531 relations: A priori and a posteriori, Aaron, Abbasid Caliphate, ABC-CLIO, Abdullah I of Jordan, Abu Ghosh clan, Achaemenid Empire, Acre, Israel, Afroasiatic languages, Ahad Ha'am, Ahmadiyya, Akkadian language, Akkawi, Al Jazeera, Al Riyadh (newspaper), Al-Husayni clan, Al-Karmil (newspaper), Al-Monitor, Al-Muntada al-Adabi, Al-Zayadina, Alan Dowty, Algeria, Aliyah, Allah, American Journal of Human Genetics, Americas, Amin al-Husseini, Amorites, Anatolia, Ancestor, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Ancient Semitic religion, André Lemaire, Anthropologist, Antonio Saca, Arab Christians, Arab cinema, Arab citizens of Israel, Arab culture, Arab Higher Committee, Arab Jews, Arab Muslims, Arab states of the Persian Gulf, Arab world, Arabian Peninsula, Arabic, Arabic literature, Arabic music, Arabic nouns and adjectives, ..., Arabization, Arabs, Aramaic language, Arameans, Army of Shadows: Palestinian Collaboration with Zionism, 1917–1948, Art, Ashdod, Ashkelon, Ashkenazi Jews, Assyrian people, Ataaba, Avi Shlaim, Avraham Sela, Ayyubid dynasty, Azure (magazine), Baba ghanoush, Baghdad, Bahá'í Faith, Bahá'u'lláh, Balfour Declaration, Bani Zeid, Bank Leumi, Banu Tamim, Barghouti clan, Baruch Kimmerling, Battle of Karameh, Bedouin, Beirut, Beit Sahour, Belize, Benny Morris, Ber Borochov, Bernard Lewis, Bethlehem, Bethlehem University, Bible, Biblical Hebrew, Bilu, Birth rate, Black September, Border, Byzantine Empire, Cairo, Cambridge University Press, Canaan, Canaanism, Carlos Roberto Flores, Cave of the Patriarchs, Chile, Christianity, Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Church of the Nativity, Cilicia, Circa, Citizenship, Claude Cheysson, Columbia University Press, Committee on the Exercise of the Inalienable Rights of the Palestinian People, Community, Costume, Crete, Crimean War, Crusades, Cuisine, Customs, Dabke, DAM (band), Damascus, Dance, David Ben-Gurion, David Roberts (painter), Definitions of Palestinian, Deir Yassin massacre, Demographics of Israel, Divine Intervention (film), DNA, Doghmush clan, Dolma, Dome of the Rock, Douaihy, Dowry, Druze, Duke University, East Jerusalem, Edom, Edward Robinson (scholar), Edward Said, Efraim Karsh, Egypt, Ekron, El Salvador, Elite, Embroidery, Emigration, Emile Habibi, Encyclopædia Britannica, English language, Entrée, Eric Hobsbawm, Ethiopia, Ethnic group, Ethnography, Ethnonym, Europe, Exile, Faisal I of Iraq, Falafel, Falastin (newspaper), Fatah, Fatimid Caliphate, Fellah, Fertility, First Intifada, Folklore, François Mitterrand, France, Gamal Abdel Nasser, Gath (city), Gaza City, Gaza Strip, General strike, Genetic genealogy, Geographer, George Antonius, Ghada Karmi, Ghassan Kanafani, Golan, Grape leaves, Greek language, Guerrilla warfare, Gulf War, Haaretz, Halhul, Haplogroup E-M123, Haplogroup G-M201, Haplogroup J-M172, Haplogroup J-M267, Haplogroup T-M184, Harry Ostrer, Harvard University Press, Hasan ibn Ali, Hauran, Hebrew language, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Hebrews, Hebron, Hebron glass, Hejaz, Hellenization, Herodotus, Hilles clan, Hind al-Husseini, Hip hop, History of ancient Israel and Judah, History of Iran, History of the State of Palestine, Hittin, Holon, Homeland, Honduras, Human genetics, Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup, Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup, Hummus, Husayn ibn Ali, Ian Lustick, Ibrahim Muhawi, Ibrahim Nasrallah, Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt, Indigenous peoples, Institute for Middle East Understanding, Internally displaced Palestinians, International Court of Justice, International Day of Solidarity with the Palestinian People, International recognition of the State of Palestine, Iran, Iranian cuisine, Iraq, Iraqis, Irony, Islam, Islam in Palestine, Israel, Israel Belkind, Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, Israel Defense Forces, Israeli Civil Administration, Israeli Declaration of Independence, Israeli nationality law, Israeli-occupied territories, Israeli–Palestinian conflict, Israelites, Issa El-Issa, Izz ad-Din al-Qassam, Jaffa, James L. Gelvin, James Parkes (priest), Jarrar clan, Jayyusi clan, Jericho Conference, Jerusalem, Jerusalem Talmud, Jewish diaspora, Jewish ethnic divisions, Jewish National Fund, Jewish state, Jewish Telegraphic Agency, Jewish Virtual Library, Jews, Jinn, Jonah, Jordan, Jordan River, Jordanian annexation of the West Bank, Josephus, Journal of Palestine Studies, Justin McCarthy (American historian), Kanafeh, Kathleen Christison, Kevin Boyle (lawyer), Khalidi family, Khalil Beidas, Kingdom of Jerusalem, Kinship, Knesset, Kohen, Kurkh Monoliths, Land of Israel, Latin America, Latin Church, League of Nations, Lebanon, Legend, Levant, Levantine Arabic, Levantine pottery, Lexicon, Liana Badr, Liberation movement, Library of Congress, List of Arab towns and villages depopulated during the 1948 Palestinian exodus, List of Irgun operations, List of Palestinians, Literature, Luis Antonio Jiménez, Lydia, Ma'an News Agency, Mahmoud Darwish, Mamluk, Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo), Mandatory Palestine, Maqaam, Martial law, May Ziade, Mayor of Jerusalem, Mediterranean Basin, Mediterranean Sea, Meze, Michael Prior (theologian), Middle Ages, Middle East, Migration Period, Minister (government), Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Israel), Minority Rights Group International, Miral, Mizrahi Jews, Modal haplotype, Modern Hebrew, Modernity, Mohsen Subhi, Mongol invasions and conquests, Mongol raids into Palestine, Moshe Gil, Mosque, Mother-of-pearl carving in Bethlehem, Mourid Barghouti, Muhammad Ali of Egypt, Musa al-Husayni, Musakhan, Music, Music of Palestine, Muslim conquest of the Levant, Muslim-Christian Associations, Nabataeans, Nabi Salih, Nabi Shu'ayb, Nablus, Nabulsi cheese, Nabulsi soap, Nakba Day, Nashashibi clan, Nathalie Handal, Nationalism, Natural language, Negev, Negev Bedouin, Neolithic, Neturei Karta, New Left Review, New York City, Non-denominational Muslim, Non-governmental organization, Nusaybah clan, Occupation of the Gaza Strip by Egypt, Old-school hip hop, Olive, Olive oil, Oral history, Orphanage, Oslo Accords, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Syria, Oxford University Press, Paganism, Palestine (region), Palestine Arab Congress, Palestine Liberation Organization, Palestine Regiment, Palestinian Academic Society for the Study of International Affairs, Palestinian Arabic, Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics, Palestinian Christians, Palestinian community in Chile, Palestinian diaspora, Palestinian exodus, Palestinian exodus from Kuwait (1990–91), Palestinian families, Palestinian fedayeen, Palestinian hip hop, Palestinian Jews, Palestinian National Authority, Palestinian National Council, Palestinian National Covenant, Palestinian nationalism, Palestinian political violence, Palestinian refugee camps, Palestinian refugees, Palestinian right of return, Palestinian territories, Pan-Arabism, Paprika, Paradise Now, Paris Peace Conference, 1919, Peasants' revolt in Palestine, Perry Anderson, Philip Mattar, Philistines, Philo, Phoenicia, Pine nut, Place names of Palestine, Pliny the Elder, Polity (publisher), Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, Prison, Proverb, Qabatiya, Qays, Qays–Yaman rivalry, Qays–Yaman war (793–796), Qudwa, Rabbinic literature, Ramallah, Rashid Hussein, Rashid Khalidi, Rashidun, Recto and verso, Reem Kelani, Religion, Reuters, Rice, Ridwan dynasty, Robert Drews, Roman Empire, Rula Jebreal, Said Musa, Saint George, Saladin, Salim Tamari, Salma Jayyusi, Samaritanism, Samaritans, Samih al-Qasim, San Remo conference, Sari Nusseibeh, Saudi Arabia, Schafik Handal, Sea of Galilee, Sea Peoples, Second Intifada, Second Temple, Secularity, Self-determination, Semitic languages, Sephardi Jews, Sergio Della Pergola, Sesame, Shawish clan, Sheep, Shia Islam, Shibboleth, Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh, Shurrab family, Six-Day War, Sociology, Solomon, South America, Southern Levant, Sovereignty, State of Palestine, Statelessness, Stereotype, Strained yogurt, Stratum (linguistics), Sub-Saharan Africa, Sumud, Sunni Islam, Syria, Syria (region), Syriac language, Tabbouleh, Tamer Nafar, Tawfiq Canaan, Tawfiq Ziad, The Arab Awakening, The Guardian, The Jerusalem Post, The Nation, The Times of Israel, TheFreeDictionary.com, TheMarker, Third Aliyah, Thomas Giegerich, Thursday of the Dead, Thyme, Titus, Tom Segev, Toponymy, Tribes of Arabia, Tsvi Misinai, Tuqan clan, Turkey, Umayyad Caliphate, United Nations, United Nations Development Programme, United Nations General Assembly, United Nations General Assembly Resolution 194, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, United Nations Security Council, United States, United States House of Representatives, University of California Press, University of Texas Press, UNRWA, Uri Davis, Varieties of Arabic, Wadi Musa, Walid Khalidi, West Bank, World War I, Yasser Arafat, Yehoshua Porath, Yiddish, Yigal Allon, Yitzhak Ben-Zvi, Ynetnews, Yonatan Ratosh, Yosef Weitz, Za'atar, Zajal, Zionism, 1920 Nebi Musa riots, 1921 Jaffa riots, 1922 census of Palestine, 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine, 1948 Arab–Israeli War, 1948 Palestine war, 1948 Palestinian exodus, 1967 Palestinian exodus, 2009 Arab Capital of Culture. 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The Latin phrases a priori ("from the earlier") and a posteriori ("from the latter") are philosophical terms of art popularized by Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason (first published in 1781, second edition in 1787), one of the most influential works in the history of philosophy.
Aaron is a prophet, high priest, and the brother of Moses in the Abrahamic religions (elder brother in the case of Judaism).
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
ABC-CLIO, LLC is a publishing company for academic reference works and periodicals primarily on topics such as history and social sciences for educational and public library settings.
Abdullah I bin al-Hussein, King of Jordan (عبد الله الأول بن الحسين, Abd Allāh ibn al-Husayn, February 1882 – 20 July 1951), born in Mecca, Hejaz, Ottoman Empire, was the second of three sons of Hussein bin Ali, Sharif and Emir of Mecca and his first wife Abdiyya bint Abdullah (d. 1886).
The Abughoshes history originates during the Ottoman Empire.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
Acre (or, עַכּוֹ, ʻAko, most commonly spelled as Akko; عكّا, ʻAkkā) is a city in the coastal plain region of Israel's Northern District at the extremity of Haifa Bay.
Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic) or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family of about 300 languages and dialects.
Asher Zvi Hirsch Ginsberg (18 August 1856 – 2 January 1927), primarily known by his Hebrew name and pen name, Ahad Ha'am (אחד העם, lit. one of the people, Genesis 26:10), was a Hebrew essayist, and one of the foremost pre-state Zionist thinkers.
Ahmadiyya (officially, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community or the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama'at; الجماعة الإسلامية الأحمدية, transliterated: al-Jamā'ah al-Islāmiyyah al-Aḥmadiyyah; احمدیہ مسلم جماعت) is an Islamic religious movement founded in Punjab, British India, in the late 19th century.
Akkadian (akkadû, ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: URIKI)John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages.
Akkawi cheese (جبنة عكاوي, also Akawi, Akawieh and Ackawi) is a white brine cheese originating from the city of Acre.
Al Jazeera (translit,, literally "The Island", though referring to the Arabian Peninsula in context), also known as JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a state-funded broadcaster in Doha, Qatar, owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network.
Al Riyadh (in Arabic الرياض) is a Riyadh-based, pro-government Saudi daily newspaper.
Husayni (الحسيني also spelled Husseini) is the name of a prominent Palestinian Arab clan formerly based in Jerusalem, which claims descent from Husayn ibn Ali (the son of Ali).
Al-Karmil (الكرمل) was a bi-weekly Arabic-language newspaper founded toward the end of Ottoman imperial rule in Palestine.
Al-Monitor (المونيتور) is a media site launched in February 2012 by the Arab American entrepreneur Jamal Daniel and based in Washington, DC.
al-Muntada al-Adabia was an organisation set up in the last years of the Ottoman Empire to promote Arabic culture.
Al-Zayadina (singular: Zaydani or Zidany, also known as Banu Zaydan) were an Arab clan based in the Levant.
Alan Dowty (born January 15, 1940) is an American author and Professor of Political Science Emeritus, University of Notre Dame.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Aliyah (עֲלִיָּה aliyah, "ascent") is the immigration of Jews from the diaspora to the Land of Israel (Eretz Israel in Hebrew).
Allah (translit) is the Arabic word for God in Abrahamic religions.
The American Journal of Human Genetics is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal in the field of human genetics.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
Mohammed Amin al-Husseini (محمد أمين الحسيني; 1897 – 4 July 1974) was a Palestinian Arab nationalist and Muslim leader in Mandatory Palestine.
The Amorites (Sumerian 𒈥𒌅 MAR.TU; Akkadian Tidnum or Amurrūm; Egyptian Amar; Hebrew אמורי ʼĔmōrī; Ἀμορραῖοι) were an ancient Semitic-speaking people from Syria who also occupied large parts of southern Mesopotamia from the 21st century BC to the end of the 17th century BC, where they established several prominent city states in existing locations, notably Babylon, which was raised from a small town to an independent state and a major city.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
An ancestor is a parent or (recursively) the parent of an antecedent (i.e., a grandparent, great-grandparent, great-great-grandparent, and so forth).
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Ancient Semitic religion encompasses the polytheistic religions of the Semitic peoples from the ancient Near East and Northeast Africa.
André Lemaire (born 1942) is a French epigrapher, historian and philologist.
An anthropologist is a person engaged in the practice of anthropology.
Elías Antonio "Tony" Saca González (born March 9, 1965) is a Salvadoran politician who was President of El Salvador from 2004 to 2009.
Arab Christians (مسيحيون عرب Masīḥiyyūn ʿArab) are Arabs of the Christian faith.
Arab cinema or Arabic cinema, refers to the cinema of the Arab world.
Arab citizens of Israel, or Arab Israelis, are Israeli citizens whose primary language or linguistic heritage is Arabic. Many identify as Palestinian and commonly self-designate themselves as Palestinian citizens of Israel or Israeli Palestinians.See the terminology and self-identification sections for an extended discussion of the various terms used to refer to this population. The traditional vernacular of most Arab citizens, irrespective of religion, is the Palestinian dialect of Arabic. Most Arab citizens of Israel are functionally bilingual, their second language being Modern Hebrew. By religious affiliation, most are Muslim, particularly of the Sunni branch of Islam. There is a significant Arab Christian minority from various denominations as well as the Druze, among other religious communities. According to Israel's Central Bureau of Statistics, the Arab population in 2013 was estimated at 1,658,000, representing 20.7% of the country's population. The majority of these identify themselves as Arab or Palestinian by nationality and Israeli by citizenship.. "The issue of terminology relating to this subject is sensitive and at least partially a reflection of political preferences. Most Israeli official documents refer to the Israeli Arab community as "minorities". The Israeli National Security Council (NSC) has used the term "Arab citizens of Israel". Virtually all political parties, movements and non-governmental organisations from within the Arab community use the word "Palestinian" somewhere in their description – at times failing to make any reference to Israel. For consistency of reference and without prejudice to the position of either side, ICG will use both Arab Israeli and terms the community commonly uses to describe itself, such as Palestinian citizens of Israel or Palestinian Arab citizens of Israel."An IDI Guttman Study of 2008 shows that most Arab citiens of Israel identify as Arabs (45%). While 24% consider themselves Palestinian, 12% consider themselves Israelis, and 19% identify themselves according to religion. Arab citizens of Israel mostly live in Arab-majority towns and cities; with eight of Israel's ten poorest cities being Arab. The vast majority attend separate schools to Jewish Israelis, and Arab political parties have never joined a government coalition. Many have family ties to Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza Strip as well as to Palestinian refugees in Jordan, Syria and Lebanon. Negev Bedouins and the Druze tend to identify more as Israelis than other Arab citizens of Israel. Most of the Arabs living in East Jerusalem and the Golan Heights, occupied by Israel in the Six-Day War of 1967 and later annexed, were offered Israeli citizenship, but most have refused, not wanting to recognize Israel's claim to sovereignty. They became permanent residents instead. They have the right to apply for citizenship, are entitled to municipal services and have municipal voting rights.
Arab culture is the culture of the Arabs, from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea.
The Arab Higher Committee (اللجنة العربية العليا) or the Higher National Committee was the central political organ of the Arab Palestinians in Mandatory Palestine.
Arab Jews (اليهود العرب; יהודים ערבים) is a term referring to Jews living in the Arab World.
Arab Muslims are adherents of Islam who identify linguistically, culturally, and genealogically as Arabs.
The Arab states of the Persian Gulf are the seven Arab states which border the Persian Gulf, namely Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
The Arab world (العالم العربي; formally: Arab homeland, الوطن العربي), also known as the Arab nation (الأمة العربية) or the Arab states, currently consists of the 22 Arab countries of the Arab League.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabic literature (الأدب العربي / ALA-LC: al-Adab al-‘Arabī) is the writing, both prose and poetry, produced by writers in the Arabic language.
Arabic music or Arab music (Arabic: الموسيقى العربية – ALA-LC) is the music of the Arab people.
Arabic nouns and adjectives are declined according to case, state, gender and number.
Arabization or Arabisation (تعريب) describes either the conquest and/or colonization of a non-Arab area and growing Arab influence on non-Arab populations, causing a language shift by their gradual adoption of the Arabic language and/or their incorporation of Arab culture, Arab identity.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.
The Arameans, or Aramaeans (ܐܪ̈ܡܝܐ), were an ancient Northwest Semitic Aramaic-speaking tribal confederation who emerged from the region known as Aram (in present-day Syria) in the Late Bronze Age (11th to 8th centuries BC).
Army of Shadows: Palestinian Collaboration with Zionism, 1917–1948 is a book published in 2004 by Hillel Cohen about the sale of land and other cooperation between Arabs and Jews in Palestine before the establishment of the State of Israel.
Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts (artworks), expressing the author's imaginative, conceptual idea, or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power.
Ashdod (help; أَشْدُود or إِسْدُود) is the sixth-largest city and the largest port in Israel accounting for 60% of the country's imported goods.
Ashkelon (also spelled Ashqelon and Ascalon; help; عَسْقَلَان) is a coastal city in the Southern District of Israel on the Mediterranean coast, south of Tel Aviv, and north of the border with the Gaza Strip.
Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or simply Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים, Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation:, singular:, Modern Hebrew:; also), are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium.
Assyrian people (ܐܫܘܪܝܐ), or Syriacs (see terms for Syriac Christians), are an ethnic group indigenous to the Middle East.
The ataaba (عتابا, meaning "plaint" or "dirge", also transliterated 'ataba) is a traditional Arabic musical form sung at weddings or festivals, and sometimes also by people at work.
Avraham "Avi" Shlaim FBA (born 31 October 1945) is an Israeli historian, Emeritus Professor of International Relations at the University of Oxford and fellow of the British Academy.
Avraham Sela is an Israeli historian and scholar on the Middle East and international relations.
The Ayyubid dynasty (الأيوبيون; خانەدانی ئەیووبیان) was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origin founded by Saladin and centred in Egypt.
Azure: Ideas for the Jewish Nation (תכלת) (Tchelet) was a quarterly journal published by the Shalem Center in Jerusalem, Israel.
Baba ghanoush (bābā ghannūj, also appears as baba ganoush or baba ghanouj) is a Levantine or Syrian dish of mashed, cooked eggplant that is mixed with tahina (made from sesame seeds), olive oil, and various seasonings.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.
Bahá'u'lláh (بهاء الله, "Glory of God"; 12 November 1817 – 29 May 1892 and Muharram 2, 1233 - Dhu'l Qa'dah 2, 1309), born Mírzá Ḥusayn-`Alí Núrí (میرزا حسینعلی نوری), was the founder of the Bahá'í Faith.
The Balfour Declaration was a public statement issued by the British government during World War I announcing support for the establishment of a "national home for the Jewish people" in Palestine, then an Ottoman region with a minority Jewish population (around 3–5% of the total).
Bani Zeid (بني زيد) is a Palestinian town in the Ramallah and al-Bireh Governorate in the north-central West Bank, located northwest of Ramallah, about 45 kilometers northwest of Jerusalem and about southwest of Salfit.
Bank Leumi (בנק לאומי, lit. National Bank) is an Israeli bank.
The tribe of Banu Tamim (بـنـو تـمـيـم) or Bani Tamim (بـني تـمـيـم) is one of the main tribes of Arabia.
Barghouti (other spellings Barghuthi, Barghouthi, or Al-Barghuthi) (classical Arabic: البرغوثي al-Barghūthī) is the surname of a prominent Palestinian family.
Baruch Kimmerling (ברוך קימרלינג, 16 October 1939 – 20 May 2007) was an Israeli scholar and professor of sociology at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
The Battle of Karameh (معركة الكرامة) was a 15-hour military engagement between the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) and combined forces of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and the Jordanian Armed Forces (JAF) in the Jordanian town of Karameh on 21 March 1968, during the War of Attrition.
The Bedouin (badawī) are a grouping of nomadic Arab peoples who have historically inhabited the desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq and the Levant.
Beirut (بيروت, Beyrouth) is the capital and largest city of Lebanon.
Beit Sahour (بيت ساحور pronounced) is a Palestinian town east of Bethlehem under the administration of the Palestinian National Authority.
Belize, formerly British Honduras, is an independent Commonwealth realm on the eastern coast of Central America.
Benny Morris (בני מוריס; born 8 December 1948) is an Israeli historian.
Dov Ber Borochov (Дов-Бер Борохов; July 3, 1881 – December 17, 1917) was a Marxist Zionist and one of the founders of the Labor Zionist movement and unusually for a Zionist, as a pioneer in the study of Yiddish as a language.
Bernard Lewis, FBA (31 May 1916 – 19 May 2018) was a British American historian specializing in oriental studies.
Bethlehem (بيت لحم, "House of Meat"; בֵּית לֶחֶם,, "House of Bread";; Bethleem; initially named after Canaanite fertility god Lehem) is a Palestinian city located in the central West Bank, Palestine, about south of Jerusalem.
Bethlehem University (جامعة بيت لحم) is the first university founded in the West Bank.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
Biblical Hebrew (rtl Ivrit Miqra'it or rtl Leshon ha-Miqra), also called Classical Hebrew, is an archaic form of Hebrew, a Canaanite Semitic language spoken by the Israelites in the area known as Israel, roughly west of the Jordan River and east of the Mediterranean Sea.
Bilu (ביל"ו); also Palestine Pioneers), was a movement whose goal was the agricultural settlement of the Land of Israel. Its members were known as Bilu'im.
The birth rate (technically, births/population rate) is the total number of live births per 1,000 in a population in a year or period.
Black September (أيلول الأسود; Aylūl Al-Aswad) was the conflict fought in Jordan between the Jordanian Armed Forces (JAF), under the leadership of King Hussein, and the Palestine Liberation Organisation (PLO), under the leadership of Yasser Arafat, primarily between 16 and 27 September 1970, with certain actions continuing until 17 July 1971.
Borders are geographic boundaries of political entities or legal jurisdictions, such as governments, sovereign states, federated states, and other subnational entities.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Canaan (Northwest Semitic:; Phoenician: 𐤊𐤍𐤏𐤍 Kenā‘an; Hebrew) was a Semitic-speaking region in the Ancient Near East during the late 2nd millennium BC.
Canaanism was a cultural and ideological movement founded in 1939 that reached its peak in the 1940s among the Jews of Palestine.
Carlos Roberto Flores Facussé (born 10 March 1950) was President of Honduras from 27 January 1998 to 27 January 2002 and President of the National Congress from 25 January 1994 to 25 January 1998.
The Cave of the Patriarchs, also called the Cave of Machpelah (Hebrew: מערת המכפלה,, trans. "cave of the double tombs") and known by Muslims as the Sanctuary of Abraham or the Ibrahimi Mosque (الحرم الإبراهيمي), is a series of subterranean chambers located in the heart of the old city of Hebron (Al-Khalil) in the Hebron Hills. According to tradition that has been associated with the Holy Books Torah, Bible and Quran, the cave and adjoining field were purchased by Abraham as a burial plot. The site of the Cave of the Patriarchs is located beneath a Saladin-era mosque, which had been converted from a large rectangular Herodian-era Judean structure. Dating back over 2,000 years, the monumental Herodian compound is believed to be the oldest continuously used intact prayer structure in the world, and is the oldest major building in the world that still fulfills its original function. The Hebrew name of the complex reflects the very old tradition of the double tombs of Abraham and Sarah, Isaac and Rebecca, Jacob and Leah, considered the Patriarchs and Matriarchs of the Jewish people. The only Jewish matriarch missing is Rachel, described in one biblical tradition as having been buried near Bethlehem. The Arabic name of the complex reflects the prominence given to Abraham, revered by Muslims as a Quranic prophet and patriarch through Ishmael. Outside biblical and Quranic sources there are a number of legends and traditions associated with the cave. In Acts 7:16 of the Christian Bible the cave of the Patriarchs is located in Shechem (Neapolis; Arabic: Nablus).
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
The Church of the Holy Sepulchre (كَنِيسَةُ ٱلْقِيَامَة Kanīsatu al-Qiyāmah; Ναὸς τῆς Ἀναστάσεως Naos tes Anastaseos; Սուրբ Հարության տաճար Surb Harut'yan tač̣ar; Ecclesia Sancti Sepulchri; כנסיית הקבר, Knesiyat ha-Kever; also called the Church of the Resurrection or Church of the Anastasis by Orthodox Christians) is a church in the Christian Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem.
The Church of the Nativity, also Basilica of the Nativity (كَنِيسَةُ ٱلْمَهْد; Βασιλική της Γεννήσεως; Սուրբ Ծննդյան տաճար; Basilica Nativitatis) is a basilica located in Bethlehem in the West Bank.
In antiquity, Cilicia(Armenian: Կիլիկիա) was the south coastal region of Asia Minor and existed as a political entity from Hittite times into the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia during the late Byzantine Empire.
Circa, usually abbreviated c., ca. or ca (also circ. or cca.), means "approximately" in several European languages (and as a loanword in English), usually in reference to a date.
Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or belonging to a nation.
Claude Cheysson (13 April 1920 – 15 October 2012) was a French Socialist politician who served as Foreign Minister in the government of Pierre Mauroy from 1981 to 1984.
Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.
The Committee on the Exercise of the Inalienable Rights of the Palestinian People (CEIRPP) was founded in 1975 by Resolution of the United Nations General Assembly in order to formulate a to enable the Palestinian people to exercise their inalienable right to self-determination, to national independence and sovereignty, and the right of Palestine refugees to return.
A community is a small or large social unit (a group of living things) that has something in common, such as norms, religion, values, or identity.
Costume is the distinctive style of dress of an individual or group that reflects their class, gender, profession, ethnicity, nationality, activity or epoch.
Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.
The Crimean War (or translation) was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
A cuisine is a style of cooking characterized by distinctive ingredients, techniques and dishes, and usually associated with a specific culture or geographic region.
Customs is an authority or agency in a country responsible for collecting tariffs and for controlling the flow of goods, including animals, transports, personal, and hazardous items, into and out of a country.
Dabke (دبكة; also transliterated Dabka, Dabki, Dubki, Dabkeh; plural Dabkaat) is an Arab folk dance native to the Levant.
DAM (دام; דם) is a Palestinian hip-hop group.
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
Dance is a performing art form consisting of purposefully selected sequences of human movement.
David Ben-Gurion (דָּוִד בֶּן-גּוּרִיּוֹן;, born David Grün; 16 October 1886 – 1 December 1973) was the primary national founder of the State of Israel and the first Prime Minister of Israel.
David Roberts RA (24 October 179625 November 1864) was a Scottish painter.
This article describes several definitions of Palestinian.
The Deir Yassin massacre took place on April 9, 1948, when around 120 fighters from the Zionist paramilitary groups Irgun and Lehi attacked Deir Yassin, a Palestinian Arab village of roughly 600 people near Jerusalem.
The demographics of Israel are monitored by the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics.
Divine Intervention (يد إلهية) is a 2002 film by Palestinian director Elia Suleiman, which may be described as a surreal black comedy.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
The Doghmush (دغمش, pronounced "Doe-moosh" or "Durmush", see spelling) are a Palestinian family from the Gaza Strip.
Dolma is a family of stuffed vegetable dishes common in the Mediterranean cuisine and surrounding regions including the Balkans, the Caucasus, Russia, Central Asia and Middle East.
The Dome of the Rock (قبة الصخرة Qubbat al-Sakhrah, כיפת הסלע Kippat ha-Sela) is an Islamic shrine located on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem.
The House of El Douaihy (also "Al Douaihy" in some cases Doueihy, Douaihi, Doueihi, Dowaihi, Duayhe, Duwayhi', Dwaihy, الدويهي, De Douai), is an important Lebanese and Levantine noble family of French origins of which can be traced up until the 7th century.
A dowry is a transfer of parental property, gifts or money at the marriage of a daughter.
The Druze (درزي or, plural دروز; דרוזי plural דרוזים) are an Arabic-speaking esoteric ethnoreligious group originating in Western Asia who self-identify as unitarians (Al-Muwaḥḥidūn/Muwahhidun).
Duke University is a private, non-profit, research university located in Durham, North Carolina.
East Jerusalem or Eastern Jerusalem is the sector of Jerusalem that was occupied by Jordan in 1948 and had remained out of the Israeli-held West Jerusalem at the end of the 1948–49 Arab–Israeli War and has been occupied by Israel since the 1967 Arab-Israeli War.
Edom (Assyrian: 𒌑𒁺𒈠𒀀𒀀 Uduma; Syriac: ܐܕܘܡ) was an ancient kingdom in Transjordan located between Moab to the northeast, the Arabah to the west and the Arabian Desert to the south and east.
Edward Robinson (April 10, 1794 – January 27, 1863) was an American biblical scholar.
Edward Wadie Said (إدوارد وديع سعيد,; 1 November 1935 – 25 September 2003) was a professor of literature at Columbia University, a public intellectual, and a founder of the academic field of postcolonial studies.
Efraim Karsh (אפרים קארש; born 1953) is an Israeli–British historian, the founding director and emeritus professor of Middle East and Mediterranean Studies at King's College London.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The city of Ekron (עֶקְרוֹן ʿeqrōn), in the Hellenistic period known as Accaron, was one of the five cities of the famed Philistine pentapolis, located in southwestern Canaan.
El Salvador, officially the Republic of El Salvador (República de El Salvador, literally "Republic of The Savior"), is the smallest and the most densely populated country in Central America.
In political and sociological theory, the elite (French élite, from Latin eligere) are a small group of powerful people who hold a disproportionate amount of wealth, privilege, political power, or skill in a society.
Embroidery is the craft of decorating fabric or other materials using a needle to apply thread or yarn.
Emigration is the act of leaving a resident country or place of residence with the intent to settle elsewhere.
Imil (Emile) Shukri Habiby (إميل حبيبي, אמיל חביבי, 28 January 1922 – 2 May 1996) was an Israeli Arab writer of Arabic literature and a politician who served as a member of the Knesset for the communist parties Maki and Rakah.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
An entrée in modern French table service and that of much of the English-speaking world (apart from the United States and parts of Canada) is a dish served before the main course of a meal; it may be the first dish served, or it may follow a soup or other small dish or dishes.
Eric John Ernest Hobsbawm (9 June 1917 – 1 October 2012) was a British historian of the rise of industrial capitalism, socialism and nationalism.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
Ethnography (from Greek ἔθνος ethnos "folk, people, nation" and γράφω grapho "I write") is the systematic study of people and cultures.
An ethnonym (from the ἔθνος, éthnos, "nation" and ὄνομα, ónoma, "name") is a name applied to a given ethnic group.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
To be in exile means to be away from one's home (i.e. city, state, or country), while either being explicitly refused permission to return or being threatened with imprisonment or death upon return.
Faisal I bin Hussein bin Ali al-Hashemi (فيصل بن الحسين بن علي الهاشمي, Fayṣal al-Awwal ibn al-Ḥusayn ibn ‘Alī al-Hāshimī; 20 May 1885 – 8 September 1933) was King of the Arab Kingdom of Syria or Greater Syria in 1920, and was King of Iraq from 23 August 1921 to 1933.
Falafel or felafelOxford University Press,, Oxford Dictionaries Online, Retrieved 2017-06-26.
Falastin, sometimes transliterated Filastin, (جريدة فلسطين) was a Palestinian newspaper based in Jaffa.
Fataḥ (فتح), formerly the Palestinian National Liberation Movement, is a Palestinian nationalist political party and the largest faction of the confederated multi-party Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and the second-largest party in the Palestinian Legislative Council (PLC).
The Fatimid Caliphate was an Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west.
Fellah (فلاح, fallāḥ; plural Fellaheen or Fellahin, فلاحين, fallāḥīn) is a farmer or agricultural laborer in the Middle East and North Africa.
Fertility is the natural capability to produce offspring.
The First Intifada or First Palestinian Intifada (also known simply as the intifada or intifadah) was a Palestinian uprising against the Israeli occupation of the West Bank and Gaza.
Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group.
François Maurice Adrien Marie Mitterrand (26 October 1916 – 8 January 1996) was a French statesman who was President of France from 1981 to 1995, the longest time in office of any French president.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein (جمال عبد الناصر حسين,; 15 January 1918 – 28 September 1970) was the second President of Egypt, serving from 1956 until his death in 1970.
Gath, Gat, or Geth (גַּת, wine press; Geth), often referred to as Gath of the Philistines, was one of the five Philistine city-states, established in northwestern Philistia.
Gaza (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998),, p. 761 "Gaza Strip /'gɑːzə/ a strip of territory in Palestine, on the SE Mediterranean coast including the town of Gaza...". غزة,; Ancient Ġāzā), also referred to as Gaza City, is a Palestinian city in the Gaza Strip, with a population of 515,556, making it the largest city in the State of Palestine.
The Gaza Strip (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p.761 "Gaza Strip /'gɑːzə/ a strip of territory under the control of the Palestinian National Authority and Hamas, on the SE Mediterranean coast including the town of Gaza...". قطاع غزة), or simply Gaza, is a self-governing Palestinian territory on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, that borders Egypt on the southwest for and Israel on the east and north along a border.
A general strike (or mass strike) is a strike action in which a substantial proportion of the total labour force in a city, region, or country participates.
Genetic genealogy is the use of DNA testing in combination with traditional genealogical methods to infer relationships between individuals and find ancestors.
A geographer is a scholar whose area of study is geography, the study of Earth's natural environment and human society.
George Habib Antonius, CBE (hon.) (جورج حبيب أنطونيوس; October 19, 1891 – May 21, 1942) was a Lebanese-Egyptian author and diplomat, settled in Jerusalem, one of the first historians of Arab nationalism.
Ghada Karmi (غادة كرمي) (born 1939) is a Palestinian doctor of medicine, author and academic.
Ghassan Kanafani (غسان كنفاني, 8 April 1936 in Acre, Mandatory Palestine – 8 July 1972 in Beirut, Lebanon) was a Palestinian author and a leading member of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP).
Golan (גּולן; جولان or) is the name of a biblical town later known from the works of Josephus (first century CE) and Eusebius (Onomasticon, early 4th century CE).
Grape leaves also known as vine leaves, are used in the cuisines of a number of cultures.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
The Gulf War (2 August 199028 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 199017 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 199128 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
Haaretz (הארץ) (lit. "The Land ", originally Ḥadashot Ha'aretz – חדשות הארץ, – "News of the Land ") is an Israeli newspaper.
Halhul حلحول, transliteration: Ḥalḥūl, is a Palestinian city located in the southern West Bank, north of Hebron in the Hebron Governorate.
In human genetics, Y Haplogroup E-M123 is a Y-chromosome haplogroup, and defined by the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutation M123.
Haplogroup G (M201) is a human Y-chromosome haplogroup.
In human genetics, Haplogroup J-M172 or J2 is a Y-chromosome haplogroup which is a subclade (branch) of haplogroup J-P209.
In Genetic genealogy and human genetics, Y DNA haplogroup J-M267, also commonly known as Haplogroup J1 is a subclade (branch) of Y-DNA haplogroup J-P209, (commonly known as Haplogroup J) along with its sibling clade Y DNA haplogroup J-M172 (commonly known as Haplogroup J2).
Haplogroup T-M184, also known as Haplogroup T is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
Harry Ostrer is a medical geneticist who investigates the genetic basis of common and rare disorders and, in the diagnostic laboratory, translates the findings of genetic discoveries into tests that can be used to identify people’s risks for having a disease prior to its occurrence or for predicting its outcome once it has occurred.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
Al-Ḥasan ibn Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib (الحسن ابن علي ابن أبي طالب, 624–670 CE), commonly known as Hasan or Hassan, is the eldest son of Muhammad's daughter Fatimah and of Ali, and the older brother to Husayn.
Hauran (حوران / ALA-LC: Ḥawrān), also spelled Hawran, Houran and Horan, known to the Ancient Greeks and Romans as Auranitis, is a volcanic plateau, a geographic area and a people located in southwestern Syria and extending into the northwestern corner of Jordan.
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (האוניברסיטה העברית בירושלים, Ha-Universita ha-Ivrit bi-Yerushalayim; الجامعة العبرية في القدس, Al-Jami'ah al-Ibriyyah fi al-Quds; abbreviated HUJI) is Israel's second oldest university, established in 1918, 30 years before the establishment of the State of Israel.
Hebrews (Hebrew: עברים or עבריים, Tiberian ʿIḇrîm, ʿIḇriyyîm; Modern Hebrew ʿIvrim, ʿIvriyyim; ISO 259-3 ʕibrim, ʕibriyim) is a term appearing 34 times within 32 verses of the Hebrew Bible.
Hebron (الْخَلِيل; חֶבְרוֹן) is a Palestinian.
Hebron Glass (زجاج الخليل, zajaj al-Khalili) refers to glass produced in Hebron as part of a flourishing art industry established in the city during Roman rule in Palestine.
The Hejaz (اَلْـحِـجَـاز,, literally "the Barrier"), is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia.
Hellenization or Hellenisation is the historical spread of ancient Greek culture, religion and, to a lesser extent, language, over foreign peoples conquered by Greeks or brought into their sphere of influence, particularly during the Hellenistic period following the campaigns of Alexander the Great in the fourth century BC.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
The Helles clan is a Palestinian extended family that became known in 2008 for its violent conflict with the de facto Hamas military government in the Gaza Strip.
Hind al-Husseini (هند الحسيني) (April 25, 1916 in Jerusalem – September 13, 1994 in Jerusalem) was a Palestinian woman notable for rescuing 55 orphaned survivors of the Deir Yassin massacre, after they were dropped off in Jerusalem and left to fend for themselves.
Hip hop, or hip-hop, is a subculture and art movement developed in the Bronx in New York City during the late 1970s.
The Kingdom of Israel and the Kingdom of Judah were related kingdoms from the Iron Age period of the ancient Levant.
The history of Iran, commonly also known as Persia in the Western world, is intertwined with the history of a larger region, also to an extent known as Greater Iran, comprising the area from Anatolia, the Bosphorus, and Egypt in the west to the borders of Ancient India and the Syr Darya in the east, and from the Caucasus and the Eurasian Steppe in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the south.
The history of the State of Palestine describes the creation and evolution of the State of Palestine in the West Bank and Gaza Strip.
Hittin (حطّين, transliterated Ḥiṭṭīn (حِـطِّـيْـن) or Ḥaṭṭīn (حَـطِّـيْـن)) was a Palestinian village located west of Tiberias.
Holon (חוֹלוֹן; حُولُون Ḥūlūn) is a city on the central coastal strip south of Tel Aviv, Israel.
A homeland (country of origin and native land) is the concept of the place (cultural geography) with which an ethnic group holds a long history and a deep cultural association – the country in which a particular national identity began.
Honduras, officially the Republic of Honduras (República de Honduras), is a republic in Central America.
Human genetics is the study of inheritance as it occurs in human beings.
In human genetics, a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup is a haplogroup defined by differences in human mitochondrial DNA.
In human genetics, a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup is a haplogroup defined by mutations in the non-recombining portions of DNA from the Y-chromosome (called Y-DNA).
Hummus (or; حُمُّص, full Arabic name: hummus bi tahini حمص بالطحينة) is a Levantine dip or spread made from cooked, mashed chickpeas or other beans, blended with tahini, olive oil, lemon juice, salt and garlic.
Al-Ḥusayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (الحسين ابن علي ابن أبي طالب; 10 October 625 – 10 October 680) (3 Sha'aban AH 4 (in the ancient (intercalated) Arabic calendar) – 10 Muharram AH 61) (his name is also transliterated as Husayn ibn 'Alī, Husain, Hussain and Hussein), was a grandson of the Islamic ''Nabi'' (نَـبِي, Prophet) Muhammad, and son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam), and Muhammad's daughter, Fatimah.
Ian Steven Lustick (born 1949) is an American political scientist and specialist on the modern history and politics of the Middle East.
Ibrahim Muhawi (born 1937, إبراهيم مهوي) is a Palestinian academic and writer, specializing in Palestinian and Arabic literature, folklore and translation.
Ibrahim Nasrallah (إبراهيم نصرالله; born 1954) is a Jordanian-Palestinian poet, novelist, professor, painter and photographer.
Ibrahim Pasha (Kavalalı İbrahim Paşa, 1789 – November 10, 1848) was the eldest son of Muhammad Ali, the Wāli and unrecognised Khedive of Egypt and Sudan.
Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.
Institute for Middle East Understanding (IMEU) is a 501(c)(3) pro-Palestinian non-profit organisation, not aligned to any political or government organisation.
Internally displaced Palestinians, also Internally displaced persons in Israel and Palestine, are Palestinian IDPs who fled or were expelled from their home in Mandatory Palestine by Jewish or Israeli forces, before and during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war, but who remained within the area that became the state of Israel.
The International Court of Justice (abbreviated ICJ; commonly referred to as the World Court) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations (UN).
The International Day of Solidarity with the Palestinian People is a UN-organized observance.
The international recognition of the State of Palestine has been the objective of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) since the Palestinian Declaration of Independence proclaimed the establishment of the State of Palestine on 15 November 1988 in Algiers, Algeria at an extraordinary session in exile of the Palestinian National Council.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iranian cuisine comprises the cooking traditions of Iran.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
The Iraqi people (Arabic: العراقيون ʿIrāqiyyūn, Kurdish: گهلی عیراق Îraqîyan, ܥܡܐ ܥܝܪܩܝܐ ʿIrāqāyā, Iraklılar) are the citizens of the modern country of Iraq. Arabs have had a large presence in Mesopotamia since the Sasanian Empire (224–637). Arabic was spoken by the majority in the Kingdom of Araba in the first and second centuries, and by Arabs in al-Hirah from the third century. Arabs were common in Mesopotamia at the time of the Seleucid Empire (3rd century BC).Ramirez-Faria, 2007, p. 33. The first Arab kingdom outside Arabia was established in Iraq's Al-Hirah in the third century. Arabic was a minority language in northern Iraq in the eighth century BC, from the eighth century following the Muslim conquest of Persia, it became the dominant language of Iraqi Muslims because Arabic was the language of the Quran and of the Abbasid Caliphate. Kurds who are Iraqi citizens live in the Zagros Mountains of northeast Iraq to the east of the upper Tigris. Arabic and Kurdish are Iraq's national languages.
Irony, in its broadest sense, is a rhetorical device, literary technique, or event in which what appears, on the surface, to be the case, differs radically from what is actually the case.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islam is a major religion in Palestine, being the religion of the majority of the Palestinian population.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Israel Belkind (Ізраэль Белкінд; 1861–1929) was a Jewish educator, author, writer, historian and founder of the Bilu movement.
The Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (הלשכה המרכזית לסטטיסטיקה, HaLishka HaMerkazit LiStatistika), abbreviated CBS, is an Israeli government office established in 1949 to carry out research and publish statistical data on all aspects of Israeli life, including population, society, economy, industry, education, and physical infrastructure.
The Israel Defense Forces (IDF; צְבָא הַהֲגָנָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, lit. "The Army of Defense for Israel"; جيش الدفاع الإسرائيلي), commonly known in Israel by the Hebrew acronym Tzahal, are the military forces of the State of Israel.
The Civil Administration (המנהל האזרחי) is the Israeli governing body that operates in the West Bank.
The Israeli Declaration of Independence,Hebrew: הכרזת העצמאות, Hakhrazat HaAtzma'ut/מגילת העצמאות Megilat HaAtzma'utArabic: وثيقة إعلان قيام دولة إسرائيل, Wathiqat 'iielan qiam dawlat 'iisrayiyl formally the Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel (הכרזה על הקמת מדינת ישראל), was proclaimed on 14 May 1948 (5 Iyar 5708) by David Ben-Gurion, the Executive Head of the World Zionist OrganizationThen known as the Zionist Organization.
Israeli nationality law defines the criteria under which a person can be granted citizenship of Israel.
The Israeli-occupied territories are the territories occupied by Israel during the Six-Day War of 1967.
The Israeli–Palestinian conflict (Ha'Sikhsukh Ha'Yisraeli-Falestini; al-Niza'a al-Filastini-al-Israili) is the ongoing struggle between Israelis and Palestinians that began in the mid-20th century.
The Israelites (בני ישראל Bnei Yisra'el) were a confederation of Iron Age Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods.
Issa Daoud El-Issa (ﻋﻴﺴﻰ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﺴﻰ, his surname also spelt al Issa and Elissa) was a Palestinian Christian poet and journalist.
Izz ad-Din Abd al-Qadar ibn Mustafa ibn Yusuf ibn Muhammad al-Qassam (1881 or 19 December 1882 – 20 November 1935) (عز الدين بن عبد القادر بن مصطفى بن يوسف بن محمد القسام / ALA-LC) was a Syrian Muslim preacher, and a leader in the local struggles against British and French Mandatory rule in the Levant, and a militant opponent of Zionism in the 1920s and 1930s.
Jaffa, in Hebrew Yafo, or in Arabic Yaffa (יפו,; يَافَا, also called Japho or Joppa), the southern and oldest part of Tel Aviv-Yafo, is an ancient port city in Israel.
James L. Gelvin (born February 12, 1951) is an American scholar of Middle Eastern history.
James Parkes (22 December 1896 – 10 August 1981) was a clergyman, historian, and social activist from Guernsey.
Jarrar (جرار) is a large Palestinian clan that served as rural landlords and tax-collectors (mutasallims) in the Jenin area during Ottoman rule in Palestine.
Al-Jayyusi (الجیوسي; also spelled Jayousi, Jayoosi or Jayyousi) is a prominent Palestinian family whose members acted as local lords, army generals and tax collectors since the 15th century.
The Jericho Conference (مؤتمر أريحا) was held in December 1948 to decide the future of the portion of Palestine that was held by Jordan at the end of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, led by Sheikh Muhammad Ali Ja'abari.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
The Jerusalem Talmud (תַּלְמוּד יְרוּשַׁלְמִי, Talmud Yerushalmi, often Yerushalmi for short), also known as the Palestinian Talmud or Talmuda de-Eretz Yisrael (Talmud of the Land of Israel), is a collection of Rabbinic notes on the second-century Jewish oral tradition known as the Mishnah.
The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tfutza, תְּפוּצָה) or exile (Hebrew: Galut, גָּלוּת; Yiddish: Golus) is the dispersion of Israelites, Judahites and later Jews out of their ancestral homeland (the Land of Israel) and their subsequent settlement in other parts of the globe.
Jewish ethnic divisions refers to a number of distinctive communities within the world's ethnically Jewish population.
The Jewish National Fund (קרן קיימת לישראל, Keren Kayemet LeYisrael previously הפונד הלאומי, Ha Fund HaLeumi) was founded in 1901 to buy and develop land in Ottoman Palestine (later the British Mandate for Palestine, and subsequently Israel and the Palestinian territories) for Jewish settlement.
The "Jewish state" is a political term used to describe the nation state of Israel.
The Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA) is an international news agency and wire service serving Jewish community newspapers and media around the world, with about 70 syndication clients listed on its web site.
The Jewish Virtual Library ("JVL", formerly known as JSOURCE) is an online encyclopedia published by the American–Israeli Cooperative Enterprise (AICE).
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Jinn (الجن), also romanized as djinn or anglicized as genies (with the more broad meaning of spirits or demons, depending on source)Tobias Nünlist Dämonenglaube im Islam Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, 2015 p. 22 (German) are supernatural creatures in early Arabian and later Islamic mythology and theology.
Jonah or Jonas is the name given in the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh/Old Testament) to a prophet of the northern kingdom of Israel in about the 8th century BCE.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
The Jordan River (also River Jordan; נְהַר הַיַּרְדֵּן Nahar ha-Yarden, ܢܗܪܐ ܕܝܘܪܕܢܢ, نَهْر الْأُرْدُنّ Nahr al-Urdunn, Ancient Greek: Ιορδάνης, Iordànes) is a -long river in the Middle East that flows roughly north to south through the Sea of Galilee (Hebrew: כנרת Kinneret, Arabic: Bohayrat Tabaraya, meaning Lake of Tiberias) and on to the Dead Sea.
The Jordanian annexation of the West Bank was the occupation and consequent annexation of the West Bank (including East Jerusalem) by Jordan (formerly Transjordan) in the aftermath of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War.
Titus Flavius Josephus (Φλάβιος Ἰώσηπος; 37 – 100), born Yosef ben Matityahu (יוסף בן מתתיהו, Yosef ben Matityahu; Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς), was a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry.
The Journal of Palestine Studies is an academic journal established in 1971.
Justin A. McCarthy (born October 19, 1945) is an American demographer, professor of history at the University of Louisville, in Louisville, Kentucky.
Kanafah (كُنافة,, dialectal) is a traditional Palestinian dessert made with cheese pastry soaked in sweet, sugar-based syrup.
Kathleen (McGrath) Christison (born 1941) is an American political analyst and author whose primary area of focus is the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
Christopher Kevin Boyle (23 May 1943 – 25 December 2010) was a Northern Ireland-born human rights activist, barrister and educator.
Khalidi (خالد ي) or al-Khalidi is a prominent and politically active Palestinian Arab family from the Bani Khalid tribal confederation.
Khalil Beidas (خليل بيدس, also transliterated Khalil Bedas, Khalil Baydas, Khalil Beydas) (1874–1949), was a Palestinian Christian scholar, educator, translator and novelist.
The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem was a crusader state established in the Southern Levant by Godfrey of Bouillon in 1099 after the First Crusade.
In anthropology, kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of all humans in all societies, although its exact meanings even within this discipline are often debated.
The Knesset (הַכְּנֶסֶת; lit. "the gathering" or "assembly"; الكنيست) is the unicameral national legislature of Israel.
Kohen or cohen (or kohein; כֹּהֵן kohén, "priest", pl. kohaním, "priests") is the Hebrew word for "priest" used colloquially in reference to the Aaronic priesthood.
The Kurkh Monoliths are two Assyrian stelae that contain a description of the reigns of Ashurnasirpal II and his son Shalmaneser III.
The Land of Israel is the traditional Jewish name for an area of indefinite geographical extension in the Southern Levant.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
The Latin Church, sometimes called the Western Church, is the largest particular church sui iuris in full communion with the Pope and the rest of the Catholic Church, tracing its history to the earliest days of Christianity.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
Legend is a genre of folklore that consists of a narrative featuring human actions perceived or believed both by teller and listeners to have taken place within human history.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
Levantine Arabic (الـلَّـهْـجَـةُ الـشَّـامِـيَّـة,, Levantine Arabic: il-lahže š-šāmiyye) is a broad dialect of Arabic and the vernacular Arabic of the eastern coastal strip of the Levantine Sea, that is Shaam.
Pottery and ceramics have been produced in the Levant since prehistoric times.
A lexicon, word-hoard, wordbook, or word-stock is the vocabulary of a person, language, or branch of knowledge (such as nautical or medical).
Liana Badr (born 1950 in Jerusalem) is a Palestinian novelist, and short story writer.
A liberation movement is an organization or political movement leading a rebellion, or a non-violent social movement, against a colonial power or national government, often seeking independence based on a nationalist identity and an anti-imperialist outlook.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
Around 400 Arab towns and villages were depopulated during the 1948 Palestinian exodus.
During the 1936–39 Arab revolt in Palestine against the Mandatory Palestine, the militant Zionist group Irgun carried out 60 attacks against Palestinian people and the British Army.
The following Lists of Palestinians are lists of notable people with either a self-designation (endonym) or a foreign appellation (exonym) as "Palestinian", or who were born in the region of Palestine.
Literature, most generically, is any body of written works.
Luis Antonio Jiménez Garcés (born 17 June 1984), more commonly known as Luis Jiménez, is a Chilean footballer who plays for Qatar SC as an attacking midfielder.
Lydia (Assyrian: Luddu; Λυδία, Lydía; Lidya) was an Iron Age kingdom of western Asia Minor located generally east of ancient Ionia in the modern western Turkish provinces of Uşak, Manisa and inland İzmir.
Ma'an News Agency (MNA; وكالة معا الإخبارية) is a large wire service created in 2005 in the Palestinian territories.
Mahmoud Darwish (maḥmūd darwīsh, 13 March 1941 – 9 August 2008) was a Palestinian poet and author who was regarded as the Palestinian national poet.
Mamluk (Arabic: مملوك mamlūk (singular), مماليك mamālīk (plural), meaning "property", also transliterated as mamlouk, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke or marmeluke) is an Arabic designation for slaves.
The Mamluk Sultanate (سلطنة المماليك Salṭanat al-Mamālīk) was a medieval realm spanning Egypt, the Levant, and Hejaz.
Mandatory Palestine (فلسطين; פָּלֶשְׂתִּינָה (א"י), where "EY" indicates "Eretz Yisrael", Land of Israel) was a geopolitical entity under British administration, carved out of Ottoman Syria after World War I. British civil administration in Palestine operated from 1920 until 1948.
Maqaam (also known as maqām) or maqaamat (plural), translating to "stations" in Arabic, is the various stages a Sufi's soul must attain in its search for God.
Martial law is the imposition of direct military control of normal civilian functions of government, especially in response to a temporary emergency such as invasion or major disaster, or in an occupied territory. Martial law can be used by governments to enforce their rule over the public.
May Ziade (مي زيادة; 11 February 1886 – 17 October 1941) was a Lebanese-Palestinian poet, essayist and translator.
The Mayor of the City of Jerusalem is head of the executive branch of the political system in Jerusalem, Israel.
In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (also known as the Mediterranean region or sometimes Mediterranea) is the region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea that have a Mediterranean climate, with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers, which supports characteristic Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub vegetation.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Meze or mezze (also spelled mazzeh or mazze; maze; meze; məzə; mezés; мезe / meze; мезе; мезе; muqabbilāt; Meze; мезе) is a selection of small dishes served to accompany alcoholic drinks in the Near East, the Balkans, and parts of Central Asia.
Michael Prior (March 15, 1942 – July 21, 2004) was a priest of the Vincentian Congregation, professor of biblical theology at Saint Mary's College, University of Surrey, and a liberation theologian.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
The Migration Period was a period during the decline of the Roman Empire around the 4th to 6th centuries AD in which there were widespread migrations of peoples within or into Europe, mostly into Roman territory, notably the Germanic tribes and the Huns.
A minister is a politician who heads a government department, making and implementing decisions on policies in conjunction with the other ministers.
The Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs (מִשְׂרַד הַחוּץ, translit. Misrad HaHutz; وزارة الخارجية الإسرائيلية) is one of the most important ministries in the Israeli government.
Minority Rights Group International (MRG) is an international human rights organisation founded with the objective of working to secure rights for ethnic, national, religious and linguistic minorities and indigenous peoples around the world.
Miral is a 2010 biographical political film directed by Julian Schnabel about the coming of age of a Palestinian girl named Miral who grows up in the wake of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War and finds herself drawn into the conflict.
Mizrahi Jews, Mizrahim (מִזְרָחִים), also referred to as Edot HaMizrach ("Communities of the East"; Mizrahi Hebrew), ("Sons of the East"), or Oriental Jews, are descendants of local Jewish communities in the Middle East from biblical times into the modern era.
A modal haplotype is an ancestral haplotype derived from the DNA test results of a specific group of people, using genetic genealogy.
Modernity, a topic in the humanities and social sciences, is both a historical period (the modern era), as well as the ensemble of particular socio-cultural norms, attitudes and practices that arose in the wake of Renaissance, in the "Age of Reason" of 17th-century thought and the 18th-century "Enlightenment".
Mohsen Subhi (محسن صبحي, also, Mohsen Subhi Khalil AbdelHamid Ataya) (October 4, 1963 – August 2, 2009) was a Palestinian composer of classical Arabic music and arranger of modern Palestinian music and folk song.
Mongol invasions and conquests took place throughout the 13th century, resulting in the vast Mongol Empire, which by 1300 covered much of Asia and Eastern Europe.
Mongol raids into Palestine took place towards the end of the Crusades, following the temporarily successful Mongol invasions of Syria, primarily in 1260 and 1300.
Moshe Gil (משה גיל; February 8, 1921 – January 23, 2014) was a renowned Israeli historian.
A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.
Mother-of-Pearl carving, a traditional handicraft in Bethlehem, is said to have been brought to the city by Franciscan friars from Italy in the 15th century.
Mourid Barghouti or Mureed Barghouti or Murid Barguti or Murid Barghuti (مريد البرغوثي) (born July 8, 1944, in Deir Ghassana, near Ramallah, on the West Bank) is a Palestinian poet and writer.
Muhammad Ali Pasha al-Mas'ud ibn Agha (محمد علی پاشا المسعود بن آغا; محمد علي باشا / ALA-LC: Muḥammad ‘Alī Bāshā; Albanian: Mehmet Ali Pasha; Turkish: Kavalalı Mehmet Ali Paşa; 4 March 1769 – 2 August 1849) was an Ottoman Albanian commander in the Ottoman army, who rose to the rank of Pasha, and became Wāli, and self-declared Khedive of Egypt and Sudan with the Ottomans' temporary approval.
Musa Kazim Pasha al-Husayni (موسى كاظم الحسيني) (1853 in Jerusalem – 27 March 1934) held a series of senior posts in the Ottoman administration.
Musakhan (مسخّن) is a Palestinian cuisine dish, composed of roasted chicken baked with onions, sumac, allspice, saffron, and fried pine nuts served over taboon bread.
Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time.
The music of Palestine (الموسيقى الفلسطينية) is one of many regional subgenres of Arabic music.
The Muslim conquest of the Levant (اَلْـفَـتْـحُ الْإٍسْـلَامِيُّ لِـلـشَّـامِ, Al-Faṫṫḥul-Islāmiyyuash-Shām) or Arab conquest of the Levant (اَلْـفَـتْـحُ الْـعَـرَبِيُّ لِـلـشَّـامِ, Al-Faṫṫḥul-ʿArabiyyu Lish-Shām) occurred in the first half of the 7th century,"Syria." Encyclopædia Britannica.
In 1918, following the British defeat of the Ottoman army and their establishment of a Military Government in Palestine, a number of political clubs called Muslim-Christian Associations (Al-Jam'iah al-Islamiya al-Massihiya) were established in all the major towns.
The Nabataeans, also Nabateans (الأنباط  , compare Ναβαταῖος, Nabataeus), were an Arab people who inhabited northern Arabia and the Southern Levant.
Nabi Salih (النبي صالح, alternatively Nabi Saleh) is a small Palestinian village in the Ramallah and al-Bireh Governorate in the central West Bank, located 20 kilometers northwest of Ramallah.
Nabi Shu'ayb (also transliterated Neby Shoaib or Nabi Shuaib, meaning "the Prophet Shu'ayb") is a Druze religious prophet, traditionally identified with the biblical Jethro, whose possible shrine/tomb is believed to be located near Kfar Zeitim, not far from Tiberias, Israel.
Nablus (نابلس, שכם, Biblical Shechem ISO 259-3 Škem, Νεάπολις Νeapolis) is a city in the northern West Bank, approximately north of Jerusalem, (approximately by road), with a population of 126,132.
Nabulsi (or naboulsi) is one of a number of Palestinian white brined cheeses made in the Middle East.
Nabulsi soap (صابون نابلسي, ṣābūn Nābulsi) is a type of castile soap produced only in Nablus in the West Bank, Palestine.
Nakba Day (Arabic: يوم النكبة Yawm an-Nakba, meaning "Day of the Catastrophe") is generally commemorated on 15 May, the day after the Gregorian calendar date for Israeli Independence Day (Yom Ha'atzmaut).
Nashashibi (خراعلى النشاشيبي.; transliteration, an-Nashāshībī) is the name of a prominent Palestinian family based in Jerusalem.
Nathalie Handal (نتالي حنظل) (born 29 July 1969) is an award-winning poet, writer, and playwright.
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.
In neuropsychology, linguistics, and the philosophy of language, a natural language or ordinary language is any language that has evolved naturally in humans through use and repetition without conscious planning or premeditation.
The Negev (הַנֶּגֶב, Tiberian vocalization:; النقب an-Naqab) is a desert and semidesert region of southern Israel.
The Negev Bedouin (بدو النقب, Badū an-Naqab; הבדואים בנגב Habeduim Banegev) are traditionally pastoral nomadic Arab tribes (Bedouin) living in the Negev region of Israel, and adhere to Islam.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
Neturei Karta (Jewish Babylonian Aramaic: נָטוֹרֵי קַרְתָּא, literally "Guardians of the City") is a religious group of Haredi Jews, formally created in Jerusalem, British Mandate of Palestine, in 1938, splitting off from Agudas Yisrael.
The New Left Review is a bimonthly political academic journal covering world politics, economy, and culture which was established in 1960.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Non-denominational Muslims is an umbrella term that has been used for and by Muslims who do not belong to or do not self-identify with a specific Islamic denomination.
Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations, commonly referred to as NGOs, are usually non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations (though often funded by governments) that are active in humanitarian, educational, health care, public policy, social, human rights, environmental, and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives.
The Nuseibeh Clan (عائلة نسيبة; alternatively spelt Nussaiba, and Nusseibeh) is the oldest Muslim dynasty in Jerusalem.
The occupation of the Gaza Strip by Egypt occurred between 1948 and October 1956 and again from March 1957 to June 1967.
Old-school hip hop (also spelled old skool) is a term describes the earliest commercially recorded hip hop music.
The olive, known by the botanical name Olea europaea, meaning "European olive", is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, found in the Mediterranean Basin from Portugal to the Levant, the Arabian Peninsula, and southern Asia as far east as China, as well as the Canary Islands and Réunion.
Olive oil is a liquid fat obtained from olives (the fruit of Olea europaea; family Oleaceae), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin.
Oral history is the collection and study of historical information about individuals, families, important events, or everyday life using audiotapes, videotapes, or transcriptions of planned interviews.
An orphanage is a residential institution devoted to the care of orphans—children whose biological parents are deceased or otherwise unable or unwilling to take care of them.
The Oslo Accords are a set of agreements between the Government of Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO): the Oslo I Accord, signed in Washington, D.C., in 1993; (DOP), 13 September 1993.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Ottoman Syria refers to the parts of modern-day Syria or of Greater Syria which were subjected to Ottoman rule, anytime between the Ottoman conquests on the Mamluk Sultanate in the early 16th century and the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire in 1922.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).
Palestine (فلسطين,,; Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Palaestina; פלשתינה. Palestina) is a geographic region in Western Asia.
The Palestine Arab Congress was a series of congresses held by the Palestinian Arab population, organized by a nationwide network of local Muslim-Christian Associations, in the British Mandate of Palestine.
The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO; منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية) is an organization founded in 1964 with the purpose of the "liberation of Palestine" through armed struggle, with much of its violence aimed at Israeli civilians.
The Palestine Regiment was an infantry regiment of the British Army that was formed in 1942.
The Palestinian Academic Society for the Study of International Affairs (PASSIA) was founded in Jerusalem in March 1987 by Dr.
Palestinian Arabic is the subgroup of Levantine Arabic, spoken by most Palestinians in Palestine, by many Arab citizens of Israel and in the Palestinian diaspora populations.
The Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS; الجهاز المركزي للإحصاء الفلسطيني) is the official statistical institution of the State of Palestine.
Palestinian Christians (مسيحيون فلسطينيون) are Christian citizens of the State of Palestine.
The Palestinian community in Chile (فلسطينيو تشيلي) is believed to be the largest Palestinian community outside of the Arab world.
The Palestinian diaspora (الشتات الفلسطيني, al-shatat al-filastini), part of the wider Arab diaspora, are Palestinian people living outside the region of Palestine.
Palestinian exodus may relate to one of the following events.
The Palestinian exodus from Kuwait took place during and after the Gulf War.
A Palestinian family is a large community of extended family members with a lineage that can be traced to ancestors who resided in Palestine.
Palestinian fedayeen (from the Arabic fidā'ī, plural fidā'iyūn, فدائيون) are militants or guerrillas of a nationalist orientation from among the Palestinian people.
Palestinian hip hop reportedly started in 1998 with Tamer Nafar's group DAM.
Palestinian Jew is the term used to refer to a Jewish inhabitant of Palestine (known in Hebrew as Eretz Israel, the "Land of Israel") prior to the establishment of the modern state of Israel.
The Palestinian National Authority (PA or PNA; السلطة الوطنية الفلسطينية) is the interim self-government body established in 1994 following the Gaza–Jericho Agreement to govern the Gaza Strip and Areas A and B of the West Bank, as a consequence of the 1993 Oslo Accords.
The Palestinian National Council (PNC) (المجلس الوطني الفلسطيني, "'Almajlis Alwataniu Alfilastiniu"') is the legislative body of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and elects the PLO Executive Committee, which assumes leadership of the organization between its sessions.
The Palestinian National Covenant or Palestinian National Charter (الميثاق الوطني الفلسطيني; transliterated: al-Mithaq al-Watani al-Filastini) is the covenant or charter of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO).
Palestinian nationalism is the national movement of the Palestinian people for self-determination in and sovereignty over Palestine.
Palestinian political violence refers to acts of violence or terror motivated by Palestinian nationalism.
Palestinian refugee camps were established after the 1948 Arab–Israeli War to accommodate the Palestinian refugees who fled or were expelled during the 1948 Palestinian exodus.
The term "Palestine refugees" originally referred to both Arabs and Jews whose normal place of residence had been in Mandatory Palestine but were displaced and lost their livelihoods as a result of the 1948 Palestine war.
The Palestinian right of return (حق العودة, Ḥaqq al-ʿawda; זכות השיבה, zkhut hashivah) is the political position or principle that Palestinian refugees, both first-generation refugees (c. 30,000 to 50,000 people still alive as of 2012)"According to the United Nations Relief and Works Agency – the main body tasked with providing assistance to Palestinian refugees – there are more than 5 million refugees at present.
Palestinian territories and occupied Palestinian territories (OPT or oPt) are terms often used to describe the West Bank (including East Jerusalem) and the Gaza Strip, which are occupied or otherwise under the control of Israel.
Pan-Arabism, or simply Arabism, is an ideology espousing the unification of the countries of North Africa and West Asia from the Atlantic Ocean to the Arabian Sea, referred to as the Arab world.
Paprika (US English more commonly, British English more commonly) is a ground spice made from dried red fruits of the larger and sweeter varieties of the plant Capsicum annuum, called bell pepper or sweet pepper.
Paradise Now (الجنّة الآن) is a 2005 film directed by Hany Abu-Assad about two Palestinian men preparing for a suicide attack in Israel.
The Paris Peace Conference, also known as Versailles Peace Conference, was the meeting of the victorious Allied Powers following the end of World War I to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers.
The Peasants' Revolt was a rebellion against Egyptian conscription and taxation policies in Palestine.
Francis Rory Peregrine "Perry" Anderson (born 11 September 1938)http://www.thepeerage.com/p26186.htm#c261853.1 is a British historian and political essayist.
Philip Mattar (فيليب مطر, born 1944) is a Palestinian American historian.
The Philistines were an ancient people known for their conflict with the Israelites described in the Bible.
Philo of Alexandria (Phílōn; Yedidia (Jedediah) HaCohen), also called Philo Judaeus, was a Hellenistic Jewish philosopher who lived in Alexandria, in the Roman province of Egypt.
Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.
Pine nuts (also called piñon or pignoli /pinˈyōlē/) are the edible seeds of pines (family Pinaceae, genus Pinus).
Place names in Palestine have been the subject of much scholarship and contention, particularly in the context of the Arab–Israeli conflict.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Polity is a publisher in the social sciences and humanities.
The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) (Arabic: الجبهة الشعبية لتحرير فلسطين, al-Jabhah al-Sha`biyyah li-Taḥrīr Filasṭīn) is a secular Palestinian Marxist–Leninist and revolutionary socialist organization founded in 1967 by George Habash.
A prison, also known as a correctional facility, jail, gaol (dated, British English), penitentiary (American English), detention center (American English), or remand center is a facility in which inmates are forcibly confined and denied a variety of freedoms under the authority of the state.
A proverb (from proverbium) is a simple and concrete saying, popularly known and repeated, that expresses a truth based on common sense or experience.
Qabatiya (قباطية, also spelled Qabatia, Qabatiya, Kabatiya and Qabatiyah; is a Palestinian city located in the Jenin Governorate in the northern West Bank 6 km south of Jenin. According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS) census, the town had a population of 19,197 in 2007.. Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics Its total land area consists of and it is situated approximately above sea level. Qabatiya is famous for its olive groves, modern agriculture, and limestone industry. It is a part of the Jenin Governorate.
Qays ʿAylān (قيس عيلان), often referred to simply as Qays (also spelled Qais, Kais or Kays) were an Arab tribal confederation that branched from the Mudhar section of the Adnanites.
The Qays–Yaman rivalry refers to the historical rivalry and blood feud between the factions of the Qays (who were Adnanites or northern Arabians) and Yaman (who were Qahtanites or southern Arabians) in the Arab world.
Between 792–793 and 796 a Qays-Yaman war (also referred to as the War of the WatermelonLevy-Rubin and Kedar 2001, p. 65.Linder 2007, p. 22.) took place in Palestine and Transjordan between the northern Arab tribal federation of Mudhar, also called Nizar or Qays, and the southern tribal confederation of Yaman and the latter's Abbasid allies.
Al-Qudwa, also spelled, al-Qudwah, Kudwah, Qidwa, (القدوة) is a famous family of notables in the city of Gaza in the State of Palestine of the Ashraf class (الأشراف).
Rabbinic literature, in its broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of rabbinic writings throughout Jewish history.
Ramallah (رام الله) is a Palestinian city in the central West Bank located north of Jerusalem at an average elevation of above sea level, adjacent to al-Bireh. It currently serves as the de facto administrative capital of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA). Ramallah was historically an Arab Christian town. Today Muslims form the majority of the population of nearly 27,092 in 2007, with Christians making up a significant minority.
Rashid Hussein Mahmoud (راشد حسين, ראשד חוסיין; 1936 – 2 February 1977) was a Palestinian poet, orator, journalist and Arabic-Hebrew translator.
Rashid Ismail Khalidi (رشيد خالدي; born 1948) is a Palestinian American historian of the Middle East, the Edward Said Professor of Modern Arab Studies at Columbia University, and director of the Middle East Institute of Columbia's School of International and Public Affairs.
The Rashidun Caliphs (Rightly Guided Caliphs; الخلفاء الراشدون), often simply called, collectively, "the Rashidun", is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the 30-year reign of the first four caliphs (successors) following the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, namely: Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman ibn Affan, and Ali of the Rashidun Caliphate, the first caliphate.
The terms recto and verso refer to the text written or printed on the "right" or "front" side and on the "back" side of a leaf of paper in a bound item such as a codex, book, broadsheet, or pamphlet.
Reem Kelani (born 1963) is a British Palestinian musician, born in Manchester, England.
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).
The Ridwan dynasty (also spelled Radwan; RizvanZe'evi, 2012, p.) was the most prominent pasha family in Palestine, ruling the southwestern districts of the Damascus Eyalet ("Province of Damascus") in the 16th and 17th centuries under Ottoman rule.
Robert Drews (born March 26, 1936) is an American historian who is Professor of Classical Studies Emeritus at Vanderbilt University.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Rula Jebreal (رولا جبريل, רולא ג'בריל; born April 24, 1973) is a Palestinian foreign policy analyst, journalist, novelist and screenwriter with dual Israeli and Italian citizenship.
Said Wilbert Musa (born 19 March 1944) is a Belizean lawyer and politician.
Saint George (Γεώργιος, Geṓrgios; Georgius;; to 23 April 303), according to legend, was a Roman soldier of Greek origin and a member of the Praetorian Guard for Roman emperor Diocletian, who was sentenced to death for refusing to recant his Christian faith.
An-Nasir Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub (صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب / ALA-LC: Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb; سەلاحەدینی ئەییووبی / ALA-LC: Selahedînê Eyûbî), known as Salah ad-Din or Saladin (11374 March 1193), was the first sultan of Egypt and Syria and the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty.
Salim Tamari (سليم تماري), is a Palestinian sociologist who is the director of the Institute of Palestine Studies and an adjunct professor at the Center for Contemporary Arab Studies at Georgetown University.
Salma Khadra Jayyusi (born 1926 or 1927) is a Palestinian poet, writer, translator and anthologist.
Samaritan religion is the national religion of the Samaritans (Samaritan Hebrew: ࠔࠠࠌࠝࠓࠩࠉࠌ shamerim, "Guardians/Watchers ”; Hebrew: שומרונים shomronim, “ of Guard/Watch ”).
The Samaritans (Samaritan Hebrew: ࠔࠠࠌࠝࠓࠩࠉࠌ,, "Guardians/Keepers/Watchers (of the Torah)") are an ethnoreligious group of the Levant originating from the Israelites (or Hebrews) of the Ancient Near East.
Samīħ al-Qāsim (سميح القاسم; סמיח אל קאסם; 1939 – August 19, 2014) was a Palestinian Arabic-language poet whose work is well known throughout the Arab world.
The San Remo conference was an international meeting of the post-World War I Allied Supreme Council as an outgrowth of the Paris Peace Conference, held at Villa Devachan in Sanremo, Italy, from 19 to 26 April 1920.
Sari Nusseibeh (سري نسيبة) (born in 1949) is a Palestinian Professor of Philosophy and former President of the Al-Quds University in Jerusalem.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
Schafik Jorge Handal (شفيق جورج حنضل; October 14, 1930 – January 24, 2006) was a Salvadoran politician.
The Sea of Galilee, also Kinneret or Kinnereth, Lake of Gennesaret, or Lake Tiberias (יָם כִּנֶּרֶת, Judeo-Aramaic: יַמּא דטבריא; גִּנֵּיסַר بحيرة طبريا), is a freshwater lake in Israel.
The Sea Peoples are a purported seafaring confederation that attacked ancient Egypt and other regions of the East Mediterranean prior to and during the Late Bronze Age collapse (1200–900 BC).
The Second Intifada, also known as the Al-Aqsa Intifada (انتفاضة الأقصى; אינתיפאדת אל-אקצה Intifādat El-Aqtzah), was the second Palestinian uprising against Israel – a period of intensified Israeli–Palestinian violence.
The Second Temple (בֵּית־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי, Beit HaMikdash HaSheni) was the Jewish Holy Temple which stood on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem during the Second Temple period, between 516 BCE and 70 CE.
Secularity (adjective form secular, from Latin saeculum meaning "worldly", "of a generation", "temporal", or a span of about 100 years) is the state of being separate from religion, or of not being exclusively allied with or against any particular religion.
The right of people to self-determination is a cardinal principle in modern international law (commonly regarded as a jus cogens rule), binding, as such, on the United Nations as authoritative interpretation of the Charter's norms.
The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.
Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews or Sephardim (סְפָרַדִּים, Modern Hebrew: Sefaraddim, Tiberian: Səp̄āraddîm; also Ye'hude Sepharad, lit. "The Jews of Spain"), originally from Sepharad, Spain or the Iberian peninsula, are a Jewish ethnic division.
Sergio Della Pergola (born Trieste, Italy, September 7, 1942) is an Italian-born Israeli demographer and statistician.
Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is a flowering plant in the genus Sesamum, also called benne.
Shawish (Shaweesh, Shawesh) (الشاويش, شاويش, الشاوش, Arabic) is a large and widespread Palestinian family originated from Damascus Gate neighbourhood of East Jerusalem, Israel.
Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are quadrupedal, ruminant mammal typically kept as livestock.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
A shibboleth is any custom or tradition, particularly a speech pattern, that distinguishes one group of people (an ingroup) from others (outgroups).
The Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh, located in Bahjí near Acre, Israel, is the most holy place for Bahá'ís and represents their Qiblih, or direction of prayer.
The Shurrab family is a family in Khan Younis and Gaza in the Palestinian territories, which had 2 members killed by the Israel Defense Forces on 16 January 2009 during the 2008–2009 Israel–Gaza conflict.
The Six-Day War (Hebrew: מלחמת ששת הימים, Milhemet Sheshet Ha Yamim; Arabic: النكسة, an-Naksah, "The Setback" or حرب ۱۹٦۷, Ḥarb 1967, "War of 1967"), also known as the June War, 1967 Arab–Israeli War, or Third Arab–Israeli War, was fought between 5 and 10 June 1967 by Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt (known at the time as the United Arab Republic), Jordan, and Syria.
Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.
Solomon (שְׁלֹמֹה, Shlomoh), also called Jedidiah (Hebrew Yədidya), was, according to the Hebrew Bible, Quran, Hadith and Hidden Words, a fabulously wealthy and wise king of Israel who succeeded his father, King David. The conventional dates of Solomon's reign are circa 970 to 931 BCE, normally given in alignment with the dates of David's reign. He is described as the third king of the United Monarchy, which would break apart into the northern Kingdom of Israel and the southern Kingdom of Judah shortly after his death. Following the split, his patrilineal descendants ruled over Judah alone. According to the Talmud, Solomon is one of the 48 prophets. In the Quran, he is considered a major prophet, and Muslims generally refer to him by the Arabic variant Sulayman, son of David. The Hebrew Bible credits him as the builder of the First Temple in Jerusalem, beginning in the fourth year of his reign, using the vast wealth he had accumulated. He dedicated the temple to Yahweh, the God of Israel. He is portrayed as great in wisdom, wealth and power beyond either of the previous kings of the country, but also as a king who sinned. His sins included idolatry, marrying foreign women and, ultimately, turning away from Yahweh, and they led to the kingdom's being torn in two during the reign of his son Rehoboam. Solomon is the subject of many other later references and legends, most notably in the 1st-century apocryphal work known as the Testament of Solomon. In the New Testament, he is portrayed as a teacher of wisdom excelled by Jesus, and as arrayed in glory, but excelled by "the lilies of the field". In later years, in mostly non-biblical circles, Solomon also came to be known as a magician and an exorcist, with numerous amulets and medallion seals dating from the Hellenistic period invoking his name.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
The Southern Levant is a geographical region encompassing the southern half of the Levant.
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
Palestine (فلسطين), officially the State of Palestine (دولة فلسطين), is a ''de jure'' sovereign state in the Middle East claiming the West Bank (bordering Israel and Jordan) and Gaza Strip (bordering Israel and Egypt) with East Jerusalem as the designated capital, although its administrative center is currently located in Ramallah.
In International law a stateless person is someone who is "not considered as a national by any state under the operation of its law".
In social psychology, a stereotype is an over-generalized belief about a particular category of people.
Strained yogurt, Greek yogurt, yogurt cheese, sack yoghurt, labaneh or suzma yogurt (Greek: στραγγιστό γιαούρτι, لبنة labnah, süzme yoğurt), is yogurt that has been strained to remove most of its whey, resulting in a thicker consistency than unstrained yogurt, while preserving yogurt's distinctive sour taste.
In linguistics, a stratum (Latin for "layer") or strate is a language that influences, or is influenced by another through contact.
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
Sumud (صمود) meaning "steadfastness"Abed, 1988, p. 288.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The historic region of Syria (ash-Shām, Hieroglyphic Luwian: Sura/i; Συρία; in modern literature called Greater Syria, Syria-Palestine, or the Levant) is an area located east of the Mediterranean sea.
Syriac (ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ), also known as Syriac Aramaic or Classical Syriac, is a dialect of Middle Aramaic.
Tabbouleh (تبولة taboūleh; also tabouleh, tabbouli, tabouli, or taboulah) is a Levantine vegetarian salad made of mostly finely chopped parsley with tomatoes, mint, onion, bulgur (cracked wheat), and seasoned with olive oil, lemon juice, salt and pepper.
Tamer Nafar (born June 6, 1979) is a Palestinian rapper, actor, screenwriter and social activist.
Tawfiq Canaan (توفيق كنعان) (24 September 1882 – 15 January 1964) was a pioneering physician, medical researcher, ethnographer, and Palestinian nationalist.
Tawfiq Ziad (توفيق زيّاد, תאופיק זיאד, also spelt Tawfik Zayyad or Tawfeeq Ziad, 7 May 1929 – 5 July 1994) was a Palestinian politician well known for his "poetry of protest".
The Arab Awakening is a 1938 book by George Antonius, published in London by Hamish Hamilton.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Jerusalem Post is a broadsheet newspaper based in Jerusalem, founded in 1932 during the British Mandate of Palestine by Gershon Agron as The Palestine Post.
The Nation is the oldest continuously published weekly magazine in the United States, and the most widely read weekly journal of progressive political and cultural news, opinion, and analysis.
The Times of Israel is an Israeli-based online newspaper launched in 2012.
TheFreeDictionary.com is an American online dictionary and encyclopedia that gathers information from a variety of sources.
TheMarker (דה-מרקר) is a Hebrew-language daily business newspaper published by the Haaretz group in Israel.
The Third Aliyah (Hebrew: העלייה השלישית, HaAliyah HaShlishit) refers to the third wave—or aliyah—of modern Zionist immigration to Palestine from Europe.
Thomas Giegerich (born 15 March 1959 in Wiesbaden, Germany) is a German jurist.
Thursday of the Dead (خميس الأموات, Khamis al-Amwat), also known as Thursday of the Secrets (خميس الأسرار, Khamis al-Asrar) or Thursday of the EggsMorgenstern, 1966, p. 158.
Thyme is an aromatic perennial evergreen herb with culinary, medicinal, and ornamental uses.
Titus (Titus Flavius Caesar Vespasianus Augustus; 30 December 39 – 13 September 81 AD) was Roman emperor from 79 to 81.
Tom Segev (תום שגב; born March 1, 1945) is an Israeli historian, author and journalist.
Toponymy is the study of place names (toponyms), their origins, meanings, use, and typology.
The tribes of Arabia are the clans that originated in the Arabian Peninsula.
Tsvi Jekhorin Misinai (צבי מסיני; born 15 April 1946) is an Israeli researcher, author, historian, computer scientist and entrepreneur.
The Tuqan clan (طوقان, also spelled Toukan, Touqan, Tukan and Tokan) is a prominent Palestinian and Jordanian political and business family.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the United Nations' global development network.
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.
United Nations General Assembly Resolution 194 was adopted on December 11, 1948, near the end of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War.
UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, is a United Nations programme with the mandate to protect refugees, forcibly displaced communities and stateless people, and assist in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to a third country.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University of Texas Press (or UT Press) is a university press that is part of the University of Texas at Austin.
Created in December 1949, the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) is a relief and human development agency which supports more than 5 million registered Palestinian refugees, and their descendants, who fled or were expelled from their homes during the 1948 Palestine war as well as those who fled or were expelled during and following the 1967 Six Day war.
Uriel "Uri" Davis (אוריאל "אורי" דייוויס, born 1943 in Jerusalem) is an academic and a civil rights activist in Israel, Occupied Palestinian Territories and the Middle East.
There are many varieties of Arabic (dialects or otherwise) in existence.
Wadi Musa (وادي موسى, literally "Valley of Moses") is a town located in the Ma'an Governorate in southern Jordan.
Walid Khalidi (وليد خالدي, born 1925 in Jerusalem) is an Oxford University-educated Palestinian historian who has written extensively on the Palestinian exodus.
The West Bank (الضفة الغربية; הגדה המערבית, HaGadah HaMa'aravit) is a landlocked territory near the Mediterranean coast of Western Asia, the bulk of it now under Israeli control, or else under joint Israeli-Palestinian Authority control.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Mohammed Yasser Abdel Rahman Abdel Raouf Arafat al-Qudwa (محمد ياسر عبد الرحمن عبد الرؤوف عرفات; 24 August 1929 – 11 November 2004), popularly known as Yasser Arafat (ياسر عرفات) or by his kunya Abu Ammar (أبو عمار), was a Palestinian political leader.
Yehoshua Porath (יהושע פורת) is an Israeli historian and professor emeritus of Middle East history.
Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.
Yigal Allon (יגאל אלון; 10 October 1918 – 29 February 1980) was an Israeli politician, a commander of the Palmach, and a general in the IDF.
Yitzhak Ben-Zvi (יצחק בן־צבי Yitshak Ben-Tsvi; 24 November 188423 April 1963) was a historian, Labor Zionist leader and the second and longest-serving President of Israel.
Ynetnews is the online English-language Israeli news website of Yedioth Ahronoth, Israel’s most-read newspaper, and the Hebrew news portal, Ynet.
Uriel Shelach (אוריאל שלח) (November 18, 1908 – March 25, 1981), better known by his pen name Yonatan Ratosh (יונתן רטוש), was an Israeli poet and the founder of the Canaanite movement.
Yosef Weitz (יוסף ויץ; 1890–1972) was the director of the Land and Afforestation Department of the Jewish National Fund (JNF).
Za'atar (زَعْتَر) is a generic name for a family of related Middle Eastern herbs from the genera Origanum (oregano), Calamintha (basil thyme), Thymus (typically Thymus vulgaris, i.e., thyme), and Satureja (savory).
Zajal (Arabic: زجل) is a traditional form of oral strophic poetry declaimed in a colloquial dialect.
Zionism (צִיּוֹנוּת Tsiyyonut after Zion) is the national movement of the Jewish people that supports the re-establishment of a Jewish homeland in the territory defined as the historic Land of Israel (roughly corresponding to Canaan, the Holy Land, or the region of Palestine).
The 1920 Nebi Musa riots or 1920 Jerusalem riots took place in British-controlled part of Occupied Enemy Territory Administration (which would shortly become Mandatory Palestine) between Sunday, 4 and Wednesday, 7 April 1920 in and around the Old City of Jerusalem.
The Jaffa riots (commonly known in Me'oraot Tarpa) was a series of violent riots in Mandatory Palestine on May 1–7, 1921, which began as a fight between two Jewish groups but developed into an attack by Arabs on Jews during which many were killed.
The 1922 census of Palestine was the first census carried out by the authorities of the British Mandate of Palestine, on 23 October 1922.
The 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine, later came to be known as "The Great Revolt", was a nationalist uprising by Palestinian Arabs in Mandatory Palestine against the British administration of the Palestine Mandate, demanding Arab independence and the end of the policy of open-ended Jewish immigration and land purchases with the stated goal of establishing a "Jewish National Home". The dissent was directly influenced by the Qassamite rebellion, following the killing of Sheikh Izz ad-Din al-Qassam in 1935, as well as the declaration by Hajj Amin al-Husseini of 16 May 1936 as 'Palestine Day' and calling for a General Strike. The revolt was branded by many in the Jewish Yishuv as "immoral and terroristic", often comparing it to fascism and nazism. Ben Gurion however described Arab causes as fear of growing Jewish economic power, opposition to mass Jewish immigration and fear of the English identification with Zionism.Morris, 1999, p. 136. The general strike lasted from April to October 1936, initiating the violent revolt. The revolt consisted of two distinct phases.Norris, 2008, pp. 25, 45. The first phase was directed primarily by the urban and elitist Higher Arab Committee (HAC) and was focused mainly on strikes and other forms of political protest. By October 1936, this phase had been defeated by the British civil administration using a combination of political concessions, international diplomacy (involving the rulers of Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Transjordan and Yemen) and the threat of martial law. The second phase, which began late in 1937, was a violent and peasant-led resistance movement provoked by British repression in 1936 that increasingly targeted British forces. During this phase, the rebellion was brutally suppressed by the British Army and the Palestine Police Force using repressive measures that were intended to intimidate the Arab population and undermine popular support for the revolt. During this phase, a more dominant role on the Arab side was taken by the Nashashibi clan, whose NDP party quickly withdrew from the rebel Arab Higher Committee, led by the radical faction of Amin al-Husseini, and instead sided with the British – dispatching "Fasail al-Salam" (the "Peace Bands") in coordination with the British Army against nationalist and Jihadist Arab "Fasail" units (literally "bands"). According to official British figures covering the whole revolt, the army and police killed more than 2,000 Arabs in combat, 108 were hanged, and 961 died because of what they described as "gang and terrorist activities". In an analysis of the British statistics, Walid Khalidi estimates 19,792 casualties for the Arabs, with 5,032 dead: 3,832 killed by the British and 1,200 dead because of "terrorism", and 14,760 wounded. Over ten percent of the adult male Palestinian Arab population between 20 and 60 was killed, wounded, imprisoned or exiled. Estimates of the number of Palestinian Jews killed range from 91 to several hundred.Morris, 1999, p. 160. The Arab revolt in Mandatory Palestine was unsuccessful, and its consequences affected the outcome of the 1948 Palestine war.Morris, 1999, p. 159. It caused the British Mandate to give crucial support to pre-state Zionist militias like the Haganah, whereas on the Palestinian Arab side, the revolt forced the flight into exile of the main Palestinian Arab leader of the period, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem – Haj Amin al-Husseini.
The 1948 Arab–Israeli War, or the First Arab–Israeli War, was fought between the State of Israel and a military coalition of Arab states over the control of Palestine, forming the second stage of the 1948 Palestine war.
The 1948 Palestine war, known in Hebrew as the War of Independence (מלחמת העצמאות, Milkhemet Ha'Atzma'ut) or the War of Liberation (מלחמת השחרור, Milkhemet HaShikhrur) and in Arabic as The Nakba or Catastrophe (النكبة, al-Nakba), refers to the war that occurred in the former Mandatory Palestine during the period between the United Nations vote on the partition plan on November 30, 1947, and the official end of the first Arab–Israeli war on July 20, 1949.
The 1948 Palestinian exodus, also known as the Nakba (النكبة, al-Nakbah, literally "disaster", "catastrophe", or "cataclysm"), occurred when more than 700,000 Palestinian Arabs fled or were expelled from their homes, during the 1948 Palestine war.
The 1967 Palestinian exodus refers to the flight of around 280,000 to 325,000 Palestinians out of the territories captured by Israel during and in the aftermath of the Six-Day War, including the demolition of the Palestinian villages of Imwas, Yalo, and Bayt Nuba, Surit, Beit Awwa, Beit Mirsem, Shuyukh, Al-Jiftlik, Agarith and Huseirat and the "emptying" of the refugee camps of Aqabat Jaber and ʿEin as-Sultan.
Al-Quds Arab Capital of Culture (القدس عاصمة الثقافة العربية) was the name given to Arab Capital of Culture programme in 2009.
Al-`Arab al-filasTīnīyyūn, Al-filasTīnīyyūn, Arab Palestinian, Arab Palestinians, Arabs in the territories, Ash-sha`b al-filasTīni, Culture of West Bank, Culture of the Gaza Strip, Culture of the Palestinian National Authority, Culture of the West Bank, Demographics of the Palestinian people, Genetic studies on Palestinians, Palestien, Palestinans, Palestine people, Palestinian (Arab), Palestinian Arab, Palestinian Arabs, Palestinian People, Palestinian folklore, Palestinian immigration, Palestinian people, Palestinian poetry, Palestinian-Arab, Palestinian-Arabs, People of Palestine, Residents of Palestine, West Banker, الشعب الفلسطيني, العرب الفلسطينيون, الفلسطينيون.