75 relations: Amniote, Amphibian, Anapsid, Antarctica, Apex predator, Arthropod, Australia, Baltica, Cambrian, Cambrian explosion, Carbon dioxide, Carboniferous, Carboniferous rainforest collapse, Cenozoic, Central Africa, Class (biology), Coal, Cooksonia, Devonian, Diapsid, Dimetrodon, Dunkleosteus, Early Palaeozoic Icehouse, Edaphosaurus, Era (geology), Euramerica, Europe, Euryapsida, Eurypterid, Extinction event, Fish, Forest, Geologic time scale, Geological period, Glacier, Gondwana, Gorgonopsia, History of Earth, Invertebrate, Late Devonian extinction, Laurentia, Lycopodiopsida, Mesozoic, Mississippian (geology), Neoproterozoic, North America, Online Etymology Dictionary, Ordovician, Ordovician–Silurian extinction events, Oxygen, ..., Paleoclimatology, Pangaea, Pannotia, Panthalassa, Pennsylvanian (geology), Permian, Permian–Triassic extinction event, Phanerozoic, Phylum, Pinophyta, Precambrian, Proterozoic, Scutosaurus, Sea level rise, Silurian, South Pole, Supercontinent, Synapsid, Tasmania, Tetrapod, The Economist, Trilobite, Turnover-pulse hypothesis, Ural Mountains, Vascular plant. Expand index (25 more) » « Shrink index
Amniotes (from Greek ἀμνίον amnion, "membrane surrounding the fetus", earlier "bowl in which the blood of sacrificed animals was caught", from ἀμνός amnos, "lamb") are a clade of tetrapod vertebrates comprising the reptiles, birds, and mammals.
Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.
An anapsid is an amniote whose skull does not have openings near the temples.
Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.
An apex predator, also known as an alpha predator or top predator, is a predator at the top of a food chain, with no natural predators.
An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Baltica is a paleocontinent that formed in the Paleoproterozoic and now constitutes northwestern Eurasia, or Europe north of the Trans-European Suture Zone and west of the Ural Mountains.
The Cambrian Period was the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era, and of the Phanerozoic Eon.
The Cambrian explosion or Cambrian radiation was an event approximately in the Cambrian period when most major animal phyla appeared in the fossil record.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that spans 60 million years from the end of the Devonian Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Permian Period, Mya.
The Carboniferous rainforest collapse (CRC) was a minor extinction event that occurred around 305 million years ago in the Carboniferous period.
The Cenozoic Era meaning "new life", is the current and most recent of the three Phanerozoic geological eras, following the Mesozoic Era and, extending from 66 million years ago to the present day.
Central Africa is the core region of the African continent which includes Burundi, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Rwanda.
In biological classification, class (classis) is a taxonomic rank, as well as a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
Cooksonia is an extinct grouping of primitive land plants.
The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic, spanning 60 million years from the end of the Silurian, million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Carboniferous, Mya.
Diapsids ("two arches") are a group of amniote tetrapods that developed two holes (temporal fenestra) in each side of their skulls about 300 million years ago during the late Carboniferous period.
Dimetrodon (or, meaning "two measures of teeth") is an extinct genus of synapsids that lived during the Cisuralian (Early Permian), around 295–272 million years ago (Ma).
Dunkleosteus is an extinct genus of arthrodire placoderm fish that existed during the Late Devonian period, about 358–382 million years ago.
The Early Palaeozoic Icehouse was a cool period that interrupted the greenhouse temperatures of the Ordovician and Silurian periods, culminating in the Hirnantian glaciation and the Ordovician extinction event.
Edaphosaurus (meaning "pavement lizard" for dense clusters of teeth) is a genus of extinct edaphosaurid synapsid that lived around 300 to 280 million years ago, during the late Carboniferous to early Permian periods.
A geologic era is a subdivision of geologic time that divides an eon into smaller units of time.
Euramerica (also known as Laurussia – not to be confused with Laurasia, – the Old Red Continent or the Old Red Sandstone Continent) was a minor supercontinent created in the Devonian as the result of a collision between the Laurentian, Baltica, and Avalonia cratons during the Caledonian orogeny, about 410 million years ago.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Euryapsida is a polyphyletic (unnatural, as the various members are not closely related) group of reptiles that are distinguished by a single temporal fossa, an opening behind the orbit, under which the post-orbital and squamosal bones articulate.
Eurypterids, often informally called sea scorpions, are an extinct group of arthropods related to arachnids that include the largest known arthropods to have ever lived.
An extinction event (also known as a mass extinction or biotic crisis) is a widespread and rapid decrease in the biodiversity on Earth.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
A forest is a large area dominated by trees.
The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that relates geological strata (stratigraphy) to time.
A geological period is one of several subdivisions of geologic time enabling cross-referencing of rocks and geologic events from place to place.
A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.
Gondwana, or Gondwanaland, was a supercontinent that existed from the Neoproterozoic (about 550 million years ago) until the Carboniferous (about 320 million years ago).
Gorgonopsia ("Gorgon face") is an extinct suborder of theriodonts.
The history of Earth concerns the development of planet Earth from its formation to the present day.
Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.
The Late Devonian extinction was one of five major extinction events in the history of the Earth's biota.
Laurentia or the North American Craton is a large continental craton that forms the ancient geological core of the North American continent.
Lycopodiopsida is a class of herbaceous vascular plants known as the clubmosses and firmosses.
The Mesozoic Era is an interval of geological time from about.
The Mississippian (also known as Lower Carboniferous or Early Carboniferous) is a subperiod in the geologic timescale or a subsystem of the geologic record.
The Neoproterozoic Era is the unit of geologic time from.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
The Online Etymology Dictionary is a free online dictionary written and compiled by Douglas Harper that describes the origins of English-language words.
The Ordovician is a geologic period and system, the second of six periods of the Paleozoic Era.
The Ordovician–Silurian extinction events, when combined, are the second-largest of the five major extinction events in Earth's history in terms of percentage of genera that became extinct.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Paleoclimatology (in British spelling, palaeoclimatology) is the study of changes in climate taken on the scale of the entire history of Earth.
Pangaea or Pangea was a supercontinent that existed during the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras.
Pannotia (from Greek: pan-, "all", -nótos, "south"; meaning "all southern land"), also known as Vendian supercontinent, Greater Gondwana, and the Pan-African supercontinent, was a relatively short-lived Neoproterozoic supercontinent that formed at the end of the Precambrian during the Pan-African orogeny (650–500 Ma) and broke apart 560 Ma with the opening of the Iapetus Ocean.
Panthalassa, also known as the Panthalassic or Panthalassan Ocean, (from Greek πᾶν "all" and θάλασσα "sea"), was the superocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea.
The Pennsylvanian (also known as Upper Carboniferous or Late Carboniferous) is, in the ICS geologic timescale, the younger of two subperiods (or upper of two subsystems) of the Carboniferous Period.
The Permian is a geologic period and system which spans 47 million years from the end of the Carboniferous Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Triassic period 251.902 Mya.
The Permian–Triassic (P–Tr or P–T) extinction event, colloquially known as the Great Dying, the End-Permian Extinction or the Great Permian Extinction, occurred about 252 Ma (million years) ago, forming the boundary between the Permian and Triassic geologic periods, as well as the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras.
The Phanerozoic Eon is the current geologic eon in the geologic time scale, and the one during which abundant animal and plant life has existed.
In biology, a phylum (plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class.
The Pinophyta, also known as Coniferophyta or Coniferae, or commonly as conifers, are a division of vascular land plants containing a single extant class, Pinopsida.
The Precambrian (or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pЄ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic Eon.
The Proterozoic is a geological eon representing the time just before the proliferation of complex life on Earth.
Scutosaurus ("Shield lizard") was a genus of parareptiles.
A sea level rise is an increase in global mean sea level as a result of an increase in the volume of water in the world’s oceans.
The Silurian is a geologic period and system spanning 24.6 million years from the end of the Ordovician Period, at million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Devonian Period, Mya.
The South Pole, also known as the Geographic South Pole or Terrestrial South Pole, is one of the two points where the Earth's axis of rotation intersects its surface.
In geology, a supercontinent is the assembly of most or all of Earth's continental blocks or cratons to form a single large landmass.
Synapsids (Greek, 'fused arch'), synonymous with theropsids (Greek, 'beast-face'), are a group of animals that includes mammals and every animal more closely related to mammals than to other living amniotes.
Tasmania (abbreviated as Tas and known colloquially as Tassie) is an island state of Australia.
The superclass Tetrapoda (from Greek: τετρα- "four" and πούς "foot") contains the four-limbed vertebrates known as tetrapods; it includes living and extinct amphibians, reptiles (including dinosaurs, and its subgroup birds) and mammals (including primates, and all hominid subgroups including humans), as well as earlier extinct groups.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
Trilobites (meaning "three lobes") are a fossil group of extinct marine arachnomorph arthropods that form the class Trilobita.
The turnover-pulse hypothesis was constructed by paleoanthropologist Elisabeth Vrba, and is used to gauge the rate of survival and adaptation within species.
The Ural Mountains (p), or simply the Urals, are a mountain range that runs approximately from north to south through western Russia, from the coast of the Arctic Ocean to the Ural River and northwestern Kazakhstan.
Vascular plants (from Latin vasculum: duct), also known as tracheophytes (from the equivalent Greek term trachea) and also higher plants, form a large group of plants (c. 308,312 accepted known species) that are defined as those land plants that have lignified tissues (the xylem) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant.
Late Palaeozoic, Lower Palaeozoic, Middle Paleozoic, Palacozoic, Palaeozoic, Palaeozoic Era, Palaeozoic era, Palaezoic, Paleozoic Era, Paleozoic deposits, Paleozoic era, Palæozoic, Primary period, Primitive period.