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Index Paleolithic

The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory. [1]

288 relations: Abbassia Pluvial, Aboriginal Australians, Acheulean, African buffalo, Afterlife, Agriculture, Alaska, Aleutian Islands, Altai Mountains, Altered state of consciousness, Ambilineality, Ambush, Andes, Animal husbandry, Animal worship, Animism, Antarctica, Antelope, Archaeology, Arctic Circle, Arrow, Art, Artifact (archaeology), Atapuerca Mountains, Aterian, Atlas Mountains, Aurignacian, Australopithecine, Australopithecus, Banana, Band society, BBC News, Bead, Bear, Beestonian stage, Before Present, Behavioral modernity, Beringia, Bilzingsleben (Paleolithic site), Bipedalism, Blombos Cave, Bolas, Bontnewydd Palaeolithic site, Bracelet, Brain, Burin (lithic flake), Bush tucker, Canidae, Cannibalism, Catfish, ..., Cave painting, Caveman, Central America, Central Europe, Cerebrovascular disease, Charles Darwin, Chiefdom, Chimpanzee, Chopper (archaeology), Circle of latitude, Climate, Clovis culture, Consensus decision-making, Continent, Cordilleran Ice Sheet, Coronary artery disease, Courtship display, Cromer Forest Bed, Cult (religious practice), Current Anthropology, Czech Republic, ǃKung people, David Lewis-Williams, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Denisovan, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diseases of affluence, Division of labour, DNA, Dordogne, Drum, Earth goddess, Eemian, Egalitarianism, El Niño, Elephant, Elite religion, Endemic warfare, England, Epipalaeolithic, Equator, Ethiopia, Ethnography, Evolutionary Anthropology (journal), Excarnation, Famine, Feminism, Fiber, Fish, Fishing, Flandrian interglacial, Flores, Flute, Folk religion, Frisbee, Frugivore, Gaia, Gender equality, Glacier, Goddess, Grassland, Great Rift Valley, Great Rift Valley, Kenya, Hadza people, Hafting, Hallucinogen, Hand axe, Harpoon, Henri Breuil, Holocene, Hominini, Homo, Homo erectus, Homo ergaster, Homo floresiensis, Homo heidelbergensis, Homo sapiens, Horticulture, Hoxnian Stage, Human taxonomy, Hunter-gatherer, Hyena, Ice sheet, Indian Ocean, Infanticide, Interglacial, Isotope, Isthmus of Panama, Italy, J. Desmond Clark, Japanese Paleolithic, Jared Diamond, Jewellery, John Lloyd (producer), John Lubbock, 1st Baron Avebury, John Mitchinson (researcher), Journal of Nutrition, Kansan glaciation, Kebara Cave, Kenya, Kidney, Knapping, Krapina, Lascaux, Late Glacial, Laurentide Ice Sheet, Leather, Legume, Lepenski Vir, Lion, Lithic flake, Liver, Lower Paleolithic, Lung, Luzia Woman, Maghreb, Magnetostratigraphy, Malnutrition, Marija Gimbutas, Mark Lynas, Marsupial, Marxism, Matrilineality, Merlin Stone, Mesolithic, Microlith, Middle Paleolithic, Middle Stone Age, Monarch, Monogamy, Mother goddess, Mount Kenya, Mount Kilimanjaro, Mount Precipice, Mousterian, Mousterian Pluvial, Mussel, National Geographic (U.S. TV channel), National Museum of Natural History, Neanderthal, Neolithic, Neolithic Revolution, Net (device), New Guinea, Nomad, North America, Nova Science Publishers, Ochre, Oldowan, Organ (anatomy), Origins of society, Oxygen, Pacific Ocean, Palaeoarchaeology, Paleo-Indians, Paleolithic diet, Paleolithic lifestyle, Paranthropus, Pastoralism, Patagonia, Patrilineality, Peru, Peter Corning, Philip Lieberman, Pinnacle Point, Pinniped, Plant-based diet, Plate tectonics, Pleistocene, Pleistocene megafauna, Pliocene, Polygyny, Polytheism, Pornography, Prehistory, Prepared-core technique, Primary production, Primitive communism, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Quaternary extinction event, Raft, Reindeer, Religion, Rock art, Rwenzori Mountains, Saber-toothed cat, Saint Paul Island (Alaska), Savanna, Scraper (archaeology), Secret society, Senegal, Settlement of the Americas, Sexual dimorphism, Shamanism, Siberia, Slavery, Smithsonian Institution, Social stratification, South Africa, Southeast Asia, Spear, Spear-thrower, Spirituality, Stitching awl, Stone Age, Stone tool, Storage organ, Sungir, Sympathetic magic, Tanzania, Tasmania, Taurotragus, Terra Amata (archaeological site), Tethys Ocean, The Book of General Ignorance, The Washington Post, Theocracy, Thuringia, Tlingit, Totem, Trade winds, Trance, Tribe, Tsodilo, Tuber, Turkana Boy, Upper Paleolithic, Veneration of the dead, Venus figurines, Venus of Dolní Věstonice, Venus of Tan-Tan, When God Was a Woman, William H. Calvin, Winemaking, Wisconsin glaciation, Wolstonian Stage, Woolly mammoth, Wrangel Island. Expand index (238 more) »

Abbassia Pluvial

The Abbassia Pluvial was an extended wet and rainy period in the climate history of North Africa, lasting from c. 120,000 to 90,000 years ago.

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Aboriginal Australians

Aboriginal Australians are legally defined as people who are members "of the Aboriginal race of Australia" (indigenous to mainland Australia or to the island of Tasmania).

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Acheulean (also Acheulian and Mode II), from the French acheuléen, is an archaeological industry of stone tool manufacture characterized by distinctive oval and pear-shaped "hand-axes" associated with Homo erectus and derived species such as Homo heidelbergensis.

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African buffalo

The African buffalo or Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is a large African bovine.

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Afterlife (also referred to as life after death or the hereafter) is the belief that an essential part of an individual's identity or the stream of consciousness continues to manifest after the death of the physical body.

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Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.

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Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.

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Aleutian Islands

The Aleutian Islands (Tanam Unangaa, literally "Land of the Aleuts", possibly from Chukchi aliat, "island") are a chain of 14 large volcanic islands and 55 smaller ones belonging to both the U.S. state of Alaska and the Russian federal subject of Kamchatka Krai.

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Altai Mountains

The Altai Mountains (also spelled Altay Mountains; Altai: Алтай туулар, Altay tuular; Mongolian:, Altai-yin niruɣu (Chakhar) / Алтайн нуруу, Altain nuruu (Khalkha); Kazakh: Алтай таулары, Altai’ tay’lary, التاي تاۋلارى Алтайские горы, Altajskije gory; Chinese; 阿尔泰山脉, Ā'ěrtài Shānmài, Xiao'erjing: اَعَرتَىْ شًامَىْ; Dungan: Артэ Шанмэ) are a mountain range in Central and East Asia, where Russia, China, Mongolia, and Kazakhstan come together, and are where the rivers Irtysh and Ob have their headwaters.

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Altered state of consciousness

An altered state of consciousness (ASC), also called altered state of mind or mind alteration, is any condition which is significantly different from a normal waking state.

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Ambilineality is a cognatic descent system in which individuals may be affiliated either to their father's or mother's group.

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An ambush is a long-established military tactic in which combatants take advantage of concealment and the element of surprise to attack unsuspecting enemy combatants from concealed positions, such as among dense underbrush or behind hilltops.

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The Andes or Andean Mountains (Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world.

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Animal husbandry

Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat, fibre, milk, eggs, or other products.

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Animal worship

Animal worship (or zoolatry) refers to rituals involving animals, such as the glorification of animal deities or animal sacrifice.

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Animism (from Latin anima, "breath, spirit, life") is the religious belief that objects, places and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence.

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Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.

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An antelope is a member of a number of even-toed ungulate species indigenous to various regions in Africa and Eurasia.

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Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.

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Arctic Circle

The Arctic Circle is the most northerly of the five major circles of latitude as shown on maps of Earth.

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An arrow is a fin-stabilized projectile that is launched via a bow, and usually consists of a long straight stiff shaft with stabilizers called fletchings, as well as a weighty (and usually sharp and pointed) arrowhead attached to the front end, and a slot at the rear end called nock for engaging bowstring.

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Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts (artworks), expressing the author's imaginative, conceptual idea, or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power.

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Artifact (archaeology)

An artifact, or artefact (see American and British English spelling differences), is something made or given shape by humans, such as a tool or a work of art, especially an object of archaeological interest.

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Atapuerca Mountains

The Atapuerca Mountains (Sierra de Atapuerca) is a karstic hill formation near the village of Atapuerca in Castile and León, northern Spain.

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The Aterian is a Middle Stone Age (or Middle Palaeolithic) stone tool industry centered in North Africa, but also possibly found in Oman and the Thar Desert.

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Atlas Mountains

The Atlas Mountains (jibāl al-ʾaṭlas; ⵉⴷⵓⵔⴰⵔ ⵏ ⵡⴰⵟⵍⴰⵙ, idurar n waṭlas) are a mountain range in the Maghreb.

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The Aurignacian is an archaeological tradition of the Upper Palaeolithic associated with European early modern humans (EEMH).

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Australopithecines are generally all species in the related Australopithecus and Paranthropus genera, and it typically includes Kenyanthropus, Ardipithecus, and Praeanthropus.

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Australopithecus (informal australopithecine or australopith, although the term australopithecine has a broader meaning as a member of the subtribe Australopithecina which includes this genus as well as Paranthropus, Kenyanthropus, Ardipithecus, and Praeanthropus) is an extinct genus of hominins.

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A banana is an edible fruit – botanically a berry – produced by several kinds of large herbaceous flowering plants in the genus Musa.

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Band society

A band society, or horde, is the simplest form of human society.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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A bead is a small, decorative object that is formed in a variety of shapes and sizes of a material such as stone, bone, shell, glass, plastic, wood or pearl and with a small hole for threading or stringing.

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Bears are carnivoran mammals of the family Ursidae.

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Beestonian stage

The Beestonian Stage is the name for an early Pleistocene stage used in the British Isles.

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Before Present

Before Present (BP) years is a time scale used mainly in geology and other scientific disciplines to specify when events occurred in the past.

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Behavioral modernity

Behavioral modernity is a suite of behavioral and cognitive traits that distinguishes current Homo sapiens from other anatomically modern humans, hominins, and primates.

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Beringia is defined today as the land and maritime area bounded on the west by the Lena River in Russia; on the east by the Mackenzie River in Canada; on the north by 72 degrees north latitude in the Chukchi Sea; and on the south by the tip of the Kamchatka Peninsula.

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Bilzingsleben (Paleolithic site)

Bilzingsleben (Fundplatz Bilzingsleben, lit. discovery site Bilzingsleben) is a former stone quarry in Thuringia, Germany, notable for its wealth of palaeolithic human fossils and artifacts.

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Bipedalism is a form of terrestrial locomotion where an organism moves by means of its two rear limbs or legs.

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Blombos Cave

Blombos Cave is an archaeological site located in Blombosfontein Nature Reserve, about 300 km east of Cape Town on the Southern Cape coastline, South Africa.

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A bolas (plural: bolas or bolases; from Spanish bola, "ball", also known as boleadoras) is a type of throwing weapon made of weights on the ends of interconnected cords, used to capture animals by entangling their legs.

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Bontnewydd Palaeolithic site

The Bontnewydd palaeolithic site (also known in its unmutated form as Pontnewydd Welsh language: 'New bridge') is an archaeological site near St Asaph, Denbighshire, Wales which has yielded one of the earliest known remains of Neanderthals in Britain.

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A bracelet is an article of jewellery that is worn around the wrist.

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The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.

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Burin (lithic flake)

Burin from the Upper Paleolithic (Gravettian) (ca. 29,000–22,000 BP) In the field of lithic reduction, a burin (from the French burin, meaning "cold chisel" or modern engraving burin) is a type of handheld lithic flake with a chisel-like edge which prehistoric humans used for engraving or for carving wood or bone.

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Bush tucker

Bush tucker, also called bushfood, is any food native to Australia and used as sustenance by the original inhabitants, the Aboriginal Australians, but it can also describe any native fauna or flora used for culinary and/or medicinal purposes, regardless of the continent or culture.

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The biological family Canidae (from Latin, canis, “dog”) is a lineage of carnivorans that includes domestic dogs, wolves, coyotes, foxes, jackals, dingoes, and many other extant and extinct dog-like mammals.

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Cannibalism is the act of one individual of a species consuming all or part of another individual of the same species as food.

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Catfish (or catfishes; order Siluriformes or Nematognathi) are a diverse group of ray-finned fish.

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Cave painting

Cave paintings, also known as parietal art, are painted drawings on cave walls or ceilings, mainly of prehistoric origin, beginning roughly 40,000 years ago (around 38,000 BCE) in Eurasia.

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A caveman is a stock character representative of primitive man in the Paleolithic.

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Central America

Central America (América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast.

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Central Europe

Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.

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Cerebrovascular disease

Cerebrovascular disease includes a variety of medical conditions that affect the blood vessels of the brain and the cerebral circulation.

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Charles Darwin

Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.

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A chiefdom is a form of hierarchical political organization in non-industrial societies usually based on kinship, and in which formal leadership is monopolized by the legitimate senior members of select families or 'houses'.

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The taxonomical genus Pan (often referred to as chimpanzees or chimps) consists of two extant species: the common chimpanzee and the bonobo.

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Chopper (archaeology)

Archaeologists define a chopper as a pebble tool with an irregular cutting edge formed through the removal of flakes from one side of a stone.

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Circle of latitude

A circle of latitude on Earth is an abstract east–west circle connecting all locations around Earth (ignoring elevation) at a given latitude.

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Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.

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Clovis culture

The Clovis culture is a prehistoric Paleo-Indian culture, named for distinct stone tools found in close association with Pleistocene fauna at Blackwater Locality No. 1 near Clovis, New Mexico, in the 1920s and 1930s.

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Consensus decision-making

Consensus decision-making is a group decision-making process in which group members develop, and agree to support a decision in the best interest of the whole.

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A continent is one of several very large landmasses of the world.

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Cordilleran Ice Sheet

The Cordilleran ice sheet was a major ice sheet that periodically covered large parts of North America during glacial periods over the last ~2.6 million years.

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Coronary artery disease

Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.

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Courtship display

A courtship display is a set of display behaviors in which an animal attempts to attract a mate and exhibit their desire to copulate.

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Cromer Forest Bed

The Cromer Forest Bed consists of river gravels, estuary and floodplain sediments and muds along the coast of Norfolk and Suffolk.

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Cult (religious practice)

Cult is literally the "care" (Latin cultus) owed to deities and to temples, shrines, or churches.

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Current Anthropology

Current Anthropology is a peer-reviewed anthropology academic journal published by the University of Chicago Press and sponsored by the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research.

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Czech Republic

The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.

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ǃKung people

The !Kung are a part of the San people who live in the Kalahari desert and Ovamboland (northern Namibia and southern Angola).

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David Lewis-Williams

James David Lewis-Williams (born 1934 in Cape Town) is a South African archaeologist.

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Democratic Republic of the Congo

The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo), also known as DR Congo, the DRC, Congo-Kinshasa or simply the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa.

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The Denisovans or Denisova hominins) are an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo.

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Diabetes mellitus type 2

Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.

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Diseases of affluence

Diseases of affluence is a term sometimes given to selected diseases and other health conditions which are commonly thought to be a result of increasing wealth in a society.

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Division of labour

The division of labour is the separation of tasks in any system so that participants may specialize.

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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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Dordogne (Dordonha) is a department in southwestern France, with its prefecture in Périgueux.

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The drum is a member of the percussion group of musical instruments.

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Earth goddess

An Earth goddess is a deification of the Earth.

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The Eemian (also called the last interglacial, Sangamonian, Ipswichian, Mikulin, Kaydaky, Valdivia or Riss-Würm) was the interglacial period which began about 130,000 years ago and ended about 115,000 years ago.

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Egalitarianism – or equalitarianism – is a school of thought that prioritizes equality for all people.

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El Niño

El Niño is the warm phase of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (commonly called ENSO) and is associated with a band of warm ocean water that develops in the central and east-central equatorial Pacific (between approximately the International Date Line and 120°W), including off the Pacific coast of South America.

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Elephants are large mammals of the family Elephantidae and the order Proboscidea.

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Elite religion

In sociology, elite religion is defined as the symbols, rituals and beliefs which are recognized as legitimate by the leadership of that religion.

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Endemic warfare

Endemic warfare is a state of continual or frequent warfare, such as is found in some tribal societies (but is not limited to tribal societies).

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England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.

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In archaeology, the Epipalaeolithic, Epipaleolithic (sometimes Epi-paleolithic etc) is a term for a period intervening between the Upper Paleolithic and Neolithic in the Stone Age.

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An equator of a rotating spheroid (such as a planet) is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel).

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Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.

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Ethnography (from Greek ἔθνος ethnos "folk, people, nation" and γράφω grapho "I write") is the systematic study of people and cultures.

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Evolutionary Anthropology (journal)

Evolutionary Anthropology is a review journal of anthropology.

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In archaeology and anthropology, the term excarnation (also known as defleshing) refers to the practice of removing the flesh and organs of the dead before burial, leaving only the bones.

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A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including war, inflation, crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies.

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Feminism is a range of political movements, ideologies, and social movements that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve political, economic, personal, and social equality of sexes.

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Fiber or fibre (see spelling differences, from the Latin fibra) is a natural or synthetic substance that is significantly longer than it is wide.

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Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.

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Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish.

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Flandrian interglacial

The Flandrian interglacial or stage is the name given by geologists and archaeologists in the British Isles to the first, and so far only, stage of the Holocene epoch (the present geological period), covering the period from around 12,000 years ago, at the end of the last glacial period to the present day.

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Flores (Indonesian: Pulau Flores) is one of the Lesser Sunda Islands, a group of islands in the eastern half of Indonesia.

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The flute is a family of musical instruments in the woodwind group.

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Folk religion

In religious studies and folkloristics, folk religion, popular religion, or vernacular religion comprises various forms and expressions of religion that are distinct from the official doctrines and practices of organized religion.

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A frisbee (also called a flying disc or simply a disc) is a gliding toy or sporting item that is generally plastic and roughly in diameter with a lip, used recreationally and competitively for throwing and catching, for example, in flying disc games.

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A frugivore is a fruit eater.

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In Greek mythology, Gaia (or; from Ancient Greek Γαῖα, a poetical form of Γῆ Gē, "land" or "earth"), also spelled Gaea, is the personification of the Earth and one of the Greek primordial deities.

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Gender equality

Gender equality, also known as sexual equality, is the state of equal ease of access to resources and opportunities regardless of gender, including economic participation and decision-making; and the state of valuing different behaviors, aspirations and needs equally, regardless of gender.

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A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.

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A goddess is a female deity.

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Grasslands are areas where the vegetation is dominated by grasses (Poaceae); however, sedge (Cyperaceae) and rush (Juncaceae) families can also be found along with variable proportions of legumes, like clover, and other herbs.

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Great Rift Valley

The Great Rift Valley is a name given to the continuous geographic trench, approximately in length, that runs from Lebanon's Beqaa Valley in Asia to Mozambique in Southeastern Africa.

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Great Rift Valley, Kenya

The Great Rift Valley is part of an intra-continental ridge system that runs through Kenya from north to south.

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Hadza people

The Hadza, or Hadzabe, are an indigenous ethnic group in north-central Tanzania, living around Lake Eyasi in the central Rift Valley and in the neighboring Serengeti Plateau.

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Hafting is a process by which an artifact, often bone, metal, or stone, is attached to a haft (handle or strap).

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A hallucinogen is a psychoactive agent which can cause hallucinations, perceptual anomalies, and other substantial subjective changes in thoughts, emotion, and consciousness.

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Hand axe

A hand axe (or handaxe) is a prehistoric stone tool with two faces that is the longest-used tool in human history.

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A harpoon is a long spear-like instrument used in fishing, whaling, sealing, and other marine hunting to catch large fish or marine mammals such as whales.

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Henri Breuil

Henri Édouard Prosper Breuil (28 February 1877 – 14 August 1961), often referred to as Abbé Breuil, was a French Catholic priest and member of the Society of Jesus, archaeologist, anthropologist, ethnologist and geologist.

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The Holocene is the current geological epoch.

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The Hominini, or hominins, form a taxonomic tribe of the subfamily Homininae ("hominines").

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Homo (Latin homō "human being") is the genus that encompasses the extant species Homo sapiens (modern humans), plus several extinct species classified as either ancestral to or closely related to modern humans (depending on a species), most notably Homo erectus and Homo neanderthalensis.

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Homo erectus

Homo erectus (meaning "upright man") is an extinct species of archaic humans that lived throughout most of the Pleistocene geological epoch.

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Homo ergaster

Homo ergaster (meaning "working man") or African Homo erectus is an extinct chronospecies of the genus Homo that lived in eastern and southern Africa during the early Pleistocene, between about 1.9 million and 1.4 million years ago.

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Homo floresiensis

Homo floresiensis ("Flores Man"; nicknamed "hobbit") is an extinct species in the genus Homo.

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Homo heidelbergensis

Homo heidelbergensis is an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo of the Middle Pleistocene (between about 700,000 and 200,000-300,000 years ago), known from fossils found in Southern Africa, East Africa and Europe.

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Homo sapiens

Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature) for the only extant human species.

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Horticulture is the science and art of growing plants (fruits, vegetables, flowers, and any other cultivar).

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Hoxnian Stage

The Hoxnian Stage is a middle Pleistocene stage (Pleistocene from 2.588 million (±.005) to 11,700 years BP) of the geological history of the British Isles.

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Human taxonomy

Human taxonomy is the classification of the human species (systematic name Homo sapiens) within zoological taxonomy.

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A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.

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Hyenas or hyaenas (from Greek ὕαινα hýaina) are any feliform carnivoran mammals of the family Hyaenidae.

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Ice sheet

An ice sheet is a mass of glacier ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than, this is also known as continental glacier.

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Indian Ocean

The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).

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Infanticide (or infant homicide) is the intentional killing of infants.

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An interglacial period (or alternatively interglacial, interglaciation) is a geological interval of warmer global average temperature lasting thousands of years that separates consecutive glacial periods within an ice age.

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Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.

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Isthmus of Panama

The Isthmus of Panama (Istmo de Panamá), also historically known as the Isthmus of Darien (Istmo de Darién), is the narrow strip of land that lies between the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean, linking North and South America.

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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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J. Desmond Clark

John Desmond Clark (more commonly J. Desmond Clark, April 10, 1916 – February 14, 2002) was a British archaeologist noted particularly for his work on prehistoric Africa.

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Japanese Paleolithic

The is the period of human inhabitation in Japan predating the development of pottery, generally before 10,000 BCE.

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Jared Diamond

Jared Mason Diamond (born September 10, 1937) is an American ecologist, geographer, biologist, anthropologist and author best known for his popular science books The Third Chimpanzee (1991); Guns, Germs, and Steel (1997, awarded a Pulitzer Prize); Collapse (2005); and The World Until Yesterday (2012).

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Jewellery (British English) or jewelry (American English)see American and British spelling differences consists of small decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, pendants, bracelets, and cufflinks.

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John Lloyd (producer)

John Hardress Wilfred Lloyd (born 30 September 1951) is an English television producer and writer best known for his work on such comedy television programmes as Not the Nine O'Clock News, Spitting Image, The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, Blackadder and QI.

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John Lubbock, 1st Baron Avebury

John Lubbock, 1st Baron Avebury, 4th Baronet, (30 April 183428 May 1913), known as Sir John Lubbock, 4th Baronet from 1865 until 1900, was an English banker, Liberal politician, philanthropist, scientist and polymath.

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John Mitchinson (researcher)

John Mitchinson is the head of research for the British television panel game QI, and is also the managing director of Quite Interesting Limited.

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Journal of Nutrition

The Journal of Nutrition is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Society for Nutrition.

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Kansan glaciation

The Kansan glaciation or Kansan glacial (see Pre-Illinoian) was a glacial stage and part of an early conceptual climatic and chronological framework composed of four glacial and interglacial stages.

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Kebara Cave

Kebara Cave (Hebrew: מערת כבארה Me'arat Kebbara, Arabic: مغارة الكبارة Mugharat al-Kabara) is an Israeli limestone cave locality in the Wadi Kebara, situated at above sea level on the western escarpment of the Carmel Range, in the Ramat Hanadiv preserve of Zichron Yaakov.

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Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.

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The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.

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Knapping is the shaping of flint, chert, obsidian or other conchoidal fracturing stone through the process of lithic reduction to manufacture stone tools, strikers for flintlock firearms, or to produce flat-faced stones for building or facing walls, and flushwork decoration.

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Krapina is a town in northern Croatia and the administrative centre of Krapina-Zagorje County with a population of 4,482 (2011) and a total municipality population of 12,480 (2011).

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Lascaux (Grotte de Lascaux, "Lascaux Cave") is the setting of a complex of caves near the village of Montignac, in the department of Dordogne in southwestern France.

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Late Glacial

The Late Glacial climate warming (c. 13,000–10,000 years ago), or Tardiglacial ("Late Glacial"), is defined primarily by the beginning of the modern warm period, in which temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere rose substantially, causing a process of accelerated deglaciation following the Last Glacial Maximum (c. 25,000–13,000 years ago).

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Laurentide Ice Sheet

The Laurentide Ice Sheet was a massive sheet of ice that covered millions of square kilometers, including most of Canada and a large portion of the northern United States, multiple times during the Quaternary glacial epochs— from 2.588 ± 0.005 million years ago to the present.

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Leather is a durable and flexible material created by tanning animal rawhides, mostly cattle hide.

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A legume is a plant or its fruit or seed in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae).

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Lepenski Vir

Lepenski Vir (Лепенски Вир, "Lepena Whirlpool"), located in Serbia, is an important archaeological site of the Mesolithic Iron Gates culture of the Balkans.

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The lion (Panthera leo) is a species in the cat family (Felidae).

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Lithic flake

In archaeology, a lithic flake is a "portion of rock removed from an objective piece by percussion or pressure,"Andrefsky, W. (2005) Lithics: Macroscopic Approaches to Analysis.

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The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.

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Lower Paleolithic

The Lower Paleolithic (or Lower Palaeolithic) is the earliest subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age.

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The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.

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Luzia Woman

Luzia Woman is the name for an Upper Paleolithic period skeleton of a Paleo-Indian woman who was found in a cave in Brazil.

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The Maghreb (al-Maɣréb lit.), also known as the Berber world, Barbary, Berbery, and Northwest Africa, is a major region of North Africa that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania.

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Magnetostratigraphy is a geophysical correlation technique used to date sedimentary and volcanic sequences.

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Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.

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Marija Gimbutas

Marija Gimbutas (Marija Gimbutienė; January 23, 1921 – February 2, 1994) was a Lithuanian-American archaeologist and anthropologist known for her research into the Neolithic and Bronze Age cultures of "Old Europe" and for her Kurgan hypothesis, which located the Proto-Indo-European homeland in the Pontic Steppe.

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Mark Lynas

Mark Lynas (born 1973) is a British author, journalist and environmental activist who focuses on climate change.

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Marsupials are any members of the mammalian infraclass Marsupialia.

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Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.

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Matrilineality is the tracing of descent through the female line.

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Merlin Stone

Merlin Stone (born Marilyn Jacobson, September 27, 1931 – February 23, 2011) was an American author, sculptor, and professor of art and art history.

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In Old World archaeology, Mesolithic (Greek: μέσος, mesos "middle"; λίθος, lithos "stone") is the period between the Upper Paleolithic and the Neolithic.

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A microlith is a small stone tool usually made of flint or chert and typically a centimetre or so in length and half a centimetre wide.

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Middle Paleolithic

The Middle Paleolithic (or Middle Palaeolithic) is the second subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Middle Stone Age

The Middle Stone Age (or MSA) was a period of African prehistory between the Early Stone Age and the Later Stone Age.

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A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy.

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Monogamy is a form of relationship in which an individual has only one partner during their lifetime — alternately, only one partner at any one time (serial monogamy) — as compared to non-monogamy (e.g., polygamy or polyamory).

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Mother goddess

A mother goddess is a goddess who represents, or is a personification of nature, motherhood, fertility, creation, destruction or who embodies the bounty of the Earth.

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Mount Kenya

Mount Kenya is the highest mountain in Kenya and the second-highest in Africa, after Kilimanjaro.

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Mount Kilimanjaro

Mount Kilimanjaro or just Kilimanjaro, with its three volcanic cones, "Kibo", "Mawenzi", and "Shira", is a dormant volcano in Tanzania.

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Mount Precipice

Mount Precipice (הר הקפיצה, "Har HaKfitsa"; جبل القفزة, "Jebel al-Qafzeh", "Mount of the Leap"), also known as Mount of Precipitation, Mount of the Leap of the Lord and Mount Kedumim is located just outside the southern edge of Nazareth, 2.0 km southwest of the modern city center.

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The Mousterian (or Mode III) is a techno-complex (archaeological industry) of flint lithic tools associated primarily with Neanderthals, as well as with the earliest anatomically modern humans in Eurasia.

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Mousterian Pluvial

The Mousterian Pluvial was a prehistoric wet and rainy (pluvial) period in North Africa.

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Mussel is the common name used for members of several families of bivalve molluscs, from saltwater and freshwater habitats.

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National Geographic (U.S. TV channel)

National Geographic (formerly National Geographic Channel and also commercially abbreviated and trademarked as Nat Geo or Nat Geo TV) is an American digital cable and satellite television network that is owned by National Geographic Partners, majority-owned by 21st Century Fox with the remainder owned by the National Geographic Society.

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National Museum of Natural History

The National Museum of Natural History is a natural-history museum administered by the Smithsonian Institution, located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., United States.

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Neanderthals (also; also Neanderthal Man, taxonomically Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) are an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo, who lived in Eurasia during at least 430,000 to 38,000 years ago.

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The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.

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Neolithic Revolution

The Neolithic Revolution, Neolithic Demographic Transition, Agricultural Revolution, or First Agricultural Revolution, was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures during the Neolithic period from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making an increasingly larger population possible.

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Net (device)

A net, in its primary meaning, comprises fibers woven in a grid-like structure.

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New Guinea

New Guinea (Nugini or, more commonly known, Papua, historically, Irian) is a large island off the continent of Australia.

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A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.

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North America

North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.

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Nova Science Publishers

Nova Science Publishers is an academic publisher of books, encyclopedias, handbooks, e-books and journals, based in Hauppauge, New York.

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Ochre (British English) (from Greek: ὤχρα, from ὠχρός, ōkhrós, pale) or ocher (American English) is a natural clay earth pigment which is a mixture of ferric oxide and varying amounts of clay and sand.

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The Oldowan (or Mode I) is the earliest widespread stone tool archaeological industry (style) in prehistory.

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Organ (anatomy)

Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.

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Origins of society

The origins of society — the evolutionary emergence of distinctively human social organization — is an important topic within evolutionary biology, anthropology, prehistory and palaeolithic archaeology.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Pacific Ocean

The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.

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Palaeoarchaeology (or paleoarcheology) is the archaeology of deep time.

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Paleo-Indians, Paleoindians or Paleoamericans is a classification term given to the first peoples who entered, and subsequently inhabited, the Americas during the final glacial episodes of the late Pleistocene period.

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Paleolithic diet

The terms Paleolithic diet, paleo diet, caveman diet, and stone-age diet describe modern fad diets requiring the sole or predominant consumption of foods presumed to have been the only foods available to or consumed by humans during the Paleolithic era.

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Paleolithic lifestyle

In a Paleolithic lifestyle (also known as paleo or primal lifestyle), one attempts to live as humans presumably did in the Paleolithic era (Old Stone Age), or to recreate such a lifestyle in the present day.

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Paranthropus (from Greek παρα, para "beside"; άνθρωπος, ánthropos "human") is a genus of extinct hominins that lived between 2.6 and 1.1 million years ago.

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Pastoralism is the branch of agriculture concerned with the raising of livestock.

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Patagonia is a sparsely populated region located at the southern end of South America, shared by Argentina and Chile.

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Patrilineality, also known as the male line, the spear side or agnatic kinship, is a common kinship system in which an individual's family membership derives from and is recorded through his or her father's lineage.

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Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.

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Peter Corning

Peter Andrew Corning (born 1935) is an American biologist, consultant, and complex systems scientist, and Director of the Institute for the Study of Complex Systems, in Friday Harbor, Washington, and is known especially for his work on the causal role of synergy in evolution.

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Philip Lieberman

Philip Lieberman (born 1934) is a cognitive scientist at Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, United States.

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Pinnacle Point

Pinnacle Point a small promontory immediately south of Mossel Bay, a town on the southern coast of South Africa.

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Pinnipeds, commonly known as seals, are a widely distributed and diverse clade of carnivorous, fin-footed, semiaquatic marine mammals.

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Plant-based diet

A plant-based diet is a diet based on foods derived from plants, including vegetables, whole grains, nuts, seeds, legumes and fruits, but with few or no animal products.

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Plate tectonics

Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.

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The Pleistocene (often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations.

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Pleistocene megafauna

Pleistocene megafauna is the set of large animals that lived on Earth during the Pleistocene epoch and became extinct during the Quaternary extinction event.

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The Pliocene (also Pleiocene) Epoch is the epoch in the geologic timescale that extends from 5.333 million to 2.58 million years BP.

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Polygyny (from Neoclassical Greek πολυγυνία from πολύ- poly- "many", and γυνή gyne "woman" or "wife") is the most common and accepted form of polygamy, entailing the marriage of a man with several women.

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Polytheism (from Greek πολυθεϊσμός, polytheismos) is the worship of or belief in multiple deities, which are usually assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses, along with their own religions and rituals.

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Pornography (often abbreviated porn) is the portrayal of sexual subject matter for the exclusive purpose of sexual arousal.

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Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools 3.3 million years ago by hominins and the invention of writing systems.

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Prepared-core technique

The prepared-core technique is means of producing stone tools by first preparing common stone cores into shapes that lend themselves to knapping off flakes that closely resemble the desired tool and require only minor touch-ups to be usable.

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Primary production

Global oceanic and terrestrial photoautotroph abundance, from September 1997 to August 2000. As an estimate of autotroph biomass, it is only a rough indicator of primary-production potential, and not an actual estimate of it. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and ORBIMAGE. In ecology, primary production is the synthesis of organic compounds from atmospheric or aqueous carbon dioxide.

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Primitive communism

Primitive communism is a concept originating from Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels who argued that hunter-gatherer societies were traditionally based on egalitarian social relations and common ownership.

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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.

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Quaternary extinction event

The Quaternary period saw the extinctions of numerous predominantly megafaunal species, which resulted in a collapse in faunal density and diversity, and the extinction of key ecological strata across the globe.

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A raft is any flat structure for support or transportation over water.

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The reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), also known as the caribou in North America, is a species of deer with circumpolar distribution, native to Arctic, sub-Arctic, tundra, boreal and mountainous regions of northern Europe, Siberia and North America.

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Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.

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Rock art

In archaeology, rock art is human-made markings placed on natural stone; it is largely synonymous with parietal art.

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Rwenzori Mountains

The Rwenzori Mountains, previously called the "Ruwenzori Range" (spelling changed around 1980 to conform more closely with the local name Rwenjura), is a mountain range of eastern equatorial Africa, located on the border between Uganda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).

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Saber-toothed cat

A saber-toothed cat (alternatively spelled sabre-toothed cat) is any member of various extinct groups of predatory mammals that were characterized by long, curved saber-shaped canine teeth.

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Saint Paul Island (Alaska)

Saint Paul Island is the largest of the Pribilof Islands, a group of four Alaskan volcanic islands located in the Bering Sea between the United States and Russia.

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A savanna or savannah is a mixed woodland grassland ecosystem characterised by the trees being sufficiently widely spaced so that the canopy does not close.

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Scraper (archaeology)

In prehistoric archaeology, scrapers are unifacial tools thought to have been used for hideworking and woodworking.

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Secret society

A secret society is a club or an organization whose activities, events, inner functioning, or membership are concealed from non-members.

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Senegal (Sénégal), officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa.

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Settlement of the Americas

Paleolithic hunter-gatherers first entered North America from the North Asian Mammoth steppe via the Beringia land bridge which had formed between northeastern Siberia and western Alaska due to the lowering of sea level during the Last Glacial Maximum.

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Sexual dimorphism

Sexual dimorphism is the condition where the two sexes of the same species exhibit different characteristics beyond the differences in their sexual organs.

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Shamanism is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with what they believe to be a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world.

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Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.

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Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.

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Smithsonian Institution

The Smithsonian Institution, established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.

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Social stratification

Social stratification is a kind of social differentiation whereby a society groups people into socioeconomic strata, based upon their occupation and income, wealth and social status, or derived power (social and political).

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South Africa

South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.

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Southeast Asia

Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.

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A spear is a pole weapon consisting of a shaft, usually of wood, with a pointed head.

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A spear-thrower or atlatl (or; ahtlatl) is a tool that uses leverage to achieve greater velocity in dart-throwing, and includes a bearing surface which allows the user to store energy during the throw.

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Traditionally, spirituality refers to a religious process of re-formation which "aims to recover the original shape of man," oriented at "the image of God" as exemplified by the founders and sacred texts of the religions of the world.

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Stitching awl

A stitching awl is a tool with which holes can be punctured in a variety of materials, or existing holes can be enlarged.

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Stone Age

The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric period during which stone was widely used to make implements with an edge, a point, or a percussion surface.

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Stone tool

A stone tool is, in the most general sense, any tool made either partially or entirely out of stone.

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Storage organ

A storage organ is a part of a plant specifically modified for storage of energy (generally in the form of carbohydrates) or water.

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Sungir (sometimes spelled Sunghir) is an Upper Paleolithic archaeological site in Russia and one of the earliest records of modern Homo sapiens in Eurasia.

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Sympathetic magic

Sympathetic magic, also known as imitative magic, is a type of magic based on imitation or correspondence.

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Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region.

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Tasmania (abbreviated as Tas and known colloquially as Tassie) is an island state of Australia.

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Taurotragus is a genus of large antelopes of the African savanna, commonly known as elands.

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Terra Amata (archaeological site)

Terra Amata is an archeological site in open air located on the slopes of Mount Boron in Nice, at a level above the current sea level of the Mediterranean.

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Tethys Ocean

The Tethys Ocean (Ancient Greek: Τηθύς), Tethys Sea or Neotethys was an ocean during much of the Mesozoic Era located between the ancient continents of Gondwana and Laurasia, before the opening of the Indian and Atlantic oceans during the Cretaceous Period.

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The Book of General Ignorance

The Book of General Ignorance is the first in a series of books based on the final round in the intellectual British panel game QI, written by series-creator John Lloyd and head-researcher John Mitchinson,.

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The Washington Post

The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.

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Theocracy is a form of government in which a deity is the source from which all authority derives.

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The Free State of Thuringia (Freistaat Thüringen) is a federal state in central Germany.

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The Tlingit (or; also spelled Tlinkit) are Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast of North America.

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A totem (Ojibwe doodem) is a spirit being, sacred object, or symbol that serves as an emblem of a group of people, such as a family, clan, lineage, or tribe.

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Trade winds

The trade winds are the prevailing pattern of easterly surface winds found in the tropics, within the lower portion of the Earth's atmosphere, in the lower section of the troposphere near the Earth's equator.

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Trance denotes any state of awareness or consciousness other than normal waking consciousness.

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A tribe is viewed developmentally, economically and historically as a social group existing outside of or before the development of states.

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The Tsodilo Hills are a UNESCO World Heritage Site (WHS), consisting of rock art, rock shelters, depressions, and caves.

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Tubers are enlarged structures in some plant species used as storage organs for nutrients.

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Turkana Boy

Turkana Boy, also called Nariokotome Boy, is the common name of Homo erectus fossil KNM-WT 15000,KNM-WT 15000: Kenya National Museum; West Turkana; item 15000 a nearly complete skeleton of a hominin youth who lived during the early Pleistocene.

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Upper Paleolithic

The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic, Late Stone Age) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age.

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Veneration of the dead

The veneration of the dead, including one's ancestors, is based on love and respect for the deceased.

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Venus figurines

A Venus figurine is any Upper Paleolithic statuette portraying a woman,Fagan, 740 although the fewer images depicting men or figures of uncertain sex, and those in relief or engraved on rock or stones are often discussed together.

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Venus of Dolní Věstonice

The Venus of Dolní Věstonice (Věstonická venuše) is a Venus figurine, a ceramic statuette of a nude female figure dated to 29,000–25,000 BCE (Gravettian industry).

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Venus of Tan-Tan

The Venus of Tan-Tan is an alleged artifact found in Morocco.

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When God Was a Woman

When God Was a Woman is the U.S. title of a 1976 book by sculptor and art historian Merlin Stone.

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William H. Calvin

William H. Calvin, Ph.D. (born April 30, 1939) is an American theoretical neurophysiologist and professor at the University of Washington in Seattle.

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Winemaking or vinification is the production of wine, starting with the selection of the fruit, its fermentation into alcohol, and the bottling of the finished liquid.

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Wisconsin glaciation

The Wisconsin Glacial Episode, also called the Wisconsinan glaciation, was the most recent glacial period of the North American ice sheet complex.

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Wolstonian Stage

The Wolstonian Stage is a middle Pleistocene stage of the geological history of earth that precedes the Ipswichian Stage (Eemian Stage in Europe) and follows the Hoxnian Stage in the British Isles.

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Woolly mammoth

The woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) is an extinct species of mammoth that lived during the Pleistocene epoch, and was one of the last in a line of mammoth species, beginning with Mammuthus subplanifrons in the early Pliocene.

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Wrangel Island

Wrangel Island (p) is an island in the Arctic Ocean, between the Chukchi Sea and East Siberian Sea.

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10500 BC, 30,000 BP, 35,000 BCE, 35000 BC, Ancestral Health, Middle Paleolothic, Old Stone Age, Palaeolithic, Palaeolithic Age, Palaeolithic Era, Paleolithic Age, Paleolithic Era, Paleolithic Period, Paleolithic age, Paleolithic era, Paleolithic period, Paleolithicum, Paleolitic, Palæolithic.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paleolithic

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