125 relations: Albanian language, Alternation (linguistics), Alveolar consonant, Alveolo-palatal consonant, Ancient Greek, Anglo-Frisian languages, Apical consonant, Aragonese language, Aromanian language, Assibilation, Assimilation (phonology), Attic Greek, Avestan, Back vowel, Baltic languages, Bartsch's law, Beijing, Belarusian language, Brazilian Portuguese, British English, Catalan language, China, Chinese language, Chinese postal romanization, Classical Greece, Close vowel, Cognate, Consonant, Consonant cluster, Coronal consonant, Dental consonant, English Pronouncing Dictionary, Erzya language, Finnic languages, French language, Frisian languages, Front vowel, Fronting (phonetics), Gallo-Romance languages, General American, German language, Germanic umlaut, Goidelic languages, Greek language, Hard and soft G, Historical linguistics, History of the Spanish language, Index of phonetics articles, Indo-Aryan languages, Intervocalic consonant, ..., Iotation, Iranian languages, Istriot language, Italian language, Japanese language, Koine Greek, Korean language, Labio-palatalization, Latin, Lenition, Linguistic reconstruction, Linguistics, Luba-Kasai language, Mandarin (late imperial lingua franca), Mandarin Chinese, Manner of articulation, Medieval Greek, Micronesian languages, Mid vowel, Modern Greek, Monophthongization, Mordvinic languages, Mozarabic language, Northumbrian dialect (Old English), Norwegian language, Nupe language, Obstruent, Occitan language, Ojibwe language, Old French, Old Norse, Open vowel, Palatal consonant, Palatalization (phonetics), Phoneme, Phonological history of English diphthongs, Phonological history of Spanish coronal fricatives, Phonotactics, Pinyin, Place of articulation, Polish language, Portuguese language, Postalveolar consonant, Proto-Indo-European language, Qing dynasty, Raising (phonetics), Roman Empire, Romance languages, Romanization of Japanese, Romansh language, Root (linguistics), Russian language, Samoyedic languages, Semivowel, Sibilant, Slavic languages, Soft sign, Sound change, Spanish language, Spelling pronunciation, Standard Chinese, Stress (linguistics), Swedish language, Syllable, Tianjin, Uralic languages, Velar consonant, Votic language, Vowel, Vowel reduction in Russian, Vowel shift, Vulgar Latin, Western Romance languages, Xi'an, Zoque languages. Expand index (75 more) » « Shrink index
Albanian (shqip, or gjuha shqipe) is a language of the Indo-European family, in which it occupies an independent branch.
In linguistics, an alternation is the phenomenon of a morpheme exhibiting variation in its phonological realization.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
In phonetics, alveolo-palatal (or alveopalatal) consonants, sometimes synonymous with pre-palatal consonants, are intermediate in articulation between the coronal and dorsal consonants, or which have simultaneous alveolar and palatal articulation.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
The Anglo-Frisian languages are the West Germanic languages which include Anglic (or English) and Frisian.
An apical consonant is a phone (speech sound) produced by obstructing the air passage with the tip of the tongue.
Aragonese (aragonés in Aragonese) is a Romance language spoken in several dialects by 10,000 to 30,000 people in the Pyrenees valleys of Aragon, Spain, primarily in the comarcas of Somontano de Barbastro, Jacetania, Alto Gállego, Sobrarbe, and Ribagorza/Ribagorça.
Aromanian (rrãmãneshti, armãneashti, armãneshce., "Aromanian", or limba rrãmãniascã/ armãneascã/ armãneshce, "Aromanian language"), also known as Macedo-Romanian or Vlach, is an Eastern Romance language, similar to Meglenoromanian, or a dialect of the Romanian language.
In linguistics, assibilation is a sound change resulting in a sibilant consonant.
In phonology, assimilation is a common phonological process by which one sound becomes more like a nearby sound.
Attic Greek is the Greek dialect of ancient Attica, including the city of Athens.
Avestan, also known historically as Zend, is a language known only from its use as the language of Zoroastrian scripture (the Avesta), from which it derives its name.
A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.
The Baltic languages belong to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family.
In historical linguistics, Bartsch's law or the Bartsch effect (loi de Bartsch or effet de Bartsch) is the name of a sound change that took place in the early history of the langues d'oïl, for example in the development of Old French.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
Belarusian (беларуская мова) is an official language of Belarus, along with Russian, and is spoken abroad, mainly in Ukraine and Russia.
Brazilian Portuguese (português do Brasil or português brasileiro) is a set of dialects of the Portuguese language used mostly in Brazil.
British English is the standard dialect of English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom.
Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
Postal romanization was a system of transliterating Chinese place names developed by the Imperial Post Office in the early 1900s.
Classical Greece was a period of around 200 years (5th and 4th centuries BC) in Greek culture.
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
In linguistics, a consonant cluster, consonant sequence or consonant compound is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel.
Coronal consonants are consonants articulated with the flexible front part of the tongue.
A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.
The English Pronouncing Dictionary (EPD) was created by the British phonetician Daniel Jones and was first published in 1917.
The Erzya language (erzänj kelj) is spoken by about 37,000 people in the northern, eastern and north-western parts of the Republic of Mordovia and adjacent regions of Nizhny Novgorod, Chuvashia, Penza, Samara, Saratov, Orenburg, Ulyanovsk, Tatarstan and Bashkortostan in Russia.
The Finnic languages (Fennic), or Baltic Finnic languages (Balto-Finnic, Balto-Fennic), are a branch of the Uralic language family spoken around the Baltic Sea by Finnic peoples, mainly in Finland and Estonia, by about 7 million people.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The Frisian languages are a closely related group of Germanic languages, spoken by about 500,000 Frisian people, who live on the southern fringes of the North Sea in the Netherlands and Germany.
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.
In phonology, fronting is a sound change in which a vowel or consonant becomes fronted, advanced or pronounced farther to the front of the vocal tract than some reference point.
The Gallo-Romance branch of the Romance languages includes sensu stricto the French language, the Occitan language, and the Franco-Provençal language (Arpitan).
General American (abbreviated as GA or GenAm) is the umbrella variety of American English—the continuum of accents—spoken by a majority of Americans and popularly perceived, among Americans, as lacking any distinctly regional, ethnic, or socioeconomic characteristics.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The Germanic umlaut (sometimes called i-umlaut or i-mutation) is a type of linguistic umlaut in which a back vowel changes to the associated front vowel (fronting) or a front vowel becomes closer to (raising) when the following syllable contains,, or.
The Goidelic or Gaelic languages (teangacha Gaelacha; cànanan Goidhealach; çhengaghyn Gaelgagh) form one of the two groups of Insular Celtic languages, the other being the Brittonic languages.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
In the Latin-based orthographies of many European languages (including English), the letter is used in different contexts to represent two distinct phonemes, often called hard and soft.
Historical linguistics, also called diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change over time.
The language known today as Spanish is derived from a dialect of spoken Latin that evolved in the north-central part of the Iberian Peninsula after the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the fifth century.
The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages are the dominant language family of the Indian subcontinent.
In phonetics and phonology, an intervocalic consonant is a consonant that occurs in the middle of a word, between two vowels.
In Slavic languages, iotation is a form of palatalization that occurs when a consonant comes into contact with a palatal approximant from the succeeding morpheme.
The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages in the Indo-European language family.
Istriot is a Romance language spoken by about 400 people in the southwestern part of the Istrian Peninsula in Croatia, particularly in Rovinj and Vodnjan.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.
A labio-palatalized sound is one that is simultaneously labialized and palatalized.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
In linguistics, lenition is a kind of sound change that alters consonants, making them more sonorous.
Linguistic reconstruction is the practice of establishing the features of an unattested ancestor language of one or more given languages.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
Luba-Kasai, also known as Western Luba, Bena-Lulua, Ciluba/Tshiluba, Luba-Lulua or Luva, is a Bantu language (Zone L) of Central Africa and an official language of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, alongside Lingala, Swahili, and Kikongo.
Mandarin was the common spoken language of administration of the Chinese empire during the Ming and Qing dynasties.
Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.
In articulatory phonetics, the manner of articulation is the configuration and interaction of the articulators (speech organs such as the tongue, lips, and palate) when making a speech sound.
Medieval Greek, also known as Byzantine Greek, is the stage of the Greek language between the end of Classical antiquity in the 5th–6th centuries and the end of the Middle Ages, conventionally dated to the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453.
The twenty Micronesian languages form a family of Oceanic languages.
A mid vowel (or a true-mid vowel) is any in a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages.
Modern Greek (Νέα Ελληνικά or Νεοελληνική Γλώσσα "Neo-Hellenic", historically and colloquially also known as Ρωμαίικα "Romaic" or "Roman", and Γραικικά "Greek") refers to the dialects and varieties of the Greek language spoken in the modern era.
Monophthongization is a sound change by which a diphthong becomes a monophthong, a type of vowel shift.
The Mordvinic languages, alternatively Mordvin languages, or Mordvinian languages (Мордовские языки, Mordovskiye yazyki, the official Russian term for the language pair), are a subgroup of the Uralic languages, comprising the closely related Erzya language and Moksha language (both spoken in Mordovia).
Mozarabic, more accurately Andalusi Romance, was a continuum of closely related Romance dialects spoken in the Muslim-controlled areas of the Iberian Peninsula, known as Al-Andalus.
Northumbrian was a dialect of Old English spoken in the Anglian Kingdom of Northumbria.
Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.
Nupe is a Volta–Niger language of the Nupoid branch primarily spoken by the Nupe people of the Middle Belt region of Nigeria.
An obstruent is a speech sound such as,, or that is formed by obstructing airflow.
Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc (langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language.
Ojibwe, also known as Ojibwa, Ojibway, Chippewa, or Otchipwe,R.
Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.
Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.
An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
In phonetics, palatalization (also) or palatization refers to a way of pronouncing a consonant in which part of the tongue is moved close to the hard palate.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
English diphthongs have undergone many changes since the Old and Middle English periods.
In Spanish dialectology, the terms,, and are used to describe the opposition between dialects that distinguish the phonemes and (distinción), and those that do not exhibit the distinction and have only one coronal fricative phoneme, either alveolar (similar to in accents with distinción) or, less commonly, denti-alveolar (similar to in accents with distinción).
Phonotactics (from Ancient Greek phōnḗ "voice, sound" and tacticós "having to do with arranging") is a branch of phonology that deals with restrictions in a language on the permissible combinations of phonemes.
Hanyu Pinyin Romanization, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan.
In articulatory phonetics, the place of articulation (also point of articulation) of a consonant is the point of contact where an obstruction occurs in the vocal tract between an articulatory gesture, an active articulator (typically some part of the tongue), and a passive location (typically some part of the roof of the mouth).
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
In phonology and phonetics, raising is a sound change in which a vowel or consonant becomes higher or raised, meaning that the tongue becomes more elevated or positioned closer to the roof of the mouth than before.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
The romanization of Japanese is the use of Latin script to write the Japanese language.
Romansh (also spelled Romansch, Rumantsch, or Romanche; Romansh:, rumàntsch, or) is a Romance language spoken predominantly in the southeastern Swiss canton of Grisons (Graubünden), where it has official status alongside German and Italian.
A root (or root word) is a word that does not have a prefix in front of the word or a suffix at the end of the word.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The Samoyedic or Samoyed languages are spoken on both sides of the Ural mountains, in northernmost Eurasia, by approximately 25,000 people altogether.
In phonetics and phonology, a semivowel or glide, also known as a non-syllabic vocoid, is a sound that is phonetically similar to a vowel sound but functions as the syllable boundary, rather than as the nucleus of a syllable.
Sibilance is an acoustic characteristic of fricative and affricate consonants of higher amplitude and pitch, made by directing a stream of air with the tongue towards the sharp edge of the teeth, which are held close together; a consonant that uses sibilance may be called a sibilant.
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.
The soft sign (Ь, ь, italics Ь, ь; Russian: мягкий знак) also known as the front yer or front er, is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Sound change includes any processes of language change that affect pronunciation (phonetic change) or sound system structures (phonological change).
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
A spelling pronunciation is the pronunciation of a word according to its spelling, at odds with a standard or traditional pronunciation.
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
In linguistics, and particularly phonology, stress or accent is relative emphasis or prominence given to a certain syllable in a word, or to a certain word in a phrase or sentence.
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
Tianjin, formerly romanized as Tientsin, is a coastal metropolis in northern China and one of the four national central cities of the People's Republic of China (PRC), with a total population of 15,469,500, and is also the world's 11th-most populous city proper.
The Uralic languages (sometimes called Uralian languages) form a language family of 38 languages spoken by approximately 25million people, predominantly in Northern Eurasia.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
Votic, or Votian (vađđa ceeli or maaceeli; also written vaďďa tšeeli, maatšeeli in old orthography), is the language spoken by the Votes of Ingria, belonging to the Finnic branch of the Uralic languages.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
Vowel reduction in Russian differs in the standard language and dialects, which differ from one another.
A vowel shift is a systematic sound change in the pronunciation of the vowel sounds of a language.
Vulgar Latin or Sermo Vulgaris ("common speech") was a nonstandard form of Latin (as opposed to Classical Latin, the standard and literary version of the language) spoken in the Mediterranean region during and after the classical period of the Roman Empire.
Western Romance languages are one of the two subdivisions of a proposed subdivision of the Romance languages based on the La Spezia–Rimini line.
Xi'an is the capital of Shaanxi Province, China.
The Zoque languages form a primary branch of the Mixe–Zoquean language family indigenous to southern Mexico.