150 relations: A.C. Woolner, Aṅgulimāla, Abhidharma, Ablative case, Accusative case, ALA-LC romanization, Allophone, Alveolar consonant, Anagarika Dharmapala, Anusvara, Approximant consonant, ASCII, Ashoka, Ashoka's Major Rock Edicts, Aspirated consonant, Assimilation (phonology), Attested language, Avanti (India), Bhikkhu Bodhi, Bihar, Bilabial consonant, Bookman (typeface), Brahmi script, Brahmic scripts, Brahmin, Buddhaghoṣa, Buddhism, Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit, Burmese script, Cambodia, Central consonant, Century type family, Cognate, Consonant, Courier (typeface), Daṇḍin, Dative case, David Kalupahana, Denmark, Dental consonant, Deprecation, Devanagari, Dhammapada, Dhāraṇī, Diacritic, East India, Edicts of Ashoka, Egyptian language, Epenthesis, Fricative consonant, ..., Gemination, Genitive case, Girnar, Glottal consonant, Grammatical case, Grammatical gender, Gujarat, Hathigumpha inscription, Hebrew language, Helvetica, Hinduism, Indian subcontinent, Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Iranian languages, Indology, Instrumental case, International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration, International Phonetic Alphabet, ISO 15919, ITC Avant Garde, ITC Zapf Chancery, Janapada, Jataka tales, K. R. Norman, Kavyadarsha, Kharosthi, Khmer alphabet, Labial consonant, Labiodental consonant, Laos, Lateral consonant, Latin, Latin alphabet, Lingua franca, Locative case, Magadha, Magadhi Prakrit, Magahi language, Maha Bodhi Society, Mahavamsa, Mahāsāṃghika, Maurya Empire, Metathesis (linguistics), Middle Indo-Aryan languages, Mon State, Morphology (linguistics), Myanmar, Nasal consonant, Nominative case, Old Mon script, Oriental studies, Paishachi, Palatal consonant, Palatino, Pali literature, Pali Text Society, Pāli Canon, Phoneme, Prakrit, Prix Volney, Pyu city-states, Retroflex consonant, Rigveda, Robert Caesar Childers, Romanization, Royal Library, Denmark, Sacred language, Sanskrit, Saurashtra (region), Sibilant, Sinhalese alphabet, Sinhalese language, South India, Sri Lanka, Sten Konow, Steven Collins (Buddhist studies scholar), Sthavira nikāya, Stop consonant, Supernatural, Sutta Pitaka, TeX, Thai alphabet, Thailand, Theravada, Times New Roman, Tripiṭaka, Tuscan dialect, Unicode, Velar consonant, Velthuis, Vihara, Visarga, Visuddhimagga, Vocative case, Voice (phonetics), Voicelessness, Vowel, Western esotericism, Western India, Wilhelm Geiger. Expand index (100 more) » « Shrink index
Alfred Cooper Woolner (May 1878 - 7 January 1936) was a noted Sanskrit scholar and professor as well as the Vice Chancellor of the University of the Punjab in Lahore.
Aṅgulimāla (Pāli language; lit. 'finger necklace'; sometimes also spelled in italic or Aṅgulimālya) is an important figure in Buddhism, particularly within the Theravāda tradition.
Abhidharma (Sanskrit) or Abhidhamma (Pali) are ancient (3rd century BCE and later) Buddhist texts which contain detailed scholastic reworkings of doctrinal material appearing in the Buddhist sutras, according to schematic classifications.
The ablative case (sometimes abbreviated) is a grammatical case for nouns, pronouns and adjectives in the grammar of various languages; it is sometimes used to express motion away from something, among other uses.
The accusative case (abbreviated) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.
ALA-LC (American Library Association - Library of Congress) is a set of standards for romanization, the representation of text in other writing systems using the Latin script.
In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
Anagārika Dharmapāla (Pali: Anagārika,; Sinhalese: Anagarika, lit., අනගාරික ධර්මපාල; 17 September 1864 – 29 April 1933) was a Sri Lankan (Sinhalese) Buddhist revivalist and writer.
Anusvara (Sanskrit: अनुस्वारः) is the diacritic used to mark a type of nasal sound used in a number of Indic scripts.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.
Ashoka (died 232 BCE), or Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty, who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from to 232 BCE.
Ashoka's Major Rock Edicts refer to 14 separate major Edicts of Ashoka which are significantly detailed and represent the earliest dated rock inscriptions of any Indian monarch.
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.
In phonology, assimilation is a common phonological process by which one sound becomes more like a nearby sound.
In linguistics, attested languages are languages (living or dead) that have been documented and for which the evidence has survived to the present day.
Avanti (अवन्ति) was an ancient Indian Mahajanapada (Great Realm), roughly corresponded to the present day Malwa region.
Bhikkhu Bodhi (born December 10, 1944), born Jeffrey Block, is an American Theravada Buddhist monk, ordained in Sri Lanka and currently teaching in the New York and New Jersey area.
Bihar is an Indian state considered to be a part of Eastern as well as Northern India.
In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips.
Bookman or Bookman Old Style, is a serif typeface.
Brahmi (IAST) is the modern name given to one of the oldest writing systems used in Ancient India and present South and Central Asia from the 1st millennium BCE.
The Brahmic scripts are a family of abugida or alphabet writing systems.
Brahmin (Sanskrit: ब्राह्मण) is a varna (class) in Hinduism specialising as priests, teachers (acharya) and protectors of sacred learning across generations.
Buddhaghoṣa (พระพุทธโฆษาจารย์) was a 5th-century Indian Theravada Buddhist commentator and scholar.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit (BHS) is a modern linguistic category applied to the language used in a class of Indian Buddhist texts, such as the Perfection of Wisdom sutras.
The Burmese script is the basis of the alphabets used for modern Burmese, Mon, Shan and Karen.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
A central consonant, also known as a median consonant, is a consonant sound that is produced when air flows across the center of the mouth over the tongue.
Century is a family of serif type faces particularly intended for body text.
In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
Courier is a monospaced slab serif typeface designed to resemble the output from a strike-on typewriter.
Daṇḍin Sanskrit grammarian and author of prose romances, and 'is one of the best-known writers in all of Asian history'.
The dative case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used in some languages to indicate, among other uses, the noun to which something is given, as in "Maria Jacobī potum dedit", Latin for "Maria gave Jacob a drink".
David J. Kalupahana (1936–2014) was a Buddhist scholar from Sri Lanka.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.
In several fields, deprecation is the discouragement of use of some terminology, feature, design, or practice, typically because it has been superseded or is no longer considered efficient or safe, without completely removing it or prohibiting its use.
Devanagari (देवनागरी,, a compound of "''deva''" देव and "''nāgarī''" नागरी; Hindi pronunciation), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group,, page 83 is an abugida (alphasyllabary) used in India and Nepal.
The Dhammapada (Pāli; धम्मपद Dhammapada) is a collection of sayings of the Buddha in verse form and one of the most widely read and best known Buddhist scriptures.
A (Devanagari: धारणी) is a Sanskrit term for a type of ritual speech similar to a mantra.
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
East India is a region of India consisting of the Indian states of Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Odisha and also the union territory Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
The Edicts of Ashoka are a collection of 33 inscriptions on the Pillars of Ashoka as well as boulders and cave walls made by the Emperor Ashoka of the Mauryan Empire during his reign from 269 BCE to 232 BCE.
The Egyptian language was spoken in ancient Egypt and was a branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages.
In phonology, epenthesis (Greek) means the addition of one or more sounds to a word, especially to the interior of a word (at the beginning prothesis and at the end paragoge are commonly used).
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
Gemination, or consonant elongation, is the pronouncing in phonetics of a spoken consonant for an audibly longer period of time than that of a short consonant.
In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.
Girnar, also known as Girinagar ('city-on-the-hill') or Revatak Parvata, is a group of mountains in the Junagadh District of Gujarat, India, situated near Junagadh.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.
In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.
Gujarat is a state in Western India and Northwest India with an area of, a coastline of – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and a population in excess of 60 million.
The Hathigumpha Inscription ("Elephant Cave" inscription), from Udayagiri, near Bhubaneswar in Odisha, was inscribed by Kharavela, the then Emperor of Kalinga in India, during 2nd century BCE.
Helvetica or Neue Haas Grotesk is a widely used sans-serif typeface developed in 1957 by Swiss typeface designer Max Miedinger with input from Eduard Hoffmann.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages are the dominant language family of the Indian subcontinent.
The Indo-Iranian languages or Indo-Iranic languages, or Aryan languages, constitute the largest and easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European language family.
Indology or South Asian studies is the academic study of the history and cultures, languages, and literature of India and as such is a subset of Asian studies.
The instrumental case (abbreviated or) is a grammatical case used to indicate that a noun is the instrument or means by or with which the subject achieves or accomplishes an action.
The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (I.A.S.T.) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanization of Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit and related Indic languages.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
ISO 15919 "Transliteration of Devanagari and related Indic scripts into Latin characters" is one of a series of international standards for romanization.
ITC Avant Garde Gothic is a font family based on the logo font used in the Avant Garde magazine.
ITC Zapf Chancery is a family of script typefaces designed by the type designer Hermann Zapf.
The Janapadas were the realms, republics (GanaPada) and kingdoms (SaamaRajya) of the Vedic period on the Indian subcontinent.
The Jātaka tales are a voluminous body of literature native to India concerning the previous births of Gautama Buddha in both human and animal form.
Kenneth Roy Norman (born 1925) is a leading scholar of Middle Indo-Aryan or Prakrit, particularly of Pali.
The Kavyadarsha (काव्यादर्श) by Dandin is the earliest surviving systematic treatment of poetics in Sanskrit.
The Kharosthi script, also spelled Kharoshthi or Kharoṣṭhī, is an ancient script used in ancient Gandhara and ancient India (primarily modern-day Afghanistan and Pakistan) to write the Gandhari Prakrit and Sanskrit.
The Khmer alphabet or Khmer script (អក្សរខ្មែរ) Huffman, Franklin.
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lip and the upper teeth.
Laos (ລາວ,, Lāo; Laos), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao: ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ, Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao; République démocratique populaire lao), commonly referred to by its colloquial name of Muang Lao (Lao: ເມືອງລາວ, Muang Lao), is a landlocked country in the heart of the Indochinese peninsula of Mainland Southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (Burma) and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the southwest and Thailand to the west and southwest.
A lateral is an l-like consonant in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but it is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
Locative (abbreviated) is a grammatical case which indicates a location.
Magadha was an ancient Indian kingdom in southern Bihar, and was counted as one of the sixteen Mahajanapadas (Sanskrit: "Great Countries") of ancient India.
Magadhi Prakrit (Māgadhī) was a vernacular Middle Indo-Aryan language, replacing earlier Vedic Sanskrit in parts of the Indian subcontinents.
The Magahi language, also known as Magadhi, is a language spoken in Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal states of eastern India.
The Maha Bodhi Society is a South Asian Buddhist society founded by the Sri Lankan Buddhist leader Anagarika Dharmapala and the British journalist and poet Sir Edwin Arnold.
The Mahavamsa ("Great Chronicle", Pali Mahāvaṃsa) (5th century CE) is an epic poem written in the Pali language.
The Mahāsāṃghika (Sanskrit "of the Great Sangha") was one of the early Buddhist schools.
The Maurya Empire was a geographically-extensive Iron Age historical power founded by Chandragupta Maurya which dominated ancient India between 322 BCE and 180 BCE.
Metathesis (from Greek, from "I put in a different order"; Latin: trānspositiō) is the transposition of sounds or syllables in a word or of words in a sentence.
The Middle Indo-Aryan languages (or Middle Indic languages, sometimes conflated with the Prakrits, which are a stage of Middle Indic) are a historical group of languages of the Indo-Aryan family.
Mon State (မွန်ပြည်နယ်,; တွဵုရးဍုၚ်မန်၊ ရးမညဒေသ) is an administrative division of Myanmar.
In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
The nominative case (abbreviated), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.
The Old Mon script was a script used to write Mon, and may also be the source script of the Burmese alphabet.
Oriental studies is the academic field of study that embraces Near Eastern and Far Eastern societies and cultures, languages, peoples, history and archaeology; in recent years the subject has often been turned into the newer terms of Asian studies and Middle Eastern studies.
Paishachi is a largely unattested literary language of the middle kingdoms of India mentioned in Prakrit and Sanskrit grammars of antiquity.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
Palatino is the name of an old-style serif typeface designed by Hermann Zapf, initially released in 1949 by the Stempel foundry and later by other companies, most notably the Mergenthaler Linotype Company.
Pali literature is concerned mainly with Theravada Buddhism, of which Pali is the traditional language.
The Pali Text Society is a text publication society founded in 1881 by Thomas William Rhys Davids "to foster and promote the study of Pāli texts".
The Pāli Canon is the standard collection of scriptures in the Theravada Buddhist tradition, as preserved in the Pāli language.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
The Prakrits (प्राकृत; pāuda; pāua) are any of several Middle Indo-Aryan languages formerly spoken in India.
The Prix Volney (Volney Prize) is awarded by the Institute of France after proposition by the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres to a work of comparative philology.
The Pyu city states (ပျူ မြို့ပြ နိုင်ငံများ) were a group of city-states that existed from c. 2nd century BCE to c. mid-11th century in present-day Upper Burma (Myanmar).
A retroflex consonant is a coronal consonant where the tongue has a flat, concave, or even curled shape, and is articulated between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate.
The Rigveda (Sanskrit: ऋग्वेद, from "praise" and "knowledge") is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns along with associated commentaries on liturgy, ritual and mystical exegesis.
Robert Caesar Childers (1838 – 25 July 1876) was a British Orientalist scholar, compiler of the first Pāli-English dictionary.
Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics, is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script, or a system for doing so.
The Royal Library (Det Kongelige Bibliotek) in Copenhagen is the national library of Denmark and the university library of the University of Copenhagen.
A sacred language, "holy language" (in religious context) or liturgical language is any language that is cultivated and used primarily in religious service or for other religious reasons by people who speak another, primary language in their daily life.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Saurashtra, also known as Sorath or Kathiawar, is a peninsular region of Gujarat, India, located on the Arabian Sea coast.
Sibilance is an acoustic characteristic of fricative and affricate consonants of higher amplitude and pitch, made by directing a stream of air with the tongue towards the sharp edge of the teeth, which are held close together; a consonant that uses sibilance may be called a sibilant.
The Sinhalese alphabet (Sinhalese: සිංහල අක්ෂර මාලාව) (Siṁhala Akṣara Mālāva) is an alphabet used by the Sinhalese people in Sri Lanka and elsewhere to write the Sinhalese language and also the liturgical languages Pali and Sanskrit.
Sinhalese, known natively as Sinhala (සිංහල; siṁhala), is the native language of the Sinhalese people, who make up the largest ethnic group in Sri Lanka, numbering about 16 million.
South India is the area encompassing the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Puducherry, occupying 19% of India's area.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
Sten Konow. Sten Konow (17 April 1867 – 29 June 1948) was a Norwegian Indologist.
Steven Collins (16 September 1951 – 15 February 2018) was a British-born Buddhist studies scholar.
The Sthavira nikāya (Sanskrit "Sect of the Elders") was one of the early Buddhist schools.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
The supernatural (Medieval Latin: supernātūrālis: supra "above" + naturalis "natural", first used: 1520–1530 AD) is that which exists (or is claimed to exist), yet cannot be explained by laws of nature.
The Sutta Pitaka (or Suttanta Pitaka; Basket of Discourse; cf Sanskrit सूत्र पिटक) is the second of the three divisions of the Tripitaka or Pali Canon, the Pali collection of Buddhist writings of Theravada Buddhism.
TeX (see below), stylized within the system as TeX, is a typesetting system (or "formatting system") designed and mostly written by Donald Knuth and released in 1978.
Thai alphabet (อักษรไทย) is used to write the Thai, Southern Thai and other languages in Thailand.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
Theravāda (Pali, literally "school of the elder monks") is a branch of Buddhism that uses the Buddha's teaching preserved in the Pāli Canon as its doctrinal core.
Times New Roman is a serif typeface designed for legibility in body text.
The Tripiṭaka (Sanskrit) or Tipiṭaka (Pali), is the traditional term for the Buddhist scriptures.
Tuscan (dialetto toscano) is a set of Italo-Dalmatian varieties mainly spoken in Tuscany, Italy.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
The Velthuis system of transliteration is an ASCII transliteration scheme for the Sanskrit language from and to the Devanagari script.
Vihara (विहार, IAST: vihāra) generally refers to a Buddhist bhikkhu monastery.
Visarga (IAST) (विसर्गः) meaning "sending forth, discharge".
The Visuddhimagga (Pali; English: The Path of Purification), is the 'great treatise' on Theravada Buddhist doctrine written by Buddhaghosa approximately in the 5th Century in Sri Lanka.
The vocative case (abbreviated) is the case used for a noun that identifies a person (animal, object etc.) being addressed or occasionally the determiners of that noun.
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
Western esotericism (also called esotericism and esoterism), also known as the Western mystery tradition, is a term under which scholars have categorised a wide range of loosely related ideas and movements which have developed within Western society.
Western India is a loosely defined region of India consisting of its western part.
Wilhelm Ludwig Geiger (21 July 1856 – 2 September 1943) was a German Orientalist in the fields of Indo-Iranian languages and the history of Iran and Sri Lanka.