295 relations: Abdominal mass, Abdominal pain, Abdominal ultrasonography, Acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas, Acinus, Adenocarcinoma, Adenosquamous carcinoma, Adjuvant therapy, Adrenal gland, African Americans, Alessandro Codivilla, Alkaline phosphatase, Allen Whipple, American Cancer Society, American Joint Committee on Cancer, Anaplasia, Anatomical pathology, Anorexia (symptom), Argentina, Artery, Ascites, Asymptomatic, Ataxia-telangiectasia, ATRX, Autopsy, Back pain, Bicarbonate, Bile duct, Bilirubin, Biopsy, Blood transfusion, Blood vessel, Body mass index, BRCA2, Breast cancer, Bypass surgery, C-Met, CA19-9, Cachexia, Cancer, Cancer pain, Cancer screening, Cancer staging, Cancer stem cell, Carcinoma in situ, Case report, CDKN2A, Celiac artery, Celiac plexus, Cell (biology), ..., Cell type, Chemoradiotherapy, Chemotherapy, Chemotherapy regimen, Chronic pancreatitis, Citrus, Clinical trial, Colorectal cancer, Common bile duct, Comorbidity, Complication (medicine), Confounding, Consanguinity, Constipation, Courvoisier's law, Cryoablation, CT scan, Cumulative incidence, Curcumin, Cystadenocarcinoma, Cystic duct, Cytotoxicity, Death-associated protein 6, Desmoplasia, Developed country, Diabetes mellitus, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diet (nutrition), Differential diagnosis, Digestive enzyme, Dominance (genetics), Duodenum, Dysplastic nevus syndrome, East Asia, Endocrine system, Endoscope, Endoscopic ultrasound, Enzyme, Epidemiology, Epithelium, Erlotinib, Ethnic group, European Society for Medical Oncology, Everolimus, Exome sequencing, Familial adenomatous polyposis, Feces, Fine-needle aspiration, Five-year survival rate, Fluorouracil, Folate, FOLFIRINOX, Food and Drug Administration, Gallbladder, Gallstone, Gamma-glutamyltransferase, Gastric acid, Gastrin, Gastrinoma, Gastrointestinal cancer, Gemcitabine, Gene, Genetics, Giant cell, Giovanni Battista Morgagni, Glucagon, Glucagonoma, Grading (tumors), Gs alpha subunit, H2 antagonist, Hepatic artery embolization, Hepatoid tumor, Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, Hereditary pancreatitis, Heredity, Histology, Histopathology, Hormone, Hospice, Human digestive system, Hyaluronic acid, Hyperinsulinism, Hypoglycemia, Immunotherapy, Incidence (epidemiology), Incidental medical findings, Indigestion, Insulin, Insulinoma, Interdisciplinarity, Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm, Intraepithelial neoplasia, Iobenguane, Irreversible electroporation, Jacob Mendes Da Costa, Jaundice, Jejunum, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Kidney, Kidney cancer, KRAS, Lanreotide, Laparoscopy, Large intestine, Lesion, Lewis antigen system, List of people diagnosed with pancreatic cancer, Liver, Liver function tests, Lung, Lung cancer, Lustgarten Foundation for Pancreatic Cancer Research, Lymph node, Lymphatic vessel, Lymphocyte, Macrophage, Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, Magnetic resonance imaging, Major depressive disorder, Malignancy, Massachusetts General Hospital, Mast cell, Medical imaging, Medical Subject Headings, Melanoma, MEN1, Metabolic pathway, Metastasis, Metoclopramide, Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 4, MTOR, MUC1, Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, Myofibroblast, Nasogastric intubation, National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Nausea, Neoadjuvant therapy, Neoplasm, Nerve block, Nervous system, Neuroendocrine cell, Neuroendocrine tumor, NewYork–Presbyterian Hospital, Nuclear medicine, Obesity, Octreotide, Oncology, Oncolytic virus, Opioid, Osteoclast, Oxygen, P16, P53, Pain management, PALB2, Palliative care, Palpation, Pancreas, Pancreatectomy, Pancreatic cancer, Pancreatic Cancer Action, Pancreatic Cancer Action Network, Pancreatic enzymes (medication), Pancreatic islets, Pancreatic mucinous cystic neoplasm, Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor, Pancreatic serous cystadenoma, Pancreaticoduodenectomy, Pancreatitis, Pancreatoblastoma, Pathognomonicity, PELP-1, Peptic ulcer disease, Peptide, Performance status, Peritoneal cavity, Peutz–Jeghers syndrome, Portal venous system, Positron emission tomography, Prevalence, Preventive healthcare, Processed meat, Prognosis, Prostate cancer, Protein-bound paclitaxel, Proton-pump inhibitor, Quality of life, Radiation therapy, Radioactive tracer, Radiofrequency ablation, Rare disease, Red meat, Relative risk, Resection margin, Risk factor, Sclera, Selenium, Sensitivity and specificity, Signet ring cell carcinoma, Smoking cessation, Solid pseudopapillary tumour, Somatostatinoma, Spleen, Splenectomy, Steatorrhea, Stent, STK11, Stomach, Stroma (tissue), Stromal cell, Sunitinib, Superior mesenteric artery, Surgery, SWI/SNF, Targeted therapy, Thrombophlebitis, TNM staging system, Tobacco smoking, Transcription factor, Transverse colon, Trousseau sign of malignancy, Tumor hypoxia, Tumor marker, Tumor microenvironment, Tumor suppressor, Type I collagen, Ultrasound, Union for International Cancer Control, UpToDate, Uruguay, Vein, VIPoma, Vitamin K deficiency, Von Hippel–Lindau disease, Walther Kausch, Watchful waiting, White Americans, Whole grain, Wnt signaling pathway, Wolters Kluwer, World Health Organization, Wrocław, Xerostomia, Zollinger–Ellison syndrome. 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An abdominal mass is any localized enlargement or swelling in the human abdomen.
Abdominal pain, also known as a stomach ache, is a symptom associated with both non-serious and serious medical issues.
Abdominal ultrasonography (also called abdominal ultrasound imaging or abdominal sonography) is a form of medical ultrasonography (medical application of ultrasound technology) to visualise abdominal anatomical structures.
Acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas, also acinar cell carcinoma, is a rare malignant exocrine tumour of the pancreas.
An acinus (plural, acini; adjective, acinar or acinous) refers to any cluster of cells that resembles a many-lobed "berry", such as a raspberry (acinus is Latin for "berry").
Adenocarcinoma (plural adenocarcinomas or adenocarcinomata) is a type of cancerous tumor that can occur in several parts of the body.
Adenosquamous carcinoma is a type of cancer that contains two types of cells: squamous cells (thin, flat cells that line certain organs) and gland-like cells.
Adjuvant therapy, also known as adjunct therapy, add-on therapy, and adjuvant care, is therapy that is given in addition to the primary or initial therapy to maximize its effectiveness.
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.
African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.
Alessandro Codivilla (21 March 1861 – 28 February 1912) was an Italian surgeon from Imola, Head of the Surgical Department of the hospital of Castiglion Fiorentino.
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP, ALKP, ALPase, Alk Phos) or basic phosphatase is a homodimeric protein enzyme of 86 kilodaltons.
Allen Oldfather Whipple (September 2, 1881 – April 6, 1963) was an American surgeon who is known for the pancreatic cancer operation which bears his name (the Whipple procedure) as well as Whipple's triad.
The American Cancer Society (ACS) is a nationwide voluntary health organization dedicated to eliminating cancer.
The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) is an organization best known for defining and popularizing cancer staging standards, officially the AJCC staging system.
Anaplasia (from ἀνά ana, "backward" + πλάσις plasis, "formation") is a condition of cells with poor cellular differentiation, losing the morphological characteristics of mature cells and their orientation with respect to each other and to endothelial cells.
Anatomical pathology (Commonwealth) or Anatomic pathology (U.S.) is a medical specialty that is concerned with the diagnosis of disease based on the macroscopic, microscopic, biochemical, immunologic and molecular examination of organs and tissues.
Anorexia (from Ancient Greek ανορεξία: 'ἀν-' "without" + 'όρεξις', spelled 'órexis' meaning "appetite") is the decreased sensation of appetite.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
An artery (plural arteries) is a blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart to all parts of the body (tissues, lungs, etc).
Ascites is the abnormal buildup of fluid in the abdomen.
In medicine, a disease is considered asymptomatic if a patient is a carrier for a disease or infection but experiences no symptoms.
Ataxia-telangiectasia (AT or A-T), also referred to as ataxia-telangiectasia syndrome or Louis–Bar syndrome, is a rare, neurodegenerative, autosomal recessive disease causing severe disability.
Transcriptional regulator ATRX also known as ATP-dependent helicase ATRX, X-linked helicase II, or X-linked nuclear protein (XNP) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ATRX gene.
An autopsy (post-mortem examination, obduction, necropsy, or autopsia cadaverum) is a highly specialized surgical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse by dissection to determine the cause and manner of death or to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present for research or educational purposes.
Back pain is pain felt in the back of the body.
In inorganic chemistry, bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid.
A bile duct is any of a number of long tube-like structures that carry bile, and is present in most vertebrates.
Bilirubin is a yellow compound that occurs in the normal catabolic pathway that breaks down heme in vertebrates.
A biopsy is a medical test commonly performed by a surgeon, interventional radiologist, or an interventional cardiologist involving extraction of sample cells or tissues for examination to determine the presence or extent of a disease.
Blood transfusion is generally the process of receiving blood or blood products into one's circulation intravenously.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
The body mass index (BMI) or Quetelet index is a value derived from the mass (weight) and height of an individual.
BRCA2 and BRCA2 are a human gene and its protein product, respectively.
Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.
Bypass surgery refers to a class of surgeries involving rerouting a tubular body part.
c-Met, also called tyrosine-protein kinase Met or hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MET gene.
CA 19-9 (carbohydrate antigen 19-9, also called cancer antigen 19-9 or sialylated Lewis (a) antigen) is a tumor marker that is used primarily in the management of pancreatic cancer.
Cachexia, or wasting syndrome, is loss of weight, muscle atrophy, fatigue, weakness and significant loss of appetite in someone who is not actively trying to lose weight.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Pain in cancer may arise from a tumor compressing or infiltrating nearby body parts; from treatments and diagnostic procedures; or from skin, nerve and other changes caused by a hormone imbalance or immune response.
Cancer screening aims to detect cancer before symptoms appear.
Cancer staging is the process of determining the extent to which a cancer has developed by growing and spreading.
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are cancer cells (found within tumors or hematological cancers) that possess characteristics associated with normal stem cells, specifically the ability to give rise to all cell types found in a particular cancer sample.
Carcinoma in situ (CIS), also known as in situ neoplasm, is a group of abnormal cells.
In medicine, a case report is a detailed report of the symptoms, signs, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of an individual patient.
CDKN2A, also known as cyclin-dependent kinase Inhibitor 2A, is a gene which in humans is located at chromosome 9, band p21.3.
The celiac (or coeliac) artery, also known as the celiac trunk, or truncus coeliacus, is the first major branch of the abdominal aorta.
The celiac plexus or coeliac plexus, also known as the solar plexus because of its radiating nerve fibers, is a complex network of nerves (a nerve plexus) located in the abdomen, near where the celiac trunk, superior mesenteric artery, and renal arteries branch from the abdominal aorta.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
A cell type is a classification used to distinguish between morphologically or phenotypically distinct cell forms within a species.
Chemoradiotherapy (CRT, CRTx) is the combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy to treat cancer.
Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.
A chemotherapy regimen is a regimen for chemotherapy, defining the drugs to be used, their dosage, the frequency and duration of treatments, and other considerations.
Chronic pancreatitis is a long-standing inflammation of the pancreas that alters the organ's normal structure and functions.
Citrus is a genus of flowering trees and shrubs in the rue family, Rutaceae.
Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research.
Colorectal cancer (CRC), also known as bowel cancer and colon cancer, is the development of cancer from the colon or rectum (parts of the large intestine).
The common bile duct, sometimes abbreviated CBD, is a duct in the gastrointestinal tract of organisms that have a gall bladder.
In medicine, comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional diseases or disorders co-occurring with (that is, concomitant or concurrent with) a primary disease or disorder; in the countable sense of the term, a comorbidity (plural comorbidities) is each additional disorder or disease.
Complication, in medicine, is an unfavorable evolution or consequence of a disease, a health condition or a therapy.
In statistics, a confounder (also confounding variable, confounding factor or lurking variable) is a variable that influences both the dependent variable and independent variable causing a spurious association.
Consanguinity ("blood relation", from the Latin consanguinitas) is the property of being from the same kinship as another person.
Constipation refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass.
Courvoisier's law (or Courvoisier syndrome, or Courvoisier's sign or Courvoisier-Terrier's sign) states that in the presence of a palpably enlarged gallbladder which is nontender and accompanied with mild painless jaundice, the cause is unlikely to be gallstones.
Cryoablation is a process that uses extreme cold to destroy tissue.
A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.
Cumulative incidence or incidence proportion is a measure of frequency, as in epidemiology, where it is a measure of disease frequency during a period of time.
Curcumin is a bright yellow chemical produced by some plants.
Cystadenocarcinoma is a malignant form of a cystadenoma and is a malignant neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed.
The cystic duct is the short duct that joins the gallbladder to the common bile duct.
Cytotoxicity is the quality of being toxic to cells.
Death-associated protein 6 also known as Daxx is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DAXX gene.
In medicine, desmoplasia is the growth of fibrous or connective tissue.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.
In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism.
In medicine, a differential diagnosis is the distinguishing of a particular disease or condition from others that present similar clinical features.
Digestive enzymes are a group of enzymes that break down polymeric macromolecules into their smaller building blocks, in order to facilitate their absorption by the body.
Dominance in genetics is a relationship between alleles of one gene, in which the effect on phenotype of one allele masks the contribution of a second allele at the same locus.
The duodenum is the first section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds.
Dysplastic nevus syndrome (also known as "atypical mole syndrome (AMS)", "familial atypical multiple mole–melanoma (FAMMM) syndrome", "familial melanoma syndrome", and "B-K mole syndrome") is a cutaneous condition described in certain families, and characterized by unusual nevi and multiple inherited melanomas.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system consisting of hormones, the group of glands of an organism that carry those hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs, and the feedback loops of homeostasis that the hormones drive.
An endoscope is an illuminated optical, typically slender and tubular instrument (a type of borescope) used to look deep into the body and used in procedures called an endoscopy.
Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) or echo-endoscopy is a medical procedure in which endoscopy (insertion of a probe into a hollow organ) is combined with ultrasound to obtain images of the internal organs in the chest, abdomen and colon.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.
Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.
Erlotinib hydrochloride (trade name Tarceva) is a drug used to treat non-small cell lung cancer, pancreatic cancer and several other types of cancer.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
The European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) is the leading professional organisation for medical oncology.
Exome sequencing, also known as whole exome sequencing (WES), is a genomic technique for sequencing all of the protein-coding genes in a genome (known as the exome).
Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominant inherited condition in which numerous adenomatous polyps form mainly in the epithelium of the large intestine.
Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.
Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is a diagnostic procedure used to investigate lumps or masses.
The five-year survival rate is a type of survival rate for estimating the prognosis of a particular disease, normally calculated from the point of diagnosis.
Fluorouracil (5-FU), sold under the brand name Adrucil among others, is a medication used to treat cancer.
Folate, distinct forms of which are known as folic acid, folacin, and vitamin B9, is one of the B vitamins.
FOLFIRINOX is a chemotherapy regimen for treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
In vertebrates, the gallbladder is a small hollow organ where bile is stored and concentrated before it is released into the small intestine.
A gallstone is a stone formed within the gallbladder out of bile components. The term cholelithiasis may refer to the presence of gallstones or to the diseases caused by gallstones. Most people with gallstones (about 80%) never have symptoms. When a gallstone blocks the bile duct, a crampy pain in the right upper part of the abdomen, known as biliary colic (gallbladder attack) can result. This happens in 1–4% of those with gallstones each year. Complications of gallstones may include inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis), jaundice, and infection of a bile duct (cholangitis). Symptoms of these complications may include pain of more than five hours duration, fever, yellowish skin, vomiting, dark urine, and pale stools. Risk factors for gallstones include birth control pills, pregnancy, a family history of gallstones, obesity, diabetes, liver disease, or rapid weight loss. The bile components that form gallstones include cholesterol, bile salts, and bilirubin. Gallstones formed mainly from cholesterol are termed cholesterol stones, and those mainly from bilirubin are termed pigment stones. Gallstones may be suspected based on symptoms. Diagnosis is then typically confirmed by ultrasound. Complications may be detected on blood tests. The risk of gallstones may be decreased by maintaining a healthy weight through sufficient exercise and eating a healthy diet. If there are no symptoms, treatment is usually not needed. In those who are having gallbladder attacks, surgery to remove the gallbladder is typically recommended. This can be carried out either through several small incisions or through a single larger incision, usually under general anesthesia. In rare cases when surgery is not possible medication may be used to try to dissolve the stones or lithotripsy to break down the stones. In developed countries, 10–15% of adults have gallstones. Rates in many parts of Africa, however, are as low as 3%. Gallbladder and biliary related diseases occurred in about 104 million people (1.6%) in 2013 and they resulted in 106,000 deaths. Women more commonly have stones than men and they occur more commonly after the age of 40. Certain ethnic groups have gallstones more often than others. For example, 48% of Native Americans have gallstones. Once the gallbladder is removed, outcomes are generally good.
Gamma-glutamyltransferase (also γ-glutamyltransferase, GGT, gamma-GT) is a transferase (a type of enzyme) that catalyzes the transfer of gamma-glutamyl functional groups from molecules such as glutathione to an acceptor that may be an amino acid, a peptide or water (forming glutamate).
Gastric acid, gastric juice or stomach acid, is a digestive fluid formed in the stomach and is composed of hydrochloric acid (HCl), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium chloride (NaCl).
Gastrin is a peptide hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric acid (HCl) by the parietal cells of the stomach and aids in gastric motility.
A gastrinoma is a tumor in the pancreas or duodenum that secretes excess of gastrin leading to ulceration in the duodenum, stomach and the small intestine.
Gastrointestinal cancer refers to malignant conditions of the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) and accessory organs of digestion, including the esophagus, stomach, biliary system, pancreas, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus.
Gemcitabine, sold under the brand name Gemzar, among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of types of cancer.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
A giant cell (multinucleated giant cell, multinucleate giant cell) is a mass formed by the union of several distinct cells (usually macrophages), often forming a granuloma.
Giovanni Battister Morgagni (25 February 1682 – 6 December 1771) was an Italian anatomist, generally regarded as the father of modern anatomical pathology, who taught thousands of medical students from many countries during his 56 years as Professor of Anatomy at the University of Padua.
Glucagon is a peptide hormone, produced by alpha cells of the pancreas.
A glucagonoma is a rare tumor of the alpha cells of the pancreas that results in the overproduction of the hormone glucagon.
In pathology, grading is a measure of the cell appearance in tumors and other neoplasms.
The Gs alpha subunit (Gαs, Gsα, or Gs protein) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that activates the cAMP-dependent pathway by activating adenylyl cyclase.
H2 antagonists, sometimes referred to as H2RA and also called H2 blockers, are a class of medications that block the action of histamine at the histamine H2 receptors of the parietal cells in the stomach.
Hepatic artery embolization (HAE), also known as trans-arterial embolization (TAE), is one of the several therapeutic methods to treat primary liver tumors or metastases to the liver.
Hepatoid tumor or hepatoid carcinoma are terms for a number of uncommon or rare neoplasms in humans, named for a visual resemblance of the cells under the microscope to those of hepatocellular carcinoma, the most common form of liver cancer.
Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) or Lynch syndrome is an autosomal dominant genetic condition that has a high risk of colon cancer as well as other cancers including endometrial cancer (second most common), ovary, stomach, small intestine, hepatobiliary tract, upper urinary tract, brain, and skin.
Hereditary pancreatitis (HP) is an inflammation of the pancreas, attributed to genetic causes.
Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.
Histology, also microanatomy, is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy.
Histopathology (compound of three Greek words: ἱστός histos "tissue", πάθος pathos "suffering", and -λογία -logia "study of") refers to the microscopic examination of tissue in order to study the manifestations of disease.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Hospice care is a type of care and philosophy of care that focuses on the palliation of a chronically ill, terminally ill or seriously ill patient's pain and symptoms, and attending to their emotional and spiritual needs.
The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder).
Hyaluronic acid (HA; conjugate base hyaluronate), also called hyaluronan, is an anionic, nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan distributed widely throughout connective, epithelial, and neural tissues.
Hyperinsulinism refers to an above normal level of insulin in the blood of a person or animal.
Hypoglycemia, also known as low blood sugar, is when blood sugar decreases to below normal levels.
Immunotherapy is the "treatment of disease by inducing, enhancing, or suppressing an immune response".
Incidence in epidemiology is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time.
Incidental findings are previously undiagnosed medical or psychiatric conditions that are discovered unintentionally and during evaluation for a medical or psychiatric condition.
Indigestion, also known as dyspepsia, is a condition of impaired digestion.
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
An insulinoma is a tumor of the pancreas that is derived from beta cells and secretes insulin.
Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combining of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project).
Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) is a type of tumor that can occur within the cells of the pancreatic duct.
Intraepithelial neoplasia (IEN) is the development of a benign neoplasia or high-grade dysplasia in an epithelium.
Iobenguane, also known as metaiodobenzylguanidine or mIBG, or MIBG (tradename Adreview) is a radiopharmaceutical, used in a scintigraphy method called MIBG scan.
Irreversible electroporation (IRE or NTIRE for non-thermal irreversible electroporation) is a soft tissue ablation technique using ultra short but strong electrical fields to create permanent and hence lethal nanopores in the cell membrane, to disrupt the cellular homeostasis.
Jacob Mendes Da Costa, or Jacob Mendez Da Costa (February 7, 1833, Saint Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands, Caribbean – September 12, 1900) was an American physician.
Jaundice, also known as icterus, is a yellowish or greenish pigmentation of the skin and whites of the eyes due to high bilirubin levels.
The jejunum is the second part of the small intestine in humans and most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds.
The Johns Hopkins Hospital (JHH) is the teaching hospital and biomedical research facility of the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, located in Baltimore, Maryland, U.S. It was founded in 1889 using money from a bequest by philanthropist Johns Hopkins.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
Kidney cancer, also known as renal cancer, is a type of cancer that starts in the cells in the kidney.
KRAS (K-ras or Ki-ras) is a gene that acts as an on/off switch in cell signalling.
Lanreotide (INN) is a medication used in the management of acromegaly and symptoms caused by neuroendocrine tumors, most notably carcinoid syndrome.
Laparoscopy is an operation performed in the abdomen or pelvis through small incisions (usually 0.5–1.5 cm) with the aid of a camera.
The large intestine, also known as the large bowel or colon, is the last part of the gastrointestinal tract and of the digestive system in vertebrates.
A lesion is any abnormal damage or change in the tissue of an organism, usually caused by disease or trauma.
The Lewis antigen system is a human blood group system based upon genes on chromosome 19 p13.3 (FUT3 or Lewis gene) and 19q13.3, (FUT2 or secretor gene).
This article is a list of notable people who have been diagnosed with pancreatic cancer.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Liver function tests (LFTs or LFs) are groups of blood tests that give information about the state of a patient's liver.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.
The Lustgarten Foundation, founded in 1999, is a 501(c)3 non-profit organization with the mission of advancing scientific and medical research related to the diagnosis, treatment, cure and prevention of pancreatic cancer.
A lymph node or lymph gland is an ovoid or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, and of the adaptive immune system, that is widely present throughout the body.
The lymphatic vessels (or lymph vessels or lymphatics) are thin-walled vessels structured like blood vessels, that carry lymph.
A lymphocyte is one of the subtypes of white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system.
Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).
Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is a medical imaging technique that uses magnetic resonance imaging to visualize the biliary and pancreatic ducts in a non-invasive manner.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
Malignancy is the tendency of a medical condition to become progressively worse.
Massachusetts General Hospital (Mass General or MGH) is the original and largest teaching hospital of Harvard Medical School and a biomedical research facility located in the West End neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts.
A mast cell (also known as a mastocyte or a labrocyte) is a type of white blood cell.
Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).
Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a comprehensive controlled vocabulary for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences; it serves as a thesaurus that facilitates searching.
Melanoma, also known as malignant melanoma, is a type of cancer that develops from the pigment-containing cells known as melanocytes.
Menin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MEN1 gene.
In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a linked series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell.
Metastasis is a pathogenic agent's spread from an initial or primary site to a different or secondary site within the host's body; it is typically spoken of as such spread by a cancerous tumor.
Metoclopramide is a medication used mostly for stomach and esophageal problems.
SMAD4, also called SMAD family member 4, Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 4, or DPC4 (Deleted in Pancreatic Cancer-4) is a highly-conserved protein present in all metazoans.
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), also known as the mechanistic target of rapamycin and FK506-binding protein 12-rapamycin-associated protein 1 (FRAP1), is a kinase that in humans is encoded by the MTOR gene.
Mucin 1, cell surface associated (MUC1) or polymorphic epithelial mucin (PEM) is a mucin encoded by the MUC1 gene in humans.
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1 syndrome) or Wermer's syndrome is part of a group of disorders, the multiple endocrine neoplasias, that affect the endocrine system through development of neoplastic lesions in pituitary, parathyroid gland and pancreas.
A myofibroblast is a cell that is in between a fibroblast and a smooth muscle cell in phenotype.
Nasogastric intubation is a medical process involving the insertion of a plastic tube (nasogastric tube or NG tube) through the nose, past the throat, and down into the stomach.
National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) is an alliance of 27 cancer centers in the United States, most of which are designated by the National Cancer Institute (one of the U.S. National Institutes of Health) as comprehensive cancer centers.
Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.
Neoadjuvant therapy is the administration of therapeutic agents before a main treatment.
Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.
Nerve block or regional nerve blockade is any deliberate interruption of signals traveling along a nerve, often for the purpose of pain relief.
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
Neuroendocrine cells are cells that receive neuronal input (neurotransmitters released by nerve cells or neurosecretory cells) and, as a consequence of this input, release message molecules (hormones) to the blood.
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are neoplasms that arise from cells of the endocrine (hormonal) and nervous systems.
The NewYork–Presbyterian Hospital is a nonprofit university hospital in New York City affiliated with two Ivy League medical schools: Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons and Weill Cornell Medical College.
Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty involving the application of radioactive substances in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
Octreotide (trade name Sandostatin, among others) is an octapeptide that mimics natural somatostatin pharmacologically, though it is a more potent inhibitor of growth hormone, glucagon, and insulin than the natural hormone.
Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer.
An oncolytic virus is a virus that preferentially infects and kills cancer cells.
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
An osteoclast is a type of bone cell that breaks down bone tissue.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
p16 (also known as p16INK4a, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A, multiple tumor suppressor 1 and as several other synonyms), is a tumor suppressor protein, that in humans is encoded by the CDKN2A gene.
Tumor protein p53, also known as p53, cellular tumor antigen p53 (UniProt name), phosphoprotein p53, tumor suppressor p53, antigen NY-CO-13, or transformation-related protein 53 (TRP53), is any isoform of a protein encoded by homologous genes in various organisms, such as TP53 (humans) and Trp53 (mice).
Pain management, pain medicine, pain control or algiatry, is a branch of medicine employing an interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those living with chronic pain The typical pain management team includes medical practitioners, pharmacists, clinical psychologists, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, physician assistants, nurses.
Partner and localizer of BRCA2, also known as PALB2 or FANCN, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the PALB2 gene.
Palliative care is a multidisciplinary approach to specialized medical and nursing care for people with life-limiting illnesses.
Palpation is the process of using one's hands to check the body, especially while perceiving/diagnosing a disease or illness.
The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.
In medicine, a pancreatectomy is the surgical removal of all or part of the pancreas.
Pancreatic cancer arises when cells in the pancreas, a glandular organ behind the stomach, begin to multiply out of control and form a mass.
Pancreatic Cancer Action is a not-for-profit organisation based in the UK whose mission is to raise awareness of pancreatic cancer.
Pancreatic Cancer Action Network (PCAN) is a United States-based 501(c)(3) charity that funds research, provides patient support, conducts community outreach, and advocates for increased federal research funding for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer.
Pancreatic enzymes also known as pancrelipase and pancreatin, are commercial mixtures of amylase, lipase, and protease.
The pancreatic islets or islets of Langerhans are the regions of the pancreas that contain its endocrine (hormone-producing) cells, discovered in 1869 by German pathological anatomist Paul Langerhans.
Pancreatic mucinous cystic neoplasm, also mucinous cystic neoplasm of the pancreas and mucinous cystic tumour, is a grouping of cystic neoplasms that arise from the pancreas.
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs, PETs, or PNETs), often referred to as "islet cell tumors", or "pancreatic endocrine tumors" are neuroendocrine neoplasms that arise from cells of the endocrine (hormonal) and nervous system within the pancreas.
Pancreatic serous cystadenoma, also known as serous cystadenoma of the pancreas and serous microcystic adenoma, a benign tumour of pancreas.
A pancreaticoduodenectomy, pancreatoduodenectomy, Whipple procedure, or Kausch-Whipple procedure is a major surgical operation most often performed to remove cancerous tumours of the head of the pancreas.
Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas.
Pancreatoblastoma is a rare type of pancreatic cancer.
Pathognomonic (rarely spelled pathognomic and sometimes misspelled as pathomnemonic) is a term, often used in medicine, that means characteristic for a particular disease.
Proline-, glutamic acid- and leucine-rich protein 1 (PELP1) also known as modulator of non-genomic activity of estrogen receptor (MNAR) and transcription factor HMX3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PELP1 gene.
Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a break in the lining of the stomach, first part of the small intestine or occasionally the lower esophagus.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
In medicine (oncology and other fields), performance status is an attempt to quantify cancer patients' general well-being and activities of daily life.
The peritoneal cavity is a potential space between the parietal peritoneum (the peritoneum that surrounds the abdominal wall) and visceral peritoneum (the peritoneum that surrounds the internal organs).
Peutz–Jeghers syndrome (often abbreviated PJS) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder characterized by the development of benign hamartomatous polyps in the gastrointestinal tract and hyperpigmented macules on the lips and oral mucosa (melanosis).
In the circulatory system of animals, a portal venous system occurs when a capillary bed pools into another capillary bed through veins, without first going through the heart.
Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.
Prevalence in epidemiology is the proportion of a particular population found to be affected by a medical condition (typically a disease or a risk factor such as smoking or seat-belt use).
Preventive healthcare (alternately preventive medicine, preventative healthcare/medicine, or prophylaxis) consists of measures taken for disease prevention, as opposed to disease treatment.
Processed meat is considered to be any meat which has been modified in order either to improve its taste or to extend its shelf life.
Prognosis (Greek: πρόγνωσις "fore-knowing, foreseeing") is a medical term for predicting the likely or expected development of a disease, including whether the signs and symptoms will improve or worsen (and how quickly) or remain stable over time; expectations of quality of life, such as the ability to carry out daily activities; the potential for complications and associated health issues; and the likelihood of survival (including life expectancy).
Prostate cancer is the development of cancer in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system.
Protein-bound paclitaxel, also known as nanoparticle albumin–bound paclitaxel or nab-paclitaxel, is an injectable formulation of paclitaxel used to treat breast cancer, lung cancer and pancreatic cancer, among others.
Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) are a group of drugs whose main action is a pronounced and long-lasting reduction of stomach acid production.
Quality of life (QOL) is the general well-being of individuals and societies, outlining negative and positive features of life.
Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.
A radioactive tracer, or radioactive label, is a chemical compound in which one or more atoms have been replaced by a radionuclide so by virtue of its radioactive decay it can be used to explore the mechanism of chemical reactions by tracing the path that the radioisotope follows from reactants to products.
Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a medical procedure in which part of the electrical conduction system of the heart, tumor or other dysfunctional tissue is ablated using the heat generated from medium frequency alternating current (in the range of 350–500 kHz).
A rare disease is any disease that affects a small percentage of the population.
In gastronomy, red meat is commonly red when raw and a dark color after it is cooked, in contrast to white meat, which is pale in color before and after cooking.
In statistics and epidemiology, relative risk or risk ratio (RR) is the ratio of the probability of an event occurring (for example, developing a disease, being injured) in an exposed group to the probability of the event occurring in a comparison, non-exposed group.
A resection margin or surgical margin is the margin of apparently non-tumerous tissue around a tumor that has been surgically removed, called "resected", in surgical oncology.
In epidemiology, a risk factor is a variable associated with an increased risk of disease or infection.
The sclera, also known as the white of the eye, is the opaque, fibrous, protective, outer layer of the human eye containing mainly collagen and some elastic fiber.
Selenium is a chemical element with symbol Se and atomic number 34.
Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures of the performance of a binary classification test, also known in statistics as a classification function.
Signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) is a rare form of highly malignant adenocarcinoma that produces mucin.
Smoking cessation (also known as quitting smoking or simply quitting) is the process of discontinuing tobacco smoking.
A solid pseudopapillary tumour (also known as solid pseudopapillary neoplasm or, more formally, solid pseudopapillary tumour/neoplasm of the pancreas) is a low-grade malignant neoplasm of the pancreas of papillary architecture that typically afflicts young women.
Somatostatinoma is a malignant tumor of the delta cells of the endocrine pancreas that produces somatostatin.
The spleen is an organ found in virtually all vertebrates.
A splenectomy is a surgical procedure that partially or completely removes the spleen.
Steatorrhea (or steatorrhoea) is the presence of excess fat in feces.
In medicine, a stent is a metal or plastic tube inserted into the lumen of an anatomic vessel or duct to keep the passageway open, and stenting is the placement of a stent.
Serine/threonine kinase 11 (STK11) also known as liver kinase B1 (LKB1) or renal carcinoma antigen NY-REN-19 is a protein kinase that in humans is encoded by the STK11 gene.
The stomach (from ancient Greek στόμαχος, stomachos, stoma means mouth) is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.
Stroma is the part of a tissue or organ with a structural or connective role.
Stromal cells are connective tissue cells of any organ, for example in the uterine mucosa (endometrium), prostate, bone marrow, lymph node and the ovary.
Sunitinib (marketed as Sutent by Pfizer, and previously known as SU11248) is an oral, small-molecule, multi-targeted receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor that was approved by the FDA for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and imatinib-resistant gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) on January 26, 2006.
In human anatomy, the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) arises from the anterior surface of the abdominal aorta, just inferior to the origin of the celiac trunk, and supplies the intestine from the lower part of the duodenum through two-thirds of the transverse colon, as well as the pancreas.
Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
In molecular biology, SWI/SNF (SWItch/Sucrose Non-Fermentable), is a nucleosome remodeling complex found in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes.
Targeted therapy or molecularly targeted therapy is one of the major modalities of medical treatment (pharmacotherapy) for cancer, others being hormonal therapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy.
Thrombophlebitis is a phlebitis (inflammation of a vein) related to a thrombus (blood clot).
The TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours (TNM) is a notation system that describes the stage of a cancer which originates from a solid tumour with alphanumeric codes.
Tobacco smoking is the practice of smoking tobacco and inhaling tobacco smoke (consisting of particle and gaseous phases).
In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.
The transverse colon is the longest and most movable part of the colon.
The Trousseau sign of malignancy or Trousseau's syndrome is a medical sign involving episodes of vessel inflammation due to blood clot (thrombophlebitis) which are recurrent or appearing in different locations over time (thrombophlebitis migrans or migratory thrombophlebitis).
Tumor hypoxia is the situation where tumor cells have been deprived of oxygen.
A tumor marker is a biomarker found in blood, urine, or body tissues that can be elevated by the presence of one or more types of cancer.
The tumor microenvironment (TME) is the cellular environment in which the tumor exists, including surrounding blood vessels, immune cells, fibroblasts, bone marrow-derived inflammatory cells, lymphocytes, signaling molecules and the extracellular matrix (ECM).
A tumor suppressor gene, or antioncogene, is a gene that protects a cell from one step on the path to cancer.
Type I collagen is the most abundant collagen of the human body which forms large, eosinophilic fibers known as collagen fibers.
Ultrasound is sound waves with frequencies higher than the upper audible limit of human hearing.
The Union for International Cancer Control (previously named International Union Against Cancer) or UICC (Union internationale contre le cancer) is a membership based, non-governmental organization that exists to help the global health community accelerate the fight against cancer.
UpToDate, Inc. (bip) is a company in the Wolters Kluwer Health division of Wolters Kluwer whose main product is UpToDate, a software system that is a point-of-care medical resource.
Uruguay, officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay (República Oriental del Uruguay), is a sovereign state in the southeastern region of South America.
Veins are blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart.
A VIPoma (also known as Verner–Morrison syndrome, after the physicians who first described it) is a rare (1 per 10,000,000 per year) endocrine tumor, usually (about 90%) originating from non-β islet cell of the pancreas, that produce vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP).
Vitamin K deficiency results from insufficient dietary vitamin K1 or vitamin K2 or both.
von Hippel–Lindau disease (VHL), also known as Familial cerebello retinal angiomatosis, is a rare genetic disorder with multisystem involvement.
Walther Kausch (17 July 1867, Königsberg – 24 March 1928, Berlin) was a surgeon.
Watchful waiting (also watch and wait or WAW) is an approach to a medical problem in which time is allowed to pass before medical intervention or therapy is used.
White Americans are Americans who are descendants from any of the white racial groups of Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa, or in census statistics, those who self-report as white based on having majority-white ancestry.
A whole grain is a grain of any cereal and pseudocereal that contains the endosperm, germ, and bran, in contrast to refined grains, which retain only the endosperm.
The Wnt signaling pathways are a group of signal transduction pathways made of proteins that pass signals into a cell through cell surface receptors.
Wolters Kluwer N.V. is a global information services company.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
Wrocław (Breslau; Vratislav; Vratislavia) is the largest city in western Poland.
Xerostomia, also known as dry mouth and dry mouth syndrome, is dryness in the mouth, which may be associated with a change in the composition of saliva, or reduced salivary flow, or have no identifiable cause.
Zollinger–Ellison syndrome (ZES) is a disease in which tumors cause the stomach to produce too much acid, resulting in peptic ulcers.
Adenocarcinoma of the pancreas, Cancer of the pancreas, Carcinoma of pancreas, Carcinoma pancreas, Carcinoma, pancreatic ductal, Familial pancreatic carcinoma, Pancreas cancer, Pancreatic Cancer, Pancreatic adenocarcinoma, Pancreatic adenoma, Pancreatic cancers, Pancreatic carcinoma, Pancreatic carcinoma, familial, Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, Pancreatic ductal carcinoma, Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia, Pancreatic islet cell neoplasm, Pancreatic islet cell tumors, Pancreatic malignancy, Pancreatic neoplasia, Pancreatic neoplasms.