138 relations: !Kung language, Albanian alphabet, Albanian language, Ɲ, Basque alphabet, Basque language, Brazilian Portuguese, Burmese alphabet, Burmese language, Catalan language, Catalan orthography, Catalan phonology, Chinese characters, Chinese language, Consonant, Cyrillic script, Czech language, Czech orthography, Czech phonology, Digraph (orthography), Dinka alphabet, Dinka language, Dutch language, Dutch orthography, Dutch phonology, European Portuguese, French language, French orthography, French phonology, Galician language, Galician phonology, Gascon language, German language, German orthography, Greek alphabet, Greek language, Hangul, Hungarian language, Hungarian orthography, Hungarian phonology, Index of phonetics articles, International Phonetic Alphabet, Irish language, Irish orthography, Irish phonology, Italian language, Italian orthography, Italian phonology, Japanese language, Japanese phonology, ..., Journal of the International Phonetic Association, Kanji, Khasi language, Korean language, Korean phonology, Language, Latvian language, Latvian orthography, Latvian phonology, Lithuanian language, Lithuanian orthography, Lithuanian phonology, Macedonian alphabet, Macedonian language, Macedonian phonology, Malagasy language, Malay language, Malayalam, Malayalam script, Mapuche language, Mapudungun alphabet, Modern Greek phonology, Mooring (North Frisian dialect), Nasal palatal approximant, New Year's Day, Nh (digraph), North Frisian language, Norwegian dialects, Norwegian language, Norwegian orthography, Norwegian phonology, Nuosu language, Ny (digraph), Occitan language, Occitan phonology, Palatal nasal, Poland, Polish language, Polish orthography, Polish phonology, Portuguese language, Portuguese language in Africa, Portuguese orthography, Portuguese phonology, Quechua alphabet, Quechuan languages, Retroflex nasal, Revised Romanization of Korean, Romanesco dialect, Romanian alphabet, Romanian language, Romanian phonology, Romanization of Greek, Romanization of Japanese, Scottish Gaelic, Scottish Gaelic orthography, Scottish Gaelic phonology, Serbo-Croatian, Serbo-Croatian phonology, Sichuanese dialects, Slovak language, Slovak phonology, Spanish language, Spanish orthography, Spanish phonology, Speech, Spoken language, Standard German phonology, Swahili language, Typographic ligature, Ukrainian alphabet, Ukrainian language, Ukrainian phonology, Upper Arrernte language, Uzbek alphabet, Uzbek language, Velar nasal, Vietnamese alphabet, Vietnamese language, Vietnamese phonology, Voiceless palatal nasal, West Frisian language, West Frisian phonology, Wu Chinese, X-SAMPA, Yanyuwa language, Yi script, Zulu language. Expand index (88 more) » « Shrink index
!Kung (!Xuun), also known as Ju, is a dialect continuum (language complex) spoken in Namibia, Botswana, and Angola by the ǃKung people.
The Albanian alphabet (alfabeti shqip) is a variant of the Latin alphabet used to write the Albanian language.
Albanian (shqip, or gjuha shqipe) is a language of the Indo-European family, in which it occupies an independent branch.
Variants of uppercase Ɲ and lowercase ɲ Ɲ is a letter indicating a palatal nasal.
The Basque alphabet is a Latin alphabet used to write the Basque language.
Basque (euskara) is a language spoken in the Basque country and Navarre. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and, as a language isolate, to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% of Basques in all territories (751,500). Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava, and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay and central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries, in some areas (most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it was possibly never spoken there, in other areas (Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Under Restorationist and Francoist Spain, public use of Basque was frowned upon, often regarded as a sign of separatism; this applied especially to those regions that did not support Franco's uprising (such as Biscay or Gipuzkoa). However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising (such as Navarre or Álava) the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain, and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed prior to the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.
Brazilian Portuguese (português do Brasil or português brasileiro) is a set of dialects of the Portuguese language used mostly in Brazil.
The Burmese alphabet (MLCTS) is an abugida used for writing Burmese.
The Burmese language (မြန်မာဘာသာ, MLCTS: mranmabhasa, IPA) is the official language of Myanmar.
Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
Like those of many other Romance languages, the Catalan alphabet derives from the Latin alphabet and is largely based on the language’s phonology.
The phonology of Catalan, a Romance language, has a certain degree of dialectal variation.
Chinese characters are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.
Czech orthography is a system of rules for correct writing (orthography) in the Czech language.
This article discusses the phonological system of the Czech language.
A digraph or digram (from the δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme (distinct sound), or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.
The Dinka alphabet is used by South Sudanese Dinka people.
Dinka (natively Thuɔŋjäŋ, Thuɔŋ ee Jieng or simply Jieng) is a Nilotic dialect cluster spoken by the Dinka people, the major ethnic group of South Sudan.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
Dutch orthography uses the Latin alphabet and has evolved to suit the needs of the Dutch language.
Dutch phonology is similar to that of other West Germanic languages.
European Portuguese (português europeu), also known as Lusitanian Portuguese (português lusitano) and Portuguese of Portugal (português de Portugal) in Brazil, or even “Portuguese Portuguese” refers to the Portuguese language spoken in Portugal.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
French orthography encompasses the spelling and punctuation of the French language.
French phonology is the sound system of French.
Galician (galego) is an Indo-European language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch.
This article is about the phonology and phonetics of the Galician language.
Gascon is a dialect of Occitan.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
German orthography is the orthography used in writing the German language, which is largely phonemic.
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul (from Korean hangeul 한글), has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by Sejong the Great.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
Hungarian orthography (Hungarian: helyesírás, lit. ‘correct writing’) consists of rules defining the standard written form of the Hungarian language.
The phonology of the Hungarian language is notable for its process of vowel harmony, the frequent occurrence of geminate consonants and the presence of otherwise uncommon palatal stops.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.
Irish orthography has evolved over many centuries, since Old Irish was first written down in the Latin alphabet in about the 8th century AD.
The phonology of the Irish language varies from dialect to dialect; there is no standard pronunciation of Irish.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Italian orthography uses a variant of the Latin alphabet consisting of 21 letters to write the Italian language.
The phonology of Italian describes the sound system—the phonology and phonetics—of Standard Italian and its geographical variants.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
The phonology of Japanese has about 15 consonant phonemes, the cross-linguistically typical five-vowel system of, and a relatively simple phonotactic distribution of phonemes allowing few consonant clusters.
The Journal of the International Phonetic Association (JIPA) is a peer-reviewed academic journal that appears three times a year.
Kanji (漢字) are the adopted logographic Chinese characters that are used in the Japanese writing system.
Khasi (Khasi: Ka Ktien Khasi) is an Austroasiatic language spoken primarily in Meghalaya state in India by the Khasi people.
The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.
This article is a technical description of the phonetics and phonology of Korean.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
Latvian (latviešu valoda) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
Latvian orthography, historically, has used a system based upon German phonetic principles and the Latgalian dialect was written using Polish orthographic principles.
This article is about the phonology of the Latvian language.
Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
Lithuanian orthography employs a Latin alphabet of 32 letters, two of which denote sounds not native to the Lithuanian language.
This article is about the phonology of the Lithuanian language.
The orthography of Macedonian includes an alphabet (Македонска азбука, Makedonska azbuka), which is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script, as well as language-specific conventions of spelling and punctuation.
Macedonian (македонски, tr. makedonski) is a South Slavic language spoken as a first language by around two million people, principally in the Republic of Macedonia and the Macedonian diaspora, with a smaller number of speakers throughout the transnational region of Macedonia.
This article discusses the phonological system of Standard Macedonian (unless otherwise noted) based on the Prilep-Bitola dialect.
Malagasy is an Austronesian language and the national language of Madagascar.
Malay (Bahasa Melayu بهاس ملايو) is a major language of the Austronesian family spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore.
Malayalam is a Dravidian language spoken across the Indian state of Kerala by the Malayali people and it is one of 22 scheduled languages of India.
Malayalam script (/ Malayalam: മലയാളലിപി) is a Brahmic script used commonly to write the Malayalam language, which is the principal language of Kerala, India, spoken by 35 million people in the world.
Mapuche or Mapudungun (from mapu 'land' and dungun 'speak, speech') is a language isolate spoken in south-central Chile and west central Argentina by the Mapuche people (from mapu 'land' and che 'people').
Mapudungun, the language of the Mapuche of modern south-central Chile and southwestern Argentina, did not have a writing system when the Spanish arrived.
This article deals with the phonology and phonetics of Standard Modern Greek.
Mooring or Bökingharde Frisian (Böökinghiirder frasch) is a dialect of the North Frisian language spoken in Niebüll and the ''amt'' of Bökingharde in the German region of North Frisia.
The nasal palatal approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some oral languages.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
Nh is a digraph of the Latin alphabet, a combination of N and H. Together with lh and the interpunct, it is a typical feature of Occitan, a language illustrated by medieval troubadours.
North Frisian is a minority language of Germany, spoken by about 10,000 people in North Frisia.
The Norwegian dialects are commonly divided into 4 main groups, 'Northern Norwegian' (nordnorsk), 'Central Norwegian' (trøndersk), 'Western Norwegian' (vestlandsk), and 'Eastern Norwegian' (østnorsk).
Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.
Norwegian orthography is the method of writing the Norwegian language, of which there are two written standards: Bokmål and Nynorsk.
The sound system of Norwegian resembles that of Swedish.
Nuosu or Nosu (pronunciation: Nuosuhxop), also known as Northern Yi, Liangshan Yi, and Sichuan Yi, is the prestige language of the Yi people; it has been chosen by the Chinese government as the standard Yi language (in Mandarin: Yí yǔ, 彝語/彝语) and, as such, is the only one taught in schools, both in its oral and written forms.
Ny is a digraph in a number of languages such as Catalan, Ganda, Filipino/Tagalog, Hungarian, Swahili and Malay.
Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc (langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language.
This article describes the phonology of the Occitan language.
The palatal nasal is a type of consonant, used in some spoken languages.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Polish orthography is the system of writing the Polish language.
The phonological system of the Polish language is similar in many ways to those of other Slavic languages, although there are some characteristic features found in only a few other languages of the family, such as contrasting retroflex and palatal fricatives and affricates, and nasal vowels.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Portuguese is spoken in a number of African countries and is the official language in six African states: Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, Cape Verde, São Tomé and Príncipe and Equatorial Guinea.
Portuguese orthography is based on the Latin alphabet and makes use of the acute accent, the circumflex accent, the grave accent, the tilde, and the cedilla to denote stress, vowel height, nasalization, and other sound changes.
The phonology of Portuguese can vary between dialects, in extreme cases leading to some difficulties in intelligibility.
The Quechua alphabet is based on the Latin alphabet.
Quechua, usually called Runasimi ("people's language") in Quechuan languages, is an indigenous language family spoken by the Quechua peoples, primarily living in the Andes and highlands of South America.
The retroflex nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The Revised Romanization of Korean is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea proclaimed by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism to replace the older McCune–Reischauer system.
Romanesco is a variety of regional Italian spoken in the Metropolitan City of Rome Capital, especially in the core city.
The Romanian alphabet is a variant of the Latin alphabet used by the Romanian language.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
In the phonology of the Romanian language, the phoneme inventory consists of seven vowels, two or four semivowels (different views exist), and twenty consonants.
Romanization of Greek is the transliteration (letter-mapping) or transcription (sound-mapping) of text from the Greek alphabet into the Latin alphabet.
The romanization of Japanese is the use of Latin script to write the Japanese language.
Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes also referred to simply as Gaelic (Gàidhlig) or the Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland.
Scottish Gaelic orthography has evolved over many centuries.
This article is about the phonology of the Scottish Gaelic language.
Serbo-Croatian, also called Serbo-Croat, Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), or Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS), is a South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro.
Serbo-Croatian is a South Slavic language with four national standards.
Sichuanese (Sichuanese Pinyin: Si4cuan1hua4), or Sichuanese/Szechwanese Mandarin, commonly known as Sichuanese, or Szechwanese is a branch of Southwestern Mandarin, spoken mainly in Sichuan and Chongqing, which was part of Sichuan Province until 1997, and the adjacent regions of their neighboring provinces, such as Hubei, Guizhou, Yunnan, Hunan and Shaanxi.
Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).
This article is about the phonology and phonetics of the Slovak language.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Spanish orthography is the orthography used in the Spanish language.
This article is about the phonology and phonetics of the Spanish language.
Speech is the vocalized form of communication used by humans and some animals, which is based upon the syntactic combination of items drawn from the lexicon.
A spoken language is a language produced by articulate sounds, as opposed to a written language.
The phonology of Standard German is the standard pronunciation or accent of the German language.
Swahili, also known as Kiswahili (translation: coast language), is a Bantu language and the first language of the Swahili people.
In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more graphemes or letters are joined as a single glyph.
The Ukrainian alphabet is the set of letters used to write Ukrainian, the official language of Ukraine.
This article deals with the phonology of the standard Ukrainian language.
Arrernte or Aranda or more specifically Upper Arrernte (Upper Aranda), is a dialect cluster spoken in and around Alice Springs (Mparntwe in Arrernte) in the Northern Territory, Australia.
The Uzbek language has been written in various scripts: Arabic, Cyrillic and Latin.
Uzbek is a Turkic language that is the sole official language of Uzbekistan.
The velar nasal, also known as agma, from the Greek word for fragment, is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The Vietnamese alphabet (chữ Quốc ngữ; literally "national language script") is the modern writing system for the Vietnamese language.
Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language.
This article is a technical description of the sound system of the Vietnamese language, including phonetics and phonology.
The voiceless palatal nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
West Frisian, or simply Frisian (Frysk; Fries) is a West Germanic language spoken mostly in the province of Friesland (Fryslân) in the north of the Netherlands, mostly by those of Frisian ancestry.
This article is about the phonology and phonetics of the West Frisian language.
Wu (Shanghainese:; Suzhou dialect:; Wuxi dialect) is a group of linguistically similar and historically related varieties of Chinese primarily spoken in the whole Zhejiang province, city of Shanghai, and the southern half of Jiangsu province, as well as bordering areas.
The Extended Speech Assessment Methods Phonetic Alphabet (X-SAMPA;, /%Eks"s.
Yanyuwa is the language of the Yanyuwa people of the Sir Edward Pellew Group of Islands in the Gulf of Carpentaria outside Borroloola.
The Yi script (Yi: ꆈꌠꁱꂷ nuosu bburma) is an umbrella term for two scripts used to write the Yi languages; Classical Yi (an ideogram script), and the later Yi Syllabary.
Zulu (Zulu: isiZulu) is the language of the Zulu people, with about 10 million speakers, the vast majority (over 95%) of whom live in South Africa.