phonetic transcription, Phonological history of English consonant clusters, Pinyin, Polish language, Polish orthography, Polish phonology, Portuguese language, Portuguese orthography, Portuguese phonology, Punjabi language, Revised Romanization of Korean, Romanian alphabet, Romanian language, Romanian phonology, Romanization of Japanese, Romanization of Ukrainian, Russian alphabet, Russian language, Russian phonology, Semivowel, Slovak language, Slovak orthography, Slovak phonology, Spanish language, Spanish orthography, Spanish phonology, Speech, Standard Chinese, Standard Chinese phonology, Standard German phonology, Swedish alphabet, Swedish language, Swedish phonology, Syriac alphabet, Tilquiapan Zapotec, Turkish alphabet, Turkish language, Turkish phonology, Turkmen alphabet, Turkmen language, Ubykh language, Ubykh phonology, Ukrainian alphabet, Ukrainian language, Ukrainian phonology, Urban East Norwegian, Urdu alphabet, Vietnamese alphabet, Vietnamese language, Vietnamese phonology, Voiced palatal fricative, Voiced postalveolar affricate, Voiced velar approximant, Voiceless palatal approximant, Washo language, West Frisian language, West Frisian phonology, X-SAMPA, Yazd, Zapotec languages. Expand index (135 more) » « Shrink index
Adyghe (or; Adyghe: Адыгабзэ, Adygabzæ), also known as West Circassian (КӀахыбзэ, K’axybzæ), is one of the two official languages of the Republic of Adygea in the Russian Federation, the other being Russian. It is spoken by various tribes of the Adyghe people: Abzekh, Adamey, Bzhedug, Hatuqwai, Temirgoy, Mamkhegh, Natekuay, Shapsug, Zhaney and Yegerikuay, each with its own dialect. The language is referred to by its speakers as Adygebze or Adəgăbză, and alternatively transliterated in English as Adygean, Adygeyan or Adygei. The literary language is based on the Temirgoy dialect. There are apparently around 128,000 speakers of Adyghe in Russia, almost all of them native speakers. In total, some 300,000 speak it worldwide. The largest Adyghe-speaking community is in Turkey, spoken by the post Russian–Circassian War (circa 1763–1864) diaspora; in addition to that, the Adyghe language is spoken by the Cherkesogai in Krasnodar Krai. Adyghe belongs to the family of Northwest Caucasian languages. Kabardian (also known as East Circassian) is a very close relative, treated by some as a dialect of Adyghe or of an overarching Circassian language. Ubykh, Abkhaz and Abaza are somewhat more distantly related to Adyghe. The language was standardised after the October Revolution in 1917. Since 1936, the Cyrillic script has been used to write Adyghe. Before that, an Arabic-based alphabet was used together with the Latin.
Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent, Botswana and Zimbabwe.
Afrikaans has a similar phonology to other West Germanic languages, especially Dutch.
In linguistics, an alternation is the phenomenon of a morpheme exhibiting variation in its phonological realization.
Americanist phonetic notation, also known as the North American Phonetic Alphabet or NAPA, is a system of phonetic notation originally developed by European and American anthropologists and language scientists (many of whom were students of Neogrammarians) for the phonetic and phonemic transcription of indigenous languages of the Americas and for languages of Europe.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Arabic alphabet (الأَبْجَدِيَّة العَرَبِيَّة, or الحُرُوف العَرَبِيَّة) or Arabic abjad is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing Arabic.
While many languages have numerous dialects that differ in phonology, the contemporary spoken Arabic language is more properly described as a continuum of varieties.
Aragonese (aragonés in Aragonese) is a Romance language spoken in several dialects by 10,000 to 30,000 people in the Pyrenees valleys of Aragon, Spain, primarily in the comarcas of Somontano de Barbastro, Jacetania, Alto Gállego, Sobrarbe, and Ribagorza/Ribagorça.
The Armenian alphabet (Հայոց գրեր Hayoc' grer or Հայոց այբուբեն Hayoc' aybowben; Eastern Armenian:; Western Armenian) is an alphabetical writing system used to write Armenian.
The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken primarily by the Armenians.
The Assamese script is a writing system of the Assamese language.
Assamese or Asamiya অসমীয়া is an Eastern Indo-Aryan language spoken mainly in the Indian state of Assam, where it is an official language.
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic (ܣܘܪܝܬ, sūrët), or just simply Assyrian, is a Neo-Aramaic language within the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family.
The Azerbaijani alphabet (Azərbaycan əlifbası) of the Republic of Azerbaijan is a Latin-script alphabet used for writing the Azerbaijani language.
Azerbaijani or Azeri, also referred to as Azeri Turkic or Azeri Turkish, is a Turkic language spoken primarily by the Azerbaijanis, who are concentrated mainly in Transcaucasia and Iranian Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan).
The Basque alphabet is a Latin alphabet used to write the Basque language.
Basque (euskara) is a language spoken in the Basque country and Navarre. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and, as a language isolate, to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% of Basques in all territories (751,500). Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava, and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay and central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries, in some areas (most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it was possibly never spoken there, in other areas (Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Under Restorationist and Francoist Spain, public use of Basque was frowned upon, often regarded as a sign of separatism; this applied especially to those regions that did not support Franco's uprising (such as Biscay or Gipuzkoa). However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising (such as Navarre or Álava) the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain, and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed prior to the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.
The Bengali alphabet or Bangla alphabet (বাংলা বর্ণমালা, bangla bôrnômala) or Bengali script (বাংলা লিপি, bangla lipi) is the writing system for the Bengali language and, together with the Assamese alphabet, is the fifth most widely used writing system in the world.
Bengali, also known by its endonym Bangla (বাংলা), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in South Asia.
The Bengali phonology is, like that of its neighbouring Eastern Indo-Aryan languages, characterised by a wide variety of diphthongs and inherent back vowel (both and) instead of the schwa used by almost all other branches of the Indo-Aryan language family.
This article discusses the phonological system of Standard Bulgarian.
The Cantonese language is a variety of Chinese spoken in the city of Guangzhou (historically known as Canton) and its surrounding area in southeastern China.
The standard pronunciation of Cantonese is that of Guangzhou, also known as Canton, the capital of Guangdong Province.
Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
Like those of many other Romance languages, the Catalan alphabet derives from the Latin alphabet and is largely based on the language’s phonology.
The phonology of Catalan, a Romance language, has a certain degree of dialectal variation.
Chechen (нохчийн мотт / noxçiyn mott / نَاخچیین موٓتت / ნახჩიე მუოთთ, Nokhchiin mott) is a Northeast Caucasian language spoken by more than 1.4 million people, mostly in the Chechen Republic and by members of the Chechen diaspora throughout Russia, Jordan, Central Asia (mainly Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan), and Georgia.
Chinese characters are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
The close central unrounded vowel, or high central unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound used in some languages.
The close front unrounded vowel, or high front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound that occurs in most spoken languages, represented in the International Phonetic Alphabet by the symbol i. It is similar to the vowel sound in the English word meet—and often called long-e in American English.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
The modern Corsican alphabet (Corsican u santacroce or u salteriu) uses 22 basic letters taken from the Latin alphabet with some changes, plus some multigraphs.
Corsican (corsu or lingua corsa) is a Romance language within the Italo-Dalmatian subfamily.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.
Czech orthography is a system of rules for correct writing (orthography) in the Czech language.
This article discusses the phonological system of the Czech language.
Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
Danish orthography is the system used to write the Danish language.
The phonology of Danish is similar to that of the other Scandinavian languages such as Swedish and Norwegian, but it also has distinct features setting it apart from the phonologies of its most closely related languages.
Devanagari (देवनागरी,, a compound of "''deva''" देव and "''nāgarī''" नागरी; Hindi pronunciation), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group,, page 83 is an abugida (alphasyllabary) used in India and Nepal.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
In linguistics, a distinctive feature is the most basic unit of phonological structure that may be analyzed in phonological theory.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
Dutch orthography uses the Latin alphabet and has evolved to suit the needs of the Dutch language.
Dutch phonology is similar to that of other West Germanic languages.
Eastern Armenian (arevelahayeren) is one of the two standardized forms of Modern Armenian, the other being Western Armenian.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
English orthography is the system of writing conventions used to represent spoken English in written form that allows readers to connect spelling to sound to meaning.
Like many other languages, English has wide variation in pronunciation, both historically and from dialect to dialect.
Esperanto (or; Esperanto) is a constructed international auxiliary language.
Esperanto is written in a Latin-script alphabet of twenty-eight letters, with upper and lower case.
Esperanto is a constructed international auxiliary language.
Estonian (eesti keel) is the official language of Estonia, spoken natively by about 1.1 million people: 922,000 people in Estonia and 160,000 outside Estonia.
Estonian orthography is the system used for writing the Estonian language and is based on the Latin alphabet.
This article is about the phonology and phonetics of the Estonian language.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
Finnish orthography is based on the Latin script, and uses an alphabet derived from the Swedish alphabet, officially comprising 29 letters.
Unless otherwise noted, statements in this article refer to Standard Finnish, which is based on the dialect spoken in the former Häme Province in central south Finland.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
French orthography encompasses the spelling and punctuation of the French language.
French phonology is the sound system of French.
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.
Gallurese (gadduresu) is an Italo-Dalmatian Romance lect spoken in the region of Gallura, in the northeastern part of Sardinia.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
German orthography is the orthography used in writing the German language, which is largely phonemic.
Gurmukhi (Gurmukhi (the literal meaning being "from the Guru's mouth"): ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ) is a Sikh script modified, standardized and used by the second Sikh Guru, Guru Angad (1563–1606).
Hallelujah is an English interjection.
The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul (from Korean hangeul 한글), has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by Sejong the Great.
The Hebrew alphabet (אָלֶף־בֵּית עִבְרִי), known variously by scholars as the Jewish script, square script and block script, is an abjad script used in the writing of the Hebrew language, also adapted as an alphabet script in the writing of other Jewish languages, most notably in Yiddish (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-German), Djudío (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-Spanish), and Judeo-Arabic.
Hindustani (हिन्दुस्तानी, ہندوستانی, ||lit.
Hindustani is the lingua franca of northern India and Pakistan, and through its two standardized registers, Hindi and Urdu, an official language of India and Pakistan.
is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system, along with katakana, kanji, and in some cases rōmaji (Latin script).
This article is an overview of the history of the Greek language.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
Hungarian orthography (Hungarian: helyesírás, lit. ‘correct writing’) consists of rules defining the standard written form of the Hungarian language.
The phonology of the Hungarian language is notable for its process of vowel harmony, the frequent occurrence of geminate consonants and the presence of otherwise uncommon palatal stops.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
Inverted breve or arch is a diacritical mark, shaped like the top half of a circle (̑), that is, like an upside-down breve (˘).
Iota (uppercase Ι, lowercase ι) is the ninth letter of the Greek alphabet.
The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.
Irish orthography has evolved over many centuries, since Old Irish was first written down in the Latin alphabet in about the 8th century AD.
The phonology of the Irish language varies from dialect to dialect; there is no standard pronunciation of Irish.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Italian orthography uses a variant of the Latin alphabet consisting of 21 letters to write the Italian language.
The phonology of Italian describes the sound system—the phonology and phonetics—of Standard Italian and its geographical variants.
J is the tenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Jalapa Mazatec is a Mazatecan language, spoken by ca.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
The phonology of Japanese has about 15 consonant phonemes, the cross-linguistically typical five-vowel system of, and a relatively simple phonotactic distribution of phonemes allowing few consonant clusters.
italic is a digestif made with 56 herbs and spices at a strength of 35% alcohol by volume (61 degrees proof, or US 70 proof).
Jyutping is a romanisation system for Cantonese developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK), an academic group, in 1993.
Kabardian (адыгэбзэ, къэбэрдей адыгэбзэ, къэбэрдейбзэ; Adyghe: адыгэбзэ, къэбэртай адыгабзэ, къэбэртайбзэ), also known as Kabardino-Cherkess (къэбэрдей-черкесыбзэ) or, is a Northwest Caucasian language closely related to the Adyghe language.
The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.
This article is a technical description of the phonetics and phonology of Korean.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latin spelling, or Latin orthography, is the spelling of Latin words written in the scripts of all historical phases of Latin from Old Latin to the present.
Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
Lithuanian orthography employs a Latin alphabet of 32 letters, two of which denote sounds not native to the Lithuanian language.
This article is about the phonology of the Lithuanian language.
The orthography of Macedonian includes an alphabet (Македонска азбука, Makedonska azbuka), which is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script, as well as language-specific conventions of spelling and punctuation.
Macedonian (македонски, tr. makedonski) is a South Slavic language spoken as a first language by around two million people, principally in the Republic of Macedonia and the Macedonian diaspora, with a smaller number of speakers throughout the transnational region of Macedonia.
This article discusses the phonological system of Standard Macedonian (unless otherwise noted) based on the Prilep-Bitola dialect.
The modern Malay alphabet or Indonesian alphabet (Brunei, Malaysia and Singapore: Tulisan Rumi, literally "Roman script" or "Roman writing", Indonesia: "Tulisan Latin") consists of the 26 letters of the ISO basic Latin alphabet without any diacritics.
Malay (Bahasa Melayu بهاس ملايو) is a major language of the Austronesian family spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore.
Mapuche or Mapudungun (from mapu 'land' and dungun 'speak, speech') is a language isolate spoken in south-central Chile and west central Argentina by the Mapuche people (from mapu 'land' and che 'people').
Mapudungun, the language of the Mapuche of modern south-central Chile and southwestern Argentina, did not have a writing system when the Spanish arrived.
Marathi (मराठी Marāṭhī) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken predominantly by the Marathi people of Maharashtra, India.
The Marshallese language (Marshallese: new orthography Kajin M̧ajeļ or old orthography Kajin Majōl), also known as Ebon, is a Micronesian language spoken in the Marshall Islands.
Modern Hebrew is phonetically simpler than Biblical Hebrew and has fewer phonemes, but it is phonologically more complex.
Modern Standard Arabic (MSA; اللغة العربية الفصحى 'the most eloquent Arabic language'), Standard Arabic, or Literary Arabic is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech throughout the Arab world to facilitate communication.
The nasal palatal approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some oral languages.
Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.
Norwegian orthography is the method of writing the Norwegian language, of which there are two written standards: Bokmål and Nynorsk.
The sound system of Norwegian resembles that of Swedish.
The palatal lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Persian language has six vowel phonemes and twenty-three consonant phonemes.
Phonetic transcription (also known as phonetic script or phonetic notation) is the visual representation of speech sounds (or phones).
The phonological history of the English language includes various changes in the phonology of consonant clusters.
Hanyu Pinyin Romanization, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Polish orthography is the system of writing the Polish language.
The phonological system of the Polish language is similar in many ways to those of other Slavic languages, although there are some characteristic features found in only a few other languages of the family, such as contrasting retroflex and palatal fricatives and affricates, and nasal vowels.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Portuguese orthography is based on the Latin alphabet and makes use of the acute accent, the circumflex accent, the grave accent, the tilde, and the cedilla to denote stress, vowel height, nasalization, and other sound changes.
The phonology of Portuguese can vary between dialects, in extreme cases leading to some difficulties in intelligibility.
Punjabi (Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ; Shahmukhi: پنجابی) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by over 100 million native speakers worldwide, ranking as the 10th most widely spoken language (2015) in the world.
The Revised Romanization of Korean is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea proclaimed by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism to replace the older McCune–Reischauer system.
The Romanian alphabet is a variant of the Latin alphabet used by the Romanian language.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
In the phonology of the Romanian language, the phoneme inventory consists of seven vowels, two or four semivowels (different views exist), and twenty consonants.
The romanization of Japanese is the use of Latin script to write the Japanese language.
The romanization or Latinization of Ukrainian is the representation of the Ukrainian language using Latin letters.
The Russian alphabet (ˈruskʲɪj ɐɫfɐˈvʲit̪) uses letters from the Cyrillic script.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
This article discusses the phonological system of standard Russian based on the Moscow dialect (unless otherwise noted).
In phonetics and phonology, a semivowel or glide, also known as a non-syllabic vocoid, is a sound that is phonetically similar to a vowel sound but functions as the syllable boundary, rather than as the nucleus of a syllable.
Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).
The first Slovak orthography was proposed by Anton Bernolák (1762–1813) in his Dissertatio philologico-critica de litteris Slavorum, used in the six-volume Slovak-Czech-Latin-German-Hungarian Dictionary (1825–1927) and used pmarily by Slovak Catholics.
This article is about the phonology and phonetics of the Slovak language.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Spanish orthography is the orthography used in the Spanish language.
This article is about the phonology and phonetics of the Spanish language.
Speech is the vocalized form of communication used by humans and some animals, which is based upon the syntactic combination of items drawn from the lexicon.
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
This article summarizes the phonology (the sound system, or in more general terms, the pronunciation) of Standard Chinese (Standard Mandarin).
The phonology of Standard German is the standard pronunciation or accent of the German language.
The Swedish alphabet is the writing system used for the Swedish language.
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
Swedish has a large vowel inventory, with nine vowels distinguished in quality and to some degree quantity, making 17 vowel phonemes in most dialects.
The Syriac alphabet is a writing system primarily used to write the Syriac language since the 1st century AD.
Tilquiapan Zapotec (Zapoteco de San Miguel Tilquiápam) is an Oto-Manguean language of the Zapotecan branch, spoken in southern Oaxaca, Mexico.
The Turkish alphabet (Türk alfabesi) is a Latin-script alphabet used for writing the Turkish language, consisting of 29 letters, seven of which (Ç, Ş, Ğ, I, İ, Ö, Ü) have been modified from their Latin originals for the phonetic requirements of the language.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
A notable feature of Turkish phonology is a system of vowel harmony that causes vowels in most words to be either front or back and either rounded or unrounded.
The Turkmen alphabet used for official purposes in Turkmenistan is a Latin alphabet based on the Turkish alphabet, but with notable differences: J is used instead of the Turkish C; W is used instead of the Turkish V; Ž is used instead of the Turkish J; Y is used instead of the dotless i (I/ı); Ý is used instead of the Turkish consonantal Y; and the letters Ä and Ň have been added to represent the phonetic values and, respectively.
Turkmen (Türkmençe, türkmen dili; Түркменче, түркмен дили; تۆرکمن دﻴﻠی,تۆرکمنچه) is an official language of Turkmenistan.
Ubykh, or Ubyx, is an extinct Northwest Caucasian language once spoken by the Ubykh people (who originally lived along the eastern coast of the Black Sea before migrating en masse to Turkey in the 1860s).
Ubykh, an extinct Northwest Caucasian language, has the largest consonant inventory of all documented languages that do not use clicks, and also has the most disproportional ratio of phonemic consonants to vowels.
The Ukrainian alphabet is the set of letters used to write Ukrainian, the official language of Ukraine.
This article deals with the phonology of the standard Ukrainian language.
Urban East Norwegian (UEN) or Standard East Norwegian (Bokmål: standard østnorsk, Nynorsk: standard austnorsk) is the de facto standard variety of East Norwegian and an unofficial spoken standard of Bokmål.
The Urdu alphabet is the right-to-left alphabet used for the Urdu language.
The Vietnamese alphabet (chữ Quốc ngữ; literally "national language script") is the modern writing system for the Vietnamese language.
Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language.
This article is a technical description of the sound system of the Vietnamese language, including phonetics and phonology.
The voiced palatal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced palato-alveolar sibilant affricate, voiced post-alveolar affricate or voiced domed postalveolar sibilant affricate, is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced velar approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless palatal approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in a few spoken languages.
Washo (or Washoe; endonym wá:šiw ʔítlu) is an endangered Native American language isolate spoken by the Washo on the California–Nevada border in the drainages of the Truckee and Carson Rivers, especially around Lake Tahoe.
West Frisian, or simply Frisian (Frysk; Fries) is a West Germanic language spoken mostly in the province of Friesland (Fryslân) in the north of the Netherlands, mostly by those of Frisian ancestry.
This article is about the phonology and phonetics of the West Frisian language.
The Extended Speech Assessment Methods Phonetic Alphabet (X-SAMPA;, /%Eks"s.
Yazd (یزد), formerly also known as Yezd, is the capital of Yazd Province, Iran.
The Zapotec languages are a group of closely related indigenous Mesoamerican languages that constitute a main branch of the Oto-Manguean language family and which is spoken by the Zapotec people from the southwestern-central highlands of Mexico.