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The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Abdul Hamid II (عبد الحميد ثانی, `Abdü’l-Ḥamīd-i sânî; İkinci Abdülhamit; 21 September 184210 February 1918) was the 34th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and the last Sultan to exert effective control over the fracturing state.
Abednego Seller (1646?–1705) was an English non-juring divine and controversial writer.
Abgal was an Arabian deity, or jinn, whose worship is attested by inscriptions dating to the Palmyrene Empire – he is thought to have been primarily worshipped by nomads.
Majzaʾa ibn al-Kawthar ibn Zufar ibn al-Ḥārith al-Kilābī (مَجْزَأَة بن الْكَوْثَر بن زُفَر بن الْحَارٍث الْكِلابِيّ الهَوازِنِيِّ) (commonly known as Abū al-Ward, also transliterated Abūʾl-Ward) (died 750) was a mid-8th century Umayyad governor of Jund Qinnasrin, a cavalry commander of Caliph Marwan II and later a leader of a rebellion against the Abbasid Caliphate in Syria which aimed to reestablish the Umayyad Caliphate in 750.
Ziyad ibn Abdullah ibn Yazid ibn Mu'awiyah,Al-Tabari, ed.
Aglibôl was a lunar deity in the ancient Syrian city of Palmyra.
The agora (ἀγορά agorá) was a central public space in ancient Greek city-states.
Akitu or Akitum (Sumerian:, akiti-šekinku,, "the barley-cutting", akiti-šununum, "barley-sowing"; Akkadian: akitu or rêš-šattim, "head of the year") was a spring festival in ancient Mesopotamia.The Babylonian Akitu festival has played a pivotal role in the development of theories of religion, myth and ritual, yet the purpose of the festival remains a point of contention among both historians of religion and Assyriologists.
Al Fadl (ALA-LC: Āl Faḍl) were an Arab tribe that dominated the Syrian Desert and steppe during the Middle Ages, and whose modern-day descendants largely live in southern Syria and eastern Lebanon.
Kitbugha (كتبغا), royal name: al-Malik al-Adil Zayn-ad-Din Kitbugha Ben Abd-Allah al-Mansuri al-Turki al-Mughli; الملك العادل زين الدين كتبغا بن عبد الله المنصورى التركى المغلى) (died 1297 CE) was the 10th Mamluk sultan of Egypt from December 1294 to November 1296.
Al-Ashraf Salāh ad-Dīn Khalil ibn Qalawūn (الملك الأشرف صلاح الدين خليل بن قلاوون; c. 1260s – 14 December 1293) was the eighth Mamluk sultan between November 1290 until his assassination in December 1293.
Al-Ashraf Musa (1229–1263), fully Al-Ashraf Musa ibn al-Mansur Ibrahim ibn Shirkuh (الأشرف موسى بن المنصور ابراهيم بن شيركوه), was the last Ayyubid prince (emir) of Homs, a city located in the central region of modern-day Syria.
Allat, also spelled Allatu, Alilat,, and (اللات) was the name and title of multiple goddesses worshipped in pre-Islamic Arabia, including the one in Mecca who was a chief goddess along with her siblings Manāt and al-‘Uzzá.
Qalāwūn aṣ-Ṣāliḥī (قلاوون الصالحي, c. 1222 – November 10, 1290) was the seventh Bahri Mamluk sultan; he ruled Egypt from 1279 to 1290.
Al Malik Al-Mujahid Asad ad-Din Shirkuh II was the Ayyubid emir of Homs from 1186-1240.
Al-Mundhir III ibn al-Nu'man (المنذر بن النعمان), also known as Al-Mundhir ibn Imri' al-Qays (المنذر بن إمرئ القيس) (died 554) was the king of the Lakhmids in 503/505–554.
Al-Qaryatayn (القريتين, also spelled Karyatayn, Qaratin or Cariatein) is a town in central Syria, administratively part of the Homs Governorate located southeast of Homs.
Albert Schultens (22 August 168626 January 1750) was a Dutch philologist.
Aleppo (ﺣﻠﺐ / ALA-LC) is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most-populous Syrian governorate.
Aleppo plateau (هضبة حلب) is a low, gently undulating plateau of northern Syria.
An altar is any structure upon which offerings such as sacrifices are made for religious purposes, and by extension the 'Holy table' of post-reformation Anglican churches.
The Amorites (Sumerian 𒈥𒌅 MAR.TU; Akkadian Tidnum or Amurrūm; Egyptian Amar; Hebrew אמורי ʼĔmōrī; Ἀμορραῖοι) were an ancient Semitic-speaking people from Syria who also occupied large parts of southern Mesopotamia from the 21st century BC to the end of the 17th century BC, where they established several prominent city states in existing locations, notably Babylon, which was raised from a small town to an independent state and a major city.
Amurru was an Amorite kingdom established c. 2000 BC, in a region spanning present-day western and north-western Syria and northern Lebanon The first documented leader of Amurru was Abdi-Ashirta, under whose leadership Amurru was part of the Egyptian empire.
Al-Malik an-Nasir Nasir ad-Din Muhammad ibn Qalawun (الملك الناصر ناصر الدين محمد بن قلاوون), commonly known as an-Nasir Muhammad (الناصر محمد), or by his kunya: Abu al-Ma'ali (أبو المعالى) or as Ibn Qalawun (1285–1341) was the ninth Turkic Mamluk sultan of Egypt who ruled for three reigns: December 1293–December 1294, 1299–1309, and 1310 until his death in 1341.
Anah or Ana (عانة, ʾĀna), formerly also known as Anna, is an Iraqi town on the Euphrates river, approximately midway between the Gulf of Alexandretta and the Persian Gulf.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Canaanite religion refers to the group of ancient Semitic religions practiced by the Canaanites living in the ancient Levant from at least the early Bronze Age through the first centuries of the Common Era.
Mesopotamian religion refers to the religious beliefs and practices of the civilizations of ancient Mesopotamia, particularly Sumer, Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia between circa 3500 BC and 400 AD, after which they largely gave way to Syriac Christianity.
Ankara (English; Turkish Ottoman Turkish Engürü), formerly known as Ancyra (Ἄγκυρα, Ankyra, "anchor") and Angora, is the capital of the Republic of Turkey.
Antioch on the Orontes (Antiókheia je epi Oróntou; also Syrian Antioch)Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ, "Antioch on Daphne"; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη, "Antioch the Great"; Antiochia ad Orontem; Անտիոք Antiok; ܐܢܛܝܘܟܝܐ Anṭiokya; Hebrew: אנטיוכיה, Antiyokhya; Arabic: انطاكية, Anṭākiya; انطاکیه; Antakya.
Antiochus III the Great (Greek: Ἀντίoχoς Μέγας; c. 241187 BC, ruled 222–187 BC) was a Hellenistic Greek king and the 6th ruler of the Seleucid Empire.
Antiochus XII Dionysus (Epiphanes/Philopator/Callinicus), was a ruler of the Greek Seleucid kingdom who reigned 87 BC to 84 BC.
An antiquarian or antiquary (from the Latin: antiquarius, meaning pertaining to ancient times) is an aficionado or student of antiquities or things of the past.
Antiquities of the Jews (Ἰουδαϊκὴ ἀρχαιολογία, Ioudaikē archaiologia; Antiquitates Judaicae), also Judean Antiquities (see Ioudaios), is a 20-volume historiographical work composed by the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus in the 13th year of the reign of Roman emperor Flavius Domitian which was around AD 93 or 94.
Antoninus Pius (Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius; 19 September 867 March 161 AD), also known as Antoninus, was Roman emperor from 138 to 161.
Appian of Alexandria (Ἀππιανὸς Ἀλεξανδρεύς Appianòs Alexandreús; Appianus Alexandrinus) was a Greek historian with Roman citizenship who flourished during the reigns of Emperors of Rome Trajan, Hadrian, and Antoninus Pius.
In architecture, an apse (plural apses; from Latin absis: "arch, vault" from Greek ἀψίς apsis "arch"; sometimes written apsis, plural apsides) is a semicircular recess covered with a hemispherical vault or semi-dome, also known as an Exedra.
Arabia Petraea or Petrea, also known as Rome's Arabian Province (Provincia Arabia) or simply Arabia, was a frontier province of the Roman Empire beginning in the 2nd century; it consisted of the former Nabataean Kingdom in Jordan, southern Levant, the Sinai Peninsula and northwestern Arabian Peninsula.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Aram-Damascus was an Aramaean state around Damascus in Syria, from the late 12th century BCE to 732 BCE.
Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.
The Arameans, or Aramaeans (ܐܪ̈ܡܝܐ), were an ancient Northwest Semitic Aramaic-speaking tribal confederation who emerged from the region known as Aram (in present-day Syria) in the Late Bronze Age (11th to 8th centuries BC).
The Arecaceae are a botanical family of perennial trees, climbers, shrubs, and acaules commonly known as palm trees (owing to historical usage, the family is alternatively called Palmae).
Arsu was the Semitic goddess worshipped mainly in Syrian Palmyra.
Astarte (Ἀστάρτη, Astártē) is the Hellenized form of the Middle Eastern goddess Astoreth (Northwest Semitic), a form of Ishtar (East Semitic), worshipped from the Bronze Age through classical antiquity.
Atabeg, Atabek, or Atabey is a hereditary title of nobility of a Turkic origin, indicating a governor of a nation or province who was subordinate to a monarch and charged with raising the crown prince.
Atargatis or Ataratheh (italic or italic) was the chief goddess of northern Syria in Classical antiquity.
Athena; Attic Greek: Ἀθηνᾶ, Athēnā, or Ἀθηναία, Athēnaia; Epic: Ἀθηναίη, Athēnaiē; Doric: Ἀθάνα, Athānā or Athene,; Ionic: Ἀθήνη, Athēnē often given the epithet Pallas,; Παλλὰς is the ancient Greek goddess of wisdom, handicraft, and warfare, who was later syncretized with the Roman goddess Minerva.
The Augustan History (Latin: Historia Augusta) is a late Roman collection of biographies, written in Latin, of the Roman Emperors, their junior colleagues, designated heirs and usurpers of the period 117 to 284.
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
Augustus (plural augusti;;, Latin for "majestic", "the increaser" or "venerable"), was an ancient Roman title given as both name and title to Gaius Octavius (often referred to simply as Augustus), Rome's first Emperor.
Aurelian (Lucius Domitius Aurelianus Augustus; 9 September 214 or 215September or October 275) was Roman Emperor from 270 to 275.
Aureliano in Palmira is an operatic dramma serio in two acts written by Gioachino Rossini to an Italian libretto in which the librettist was credited only by the initials "G. F. R." The libretto has generally been attributed to Giuseppe Felice Romani, but sometimes to the otherwise unknown Gian Francesco Romanelli.
Marcus(?) Aurelius Heraclianus (died 268) was a Roman soldier who rose to the rank of Praetorian Prefect in the latter part of the reign of the Emperor Gallienus.
Austrians (Österreicher) are a Germanic nation and ethnic group, native to modern Austria and South Tyrol that share a common Austrian culture, Austrian descent and Austrian history.
The Auxilia (Latin, lit. "auxiliaries") constituted the standing non-citizen corps of the Imperial Roman army during the Principate era (30 BC–284 AD), alongside the citizen legions.
The Ayyubid dynasty (الأيوبيون; خانەدانی ئەیووبیان) was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origin founded by Saladin and centred in Egypt.
In ancient Levantine mythology, Azizos or Aziz is the Palmyran god of the morning star.
Öljeitü, Oljeitu, Olcayto or Uljeitu, Öljaitu, Ölziit (Öljeitü Ilkhan, Өлзийт хаан), also known as Muhammad Khodabandeh (محمد خدابنده - اولجایتو, khodābandeh from Persian meaning the "slave of God" or "servant of God"; 1280 – December 16, 1316), was the eighth Ilkhanid dynasty ruler from 1304 to 1316 in Tabriz, Iran.
The Istanbul Archaeology Museums (İstanbul Arkeoloji Müzeleri) is a group of three archeological museums located in the Eminönü district of Istanbul, Turkey, near Gülhane Park and Topkapı Palace.
Baal,Oxford English Dictionary (1885), "" properly Baʿal, was a title and honorific meaning "lord" in the Northwest Semitic languages spoken in the Levant during antiquity. From its use among people, it came to be applied to gods. Scholars previously associated the theonym with solar cults and with a variety of unrelated patron deities, but inscriptions have shown that the name Baʿal was particularly associated with the storm and fertility god Hadad and his local manifestations. The Hebrew Bible, compiled and curated over a span of centuries, includes early use of the term in reference to God (known to them as Yahweh), generic use in reference to various Levantine deities, and finally pointed application towards Hadad, who was decried as a false god. That use was taken over into Christianity and Islam, sometimes under the opprobrious form Beelzebub in demonology.
Baal Hammon, properly Baʿal Ḥammon or Ḥamon (Phoenician: baʿal ḥamūn; Punic), was the chief god of Carthage.
Baalshamin or Ba'al Šamem (Aramaic: ܒܥܠ ܫܡܝܢ), lit.
Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.
Balista or Ballista (died c. 261), also known in the sources with the name of "Callistus", was one of the Thirty Tyrants of the controversial Historia Augusta, and supported the rebellion of the Macriani against Emperor Gallienus.
Banditry is the life and practice of bandits.
The Banu Kalb or Kalb ibn Wabara was an Arab tribe.
Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally.
Bassel Khartabil (باسل خرطبيل), also known as Bassel Safadi (باسل صفدي), (22 May 1981, Damascus – 3 October 2015) was a Palestinian Syrian open-source software developer.
The Battle of Ain Jalut (Ayn Jalut, in Arabic: عين جالوت, the "Spring of Goliath", or Harod Spring, in Hebrew: מעין חרוד) took place in September 1260 between Muslim Mamluks and the Mongols in the southeastern Galilee, in the Jezreel Valley, in the vicinity of Nazareth, not far from the site of Zir'in.
The Battle of Ctesiphon took place in 263 between the Sassanid Empire and Palmyrene army under the Palmyrene king Odaenathus (Palmyra was then an allied state of Rome and officially part of the latter Empire).
The Battle of Edessa took place between the armies of the Roman Empire under the command of Emperor Valerian and Sassanid forces under Shahanshah (King of the Kings) Shapur I in 260.
The Battle of Emesa was fought in 272 between the Roman armies led by their emperor Aurelian and the Palmyrene forces led by their queen, Zenobia and general Zabdas.
The Battle of Immae was fought in 272 between the Roman army of Emperor Aurelian, and the armies of the Palmyrene Empire, whose leader, Queen Zenobia, had usurped Roman control over the eastern provinces.
The Battle of Maysalun (معركة ميسلون), also called the Battle of Maysalun Pass or the Battle of Khan Maysalun, was fought between the forces of the Arab Kingdom of Syria and the French Army of the Levant on 24 July 1920 near Khan Maysalun in the Anti-Lebanon Mountains, about west of Damascus.
The Battle of Palmyra (1 July 1941) was part of the Allied invasion of Syria during the Syria-Lebanon campaign in World War II.
The Battle of Raphia, also known as the Battle of Gaza, was a battle fought on 22 June 217 BC near modern Rafah between the forces of Ptolemy IV Philopator, king and pharaoh of Ptolemaic Egypt and Antiochus III the Great of the Seleucid Empire during the Syrian Wars.
The Bedouin (badawī) are a grouping of nomadic Arab peoples who have historically inhabited the desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq and the Levant.
Beit She'arim (בֵּית שְׁעָרִים, "House of the Gates") is the currently used name for the ancient Jewish town of Bet She'arāyim ("House of Two Gates") or Kfar She'arāyim ("Village of Two Gates").
Bel (from Akkadian bēlu), signifying "lord" or "master", is a title rather than a genuine name, applied to various gods in the Mesopotamian religion of Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia.
The Bene Komare were a Palmyrene tribe who were attested as one of the main four tribes of Palmyra.
The Bene Ma'zin were a Palmyrene tribe who were attested as one of the main four tribes of the city.
Benjamin of Tudela (בִּנְיָמִין מִטּוּדֶלָה,; بنيامين التطيلي;‎ Tudela, Kingdom of Navarre, 1130Castile, 1173) was a medieval Jewish traveler who visited Europe, Asia, and Africa in the 12th century.
In the Christian Bible, the two Books of Chronicles (commonly referred to as 1 Chronicles and 2 Chronicles, or First Chronicles and Second Chronicles) generally follow the two Books of Kings and precede Ezra–Nehemiah, thus concluding the history-oriented books of the Old Testament, often referred to as the Deuteronomistic history.
The two Books of Kings, originally a single book, are the eleventh and twelfth books of the Hebrew Bible or Old Testament.
The Bosporus or Bosphorus;The spelling Bosporus is listed first or exclusively in all major British and American dictionaries (e.g.,,, Merriam-Webster,, and Random House) as well as the Encyclopædia Britannica and the.
In cities of ancient Greece, the boule (βουλή, boulē; plural βουλαί, boulai) was a council of over 500 citizens (βουλευταί, bouleutai) appointed to run daily affairs of the city.
The British Mandate for Mesopotamia (الانتداب البريطاني على العراق) was a Mandate proposed to be entrusted to Britain at the San Remo, Italy-based conference,The new Cambridge modern history.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
The Burid dynasty was a Turkish Muslim dynastyBurids, R. LeTourneau, The Encyclopedia of Islam, Vol.
Byzantine art is the name for the artistic products of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire, as well as the nations and states that inherited culturally from the empire.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
The Byzantine Empire had its first golden age under the Justinian Dynasty, which began in 518 AD with the Accession of Justin I. Under the Justinian Dynasty, particularly the reign of Justinian I, the Empire reached its largest territorial point, reincorporating North Africa, southern Illyria, southern Spain, and Italy into the Empire.
Camel cavalry, or camelry, is a generic designation for armed forces using camels as a means of transportation.
The Camp of Diocletian was a Roman military complex, or castra, built in the ancient city of Palmyra in the Syrian Desert.
Capena (until 1933 called Leprignano) is a town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Rome, Lazio region (central Italy).
Caracalla (Latin: Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus Augustus; 4 April 188 – 8 April 217), formally known as Antoninus, was Roman emperor from 198 to 217 AD.
Caravans A caravan (from کاروان) is a group of people traveling together, often on a trade expedition.
A caravanserai was a roadside inn where travelers (caravaners) could rest and recover from the day's journey.
Carl Haag (20 April 1820 – 24 January 1915) was a Bavarian-born painter who became a naturalized British subject and was court painter to the duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.
Cassius Longinus (Κάσσιος Λογγῖνος; c. 213 – 273 AD) was a rhetorician and philosophical critic.
In the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, the Latin word castrum (plural castra) was a building, or plot of land, used as a fortified military camp.
A cella (from Latin for small chamber) or naos (from the Greek ναός, "temple") is the inner chamber of a temple in classical architecture, or a shop facing the street in domestic Roman architecture, such as a domus.
Characene (مملكة ميسان), (Ancient Greek: Χαρακηνή), also known as Mesene (Μεσσήνη) or Meshan, was an Arab principality within the Parthian Empire located at the head of the Persian Gulf.
Spasinu Charax, or Charax Spasinu, Charax Pasinu, Charax Spasinou (Σπασίνου Χάραξ), Alexandria (Greek: Ἀλεξάνδρεια), and Antiochia in Susiana (Greek: Ἀντιόχεια τῆς Σουσιανῆς) was an ancient port at the head of the Persian Gulf, and the capital of the ancient kingdom of Characene.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Claudius Gothicus (Marcus Aurelius Valerius Claudius Augustus;Jones, pg. 209 May 10, 210 – January 270), also known as Claudius II, was Roman emperor from 268 to 270.
The Clibanarii or Klibanophoroi (κλιβανοφόροι, meaning "camp oven-bearers" from the Greek word κλίβανος meaning "camp oven" or "metallic furnace") were a Sassanid Persian, late Roman and Byzantine military unit of heavy armored horsemen.
The Cohors XX Palmyrenorum ("20th Cohort of Palmyrenes") was an auxiliary cohort of the Roman Imperial army.
A Roman colonia (plural coloniae) was originally a Roman outpost established in conquered territory to secure it.
Ficus carica is an Asian species of flowering plant in the mulberry family, known as the common fig (or just the fig).
Consularis is a Latin adjective indicating something pertaining to the consular office.
The Corinthian order is the last developed of the three principal classical orders of ancient Greek and Roman architecture.
Creative Commons (CC) is an American non-profit organization devoted to expanding the range of creative works available for others to build upon legally and to share.
The Crisis of the Third Century, also known as Military Anarchy or the Imperial Crisis (AD 235–284), was a period in which the Roman Empire nearly collapsed under the combined pressures of invasion, civil war, plague, and economic depression.
Ctesiphon (Κτησιφῶν; from Parthian or Middle Persian: tyspwn or tysfwn) was an ancient city located on the eastern bank of the Tigris, and about southeast of present-day Baghdad.
The culture of Iran (Farhang-e Irān), also known as culture of Persia, is one of the oldest in the world.
Syria is a traditional society with a long cultural history.
Cuneiform script, one of the earliest systems of writing, was invented by the Sumerians.
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
Daniel Théodore Schlumberger (19 December 1904 in Mulhouse, France – 21 October 1972 in Princeton, New Jersey, USA.) was a French archaeologist and Professor of Near Eastern Archaeology at the University of Strasbourg and later Princeton University.
Phoenix dactylifera, commonly known as date or date palm, is a flowering plant species in the palm family, Arecaceae, cultivated for its edible sweet fruit.
Deir ez-Zor (دير الزور Dayr az-Zūr; Syriac: ܕܝܪܐ ܙܥܘܪܬܐ Dayrāʾ Zəʿōrtāʾ) is the largest city in eastern Syria and the seventh largest in the country.
Demonic possession is believed by some, to be the process by which individuals are possessed by malevolent preternatural beings, commonly referred to as demons or devils.
Dendera (دندرة Dandarah; ⲛⲓⲧⲉⲛⲧⲱⲣⲓ), also spelled Denderah, ancient Iunet, Tentyris or Tentyra is a small town and former bishopric in Egypt situated on the west bank of the Nile, about south of Qena, on the opposite side of the river.
Diocletian (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus), born Diocles (22 December 244–3 December 311), was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305.
The Directorate-General for Antiquities and Museums (DGAM) (المديرية العامة للآثار والمتاحف) is a Syrian government owned agency that is responsible for the protection, promotion and excavation activities in all sites of national heritage in the country.
Dura-Europos (Δοῦρα Εὐρωπός), also spelled Dura-Europus, was a Hellenistic, Parthian and Roman border city built on an escarpment above the right bank of the Euphrates river.
The duumviri (Latin for "two men"), originally duoviri and also known in English as the duumvirs, were any of various joint magistrates of ancient Rome.
Ebla (إبلا., modern: تل مرديخ, Tell Mardikh) was one of the earliest kingdoms in Syria.
Edessa (Ἔδεσσα; الرها ar-Ruhā; Şanlıurfa; Riha) was a city in Upper Mesopotamia, founded on an earlier site by Seleucus I Nicator ca.
Field Marshal Edmund Henry Hynman Allenby, 1st Viscount Allenby, (23 April 1861 – 14 May 1936) was an English soldier and British Imperial Governor.
El Kantara (the bridge) is a town and commune in Biskra Province, Algeria.
Elagabalus, also known as Heliogabalus (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus; 203 – 11 March 222), was Roman emperor from 218 to 222.
Elagabalus, Aelagabalus, or Heliogabalus is a Syro-Roman sun god.
Emar (modern Tell Meskene) is an archaeological site in Aleppo Governorate, northern Syria.
In ancient Greece the chief magistrate in various Greek city states was called eponymous archon (ἐπώνυμος ἄρχων, epōnymos archōn).
The Euphrates (Sumerian: Buranuna; 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu; الفرات al-Furāt; ̇ܦܪܬ Pǝrāt; Եփրատ: Yeprat; פרת Perat; Fırat; Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.
The term exarch comes from the Ancient Greek ἔξαρχος, exarchos, and designates holders of various historical offices, some of them being political or military and others being ecclesiastical.
Fadl ibn Isa, also known as Fadl II, was a prince of the Al Fadl, an Arab dynasty that dominated the Syrian Desert beginning in the 13th century.
Fakhr-al-Din ibn Maan (August 6, 1572 – April 13, 1635) (الامير فخر الدين بن معن), also known as Fakhreddine and Fakhr-ad-Din II, was a Druze Ma'ani Emir and an early leader of the Mount Lebanon Emirate, a self-governed area under the Ottoman Empire.
A formant, as defined by James Jeans, is a harmonic of a note that is augmented by a resonance.
Fragmentation is the process by which the casing of an artillery or mortar shell, rocket, missile, bomb, grenade, etc.
Franz Altheim (6 October 1898 – 17 October 1976) was a German historian, best known for his trip with Erika Trautmann funded by the Ahnenerbe and Hermann Göring.
A free city (civitas libera, urbs liberae condicionis; ἐλευθέρα καὶ αὐτόνομος πόλις) was a self-governed city during the Hellenistic and Roman Imperial eras.
Free France and its Free French Forces (French: France Libre and Forces françaises libres) were the government-in-exile led by Charles de Gaulle during the Second World War and its military forces, that continued to fight against the Axis powers as one of the Allies after the fall of France.
The Mandate for Syria and Lebanon (Mandat français pour la Syrie et le Liban; الانتداب الفرنسي على سوريا ولبنان) (1923−1946) was a League of Nations mandate founded after the First World War and the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire concerning Syria and Lebanon.
In architecture the frieze is the wide central section part of an entablature and may be plain in the Ionic or Doric order, or decorated with bas-reliefs.
Gad was the name of the pan-Semitic god of fortune, and is attested in ancient records of Aram and Arabia.
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus Augustus; c. 218 – 268), also known as Gallien, was Roman Emperor with his father Valerian from 253 to 260 and alone from 260 to 268.
Ge'ez (ግዕዝ,; also transliterated Giʻiz) is an ancient South Semitic language and a member of the Ethiopian Semitic group.
In Roman religion, the genius (plural geniī) is the individual instance of a general divine nature that is present in every individual person, place, or thing.
Germanicus (Latin: Germanicus Julius Caesar; 24 May 15 BC – 10 October AD 19) was a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty and a prominent general of the Roman Empire, who was known for his campaigns in Germania.
The Great Colonnade at Palmyra was the main colonnaded avenue in the ancient city of Palmyra in the Syrian Desert.
The Greco-Roman world, Greco-Roman culture, or the term Greco-Roman; spelled Graeco-Roman in the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth), when used as an adjective, as understood by modern scholars and writers, refers to those geographical regions and countries that culturally (and so historically) were directly, long-term, and intimately influenced by the language, culture, government and religion of the ancient Greeks and Romans. It is also better known as the Classical Civilisation. In exact terms the area refers to the "Mediterranean world", the extensive tracts of land centered on the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins, the "swimming-pool and spa" of the Greeks and Romans, i.e. one wherein the cultural perceptions, ideas and sensitivities of these peoples were dominant. This process was aided by the universal adoption of Greek as the language of intellectual culture and commerce in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, and of Latin as the tongue for public management and forensic advocacy, especially in the Western Mediterranean. Though the Greek and the Latin never became the native idioms of the rural peasants who composed the great majority of the empire's population, they were the languages of the urbanites and cosmopolitan elites, and the lingua franca, even if only as corrupt or multifarious dialects to those who lived within the large territories and populations outside the Macedonian settlements and the Roman colonies. All Roman citizens of note and accomplishment regardless of their ethnic extractions, spoke and wrote in Greek and/or Latin, such as the Roman jurist and Imperial chancellor Ulpian who was of Phoenician origin, the mathematician and geographer Claudius Ptolemy who was of Greco-Egyptian origin and the famous post-Constantinian thinkers John Chrysostom and Augustine who were of Syrian and Berber origins, respectively, and the historian Josephus Flavius who was of Jewish origin and spoke and wrote in Greek.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Hadrian (Publius Aelius Hadrianus Augustus; 24 January 76 – 10 July 138 AD) was Roman emperor from 117 to 138.
Septimius Herodianus or Hairan (died 267) was the son and co-king of Odaenathus of Palmyra.
Halabiye (حلبيّة, Latin/Greek: Zenobia, Birtha) is an archaeological site on the right bank of the Euphrates River in Deir ez-Zor Governorate, Syria.
The Hamdanid dynasty (حمدانيون Ḥamdānyūn) was a Shi'a Muslim Arab dynasty of northern Iraq (al-Jazirah) and Syria (890-1004).
The Harbaqa Dam or Kharbaqa Dam (سد خربقة) was a Roman era Palmyrene gravity dam in the Syrian desert about southwest from Palmyra on the road to Damascus.
The Harfush dynasty (or Harfouche dynasty) was a dynasty that originated from the Khuza'a tribe, which helped, under the reign of Muhammad, in the conquest of Syria.
Harran (حران,Harran, حران) was a major ancient city in Upper Mesopotamia whose site is near the modern village of Altınbaşak, Turkey, 44 kilometers southeast of Şanlıurfa.
Hauran (حوران / ALA-LC: Ḥawrān), also spelled Hawran, Houran and Horan, known to the Ancient Greeks and Romans as Auranitis, is a volcanic plateau, a geographic area and a people located in southwestern Syria and extending into the northwestern corner of Jordan.
Hīt, also spelled Heet (هيت), ancient name Is, is an Iraqi city in Al-Anbar province.
Helios (Ἥλιος Hēlios; Latinized as Helius; Ἠέλιος in Homeric Greek) is the god and personification of the Sun in Greek mythology.
Hellenistic art is the art of the period in classical antiquity generally taken to begin with the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and end with the conquest of the Greek world by the Romans, a process well underway by 146 BCE, when the Greek mainland was taken, and essentially ending in 31 BCE with the conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt following the Battle of Actium.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
Hellenization or Hellenisation is the historical spread of ancient Greek culture, religion and, to a lesser extent, language, over foreign peoples conquered by Greeks or brought into their sphere of influence, particularly during the Hellenistic period following the campaigns of Alexander the Great in the fourth century BC.
Henri Arnold Seyrig (10 November 1895 – 21 January 1973) was a French archaeologist, numismatist, and historian of antiquities.
The State Hermitage Museum (p) is a museum of art and culture in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Homs (حمص / ALA-LC: Ḥimṣ), previously known as Emesa or Emisa (Greek: Ἔμεσα Emesa), is a city in western Syria and the capital of the Homs Governorate.
Homs Governorate (مُحافظة حمص / ALA-LC: Muḥāfaẓat Ḥimṣ) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.
Hulagu Khan, also known as Hülegü or Hulegu (ᠬᠦᠯᠡᠭᠦ|translit.
Hurrian is an extinct Hurro-Urartian language spoken by the Hurrians (Khurrites), a people who entered northern Mesopotamia around 2300 BC and had mostly vanished by 1000 BC.
Hypogeum or hypogaeum (plural hypogea or hypogaea which is commonly seen) literally means "underground", from Greek hypo (under) and gaia (mother earth or goddess of earth).
Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī or Ibn Ḥajar (ابن حجر العسقلاني, full name: Shihāb al-Dīn Abu ’l-Faḍl Aḥmad b. Nūr al-Dīn ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī) (18 February 1372 – 2 February 1449), was a medieval Shafiite Sunni Muslim scholar of Islam "whose life work constitutes the final summation of the science of hadith." represents the entire realm of the Sunni world in the field of Hadith, also known as Shaykh al Islam.
IconoclasmLiterally, "image-breaking", from κλάω.
The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate (ایلخانان, Ilxānān; Хүлэгийн улс, Hu’legīn Uls), was established as a khanate that formed the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu.
The Imperial Roman army are the terrestrial armed forces deployed by the Roman Empire from about 30 BC to 476 AD.
The Indus River Delta (سندھ ڈیلٹا, سنڌو ٽِڪور), forms where the Indus River flows into the Arabian Sea, mostly in the Southern Sindh province of Pakistan with a small portion in the Kutch Region of the Western tip of India.
Irfan Arif Shahîd (عرفان شهيد; Nazareth, Palestine, January 15, 1926 – Washington, D.C., November 9, 2016), born as Irfan Arif Kawar (عرفان عارف قعوار), was a scholar in the field of Oriental studies.
Sharaf ad-Din Isa ibn Muhanna at-Ta'i, better known as Isa ibn Muhanna (d. 1284/85), was an emir (commander/prince) of the Al Fadl, a Bedouin dynasty that dominated the Syrian Desert and steppe during the 13th–15th centuries.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.
Issus (Phoenician: Sissu, Ἱσσός or Ἱσσοί) is an ancient settlement on the strategic coastal plain straddling the small Pinarus river (a fast melt-water stream several metres wide) below the navigationally difficult inland mountains towering above to the east in the Turkish Province of Hatay, near the border with Syria.
Jama Masjid (جَامع مَسجد|Jāma‘ Masjid, also spelt Jame Mosque, Jami Masjid, Jameh Mosque, Jamia Masjid, or Jomeh Mosque) refers to the main mosque of a town, city or village, and is usually the place of gathering for Eid prayers and Friday prayers.
James Dawkins (1722, Jamaica – 6 September 1757, Sutton's Plantation, Jamaica) was a British antiquarian and Jacobite.
Abbé Jean Starcky (3 February 1909 in Mulhouse 9 October 1988) was a French priest who was one of the early editors of the Dead Sea Scrolls.
Jean-Baptiste Tavernier (1605 – 1689) was a 17th-century French gem merchant and traveler.
Jinn (الجن), also romanized as djinn or anglicized as genies (with the more broad meaning of spirits or demons, depending on source)Tobias Nünlist Dämonenglaube im Islam Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, 2015 p. 22 (German) are supernatural creatures in early Arabian and later Islamic mythology and theology.
Joannes or John Zonaras (Ἰωάννης Ζωναρᾶς, Iōánnēs Zōnarâs; fl. 12th century) was a Byzantine chronicler and theologian who lived in Constantinople.
John I Tzimiskes (Iōánnēs I Tzimiskēs; c. 925 – 10 January 976) was the senior Byzantine Emperor from 11 December 969 to 10 January 976.
Josef Strzygowski (March 7, 1862 – January 2, 1941) was a Polish-Austrian art historian known for his theories promoting influences from the art of the Near East on European art, for example that of Early Christian Armenian architecture on the early Medieval architecture of Europe, outlined in his book, Die Baukunst der Armenier und Europa (an aspect of his thinking that has survived better than many others).
Titus Flavius Josephus (Φλάβιος Ἰώσηπος; 37 – 100), born Yosef ben Matityahu (יוסף בן מתתיהו, Yosef ben Matityahu; Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς), was a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry.
Judea or Judæa (from יהודה, Standard Yəhuda, Tiberian Yəhûḏāh, Ἰουδαία,; Iūdaea, يهودا, Yahudia) is the ancient Hebrew and Israelite biblical, the exonymic Roman/English, and the modern-day name of the mountainous southern part of Canaan-Israel.
Jund ḤimṣAlthough the modern district and the city are known in English as "Homs", the military districts of the Caliphate are known by their transliterated names.
Justinian I (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; 482 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565.
A kasbah (qaṣbah, "central part of a town or citadel"; also known as qasaba, gasaba and quasabeh, in older English casbah or qasbah, in India qassabah and in Spanish alcazaba (remains of the Moorish Spain)) is a type of medina or fortress (citadel).
Kazimierz Józef Marian Michałowski (born December 14, 1901 in Tarnopol – January 1, 1981 in Warsaw) was a Polish archaeologist and Egyptologist, art historian, member of the Polish Academy of Sciences, professor ordinarius of the University of Warsaw as well as the founder of the Polish school of Mediterranean archaeology and a precursor of Nubiology.
Kültepe (Turkish: "Ash Hill") is an archaeological site in Kayseri Province, Turkey.
Khaled al-Asaad (خالد الأسعد. (1 January 1932 – 18 August 2015) was a Syrian archaeologist and the head of antiquities for the ancient city of Palmyra, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. He held this position for over 40 years. Al-Asaad was publicly beheaded by the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) on 18 August 2015. He was 83 years old.
Abū Sulaymān Khālid ibn al-Walīd ibn al-Mughīrah al-Makhzūmī (أبو سليمان خالد بن الوليد بن المغيرة المخزومي‎; 585–642), also known as Sayf ullah al-Maslūl (سيف الله المسلول; Drawn Sword of God) was a companion of Muhammad.
Khan Academy is a non-profit educational organization created in 2006 by educator Salman Khan with a goal of creating a set of online tools that help educate students.
The genitive phrase King of Kings (Assyrian šar šarrāni, Hebrew מֶלֶךְ מְלָכִים melek mĕlakîm, Persian شاهنشاه) is a superlative expression for "great king" or high king; it is probably originally of Semitic origins (compare the superlatives Lord of Lords, Song of Songs or Holy of Holies), but from there was also adopted in Persian (Shahanshah), Hellenistic and Christian traditions.
The Kingdom of Commagene (Βασίλειον τῆς Kομμαγηνῆς; Կոմմագենեի թագավորություն) was an ancient Armenian kingdom of the Hellenistic period, located in and around the ancient city of Samosata, which served as its capital.
The United Monarchy is the name given to the Israelite kingdom of Israel and Judah, during the reigns of Saul, David and Solomon, as depicted in the Hebrew Bible.
The kontos (κοντός) was the Greek name for a type of long wooden cavalry lance used by Iranian, especially Achaemenid successors' cavalry, most notably cataphracts (Grivpanvar).
Lady Hester Lucy Stanhope (12 March 1776 – 23 June 1839) was a British socialite, adventurer and traveller.
Lady Strangford, Emily Ann Smythe or Emily Anne Beaufort (1826 – 24 March 1887) was a British illustrator, writer and nurse.
The Lakhmids (اللخميون) or Banu Lakhm (بنو لخم) were an Arab kingdom of southern Iraq with al-Hirah as their capital, from about 300 to 602 AD.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
A League of Nations mandate was a legal status for certain territories transferred from the control of one country to another following World War I, or the legal instruments that contained the internationally agreed-upon terms for administering the territory on behalf of the League of Nations.
The Lebanese people (الشعب اللبناني / ALA-LC: Lebanese Arabic pronunciation) are the people inhabiting or originating from Lebanon.
A legatus (anglicized as legate) was a high ranking Roman military officer in the Roman Army, equivalent to a modern high ranking general officer.
Legio X Fretensis ("Tenth legion of the Strait") was a legion of the Imperial Roman army.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
The Lion of Al-lāt (Arabic اللات) is an ancient statue that adorned the Temple of Al-Lat in Palmyra, Syria.
Augusta (plural Augustae; αὐγούστα) was a Roman imperial honorific title given to empresses and honoured women of the imperial families.
The Thirty Tyrants (Latin: Tyranni Triginta) were a series of thirty rulers who appear in the Historia Augusta as having ostensibly been pretenders to the throne of the Roman Empire during the reign of the emperor Gallienus.
The List of World Heritage in Danger is compiled by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) through the World Heritage Committee according to Article 11.4 of the World Heritage Convention,Full title: Convention concerning the protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage which was established in 1972 to designate and manage World Heritage Sites.
This is a list of World Heritage Sites in the Arab States, in Western Asia and North Africa, occupy an area stretching from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea.
Loculus (Latin, "little place"), plural loculi, is an architectural compartment or niche that houses a body, as in a catacomb, hypogeum, mausoleum or other place of entombment.
Louis-François Cassas, born on June 3, 1756, was a distinguished French landscape painter, sculptor, architect, archeologist and antiquary born at Azay-le-Ferron, in the Indre Department of France.
The Lower Galilee (translit. HaGalil HaTaḥton), is a region within the Northern District of Israel.
Fulvius Macrianus (died 261), also called Macrianus Major, was a Roman usurper.
Titus Fulvius Iunius Macrianus (died 261), also known as Macrianus Minor, was a Roman usurper.
Maeonius (d. 266/267), or Maconius, was a short-lived Roman usurper.
Malakbêl, مالاکبل, was a sun deity of the city of Palmyra in pre-Islamic Syria.
Jalāl al-Dawla Mu'izz al-Dunyā Wa'l-Din Abu'l-Fatḥ ibn Alp Arslān (8 August 1053 – 19 November 1092, full name: معزالدنیا و الدین ملکشاه بن محمد الب ارسلان قسیم امیرالمومنین), better known by his regnal name of Malik-Shah I (ملکشاه) (Melikşah), was Sultan of the Seljuq Empire from 1072 to 1092.
The Mamluk Sultanate (سلطنة المماليك Salṭanat al-Mamālīk) was a medieval realm spanning Egypt, the Levant, and Hejaz.
Marcus Ulpius Traianus Maior (c. 30 AD – before 100 AD; Latin: Maior, "the elder") was a Roman senator who lived in the 1st century.
Marduk (cuneiform: dAMAR.UTU; Sumerian: amar utu.k "calf of the sun; solar calf"; Greek Μαρδοχαῖος, Mardochaios) was a late-generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon.
Mari (modern Tell Hariri, تل حريري) was an ancient Semitic city in modern-day Syria.
Marcus Antonius (Latin:; 14 January 1 August 30 BC), commonly known in English as Mark Antony or Marc Antony, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic from an oligarchy into the autocratic Roman Empire.
Marwan ibn Muhammad ibn Marwan or Marwan II (691 – 6 August 750; Arabic: مروان بن محمد بن مروان بن الحكم / ALA-LC: Marwān bin Muḥammad bin Marwān bin al-Ḥakam) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 744 until 750 when he was killed.
Maternus Cynegius (died on March 14, 388, in Berytos) was a praetorian prefect of the East and consul at the end of the 4th century, best known for destroying some of the most sacred sites of Hellenic religion during the persecution of pagans in the late Roman Empire in a campaign against the temples of the East.
A meander or meandros (Μαίανδρος) is a decorative border constructed from a continuous line, shaped into a repeated motif.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
A merlon is the solid upright section of a battlement (a crenellated parapet) in medieval architecture or fortifications.
Merv (Merw, Мерв, مرو; مرو, Marv), formerly Achaemenid Persian Satrapy of Margiana, and later Alexandria (Margiana) (Ἀλεξάνδρεια) and Antiochia in Margiana (Ἀντιόχεια τῆς Μαργιανῆς), was a major oasis-city in Central Asia, on the historical Silk Road, located near today's Mary in Turkmenistan.
Mesopotamia was the name of two distinct Roman provinces, the one a short-lived creation of the Roman Emperor Trajan in 116–117 and the other established by Emperor Septimius Severus in ca.
Michael Patrick O'Connor (1950, Lackawanna, New York – June 16, 2007, Silver Springs, New York) was an American scholar of the Ancient Near East and a poet.
Mikhail Ivanovich Rostovtzeff, or Rostovtsev (Михаи́л Ива́нович Росто́вцев) (Zhitomir, Russian Empire – October 20, 1952, New Haven, USA) was an ancient historian whose career straddled the 19th and 20th centuries and who produced important works on ancient Roman and Greek history.
A mid vowel (or a true-mid vowel) is any in a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages.
The Sasanian army was the primary military body of the Sasanian armed forces, serving alongside the Sasanian navy.
The Ministry of Culture (وزارة الثقافة) is a government ministry office of the Syrian Arab Republic, responsible for cultural affairs in Syria.
The Mirdasid dynasty was an Arab dynasty that controlled the Emirate of Aleppo more or less continuously from 1024 until 1080.
The Modern History of Syria spans from termination of Ottoman control of Syria by French forces and establishment of the Occupied Enemy Territory Administration during World War I. The short-lived Arab Kingdom of Syria emerged in 1920, which was however soon committed under French Mandate, which produced short-living autonomous State of Aleppo, State of Damascus (later State of Syria (1924–30)), Alawite State and Jabal al-Druze (state); the autonomies were transformed into the Mandatory Syrian Republic in 1930.
Moesia (Latin: Moesia; Μοισία, Moisía) was an ancient region and later Roman province situated in the Balkans south of the Danube River.
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
The Monumental Arch, also called the Arch of Triumph (قوس النصر) or the Arch of Septimius Severus, was a Roman ornamental archway in Palmyra, Syria.
A mortar is usually a simple, lightweight, man portable, muzzle-loaded weapon, consisting of a smooth-bore metal tube fixed to a base plate (to absorb recoil) with a lightweight bipod mount.
A mosaic is a piece of art or image made from the assemblage of small pieces of colored glass, stone, or other materials.
Nasr ad-Din Abu Abdallah Muhammad ibn Asad ad-Din Shirkuh (sometimes referred to as Nasr ad-Din ibn Shirkuh and al-Malik al-Qahir) was the Ayyubid emir of Homs from 1179 to 1186.
Husam ad-Din Muhanna ibn Isa (also known as Muhanna II; d. 1335) was the lord of Palmyra and amir al-ʿarab (commander of the Bedouins) under the Mamluk Sultanate.
A mummy is a deceased human or an animal whose skin and organs have been preserved by either intentional or accidental exposure to chemicals, extreme cold, very low humidity, or lack of air, so that the recovered body does not decay further if kept in cool and dry conditions.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The Nabataean Kingdom (المملكة النبطية), also named Nabatea, was a political state of the Arab Nabataeans during classical antiquity.
The Nabataeans, also Nabateans (الأنباط  , compare Ναβαταῖος, Nabataeus), were an Arab people who inhabited northern Arabia and the Southern Levant.
Nabu (cuneiform: 𒀭𒀝 Nabū ܢܒܘ) is the ancient Mesopotamian patron god of literacy, the rational arts, scribes and wisdom.
The National Museum of Damascus (المتحف الوطني بدمشق) is a museum in the heart of Damascus, Syria, It is the country's national museum as well as its largest.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
A necropolis (pl. necropoleis) is a large, designed cemetery with elaborate tomb monuments.
Nehardea or Nehardeah (nəhardəʿā "river of knowledge") was a city of Babylonia, situated at or near the junction of the Euphrates with the Nahr Malka (also known as Nâr Sharri, Ar-Malcha, Nahr el-Malik, and King's Canal), one of the earliest centers of Babylonian Judaism.
The Neo-Assyrian Empire was an Iron Age Mesopotamian empire, in existence between 911 and 609 BC, and became the largest empire of the world up till that time.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
Nergal, Nirgal, or Nirgali (Sumerian: dGÌR-UNUG-GAL;; Aramaic ܢܹܪܓܵܐܠ; Nergel) was a deity worshipped throughout Mesopotamia (Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia) with the main seat of his worship at Cuthah represented by the mound of Tell-Ibrahim.
Nero (Latin: Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 15 December 37 – 9 June 68 AD) was the last Roman emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty.
Newcastle upon Tyne, commonly known as Newcastle, is a city in Tyne and Wear, North East England, 103 miles (166 km) south of Edinburgh and 277 miles (446 km) north of London on the northern bank of the River Tyne, from the North Sea.
Nikephoros II Phokas (Latinized: Nicephorus II Phocas; Νικηφόρος Β΄ Φωκᾶς, Nikēphóros II Phōkãs; c. 912 – 11 December 969) was Byzantine Emperor from 963 to 969.
The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.
Nisan (or Nissan; נִיסָן, Standard Nisan Tiberian Nîsān) on the Assyrian calendar is the first month, and on the Hebrew calendar is the first month of the ecclesiastical year and the seventh month (eighth, in leap year) of the civil year.
Numidia (202 BC – 40 BC, Berber: Inumiden) was an ancient Berber kingdom of the Numidians, located in what is now Algeria and a smaller part of Tunisia and Libya in the Berber world, in North Africa.
Nūr ad-Dīn Abū al-Qāsim Maḥmūd ibn ʿImād ad-Dīn Zengī (February 1118 – 15 May 1174), often shortened to his laqab Nur ad-Din (نور الدين, "Light of the Faith"), was a member of the Oghuz Turkish Zengid dynasty which ruled the Syrian province of the Seljuk Empire.
Nusaybin (Akkadian: Naṣibina; Classical Greek: Νίσιβις, Nisibis; نصيبين., Kurdish: Nisêbîn; ܢܨܝܒܝܢ, Nṣībīn; Armenian: Մծբին, Mtsbin) is a city and multiple titular see in Mardin Province, Turkey.
In geography, an oasis (plural: oases) is an isolated area in a desert, typically surrounding a spring or similar water source, such as a pond or small lake.
Septimius Udhayna, Latinized as Odaenathus (Palmyrene:, spelled Oḏainaṯ; أذينة; 220 – 267 AD), was the founder king (Mlk) of the Palmyrene Kingdom centered at Palmyra, Syria.
Otto Puchstein (6 July 1856, Labes – 9 March 1911, Berlin) was a German classical archaeologist.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Palmyra (Palmyrene: 𐡕𐡃𐡌𐡅𐡓 Tadmor; تدمر Tadmor) is a city in central Syria, administratively part of the Homs Governorate.
Palmyra Castle, also known as Fakhr-al-Din al-Ma'ani Castle (قلعة فخر الدين المعني) or Tadmur Castle, is a castle overlooking Palmyra in the province of Homs, Syria.
Palmyrene is a Unicode block containing characters for the historical Palmyrene alphabet used to write the local Palmyrene dialect of Aramaic.
Palmyrene was a historical Semitic alphabet used to write the local Palmyrene dialect of Aramaic.
Palmyrene or Palmyrenean was a Western Aramaic dialect spoken in the city of Palmyra, Syria, in the early centuries AD.
The Palmyrene Empire was a splinter state centered at Palmyra which broke away from the Roman Empire during the Crisis of the Third Century.
Palmyrene funerary relief busts were first produced in Palmyra in the middle of the first century CE as decorative slabs closing the burial niches inside underground tombs.
The Palmyrene invasion of Egypt occurred in summer or October of 270 AD when the forces of Queen Zenobia of Palmyra, led by her general Zabdas and aided by an Egyptian general named Timagenes, invaded and subsequently annexed Egypt, which was under control of the Roman empire at the time.
A pantheon (from Greek πάνθεον pantheon, literally "(a temple) of all gods", "of or common to all gods" from πᾶν pan- "all" and θεός theos "god") is the particular set of all gods of any polytheistic religion, mythology, or tradition.
Paolo Matthiae (born 1940) is an Italian archaeologist.
Parthian art was Iranian art made during the Parthian Empire from 247 BC to 224 AD, based in the Near East.
The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran and Iraq.
In Hellenistic Greek and Roman architecture a peristyle (from Greek περίστυλος) is a continuous porch formed by a row of columns surrounding the perimeter of building or a courtyard.
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
Petra (Arabic: البتراء, Al-Batrāʾ; Ancient Greek: Πέτρα), originally known to its inhabitants as Raqmu, is a historical and archaeological city in southern Jordan.
Phoenice was a province of the Roman Empire encompassing the historical region of Phoenicia.
Phyle (phulē, "clan, race, people"; pl. phylai, φυλαί; derived from ancient Greek φύεσθαι "to descend, to originate") is an ancient Greek term for clan or tribe.
Pietro della Valle (2 April 1586 – 21 April 1652) was an Italian composer, musicologist, and author who traveled throughout Asia during the Renaissance period.
The pistachio (Pistacia vera), a member of the cashew family, is a small tree originating from Central Asia and the Middle East.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Polis (πόλις), plural poleis (πόλεις), literally means city in Greek.
The polos crown (plural poloi; πόλος) is a high cylindrical crown worn by mythological goddesses of the Ancient Near East and Anatolia and adopted by the ancient Greeks for imaging the mother goddesses Rhea and Cybele and Hera.
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (29 September 106 BC – 28 September 48 BC), usually known in English as Pompey or Pompey the Great, was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic.
A portico is a porch leading to the entrance of a building, or extended as a colonnade, with a roof structure over a walkway, supported by columns or enclosed by walls.
The praetorian prefect (praefectus praetorio, ἔπαρχος/ὕπαρχος τῶν πραιτωρίων) was a high office in the Roman Empire.
The praetorian prefecture of the East or of Oriens (praefectura praetorio Orientis, ἐπαρχότης/ὑπαρχία τῶν πραιτωρίων τῆς ἀνατολῆς) was one of four large praetorian prefectures into which the Late Roman Empire was divided.
A precinct is a space enclosed by the walls or other boundaries of a particular place or building, or by an arbitrary and imaginary line drawn around it.
Probus (Marcus Aurelius Probus Augustus; c. 19 August 232 – September/October 282), was Roman Emperor from 276 to 282.
A propylaea, propylea or propylaia (Greek: Προπύλαια) is any monumental gateway in ancient Greek architecture.
The Ptolemaic Kingdom (Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ basileía) was a Hellenistic kingdom based in Egypt.
Qasr al-Hayr al-Gharbi (قصر الحير الغربي) is a castle or qasr located 80 km south-west of Palmyra on the Damascus road in Syria, is a twin palace of Qasr al-Hayr al-Sharqi, built by the Umayyad caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik in 727 CE.
Qatna (modern: تل المشرفة, Tell al-Mishrifeh) is an ancient city located in Homs Governorate, Syria.
Qift (قفط; Ⲕⲉϥⲧ Keft or Kebto; Egyptian Gebtu; Κόπτος Coptos or Koptos; Roman Justinianopolis) is a small town in the Qena Governorate of Egypt about 43 km north of Luxor, on the east bank of the Nile.
Titus Fulvius Junius Quietus (died 261) was a Roman usurper against Roman Emperor Gallienus.
Quintus Caecilius Metellus Creticus Silanus, born Iunius Silanus was adopted by Quintus Caecilius Metellus, a descendant of the optimate Quintus Caecilius Metellus Creticus and the natural son of Marcus Junius Silanus.
Saif ad-Din Qutuz (سيف الدين قطز; 24 October 1260), also romanized as Kutuz, Kotuz, and fully al-Malik al-Muzaffar Saif ad-Din Qutuz (الملك المظفر سيف الدين قطز), was the third or fourth of the Mamluk Sultans of Egypt in the Turkic line.
The Rashidun army was the core of the Rashidun Caliphate's armed forces during the Muslim conquests of the 7th century, serving alongside the Rashidun navy.
The Rashidun Caliphate (اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ) (632–661) was the first of the four major caliphates established after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.
A regent (from the Latin regens: ruling, governing) is a person appointed to govern a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated.
Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material.
Religion in pre-Islamic Arabia was a mix of polytheism, Christianity, Judaism, and Iranian religions.
Count Robert du Mesnil du Buisson (9 April 1895, Champobert, Bourges – 8 April 1986, Caen) was a French historian, soldier, and archeologist.
Robert Wood (1717 – 9 September 1771) was a British traveller, classical scholar, civil servant and politician.
Roman art refers to the visual arts made in Ancient Rome and in the territories of the Roman Empire.
Roman Dacia (also Dacia Traiana "Trajan Dacia" or Dacia Felix "Fertile/Happy Dacia") was a province of the Roman Empire from 106 to 274–275 AD.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Roman magistrates were elected officials in Ancient Rome.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
Syria was an early Roman province, annexed to the Roman Republic in 64 BC by Pompey in the Third Mithridatic War, following the defeat of Armenian King Tigranes the Great.
The Roman Theatre at Palmyra (translit) is a Roman theatre in ancient Palmyra in the Syrian Desert.
The Roman–Parthian Wars (66 BC – 217 AD) were a series of conflicts between the Parthian Empire and the Roman Republic and Roman Empire.
The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.
The Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War began in September 2015, after an official request by the Syrian government for military aid against rebel and jihadist groups.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
An-Nasir Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub (صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب / ALA-LC: Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb; سەلاحەدینی ئەییووبی / ALA-LC: Selahedînê Eyûbî), known as Salah ad-Din or Saladin (11374 March 1193), was the first sultan of Egypt and Syria and the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty.
Sanjaks (سنجاق, modern: Sancak) were administrative divisions of the Ottoman Empire.
A sarcophagus (plural, sarcophagi) is a box-like funeral receptacle for a corpse, most commonly carved in stone, and usually displayed above ground, though it may also be buried.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
Ali ibn Abu'l-Hayja 'Abdallah ibn Hamdan ibn al-Harith al-Taghlibi (سيف الدولة أبو الحسن ابن حمدان), more commonly known simply by his laqab (honorific epithet) of Sayf ud-Dawla ("Sword of the Dynasty"), was the founder of the Emirate of Aleppo, encompassing most of northern Syria and parts of western Jazira, and the brother of al-Hasan ibn Abdallah ibn Hamdan (better known as Nasir al-Dawla).
The Second Temple (בֵּית־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי, Beit HaMikdash HaSheni) was the Jewish Holy Temple which stood on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem during the Second Temple period, between 516 BCE and 70 CE.
Seleucia, also known as or, was a major Mesopotamian city of the Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanian empires.
The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
The Seljuk Empire (also spelled Seljuq) (آل سلجوق) was a medieval Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim empire, originating from the Qiniq branch of Oghuz Turks.
Semites, Semitic people or Semitic cultures (from the biblical "Shem", שם) was a term for an ethnic, cultural or racial group who speak or spoke the Semitic languages.
Semyon Semyonovich Abamelik-Lazarev, Semen Semenovich Abamelek-Lazarev or Abamelik-Lazaryan (1857 in Moscow – 1916 in Kislovodsk, buried in Saint-Petersburg) was a Russian-Armenian principal, archaeologist and geologist, a member of the Russian Geographical Union, and the honorary supervisor of the Lazarian Seminary in Moscow.
Septimius Antiochus (died after 273) was a Roman usurper in Syria during the 3rd century.
Septimius Worod was a Palmyrene official and a viceroy for king Odaenathus of Palmyra.
The Severan dynasty was a Roman imperial dynasty, which ruled the Roman Empire between 193 and 235.
Severus Alexander (Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander Augustus; c.207 - 19 March 235) was Roman Emperor from 222 to 235 and the last emperor of the Severan dynasty.
Shamshi-Adad I (Šamši-Adad I; Amorite: Shamshi-Addu I; fl. c. 1809 BC – c. 1776 BC by the middle chronology) was an Amorite who had conquered lands across much of Syria, Anatolia, and Upper Mesopotamia for the Old Assyrian Empire.
Shapur I (𐭱𐭧𐭯𐭥𐭧𐭥𐭩; New Persian: rtl), also known as Shapur I the Great, was the second shahanshah (king of kings) of the Sasanian Empire.
Sharaf ad-DīnʿAlī Yazdī (شرف الدین علی یزدی) (born Yazd, Iran—died 1454, Yazd) was a 15th-century Persian historian.
Sheikh (pronounced, or; شيخ, mostly pronounced, plural شيوخ)—also transliterated Sheik, Shykh, Shaik, Shayk, Shaykh, Cheikh, Shekh, and Shaikh—is an honorific title in the Arabic language.
A sheikhdom (alt. sheikdom) (مشيخة) is a geographical area or a society ruled by a sheikh (Arabic). Sheikhdoms exist almost exclusively within Arab countries, particularly in the Arabian Peninsula.
Shihāb al-Dīn Abū al-‘Abbās Aḥmad b. Faḍl Allāh al-'Umarī (شهاب الدين أبو العبّاس أحمد بن فضل الله العمري), or simply al-‘Umarī, (1300 – 1349) was an Arab historian, born in Damascus.
Asad ad-Dīn Shīrkūh bin Shādhī (in أسد الدين شيركوه بن شاذي), also known as Shirkuh, Shêrkoh, or Shêrko (meaning "lion of the mountains" in Kurdish) (died 22 February 1169) was a Kurdish military commander, and uncle of Saladin.
The Siege of Baghdad, which lasted from January 29 until February 10, 1258, entailed the investment, capture, and sack of Baghdad, the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate, by Ilkhanate Mongol forces and allied troops.
The Siege of Nisibis took place when the Sasanians under Shah Shapur I besieged the Roman city of Nisibis in 252.
Sigma (upper-case Σ, lower-case σ, lower-case in word-final position ς; σίγμα) is the eighteenth letter of the Greek alphabet.
The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.
Field Marshal Sir Henry Hughes Wilson, 1st Baronet, (5 May 1864 – 22 June 1922) was one of the most senior British Army staff officers of the First World War and was briefly an Irish unionist politician.
Sol was the solar deity in ancient Roman religion.
Sol Invictus ("Unconquered Sun") is the official sun god of the later Roman Empire and a patron of soldiers.
Solomon (שְׁלֹמֹה, Shlomoh), also called Jedidiah (Hebrew Yədidya), was, according to the Hebrew Bible, Quran, Hadith and Hidden Words, a fabulously wealthy and wise king of Israel who succeeded his father, King David. The conventional dates of Solomon's reign are circa 970 to 931 BCE, normally given in alignment with the dates of David's reign. He is described as the third king of the United Monarchy, which would break apart into the northern Kingdom of Israel and the southern Kingdom of Judah shortly after his death. Following the split, his patrilineal descendants ruled over Judah alone. According to the Talmud, Solomon is one of the 48 prophets. In the Quran, he is considered a major prophet, and Muslims generally refer to him by the Arabic variant Sulayman, son of David. The Hebrew Bible credits him as the builder of the First Temple in Jerusalem, beginning in the fourth year of his reign, using the vast wealth he had accumulated. He dedicated the temple to Yahweh, the God of Israel. He is portrayed as great in wisdom, wealth and power beyond either of the previous kings of the country, but also as a king who sinned. His sins included idolatry, marrying foreign women and, ultimately, turning away from Yahweh, and they led to the kingdom's being torn in two during the reign of his son Rehoboam. Solomon is the subject of many other later references and legends, most notably in the 1st-century apocryphal work known as the Testament of Solomon. In the New Testament, he is portrayed as a teacher of wisdom excelled by Jesus, and as arrayed in glory, but excelled by "the lilies of the field". In later years, in mostly non-biblical circles, Solomon also came to be known as a magician and an exorcist, with numerous amulets and medallion seals dating from the Hellenistic period invoking his name.
A souq or souk (سوق, שוק shuq, Spanish: zoco, also spelled shuk, shooq, soq, esouk, succ, suk, sooq, suq, soek) is a marketplace or commercial quarter in Western Asian, North African and some Horn African cities (ሱቅ sooq).
Sparta (Doric Greek: Σπάρτα, Spártā; Attic Greek: Σπάρτη, Spártē) was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece.
Strategos or Strategus, plural strategoi, (στρατηγός, pl.; Doric Greek: στραταγός, stratagos; meaning "army leader") is used in Greek to mean military general.
Stratigraphy is a branch of geology concerned with the study of rock layers (strata) and layering (stratification).
Sulayman ibn Hisham was an Arab general, the son of the Umayyad Caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik (r. 723–743).
The Supreme War Council was a central command that coordinate Allied military strategy during World War I. It was founded in 1917, and was based in Versailles.
Sura (Suriya), was an ancient city on the Euphrates River in northern Syria, today on a site 25 km west of Raqqa and 35 km north of Resafa.
The Suteans were a Semitic people who lived throughout the Levant and Canaan c. 1350 BC, and later also lived in Babylonia.
Swedes (svenskar) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Sweden.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Syriac (ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ), also known as Syriac Aramaic or Classical Syriac, is a dialect of Middle Aramaic.
The Syrian Army, officially the Syrian Arab Army (SAA) (al-Jayš al-ʿArabī as-Sūrī), is the land force branch of the Syrian Armed Forces.
The Syrian Civil War (الحرب الأهلية السورية, Al-ḥarb al-ʼahliyyah as-sūriyyah) is an ongoing multi-sided armed conflict in Syria fought primarily between the Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic led by President Bashar al-Assad, along with its allies, and various forces opposing both the government and each other in varying combinations.
The Syrian Desert (بادية الشام, Bâdiyat aş-Şâm), also known as the Hamad, is a combination of steppe and desert covering of the Middle East, including parts of south-eastern Syria, northeastern Jordan, northern Saudi Arabia, and western Iraq.
The Syrian opposition (المعارضة السورية) is an umbrella term for the political structure represented by the Syrian National Coalition and associated anti-government Syrian groups with certain territorial control in the form of a proto-state as an alternative Syrian government, claiming to be the legitimate Syrian Arab Republic and also sometimes known just as the Republic of Syria.
Tadmur District (manṭiqat Tadmur) is a district of the Homs Governorate in central Syria.
Taj al-Muluk Buri (ﺗﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻮﻙ ﺑﻮﺭﻱ; died 6 June 1132) was an atabeg of Damascus from 1128 to 1132.
The Tanûkhids (التنوخيون) or Tanukh (تنوخ) were originally from the Nabataean confederation of Arab tribes, sometimes characterized as Saracens.
Tayy (طيء/ALA-LC: Ṭayy), also known as Ṭayyi or Taiesʾ, is a large and ancient Arab tribe, whose descendants today are the tribe of Shammar, who continue to live throughout the Middle Eastern states of the Arab world and the rest of the world.
In archaeology, a tell, or tel (derived from تَل,, 'hill' or 'mound'), is an artificial mound formed from the accumulated refuse of people living on the same site for hundreds or thousands of years.
The Temple of Al-Lat (معبد اللات), was an ancient temple located in Palmyra, Syria dedicated to the goddess Al-Lat.
The Temple of Baalshamin was an ancient temple in the city of Palmyra, Syria, dedicated to the Canaanite sky deity Baalshamin.
The Temple of Bel (معبد بل), sometimes also referred to as the "Temple of Baal", was an ancient temple located in Palmyra, Syria.
A tetrapylon (τετράπυλον, "four gates"), plural tetrapyla, known in Latin as a "quadrifrons" (literally "four fronts"), is a type of ancient Roman monument of cubic shape, with a gate on each of the four sides: generally it was built on a crossroads.
Theodor Wiegand (October 30, 1864 – December 19, 1936) was one of the more famous German archaeologists.
The Third Fitna (الفتنة الثاﻟﺜـة; al-Fitna al-thālitha), was a series of civil wars and uprisings against the Umayyad Caliphate beginning with the overthrow of Caliph al-Walid II in 744 and ending with the victory of Marwan II over the various rebels and rivals for the caliphate in 747.
The Tiber (Latin Tiberis, Italian Tevere) is the third-longest river in Italy, rising in the Apennine Mountains in Emilia-Romagna and flowing through Tuscany, Umbria and Lazio, where it is joined by the river Aniene, to the Tyrrhenian Sea, between Ostia and Fiumicino.
Tiberius (Tiberius Caesar Divi Augusti filius Augustus; 16 November 42 BC – 16 March 37 AD) was Roman emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD, succeeding the first emperor, Augustus.
Tiglath-Pileser I (from the Hebraic form of 𒆪𒋾𒀀𒂍𒊹𒊏 Tukultī-apil-Ešarra, "my trust is in the son of Ešarra") was a king of Assyria during the Middle Assyrian period (1114–1076 BC).
Timur (تیمور Temūr, Chagatai: Temür; 9 April 1336 – 18 February 1405), historically known as Amir Timur and Tamerlane (تيمور لنگ Temūr(-i) Lang, "Timur the Lame"), was a Turco-Mongol conqueror.
The Timurid Empire (تیموریان, Timuriyān), self-designated as Gurkani (گورکانیان, Gurkāniyān), was a PersianateB.F. Manz, "Tīmūr Lang", in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Online Edition, 2006 Turco-Mongol empire comprising modern-day Iran, the Caucasus, Mesopotamia, Afghanistan, much of Central Asia, as well as parts of contemporary India, Pakistan, Syria and Turkey. The empire was founded by Timur (also known as Tamerlane), a warlord of Turco-Mongol lineage, who established the empire between 1370 and his death in 1405. He envisioned himself as the great restorer of the Mongol Empire of Genghis Khan and, while not descended from Genghis, regarded himself as Genghis's heir and associated much with the Borjigin. The ruling Timurid dynasty, or Timurids, lost most of Persia to the Aq Qoyunlu confederation in 1467, but members of the dynasty continued to rule smaller states, sometimes known as Timurid emirates, in Central Asia and parts of India. In the 16th century, Babur, a Timurid prince from Ferghana (modern Uzbekistan), invaded Kabulistan (modern Afghanistan) and established a small kingdom there, and from there 20 years later he invaded India to establish the Mughal Empire.
Toghtekin (Modern Tuğtekin; Arabicised epithet: ظاهر الدين طغتكين Zahir ad-Din Toghtekin; died February 12, 1128), also spelled Tughtigin, was a Turkic military leader, who was atabeg of Damascus from 1104 to 1128.
The Tower of Elahbel (also known as Tower 13, or Kubbet el 'Arus) was a four-storey sandstone tower tomb near the ancient city of Palmyra in Syria.
Transoxiana (also spelled Transoxania), known in Arabic sources as (– 'what beyond the river') and in Persian as (فرارود, —'beyond the river'), is the ancient name used for the portion of Central Asia corresponding approximately with modern-day Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, southern Kyrgyzstan, and southwest Kazakhstan.
A triclinium (plural: triclinia) is a formal dining room in a Roman building.
A triple deity (sometimes referred to as threefold, tripled, triplicate, tripartite, triune or triadic, or as a trinity) is three deities that are worshipped as one.
A tutelary (also tutelar) is a deity or spirit who is a guardian, patron, or protector of a particular place, geographic feature, person, lineage, nation, culture, or occupation.
Abu Sa'id Taj ad-Dawla Tutush I (I.) (died 1095) was the Seljuq emir of Damascus from 1078 to 1092, and Seljuq sultan of Damascus from 1092 to 1094.
Ugarit (𐎜𐎂𐎗𐎚, ʼUgart; أُوغَارِيت Ūġārīt, alternatively أُوجَارِيت Ūǧārīt) was an ancient port city in northern Syria.
The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
Utu later worshipped by East Semitic peoples as Shamash, was the ancient Mesopotamian god of the sun, justice, morality, and truth, and the twin brother of the goddess Inanna, the Queen of Heaven.
Lucius Julius Aurelius Septimius Vaballathus Athenodorus (Palmyrene:; وَهْبُ اللَّات) 259–74) was emperor of the Palmyrene Empire centered at Palmyra in the region of Syria. He came to power as a child under his regent, his mother Zenobia, who led a revolt against the Roman Empire and formed the independent Palmyrene Empire.
Valerian (Publius Licinius Valerianus Augustus; 193/195/200260 or 264), also known as Valerian the Elder, was Roman Emperor from 253 to 260 CE.
Vespasian (Titus Flavius Vespasianus;Classical Latin spelling and reconstructed Classical Latin pronunciation: Vespasian was from an equestrian family that rose into the senatorial rank under the Julio–Claudian emperors. Although he fulfilled the standard succession of public offices and held the consulship in AD 51, Vespasian's renown came from his military success; he was legate of Legio II ''Augusta'' during the Roman invasion of Britain in 43 and subjugated Judaea during the Jewish rebellion of 66. While Vespasian besieged Jerusalem during the Jewish rebellion, emperor Nero committed suicide and plunged Rome into a year of civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors. After Galba and Otho perished in quick succession, Vitellius became emperor in April 69. The Roman legions of Roman Egypt and Judaea reacted by declaring Vespasian, their commander, emperor on 1 July 69. In his bid for imperial power, Vespasian joined forces with Mucianus, the governor of Syria, and Primus, a general in Pannonia, leaving his son Titus to command the besieging forces at Jerusalem. Primus and Mucianus led the Flavian forces against Vitellius, while Vespasian took control of Egypt. On 20 December 69, Vitellius was defeated, and the following day Vespasian was declared emperor by the Senate. Vespasian dated his tribunician years from 1 July, substituting the acts of Rome's Senate and people as the legal basis for his appointment with the declaration of his legions, and transforming his legions into an electoral college. Little information survives about the government during Vespasian's ten-year rule. He reformed the financial system of Rome after the campaign against Judaea ended successfully, and initiated several ambitious construction projects, including the building of the Flavian Amphitheatre, better known today as the Roman Colosseum. In reaction to the events of 68–69, Vespasian forced through an improvement in army discipline. Through his general Agricola, Vespasian increased imperial expansion in Britain. After his death in 79, he was succeeded by his eldest son Titus, thus becoming the first Roman emperor to be directly succeeded by his own natural son and establishing the Flavian dynasty.
A vestibule is an anteroom (antechamber) or small foyer leading into a larger space, such as a lobby, entrance hall, passage, etc., for the purpose of waiting, withholding the larger space view, reducing heat loss, providing space for outwear, etc.
A viceroy is a regal official who runs a country, colony, city, province, or sub-national state, in the name of and as the representative of the monarch of the territory.
Vichy France (Régime de Vichy) is the common name of the French State (État français) headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II.
Wadi (wādī; ואדי), alternatively wād (وَاد), is the Arabic and Hebrew term traditionally referring to a valley.
In historiography, the Western Roman Empire refers to the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any one time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court, coequal with that administering the eastern half, then referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire.
The World Heritage Committee selects the sites to be listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites, including the World Heritage List and the List of World Heritage in Danger, monitors the state of conservation of the World Heritage properties, defines the use of the World Heritage Fund and allocates financial assistance upon requests from States Parties.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yahdunlim (or Yakhdunlim) was the name of two different kings in Upper Mesopotamia: one of Mari during the 19th century BC and one of Karkemish during the 18th century BC.
Yāqūt ibn-'Abdullah al-Rūmī al-Hamawī (1179–1229) (ياقوت الحموي الرومي) was an Arab biographer and geographer of Greek origin, renowned for his encyclopedic writings on the Muslim world.
Yarhibol is an Aramean god who was worshiped mainly in ancient Palmyra, a city in central Syria.
Yusuf ibn Firuz (surname also spelled Fayruz) was the Burid governor of Damascus in 1129.
Zabdas was a 3rd century Syrian general who led the forces of Queen Zenobia of Palmyra during her rule as regent of her son Vaballathus and her subsequent rebellion against the Roman Emperor under the short-lived independent Palmyrene Empire.
Zalabiye (زلبيّة) is an archaeological site on the left bank of the Euphrates in Deir ez-Zor Governorate, Syria.
The Zengid or Zangid dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Oghuz Turk origin, which ruled parts of the Levant and Upper Mesopotamia on behalf of the Seljuk Empire.
Septimia Zenobia (Palmyrene: (Btzby), pronounced Bat-Zabbai; 240 – c. 274 AD) was a third-century queen of the Syria-based Palmyrene Empire.
The Sanjak of Zor (Deyr-i-Zor sancağı) was a sanjak of the Ottoman Empire.
Zosimus (Ζώσιμος; also known by the Latin name Zosimus Historicus, i.e. "Zosimus the Historian"; fl. 490s–510s) was a Greek historian who lived in Constantinople during the reign of the Eastern Roman Emperor Anastasius I (491–518).
Ancient Palmyra, Kingdom of Palmyra, Kingdom of palmyra, Palmyra (Syria), Palmyra (disambiguation)., Palmyra, Syria, Palmyra, Syria (disambiguation), Palmyrene army, Palmyrene culture, Palmyrene-Persian war, Site of Palmyra, Tadmor Saida, تدمر.