67 relations: Acute accent, Allophone, Alveolar ridge, Apical consonant, Assimilation (phonology), Back vowel, Baltic languages, Biu–Mandara languages, Caron, Coarticulation, Complementary distribution, Consonant, Contrastive distribution, Cyrillic script, Deep structure and surface structure, Distinctive feature, Elision, Finnic languages, Finnish language, Front vowel, Hard palate, Hupa language, Index of phonetics articles, International Phonetic Alphabet, Iotation, Irish language, Karelian language, Kildin Sami language, Labio-palatalization, Laminal consonant, Mandarin Chinese, Manner of articulation, Middle Irish, Minimal pair, Morpheme, Morphology (linguistics), Obsolete and nonstandard symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, Old Irish, Palatal approximant, Palatal consonant, Palatal hook, Phoneme, Phonemic contrast, Phonetic Symbol Guide, Phonetics, Phonology, Pinyin, Place of articulation, Polish language, Postalveolar consonant, ..., Romanian language, Russian language, Savonian dialects, Scottish Gaelic, Secondary articulation, Semivowel, Skolt Sami language, Slavic languages, Soft sign, Subscript and superscript, Ter Sami language, Tongue, Uralic languages, Uralic Phonetic Alphabet, Võro language, Velarization, Voiceless dental and alveolar stops. Expand index (17 more) » « Shrink index
The acute accent (´) is a diacritic used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin, Cyrillic, and Greek scripts.
In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.
The alveolar ridge (also known as the alveolar margin) is one of the two jaw ridges either on the roof of the mouth between the upper teeth and the hard palate or on the bottom of the mouth behind the lower teeth.
An apical consonant is a phone (speech sound) produced by obstructing the air passage with the tip of the tongue.
In phonology, assimilation is a common phonological process by which one sound becomes more like a nearby sound.
A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.
The Baltic languages belong to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Biu–Mandara or Central Chadic languages of the Afro-Asiatic family are spoken in Nigeria, Chad and Cameroon.
A caron, háček or haček (or; plural háčeks or háčky) also known as a hachek, wedge, check, inverted circumflex, inverted hat, is a diacritic (ˇ) commonly placed over certain letters in the orthography of some Baltic, Slavic, Finnic, Samic, Berber, and other languages to indicate a change in the related letter's pronunciation (c > č; >). The use of the haček differs according to the orthographic rules of a language.
Coarticulation in its general sense refers to a situation in which a conceptually isolated speech sound is influenced by, and becomes more like, a preceding or following speech sound.
In linguistics, complementary distribution, as distinct from contrastive distribution and free variation, is the relationship between two different elements of the same kind in which one element is found in one set of environments and the other element is found in a non-intersecting (complementary) set of environments.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
Contrastive distribution in linguistics, as opposed to complementary distribution or free variation, is the relationship between two different elements in which both elements are found in the same environment with a change in meaning.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
Deep structure and surface structure (also D-structure and S-structure, although these abbreviated forms are sometimes used with distinct meanings) are concepts used in linguistics, specifically in the study of syntax in the Chomskyan tradition of transformational generative grammar.
In linguistics, a distinctive feature is the most basic unit of phonological structure that may be analyzed in phonological theory.
In linguistics, an elision or deletion is the omission of one or more sounds (such as a vowel, a consonant, or a whole syllable) in a word or phrase.
The Finnic languages (Fennic), or Baltic Finnic languages (Balto-Finnic, Balto-Fennic), are a branch of the Uralic language family spoken around the Baltic Sea by Finnic peoples, mainly in Finland and Estonia, by about 7 million people.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.
The hard palate is a thin horizontal bony plate of the skull, located in the roof of the mouth.
Hupa (native name: Na:tinixwe Mixine:whe, lit. "language of the Hoopa Valley people") is an Athabaskan language (of Na-Dené stock) spoken along the lower course of the Trinity River in Northwestern California by the Hupa (Na:tinixwe) and, before European contact, by the Chilula and Whilkut peoples, to the west.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
In Slavic languages, iotation is a form of palatalization that occurs when a consonant comes into contact with a palatal approximant from the succeeding morpheme.
The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.
Karelian (karjala, karjal or kariela) is a Finnic language spoken mainly in the Russian Republic of Karelia.
Kildin Saami (also known by its other synonymous names Saami, Kola Saami, Eastern Saami and Lappish), is a Saami language that is spoken on the Kola Peninsula in northwestern Russia that today is and historically was once inhabited by this group.
A labio-palatalized sound is one that is simultaneously labialized and palatalized.
A laminal consonant is a phone produced by obstructing the air passage with the blade of the tongue, the flat top front surface just behind the tip of the tongue on the top.
Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.
In articulatory phonetics, the manner of articulation is the configuration and interaction of the articulators (speech organs such as the tongue, lips, and palate) when making a speech sound.
Middle Irish (sometimes called Middle Gaelic, An Mheán-Ghaeilge) is the Goidelic language which was spoken in Ireland, most of Scotland and the Isle of Man from circa 900-1200 AD; it is therefore a contemporary of late Old English and early Middle English.
In phonology, minimal pairs are pairs of words or phrases in a particular language that differ in only one phonological element, such as a phoneme, toneme or chroneme, and have distinct meanings.
A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language.
In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) possesses a variety of obsolete and nonstandard symbols.
Old Irish (Goídelc; Sean-Ghaeilge; Seann Ghàidhlig; Shenn Yernish; sometimes called Old Gaelic) is the name given to the oldest form of the Goidelic languages for which extensive written texts are extant.
The voiced palatal approximant is a type of consonant used in many spoken languages.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
The palatal hook is a type of hook diacritic formerly used in the International Phonetic Alphabet to represent palatalized consonants.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
Phonemic contrast refers to a minimal phonetic difference, that is, small differences in speech sounds, that makes a difference in how the sound is perceived by listeners, and can therefore lead to different mental lexical entries for words.
The Phonetic Symbol Guide is a book by Geoffrey Pullum and William Ladusaw that explains the histories and uses of symbols used in various phonetic transcription conventions.
Phonetics (pronounced) is the branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
Hanyu Pinyin Romanization, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan.
In articulatory phonetics, the place of articulation (also point of articulation) of a consonant is the point of contact where an obstruction occurs in the vocal tract between an articulatory gesture, an active articulator (typically some part of the tongue), and a passive location (typically some part of the roof of the mouth).
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The Savonian dialects (also called Savo Finnish) are forms of the Finnish language spoken in Savonia and other parts of Eastern Finland.
Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes also referred to simply as Gaelic (Gàidhlig) or the Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland.
Secondary articulation occurs when the articulation of a consonant is equivalent to the combined articulations of two or three simpler consonants, at least one of which is an approximant.
In phonetics and phonology, a semivowel or glide, also known as a non-syllabic vocoid, is a sound that is phonetically similar to a vowel sound but functions as the syllable boundary, rather than as the nucleus of a syllable.
Skolt Sami (sääʹmǩiõll 'the Saami language' or nuõrttsääʹmǩiõll if a distinction needs to be made between it and the other Sami languages) is a Uralic, Sami language that is spoken by the Skolts, with approximately 300 speakers in Finland, mainly in Sevettijärvi and approximately 20–30 speakers of the Njuõʹttjäuʹrr (Notozero) dialect in an area surrounding Lake Lovozero in Russia.
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.
The soft sign (Ь, ь, italics Ь, ь; Russian: мягкий знак) also known as the front yer or front er, is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
A subscript or superscript is a character (number, letter or symbol) that is (respectively) set slightly below or above the normal line of type.
Ter Sami is the easternmost of the Sami languages.
The tongue is a muscular organ in the mouth of most vertebrates that manipulates food for mastication, and is used in the act of swallowing.
The Uralic languages (sometimes called Uralian languages) form a language family of 38 languages spoken by approximately 25million people, predominantly in Northern Eurasia.
The Uralic Phonetic Alphabet (UPA) or Finno-Ugric transcription system is a phonetic transcription or notational system used predominantly for the transcription and reconstruction of Uralic languages.
Võro (võro kiil|, võru keel) is a language belonging to the Finnic branch of the Uralic languages.
Velarization is a secondary articulation of consonants by which the back of the tongue is raised toward the velum during the articulation of the consonant.
The voiceless alveolar stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages.