335 relations: Africa, African trypanosomiasis, After Armageddon, Ainu people, Al-Qaeda, Albert Camus, Algeria, American Civil War, American Lung Association, Americas, Aminoglycoside, Ancient Greek, And the Band Played On, And the Band Played On (film), Andamanese, Anthrax, Antibiotic, Antimicrobial resistance, Antonine Plague, Arno Karlen, Artemisinin, Asia, Athens, Australia, Avian influenza, Bacillus, Bacteria, Balmis Expedition, Bangladesh, BBC, Bengal, Biohazard (book), Biological hazard, Bioterrorism, Black Death, Black Death in England, Blood-borne disease, Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, Brucellosis, Bubonic plague, Bukhara, Bulgaria, Bushmeat, Canary Islands, Cancer, Carlo Urbani, Caspian Sea, Caucasus, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Central America, ..., Cephalosporin, Chernobyl disaster, China, Cholera, Cholera Riots, Christopher Columbus, Chronic condition, Closed city, Coccidioidomycosis, Colonialism, Company of Liars, Connie Willis, Constantinople, Contagion (film), Continent, Coronavirus, CRC Press, Crimea, Croatia, Crowdmapping, Crusades, Cuba, Dictionary of the Middle Ages, Disaster film, Docudrama, Domestication, Doomsday (2008 film), Doomsday Book (novel), Drug resistance, Dutch East India Company, Earth Abides, Easter Island, Ebola virus disease, Egypt, El Tor, Emily St. John Mandel, End Day, Endemic (epidemiology), England, Enterococcus, Epidemic, Epidemic typhus, Europe, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, Feodosia, Fiji, Flu season, Fort Riley, Frances Hodgson Burnett, Francis Jennings, French and Indian War, George R. Stewart, German mistreatment of Soviet prisoners of war, Giovanni Boccaccio, Glanders, Granada, Grande Armée, Great Famine (Ireland), Great Plague of London, Greece, Greenwood Publishing Group, Guanches, Gwyneth Cravens, Hamburg, Hawaii, HBO, Helix (TV series), Henry Bouquet, Hippocrates, Hispaniola, History, History (U.S. TV network), History of malaria, History of slavery, HIV, HIV/AIDS, Hokkaido, I Am Legend (film), I Am Legend (novel), Immunity (medical), Imperial Japanese Army, Inca Empire, Indian subcontinent, Indigenous Australians, Indigenous peoples, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indonesia, Infection, Influenza, Influenza A virus subtype H1N1, Influenza A virus subtype H2N2, Influenza A virus subtype H3N2, Influenza A virus subtype H3N8, Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, Influenza pandemic, Iran, Italy, Jamestown, Virginia, Jani Beg, Japan, Japanese encephalitis, Java, Jeffery Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst, Justin Cronin, Kansas, Karen Maitland, Katherine Anne Porter, Ken Alibek, L'Histoire, Lassa virus, Leper colony, Leprosy, London, Malaria, Marburg virus, Mary Shelley, Mass grave, Massachusetts Bay, Matthew Paris, Max Brooks, Māori people, Measles, Mecca, Medieval demography, Melioidosis, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Mexico, Michael Crichton, Michael Finkel, Mongol Empire, Mortality rate, Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis, Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Napoleon, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Naughty Dog, Nazi concentration camps, Neman, New World, New York City, New Zealand, North America, Old World, Ontario, Ottoman Empire, Outbreak (film), Pacific Northwest, Pale Horse, Pale Rider, Pandemic (board game), Pandemic severity index, Permafrost, Peru, Philippines, Plague (disease), Plague Inc., Plague of Athens, Plague of Cyprian, Plague of Justinian, Plains Indians, Plasmodium falciparum, PlayStation 3, Pontiac's War, Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas, Procopius, Psittacosis, Public health, Public Health Emergency of International Concern, Q fever, Quarantine, Randy Shilts, Renaissance, Richard Matheson, Rift Valley fever, Rinderpest, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Roman Empire, Romania, Rome, Russia, Russian Empire, San Francisco plague of 1900–1904, SARS coronavirus, Science fiction, Second plague pandemic, Second Sino-Japanese War, Serbia, Serratia marcescens, Severe acute respiratory syndrome, Shigella, Siege of Fort Pitt, Smallpox, Smallpox 2002, Smallpox vaccine, Smartphone, South Africa, Soviet Union, Spain, Spanish Empire, Spanish flu, Staphylococcus aureus, Station Eleven, Stephen King, Super-spreader, Survivors (1975 TV series), Sverdlovsk anthrax leak, Syndemic, Syphilis, Tenochtitlan, Terry Nation, The Andromeda Strain, The Decameron, The Horseman on the Roof, The Last Canadian, The Last Man, The Last Man on Earth (1964 film), The Last Man on Earth (TV series), The Last of Us, The Last Town on Earth, The Omega Man, The Passage (Cronin novel), The Passage (novel series), The Plague, The Secret Garden, The Seventh Seal, The Stand, The Stand (miniseries), The Twelve (novel), Third plague pandemic, Thirty Years' War, Thomas Mullen, Time travel, Timeline of global health, To Say Nothing of the Dog, Tom Clancy's The Division, Tomsk, Tooth, Tropical disease, Tropics, Tuberculosis, Tularemia, Turkey, Typhoid fever, Typhus, Unit 731, United Kingdom, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Vaccination, Vancomycin, Vector (epidemiology), Vietnam, Virulence, Wales, Whooping cough, William C. Heine, William Trent, World Health Organization, World population, World War I, World War Z, World War Z (film), Yekaterinburg, Yellow fever, Zika virus, Zombie, Zoonosis, 12 Monkeys, 12 Monkeys (TV series), 1775–82 North American smallpox epidemic, 1793 Philadelphia yellow fever epidemic, 1817–24 cholera pandemic, 1829–51 cholera pandemic, 1837 Great Plains smallpox epidemic, 1852–60 cholera pandemic, 1863–75 cholera pandemic, 1881–96 cholera pandemic, 1889–90 flu pandemic, 1899–1923 cholera pandemic, 1961–75 cholera pandemic, 1968 flu pandemic, 2009 flu pandemic, 28 Days Later, 28 Weeks Later. Expand index (285 more) » « Shrink index
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness, is an insect-borne parasitic disease of humans and other animals.
After Armageddon is a 2010 History Channel docudrama about the travails of survivors after a deadly global pandemic that first aired on December 21, 2010.
The Ainu or the Aynu (Ainu アィヌ ''Aynu''; Japanese: アイヌ Ainu; Russian: Айны Ajny), in the historical Japanese texts the Ezo (蝦夷), are an indigenous people of Japan (Hokkaido, and formerly northeastern Honshu) and Russia (Sakhalin, the Kuril Islands, and formerly the Kamchatka Peninsula).
Al-Qaeda (القاعدة,, translation: "The Base", "The Foundation" or "The Fundament" and alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qæda and sometimes al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national organization founded in 1988.
Albert Camus (7 November 1913 – 4 January 1960) was a French philosopher, author, and journalist.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
The American Lung Association is a voluntary health organization whose mission is to save lives by improving lung health and preventing lung disease through education, advocacy and research.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
Aminoglycoside is a medicinal and bacteriologic category of traditional Gram-negative antibacterial therapeutic agents that inhibit protein synthesis and contain as a portion of the molecule an amino-modified glycoside (sugar); the term can also refer more generally to any organic molecule that contains aminosugar substructures.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
And the Band Played On: Politics, People, and the AIDS Epidemic is a 1987 book by San Francisco Chronicle journalist Randy Shilts.
And the Band Played On is a 1993 American television film docudrama directed by Roger Spottiswoode.
The Andamanese are the various indigenous peoples of the Andaman Islands, part of India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands union territory in the southeastern part of the Bay of Bengal.
Anthrax is an infection caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR or AR) is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication that once could successfully treat the microbe.
The Antonine Plague of 165–180 AD, also known as the Plague of Galen (from the name of the Greek physician living in the Roman Empire who described it), was an ancient pandemic brought back to the Roman Empire by troops returning from campaigns in the Near East.
Arno Chanoch Karlen (May 7, 1937 – May 13, 2010) was an American poet, psychoanalyst, and in particular, popular science writer.
Artemisinin and its semi-synthetic derivatives are a group of drugs used against Plasmodium falciparum malaria.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Avian influenza—known informally as avian flu or bird flu is a variety of influenza caused by viruses adapted to birds.
Bacillus is a genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria and a member of the phylum Firmicutes.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
The Balmis Expedition (1803–1806) was a three-year mission to Spanish America and Asia led by Dr.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
Bengal (Bānglā/Bôngô /) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in Asia, which is located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal.
Biohazard, subtitled The Chilling True Story of the Largest Covert Biological Weapons Program in the World - Told from Inside by the Man Who Ran It, is the title of a 1999 book by former Soviet biological warfare researcher Ken Alibek that purports to expose the former Soviet Union's extensive covert biological weapons program.
Biological hazards, also known as biohazards, refer to biological substances that pose a threat to the health of living organisms, primarily that of humans.
Bioterrorism is terrorism involving the intentional release or dissemination of biological agents.
The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.
The Black Death was a bubonic plague pandemic, which reached England in June 1348.
A bloodborne disease is a disease that can be spread through contamination by blood and other body fluids.
Bolivian hemorrhagic fever (BHF), also known as black typhus or Ordog Fever, is a hemorrhagic fever and zoonotic infectious disease originating in Bolivia after infection by Machupo virus.
Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis caused by ingestion of unpasteurized milk or undercooked meat from infected animals, or close contact with their secretions.
Bubonic plague is one of three types of plague caused by bacterium Yersinia pestis.
Bukhara (Uzbek Latin: Buxoro; Uzbek Cyrillic: Бухоро) is a city in Uzbekistan.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
Bushmeat, wildmeat, or game meat is meat from non-domesticated mammals, reptiles, amphibians and birds hunted for food in tropical forests.
The Canary Islands (Islas Canarias) is a Spanish archipelago and autonomous community of Spain located in the Atlantic Ocean, west of Morocco at the closest point.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Carlo Urbani (Castelplanio, Italy October 19, 1956 – Bangkok, Thailand March 29, 2003) was an Italian doctor and microbiologist and the first to identify severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) as a new and dangerously contagious viral disease.
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
Central America (América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast.
The cephalosporins (sg.) are a class of β-lactam antibiotics originally derived from the fungus Acremonium, which was previously known as "Cephalosporium".
The Chernobyl disaster, also referred to as the Chernobyl accident, was a catastrophic nuclear accident.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
Cholera Riots refers to civil disturbances associated with an outbreak or epidemic of cholera.
Christopher Columbus (before 31 October 145120 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer.
A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time.
A closed city or closed town is a settlement where travel or residency restrictions are applied so that specific authorization is required to visit or remain overnight.
Coccidioidomycosis, commonly known as "cocci", "Valley fever", as well as "California fever", "desert rheumatism", and "San Joaquin Valley fever", is a mammalian fungal disease caused by Coccidioides immitis or Coccidioides posadasii.
Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
Company of Liars is a 2008 historical novel by Karen Maitland, set in the fourteenth century.
Constance Elaine Trimmer Willis (born December 31, 1945), commonly known as Connie Willis, is an American science fiction and fantasy writer.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
Contagion is a 2011 U.S. medical thriller-disaster film directed by Steven Soderbergh.
A continent is one of several very large landmasses of the world.
Coronaviruses are species of virus belonging to the subfamily Coronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae, in the order Nidovirales.
The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.
Crimea (Крым, Крим, Krym; Krym; translit;; translit) is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
Crowdmapping is a subtype of crowdsourcing by which aggregation of crowd-generated inputs such as captured communications and social media feeds are combined with geographic data to create a digital map that is as up-to-date as possible on events such as wars, humanitarian crises, crime, elections, or natural disasters.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
The Dictionary of the Middle Ages is a 13-volume encyclopedia of the Middle Ages published by the American Council of Learned Societies between 1982 and 1989.
A disaster film or disaster movie is a film genre that has an impending or ongoing disaster as its subject and primary plot device.
A docudrama (or documentary drama) is a genre of radio and television programming, feature film, and staged theatre, which features dramatized re-enactments of actual events.
Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable supply of resources from that second group.
Doomsday is a 2008 science fiction film written and directed by Neil Marshall.
Doomsday Book is a 1992 science fiction novel by American author Connie Willis.
Drug resistance is the reduction in effectiveness of a medication such as an antimicrobial or an antineoplastic in curing a disease or condition.
The United East India Company, sometimes known as the United East Indies Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie; or Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie in modern spelling; abbreviated to VOC), better known to the English-speaking world as the Dutch East India Company or sometimes as the Dutch East Indies Company, was a multinational corporation that was founded in 1602 from a government-backed consolidation of several rival Dutch trading companies.
Earth Abides is a 1949 post-apocalyptic science fiction novel by American writer George R. Stewart.
Easter Island (Rapa Nui, Isla de Pascua) is a Chilean island in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, at the southeasternmost point of the Polynesian Triangle in Oceania.
Ebola virus disease (EVD), also known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) or simply Ebola, is a viral hemorrhagic fever of humans and other primates caused by ebolaviruses.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
El Tor is a particular strain of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera.
End Day is a 2005 docu-drama produced by the BBC.
In epidemiology, an infection is said to be endemic (from Greek ἐν en "in, within" and δῆμος demos "people") in a population when that infection is constantly maintained at a baseline level in a geographic area without external inputs.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
Enterococcus is a large genus of lactic acid bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes.
An epidemic (from Greek ἐπί epi "upon or above" and δῆμος demos "people") is the rapid spread of infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time, usually two weeks or less.
Epidemic typhus is a form of typhus so named because the disease often causes epidemics following wars and natural disasters.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) is an independent agency of the European Union (EU) whose mission is to strengthen Europe's defences against infectious diseases.
Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) is a form of tuberculosis caused by bacteria that are resistant to some of the most effective anti-TB drugs.
Feodosia (Феодо́сия, Feodosiya; Феодо́сія, Feodosiia; Crimean Tatar and Turkish: Kefe), also called Theodosia (from), is a port and resort, a town of regional significance in Crimea on the Black Sea coast.
Fiji (Viti; Fiji Hindi: फ़िजी), officially the Republic of Fiji (Matanitu Tugalala o Viti; Fiji Hindi: फ़िजी गणराज्य), is an island country in Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean about northeast of New Zealand's North Island.
Flu season is an annually recurring time period characterized by the prevalence of outbreaks of Influenza (flu).
Fort Riley is a United States Army installation located in North Central Kansas, on the Kansas River, also known as the Kaw, between Junction City and Manhattan.
Frances Eliza Hodgson Burnett (24 November 1849 – 29 October 1924) was a British novelist and playwright.
Francis "Fritz" Jennings (1918November 17, 2000) was an American historian, best known for his works on the colonial history of the United States.
The French and Indian War (1754–63) comprised the North American theater of the worldwide Seven Years' War of 1756–63.
George Rippey Stewart (May 31, 1895 – August 22, 1980) was an American historian, toponymist, novelist, and a professor of English at the University of California, Berkeley.
During World War II, Nazi Germany engaged in a policy of deliberate maltreatment of Soviet prisoners of war (POWs), in contrast to their treatment of British and American POWs.
Giovanni Boccaccio (16 June 1313 – 21 December 1375) was an Italian writer, poet, correspondent of Petrarch, and an important Renaissance humanist.
Glanders (from Middle English glaundres or Old French glandres, both meaning glands; malleus, Rotz; also known as "equinia", "farcy", and "malleus") is an infectious disease that occurs primarily in horses, mules, and donkeys.
Granada is the capital city of the province of Granada, in the autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain.
The Grande Armée (French for Great Army) was the army commanded by Napoleon during the Napoleonic Wars.
The Great Famine (an Gorta Mór) or the Great Hunger was a period of mass starvation, disease, and emigration in Ireland between 1845 and 1849.
The Great Plague, lasting from 1665 to 1666, was the last major epidemic of the bubonic plague to occur in England.
ABC-CLIO/Greenwood is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.
Guanches were the aboriginal inhabitants of the Canary Islands.
Gwyneth Cravens is an American novelist and journalist.
Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.
Hawaii (Hawaii) is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959.
Home Box Office (HBO) is an American premium cable and satellite television network of Home Box Office, Inc..
Helix is an American science fiction thriller drama television series that aired on Syfy from January 10, 2014 to April 10, 2015.
Henry Louis Bouquet, generally known as Henry Bouquet (1719 – 2 September 1765), was a prominent British Army officer in the French and Indian War and Pontiac's War.
Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.
Hispaniola (Spanish: La Española; Latin and French: Hispaniola; Haitian Creole: Ispayola; Taíno: Haiti) is an island in the Caribbean island group, the Greater Antilles.
History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.
History (originally The History Channel from 1995 to 2008) is a history-based digital cable and satellite television network that is owned by A&E Networks, a joint venture between the Hearst Communications and the Disney–ABC Television Group division of the Walt Disney Company.
The history of malaria stretches from its prehistoric origin as a zoonotic disease in the primates of Africa through to the 21st century.
The history of slavery spans many cultures, nationalities, and religions from ancient times to the present day.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
(), formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is the second largest island of Japan, and the largest and northernmost prefecture.
I Am Legend is a 2007 American post-apocalyptic science fiction horror film based on the novel of the same name, directed by Francis Lawrence and starring Will Smith, who plays US Army virologist Robert Neville.
I Am Legend is a 1954 science fiction horror novel by American writer Richard Matheson.
In biology, immunity is the balanced state of multicellular organisms having adequate biological defenses to fight infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion, while having adequate tolerance to avoid allergy, and autoimmune diseases.
The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA; Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun; "Army of the Greater Japanese Empire") was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan from 1868 to 1945.
The Inca Empire (Quechua: Tawantinsuyu, "The Four Regions"), also known as the Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America, and possibly the largest empire in the world in the early 16th century.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands prior to British colonisation.
Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.
Influenza A (H1N1) virus is the subtype of influenza A virus that was the most common cause of human influenza (flu) in 2009, and is associated with the 1918 outbreak known as the Spanish Flu.
H2N2 is a subtype of the influenza A virus.
Influenza A virus subtype H3N2 (A/H3N2) is a subtype of viruses that causes influenza (flu).
H3N8 is a subtype of the species Influenza A virus that is endemic in birds, horses and dogs.
Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species.
An influenza pandemic is an epidemic of an influenza virus that spreads on a worldwide scale and infects a large proportion of the world population.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
The Jamestown settlement in the Colony of Virginia was the first permanent English settlement in the Americas.
Jani Beg (died 1357) also called Djanibek Khan was a khan of the Golden Horde from 1342 to 1357, succeeding his father Öz Beg Khan.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an infection of the brain caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV).
Java (Indonesian: Jawa; Javanese: ꦗꦮ; Sundanese) is an island of Indonesia.
Field Marshal Jeffery Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst, (29 January 1717 – 3 August 1797) served as an officer in the British Army and as Commander-in-Chief of the Forces.
Justin Cronin (born 1962) is an American author.
Kansas is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States.
Karen Maitland (born 1956, in England) is a British author of medieval thriller fiction.
Katherine Anne Porter (May 15, 1890 – September 18, 1980) was an American journalist, essayist, short story writer, novelist, and political activist.
Colonel Kanatzhan "Kanat" Alibekov (Қанатжан Әлібеков, Qanatzhan Älibekov; Канатжан Алибеков, Kanatzhan Alibekov; born 1950) – known as Kenneth "Ken" Alibek since 1992 – is a former Soviet physician, microbiologist, and biological warfare (BW) expert.
L'Histoire is a monthly mainstream French magazine dedicated to historical studies, recognized by peers as the most important historical popular magazine (as opposed to specific university journals or less scientific popular historical magazines).
Lassa virus (LASV) is an arenavirus that causes Lassa hemorrhagic fever, a type of viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF), in humans and other primates.
A leper colony, leprosarium, or lazar house is a place to quarantine people with leprosy (Hansen's disease).
Leprosy, also known as Hansen's disease (HD), is a long-term infection by the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae or Mycobacterium lepromatosis.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
Marburg virus is a hemorrhagic fever virus of the Filoviridae family of viruses and a member of the species Marburg marburgvirus, genus Marburgvirus.
Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (née Godwin; 30 August 1797 – 1 February 1851) was an English novelist, short story writer, dramatist, essayist, biographer, and travel writer, best known for her Gothic novel ''Frankenstein: or, The Modern Prometheus'' (1818).
A mass grave is a grave containing multiple human corpses, which may or may not be identified prior to burial.
Massachusetts Bay is a bay on the Atlantic Ocean that forms part of the central coastline of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
Matthew Paris, known as Matthew of Paris (Latin: Matthæus Parisiensis, "Matthew the Parisian"; c. 1200 – 1259), was a Benedictine monk, English chronicler, artist in illuminated manuscripts and cartographer, based at St Albans Abbey in Hertfordshire.
Maximillian Michael Brooks (born May 22, 1972) is an American author.
The Māori are the indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand.
Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the measles virus.
Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.
Medieval demography is the study of human demography in Europe and the Mediterranean during the Middle Ages.
Melioidosis is an infectious disease caused by a Gram-negative bacterium, Burkholderia pseudomallei, found in soil and water.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) refers to a group of gram-positive bacteria that are genetically distinct from other strains of Staphylococcus aureus.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
John Michael Crichton (October 23, 1942 – November 4, 2008) was an American author, screenwriter, film director and producer best known for his work in the science fiction, thriller, and medical fiction genres.
Michael Finkel is an American journalist and memoirist, who has written the books True Story: Murder, Memoir, Mea Culpa (2005) and The Stranger in the Woods: The extraordinary story of the last true hermit (2017). He is played by actor Jonah Hill in the 2015 film True Story.
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.
Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a form of tuberculosis (TB) infection caused by bacteria that are resistant to treatment with at least two of the most powerful first-line anti-TB medications (drugs), isoniazid and rifampin.
Mycobacterium leprae, also known as Hansen’s bacillus spirilly, mostly found in warm tropical countries, is a bacterium that causes leprosy (Hansen's disease).
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a species of pathogenic bacteria in the family Mycobacteriaceae and the causative agent of tuberculosis.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The National and Kapodistrian University of Athens (NKUA;Εθνικὸν καὶ Καποδιστριακόν Πανεπιστήμιον Ἀθηνῶν, Ethnikón kai Kapodistriakón Panepistímion Athinón), usually referred to simply as the University of Athens (UoA), is a public university in Zografou, a suburb of Athens, Greece.
The National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), formerly known as the National Immunization Program until April 2006, is charged with responsibility for the planning, coordination, and conduct of immunization activities in the United States.
Naughty Dog, LLC (formerly JAM Software, Inc.) is an American first-party video game developer based in Santa Monica, California.
Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled before and during the Second World War.
The Neman, Nemunas, Nyoman, Niemen or Memel, a major Eastern European river.
The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
The term "Old World" is used in the West to refer to Africa, Asia and Europe (Afro-Eurasia or the World Island), regarded collectively as the part of the world known to its population before contact with the Americas and Oceania (the "New World").
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Outbreak is a 1995 American medical disaster film directed by Wolfgang Petersen and based on Richard Preston's nonfiction book The Hot Zone.
The Pacific Northwest (PNW), sometimes referred to as Cascadia, is a geographic region in western North America bounded by the Pacific Ocean to the west and (loosely) by the Cascade Mountain Range on the east.
Pale Horse, Pale Rider is a collection of three short novels by American author Katherine Anne Porter published in 1939.
Pandemic is a cooperative board game designed by Matt Leacock and published by Z-Man Games in 2007.
The pandemic severity index (PSI) is a proposed classification scale for reporting the severity of influenza pandemics in the United States.
In geology, permafrost is ground, including rock or (cryotic) soil, at or below the freezing point of water for two or more years.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Plague is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis.
Plague Inc. is a real-time strategy simulation video game, developed and published by UK-based independent games studio Ndemic Creations.
The Plague of Athens (Λοιμός των Αθηνών) was an epidemic that devastated the city-state of Athens in ancient Greece during the second year of the Peloponnesian War (430 BC) when an Athenian victory still seemed within reach.
The Plague of Cyprian is the name given to a pandemic that afflicted the Roman Empire from about AD 249 to 262.
The Plague of Justinian (541–542) was a pandemic that afflicted the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire, especially its capital Constantinople, the Sassanid Empire, and port cities around the entire Mediterranean Sea.
Plains Indians, Interior Plains Indians or Indigenous people of the Great Plains and Canadian Prairies are the Native American tribes and First Nation band governments who have traditionally lived on the greater Interior Plains (i.e. the Great Plains and the Canadian Prairies) in North America.
Plasmodium falciparum is a unicellular protozoan parasite of humans, and the deadliest species of Plasmodium that cause malaria in humans.
The PlayStation 3 (PS3) is a home video game console developed by Sony Computer Entertainment.
Pontiac's War (also known as Pontiac's Conspiracy or Pontiac's Rebellion) was launched in 1763 by a loose confederation of elements of Native American tribes, primarily from the Great Lakes region, the Illinois Country, and Ohio Country who were dissatisfied with British postwar policies in the Great Lakes region after the British victory in the French and Indian War (1754–1763).
The population figures for indigenous peoples in the Americas before the 1492 voyage of Christopher Columbus have proven difficult to establish.
Procopius of Caesarea (Προκόπιος ὁ Καισαρεύς Prokopios ho Kaisareus, Procopius Caesariensis; 500 – 554 AD) was a prominent late antique Greek scholar from Palaestina Prima.
Psittacosis—also known as parrot fever, and ornithosis—is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by a bacterium called Chlamydia psittaci and contracted from infected parrots, such as macaws, cockatiels and budgerigars, and pigeons, sparrows, ducks, hens, gulls and many other species of bird.
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".
A Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) is a formal declaration by the World Health Organization (WHO).
Q fever is a disease caused by infection with Coxiella burnetii, a bacterium that affects humans and other animals.
A quarantine is used to separate and restrict the movement of people; it is a 'a restraint upon the activities or communication of persons or the transport of goods designed to prevent the spread of disease or pests', for a certain period of time.
Randy Shilts (August 8, 1951February 17, 1994) was an American journalist and author.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Richard Burton Matheson (February 20, 1926 – June 23, 2013) was an American author and screenwriter, primarily in the fantasy, horror, and science fiction genres.
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a viral disease that can cause mild to severe symptoms.
Rinderpest (also cattle plague or steppe murrain) was an infectious viral disease of cattle, domestic buffalo, and many other species of even-toed ungulates, including buffaloes, large antelope and deer, giraffes, wildebeests, and warthogs.
Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), also known as blue disease, is the most lethal and most frequently reported rickettsial illness in the United States.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The San Francisco plague of 1900–1904 was an epidemic of bubonic plague centered on San Francisco's Chinatown.
The SARS coronavirus, sometimes shortened to SARS-CoV, is the virus that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).
Science fiction (often shortened to Sci-Fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction, typically dealing with imaginative concepts such as advanced science and technology, spaceflight, time travel, and extraterrestrial life.
The second plague pandemic is a major series of epidemics of the plague that started with the Black Death, which reached mainland Europe in 1348 and killed up to a half of the population of Eurasia in the next four years.
The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, 1937, to September 2, 1945.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
Serratia marcescens is a species of rod-shaped gram-negative bacteria in the family Enterobacteriaceae.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a viral respiratory disease of zoonotic origin caused by the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV).
Shigella is a genus of gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, nonspore-forming, non-motile, rod-shaped bacteria genetically closely related to E. coli.
The Siege of Fort Pitt took place during June and July 1763 in what is now the city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States.
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
Smallpox 2002: Silent Weapon is a fictional docudrama produced by Wall to Wall, showing how a single act of bioterrorism leads to terrifying consequences globally.
Smallpox vaccine, the first successful vaccine to be developed, was introduced by Edward Jenner in 1796.
A smartphone is a handheld personal computer with a mobile operating system and an integrated mobile broadband cellular network connection for voice, SMS, and Internet data communication; most, if not all, smartphones also support Wi-Fi.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.
The Spanish flu (January 1918 – December 1920), also known as the 1918 flu pandemic, was an unusually deadly influenza pandemic, the first of the two pandemics involving H1N1 influenza virus.
Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive, round-shaped bacterium that is a member of the Firmicutes, and it is a member of the normal flora of the body, frequently found in the nose, respiratory tract, and on the skin.
Station Eleven is a 2014 science fiction novel by Emily St. John Mandel.
Stephen Edwin King (born September 21, 1947) is an American author of horror, supernatural fiction, suspense, science fiction, and fantasy.
A super-spreader is a host—an organism infected with a disease—that infects, disproportionally, more secondary contacts than other hosts who are, also, infected with the same disease.
Survivors is a British post-apocalyptic fiction drama television series created by Terry Nation and produced by Terence Dudley at the BBC, that broadcast from 1975 to 1977.
The Sverdlovsk anthrax leak was an incident in which spores of anthrax were accidentally released from the Sverdlovsk-19a military research facility on the southern edge of the city of Sverdlovsk (formerly, and now again, Yekaterinburg) on April 2, 1979.
A syndemic or synergistic epidemic is the aggregation of two or more concurrent or sequential epidemics or disease clusters in a population with biological interactions, which exacerbate the prognosis and burden of disease.
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.
Tenochtitlan (Tenochtitlan), originally known as México-Tenochtitlán (meːˈʃíʔ.ko te.noːt͡ʃ.ˈtí.t͡ɬan), was a large Mexica city-state in what is now the center of Mexico City.
Terence Joseph Nation (8 August 19309 March 1997) was a Welsh television writer and novelist.
The Andromeda Strain is a 1969 techno-thriller novel by Michael Crichton documenting the efforts of a team of scientists investigating the outbreak of a deadly extraterrestrial microorganism in Arizona.
The Decameron (Italian title: "Decameron" or "Decamerone"), subtitled "Prince Galehaut" (Old Prencipe Galeotto and sometimes nicknamed "Umana commedia", "Human comedy"), is a collection of novellas by the 14th-century Italian author Giovanni Boccaccio (1313–1375).
The Horseman on the Roof (Le hussard sur le toit) is a 1995 French film directed by Jean-Paul Rappeneau and starring Juliette Binoche and Olivier Martinez.
The Last Canadian is a 1974 science fiction novel by William C. Heine about the adventures of Eugene Arnprior after North America is devastated by a plague.
The Last Man is a post-apocalyptic science fiction novel by Mary Shelley, which was first published in 1826.
The Last Man on Earth (L'ultimo uomo della Terra) is a 1964 Italian-American science-fiction horror film based on the 1954 Richard Matheson novel I Am Legend.
The Last Man on Earth is an American post-apocalyptic comedy television series created by and starring Will Forte.
The Last of Us is an action-adventure game developed by Naughty Dog and published by Sony Computer Entertainment.
The Last Town on Earth is a 2006 novel by American writer Thomas Mullen.
The Omega Man (stylized as The Ωmega Man) is a 1971 American science-fiction film directed by Boris Sagal and starring Charlton Heston as a survivor of a global pandemic.
The Passage is a novel by Justin Cronin, published in 2010 by Ballantine Books, a division of Random House, Inc., New York.
The Passage is a novel series by Justin Cronin.
The Plague (French: La Peste) is a novel by Albert Camus, published in 1947, that tells the story of a plague sweeping the French Algerian city of Oran.
The Secret Garden is a children's novel by Frances Hodgson Burnett first published as a book in 1911, after a version was published as an American magazine serial beginning in 1910.
The Seventh Seal (Det sjunde inseglet) is a 1957 Swedish epic historical fantasy film written and directed by Ingmar Bergman.
The Stand is a post-apocalyptic horror/fantasy novel by American author Stephen King.
The Stand is a 1994 American television horror miniseries based on the novel of the same name by Stephen King.
The Twelve is a 2012 horror novel by Justin Cronin and is the second novel in The Passage trilogy, following the novel The Passage.
Third Pandemic is the designation of a major bubonic plague pandemic that began in Yunnan province in China in 1855.
The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648.
Thomas Mullen (c. 1897 – 2 January 1966) was an Irish Fianna Fáil politician and school teacher.
Time travel is the concept of movement between certain points in time, analogous to movement between different points in space by an object or a person, typically using a hypothetical device known as a time machine.
This page is a timeline of global health, including major conferences, interventions, cures, and crises.
To Say Nothing of the Dog: or, How We Found the Bishop's Bird Stump at Last is a 1997 comic science fiction novel by Connie Willis.
Tom Clancy's The Division is an action role-playing video game developed by Massive Entertainment and published by Ubisoft, with assistance from Red Storm Entertainment and Ubisoft Annecy, for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 4 and Xbox One.
Tomsk (p) is a city and the administrative center of Tomsk Oblast in Russia, located on the Tom River.
A tooth (plural teeth) is a hard, calcified structure found in the jaws (or mouths) of many vertebrates and used to break down food.
Tropical diseases are diseases that are prevalent in or unique to tropical and subtropical regions.
The tropics are a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
Tularemia, also known as rabbit fever, is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to ''Salmonella'' typhi that causes symptoms.
Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases that include epidemic typhus, scrub typhus and murine typhus.
was a covert biological and chemical warfare research and development unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that undertook lethal human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) of World War II.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen.
Vancomycin is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections.
In epidemiology, a disease vector is any agent that carries and transmits an infectious pathogen into another living organism; most agents regarded as vectors are organisms, such as intermediate parasites or microbes, but it could be an inanimate medium of infection such as dust particles.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Virulence is a pathogen's or microbe's ability to infect or damage a host.
Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.
Whooping cough (also known as pertussis or 100-day cough) is a highly contagious bacterial disease.
William C. Heine (1919–1991) was a Canadian author, best known for The Last Canadian, a science fiction novel filmed as The Patriot starring Steven Seagal.
William Trent (17151787) was a fur trader and merchant based in colonial Pennsylvania.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
In demographics, the world population is the total number of humans currently living, and was estimated to have reached 7.6 billion people as of May 2018.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War Z: An Oral History of the Zombie War is a 2006 apocalyptic horror novel written by American author Max Brooks.
World War Z is a 2013 American action horror film directed by Marc Forster.
Yekaterinburg (p), alternatively romanized Ekaterinburg, is the fourth-largest city in Russia and the administrative centre of Sverdlovsk Oblast, located on the Iset River east of the Ural Mountains, in the middle of the Eurasian continent, at the boundary between Asia and Europe.
Yellow fever is a viral disease of typically short duration.
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a member of the virus family Flaviviridae.
A zombie (Haitian French: zombi, zonbi) is a fictional undead being created through the reanimation of a human corpse.
Zoonoses are infectious diseases that can be transmitted between animals and humans.
12 Monkeys, also known as Twelve Monkeys, is a 1995 American neo-noir science fiction film directed by Terry Gilliam, inspired by Chris Marker's 1962 short film La Jetée, and starring Bruce Willis, Madeleine Stowe, and Brad Pitt, with Christopher Plummer and David Morse in supporting roles.
12 Monkeys is an American television series on Syfy created by Terry Matalas and Travis Fickett.
The New World of the Western Hemisphere was devastated by the 1775–1782 North American smallpox epidemic.
During the Yellow Fever Epidemic of 1793 in Philadelphia, 5,000 or more people were listed in the official register of deaths between August 1 and November 9.
The first cholera pandemic (1817–24), also known as the first Asiatic cholera pandemic or Asiatic cholera, began near Calcutta and spread throughout Southeast Asia to the Middle East, eastern Africa and the Mediterranean coast.
The second cholera pandemic (1829–1851), also known as the Asiatic Cholera Pandemic, was a cholera pandemic that reached from India across western Asia to Europe, Great Britain and the Americas, as well as east to China and Japan.
The 1837 Great Plains smallpox epidemic spanned 1836 through 1840, but reached its height after the spring of 1837 when an American Fur Company steamboat, the S.S. St.
The third cholera pandemic (1852–60) was the third major outbreak of cholera originating in India in the nineteenth century that reached far beyond its borders.
The fourth cholera pandemic of the 19th century began in the Ganges Delta of the Bengal region and traveled with Muslim pilgrims to Mecca.
The fifth cholera pandemic (1881–96) was the fifth major international outbreak of cholera in the 19th century starting in India.
The 1889–1890 flu pandemic (October 1889 – December 1890, with recurrences March – June 1891, November 1891 – June 1892, winter 1893–1894 and early 1895) was a deadly influenza pandemic that killed about 1 million people worldwide.
The sixth cholera pandemic (1899–1923) was a major outbreak of cholera beginning in India, where it killed more than 800,000 people, and spreading to the Middle East, North Africa, Eastern Europe and Russia.
The seventh cholera pandemic was the seventh major outbreak of cholera and occurred from the years 1961 to the 1970s and has continued (though much diminished) to the present.
The 1968 flu pandemic was a category 2 flu pandemic whose outbreak in 1968 and 1969 killed an estimated one million people worldwide.
The 2009 flu pandemic or swine flu was an influenza pandemic, and the second of the two pandemics involving H1N1 influenza virus (the first of them being the 1918 flu pandemic), albeit in a new version.
28 Days Later is a 2002 British post-apocalyptic horror film directed by Danny Boyle, written by Alex Garland, and starring Cillian Murphy, Naomie Harris, Brendan Gleeson, Megan Burns, and Christopher Eccleston.
28 Weeks Later is a 2007 science fiction horror film co-written and directed by Juan Carlos Fresnadillo.