122 relations: ABC-CLIO, Ancient Greek, Aral Sea, Ashina tribe, Avar Khaganate, Avars (Caucasus), Árpád, Balkans, Barsils, Biological anthropology, Bulgars, Bumin Qaghan, Byzantine Empire, Carolingian dynasty, Caucasian race, Central Asia, Central Europe, Chinese people, Chronicle of Fredegar, Constantinople, Danube–Tisza Interfluve, Dnieper, Don River (Russia), Durrani, Early Middle Ages, East Asian people, Eastern Europe, Edwin G. Pulleyblank, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., Encyclopedia of Ukraine, Ethnogenesis, Eurasian (mixed ancestry), Eurasian nomads, Eurasian Steppe, Expansionism, Finno-Ugric languages, Francia, Franks, Göktürks, Gepids, Goguryeo, Grave goods, Griffin, Gyula László, Hephthalite Empire, History of the Hungarian language, Hungarian language, Hungarians, Huns, ..., Infobase Publishing, Inner Asia, Iranian languages, János Harmatta, Johanna Nichols, Joseph de Guignes, Justinian I, Kavhan, Keszthely culture, Khagan, Khan (title), Khatun, Kuban, Kunduz, Kutrigurs, Languages of the Caucasus, Latin, Lingua franca, Macedonia (region), Manavgat River, Maurice (emperor), Menander Protector, Middle Ages, Mongolian language, Mongolic languages, Mongoloid, Mongols, Muqan Qaghan, Nation, Nomadic empire, Onogurs, Pannonia, Pannonian Basin, Paul Fouracre, Pál Lipták, Philology, Pontic–Caspian steppe, Portmanteau, Princeton University Press, Priscus, Proto-Slavic, Rouran Khaganate, Sabir people, Saragurs, Slavic languages, South Asia, Tamgan, Tarkhan, Theophylact Simocatta, Tiele people, Treasure of Nagyszentmiklós, Tudun, Tungusic languages, Tungusic peoples, Tuoba, Turanid race, Turkic Khaganate, Turkic languages, Turkish people, Uar, Ukrainians, UNESCO, Uralic peoples, Utigurs, Uyghurs, Volga Delta, Walter Pohl, West Slavs, Western Turkic Khaganate, Western Wei, Xionites, Yugra. Expand index (72 more) » « Shrink index
ABC-CLIO, LLC is a publishing company for academic reference works and periodicals primarily on topics such as history and social sciences for educational and public library settings.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
The Aral Sea was an endorheic lake (one with no outflow) lying between Kazakhstan (Aktobe and Kyzylorda Regions) in the north and Uzbekistan (Karakalpakstan autonomous region) in the south.
The Ashina (Middle Chinese: (Guangyun)), also known as Asen, Asena, or Açina, was a tribe and the ruling dynasty of the ancient Turkic peoples.
The Avar Khaganate was a khanate established in Central Europe, specifically in the Pannonian Basin region, in 567 by the Avars, a nomadic people of uncertain origins and ethno-linguistic affiliation.
The Avars (аварал / магIарулал, awaral / maⱨarulal; "mountaineers" constitute a Caucasus native ethnic group, the most predominant of several ethnic groups living in the Russian republic of Dagestan. The Avars reside in a region known as the North Caucasus between the Black and Caspian Seas. Alongside other ethnic groups in the North Caucasus region, the Caucasian Avars live in ancient villages located approximately 2,000 m above sea level. The Avar language spoken by the Caucasian Avars belongs to the family of Northeast Caucasian languages and is also known as Nakh–Dagestanian. Sunni Islam has been the prevailing religion of the Avars since the 13th century.
Árpád (845 – 907) was the head of the confederation of the Hungarian tribes at the turn of the 9th and 10th centuries.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
Barsils / Barsilts, Chinese Baysi (italic), were a semi-nomadic Eurasian tribe of Turkic linguistic affiliation, which in turn evolved into modern Karachays and Balkars, and possibly identical with the Bagrasik.
Biological anthropology, also known as physical anthropology, is a scientific discipline concerned with the biological and behavioral aspects of human beings, their related non-human primates and their extinct hominin ancestors.
The Bulgars (also Bulghars, Bulgari, Bolgars, Bolghars, Bolgari, Proto-Bulgarians) were Turkic semi-nomadic warrior tribes that flourished in the Pontic-Caspian steppe and the Volga region during the 7th century.
Bumin Qaghan (Old Turkic:, Bumïn qaγan, a.k.a. Bumın Kagan) or Illig Qaghan (Chinese: 伊利可汗, Pinyin: Yīlì Kèhán, Wade–Giles: i-li k'o-han, died 552 AD) was the founder of the Turkic Khaganate.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolingus, Carolings or Karlings) was a Frankish noble family founded by Charles Martel with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD.
The Caucasian race (also Caucasoid or Europid) is a grouping of human beings historically regarded as a biological taxon, which, depending on which of the historical race classifications used, have usually included some or all of the ancient and modern populations of Europe, the Caucasus, Asia Minor, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, Western Asia, Central Asia and South Asia.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
Chinese people are the various individuals or ethnic groups associated with China, usually through ancestry, ethnicity, nationality, citizenship or other affiliation.
The Chronicle of Fredegar is the conventional title used for a 7th-century Frankish chronicle that was probably written in Burgundy.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
Danube–Tisza Interfluve is the landscape in Hungarian territory (Hungary and Vojvodina (Vajdaság) in Serbia) in the Pannonian Basin between the Danube and Tisza rivers, east of Transdanubia.
The Dnieper River, known in Russian as: Dnepr, and in Ukrainian as Dnipro is one of the major rivers of Europe, rising near Smolensk, Russia and flowing through Russia, Belarus and Ukraine to the Black Sea.
The Don (p) is one of the major rivers of Russia and the 5th longest river in Europe.
Durrani (دراني) or Abdali (ابدالي) is the name of a prominent Sarbani Pashtun tribal confederation in Afghanistan and Pakistan.
The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.
East Asian people or East Asians is a term used for ethnic groups that are indigenous to East Asia, which consists of Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, and Taiwan.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
Edwin George "Ted" Pulleyblank FRSC (August 7, 1922 – April 13, 2013) was a Canadian sinologist and professor at the University of British Columbia.
Encyclopædia Britannica Online is the website of Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. and its Encyclopædia Britannica, with more than 120,000 articles that are updated regularly.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. is a Scottish-founded, now American company best known for publishing the Encyclopædia Britannica, the world's oldest continuously published encyclopedia.
The Encyclopedia of Ukraine (Енциклопедія українознавства) is a fundamental work of Ukrainian Studies created under the auspices of the Shevchenko Scientific Society in Europe (Sarcelles, near Paris).
Ethnogenesis (from Greek ethnos ἔθνος, "group of people, nation", and genesis γένεσις, "beginning, coming into being"; plural ethnogeneses) is "the formation and development of an ethnic group." This can originate through a process of self-identification as well as come about as the result of outside identification.
A Eurasian is a person of mixed Asian and European ancestry.
The Eurasian nomads were a large group of nomadic peoples from the Eurasian Steppe, who often appear in history as invaders of Europe, the Middle East and China.
The Eurasian Steppe, also called the Great Steppe or the steppes, is the vast steppe ecoregion of Eurasia in the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome.
In general, expansionism consists of policies of governments and states that involve territorial, military or economic expansion.
Finno-Ugric, Finno-Ugrian or Fenno-Ugric is a traditional grouping of all languages in the Uralic language family except the Samoyedic languages.
Francia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks (Regnum Francorum), or Frankish Empire was the largest post-Roman Barbarian kingdom in Western Europe.
The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.
The Göktürks, Celestial Turks, Blue Turks or Kok Turks (Old Turkic: 𐰜𐰇𐰛:𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰰, Kök Türük;, Middle Chinese: *duət̚-kʉɐt̚, Тўҗүә; Khotanese Saka: Ttūrka, Ttrūka; Old Tibetan: Drugu), were a nomadic confederation of Turkic peoples in medieval Inner Asia.
The Gepids (Gepidae, Gipedae) were an East Germanic tribe.
Goguryeo (37 BCE–668 CE), also called Goryeo was a Korean kingdom located in the northern and central parts of the Korean Peninsula and the southern and central parts of Manchuria.
Grave goods, in archaeology and anthropology, are the items buried along with the body.
The griffin, griffon, or gryphon (Greek: γρύφων, grýphōn, or γρύπων, grýpōn, early form γρύψ, grýps; gryphus) is a legendary creature with the body, tail, and back legs of a lion; the head and wings of an eagle; and an eagle's talons as its front feet.
Gyula László (Kőhalom, 14 March 1910 – Nagyvárad (today: Oradea) 17 July 1998) was a Hungarian historian, archaeologist and artist.
The Hephthalites (or Ephthalites) were a people of Central Asia who were militarily important circa 450–560.
Hungarian is a Uralic language of the Ugric group.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
Hungarians, also known as Magyars (magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary (Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and speak the Hungarian language.
The Huns were a nomadic people who lived in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Eastern Europe, between the 4th and 6th century AD.
Infobase Publishing is an American publisher of reference book titles and textbooks geared towards the North American library, secondary school, and university-level curriculum markets.
Inner Asia refers to regions within East Asia and North Asia that are today part of western China, Mongolia and eastern Russia.
The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages in the Indo-European language family.
János Harmatta (2 October 1917 – 24 July 2004) was a Hungarian linguist.
Johanna Nichols (born 1945, Iowa City, Iowa) is a professor emerita Linguist in the Department of Slavic Languages and Literatures at the University of California, Berkeley.
Joseph de Guignes (19 October 1721 – 19 March 1800) was a French orientalist, sinologist and Turkologist born at Pontoise, the son of Jean Louis de Guignes and Françoise Vaillant.
Justinian I (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; 482 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565.
The kavhan (Кавхан; according to some historians it should be read as kaphan, others pay attention to the fact that in most Byzantine sources it is written as KaukhanMoravcsik, G. Byzantinoturcica II. Sprachreste der Türkvölker in den byzantinischen Quellen. Leiden 1983,, p. 156) was one of the most important officials in the First Bulgarian Empire.
Keszthely culture was created ca.
Khagan or Qaghan (Old Turkic: kaɣan; хаан, khaan) is a title of imperial rank in the Turkic and Mongolian languages equal to the status of emperor and someone who rules a khaganate (empire).
Khan خان/khan; is a title for a sovereign or a military ruler, used by Mongolians living to the north of China. Khan has equivalent meanings such as "commander", "leader", or "ruler", "king" and "chief". khans exist in South Asia, Middle East, Central Asia, Eastern Europe, East Africa and Turkey. The female alternatives are Khatun and Khanum. These titles or names are sometimes written as Khan/خان in Persian, Han, Kan, Hakan, Hanum, or Hatun (in Turkey) and as "xan", "xanım" (in Azerbaijan), and medieval Turkic tribes.
Khatun (Mongolian:, khatun, хатан khatan; خاتون khātūn; خاتون, plural خواتين; খাঁতুন, খাতুন; hatun) is a female title of nobility and counterpart to "khan" or "Khagan" prominently used in the Turkic Khaganate and in the subsequent Mongol Empire.
Kuban (Кубань; Пшызэ; Кубань) is a geographic region of Southern Russia surrounding the Kuban River, on the Black Sea between the Don Steppe, the Volga Delta and the Caucasus, and separated from the Crimean Peninsula to the west by the Kerch Strait.
Kunduz (کندز; قندوز) is a city in northern Afghanistan, which serves as the capital of Kunduz Province.
Kutrigurs were nomadic equestrians who flourished on the Pontic-Caspian steppe in the 6th century AD.
The Caucasian languages are a large and extremely varied array of languages spoken by more than ten million people in and around the Caucasus Mountains, which lie between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
Macedonia is a geographical and historical region of the Balkan peninsula in southeastern Europe.
Manavgat River (also called Til and Melas in old historical texts) originates on the eastern slopes of Western Taurus Mountains in Turkey.
Maurice (Flavius Mauricius Tiberius Augustus;; 539 – 27 November 602) was Byzantine Emperor from 582 to 602.
Menander Protector (Menander the Guardsman, Menander the Byzantian; Μένανδρος Προτήκτωρ or Προτέκτωρ), Byzantine historian, was born in Constantinople in the middle of the 6th century AD.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Mongolian language (in Mongolian script: Moŋɣol kele; in Mongolian Cyrillic: монгол хэл, mongol khel.) is the official language of Mongolia and both the most widely-spoken and best-known member of the Mongolic language family.
The Mongolic languages are a group of languages spoken in East-Central Asia, mostly in Mongolia and surrounding areas plus in Kalmykia.
Mongoloid is a grouping of all or some peoples indigenous to East Asia, Central Asia, Southeast Asia, North Asia, South Asia, the Arctic, the Americas and the Pacific Islands.
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
Muqan Qaghan; (Old Turkic:, Muqan qaγan, Chinese:木桿可汗/木杆可汗, Pinyin: mùgǎn kěhàn, Wade-Giles: mu-kan k'o-han or 木汗可汗, mùhàn kěhàn, mu-han k'o-han, personal name: 阿史那燕都, āshǐnà yàndōu, a-shih-na yen-to) was the second son of Bumin Qaghan and the third khagan of the Göktürks who expanded their khagan and secured the borders against the Hephthalites.
A nation is a stable community of people, formed on the basis of a common language, territory, economic life, ethnicity or psychological make-up manifested in a common culture.
Nomadic empires, sometimes also called steppe empires, Central or Inner Asian empires, are the empires erected by the bow-wielding, horse-riding, nomadic peoples in the Eurasian steppe, from classical antiquity (Scythia) to the early modern era (Dzungars).
The Onoğurs or Oğurs (Όνόγουροι, Οὒρωγοι; Onογurs, Ογurs; "ten tribes", "tribes"), were Turkic nomadic equestrians who flourished in the Pontic-Caspian steppe and the Volga region between 5th and 7th century, and spoke Oğhuric language.
Pannonia was a province of the Roman Empire bounded north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia.
The Pannonian Basin, or Carpathian Basin, is a large basin in Central Europe.
Paul J. Fouracre is professor of medieval history at the University of Manchester.
Pál Lipták (14 February 1914 in Békéscsaba – 6 July 2000 in Budapest) was a Hungarian anthropologist and member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (MTA), specialized in historical anthropology and Hungarian ethnogenesis.
Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.
The Pontic–Caspian steppe, Pontic steppe or Ukrainian steppe is the vast steppeland stretching from the northern shores of the Black Sea (called Euxeinos Pontos in antiquity) as far east as the Caspian Sea, from Moldova and eastern Ukraine across the Southern Federal District and the Volga Federal District of Russia to western Kazakhstan, forming part of the larger Eurasian steppe, adjacent to the Kazakh steppe to the east.
A portmanteau or portmanteau word is a linguistic blend of words,, p. 644 in which parts of multiple words or their phones (sounds) are combined into a new word, as in smog, coined by blending smoke and fog, or motel, from motor and hotel.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
Priscus of Panium (Greek: Πρίσκος) was a 5th-century Roman diplomat and Greek historian and rhetorician (or sophist).
Proto-Slavic is the unattested, reconstructed proto-language of all the Slavic languages.
The Rouran Khaganate, Ruanruan, Ruru, or Tantan was the name of a state established by proto-Mongols, from the late 4th century until the middle 6th century.
The Sabirs (Savirs, Suars, Sawar, Sawirk among others; Σάβιροι) were nomadic people who lived in the north of the Caucasus beginning in the late-5th century, on the eastern shores of the Black Sea, in the Kuban area, and possibly came from Western Siberia.
The Saragurs or Saraguri (Σαράγουροι, s.r.w.r.g.wr, Šarağurs) was an Eurasian Oghur (Turkic) nomadic tribe mentioned in the 5th and 6th centuries.
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
Tumgan (Turkshad, Turksanf, Ta'n han, Turxanthos, Turxath) was a shad (governor prince) of the Turkic Empire (also called Göktürk) in the late 6th century.
Tarkhan (Old Turkic Tarqan; ᠳᠠᠷᠬᠠᠨ Darqan or Darkhan; ترخان;; طرخان; alternative spellings Tarkan, Tarkhaan, Tarqan, Tarchan, Turxan, Tarcan, Tárkány, Tarján, Torgyán or Turgan) is an ancient Central Asian title used by various Turkic peoples, Indo-Europeans (i.e. Iranian, Tokharian, Punjabi), and by the Hungarians and Mongols.
Theophylact Simocatta (Byzantine Greek: Θεοφύλακτος Σιμοκάτ(τ)ης Theophylaktos Simokat(t)es; Theophylactus Simocattus) was an early seventh-century Byzantine historiographer, arguably ranking as the last historian of Late Antiquity, writing in the time of Heraclius (c. 630) about the late Emperor Maurice (582–602).
The Tiele (Turkic *Tegreg " Carts"), also transliterated Chile, Gaoche, or Tele, were a confederation of nine Turkic peoples living to the north of China and in Central Asia, emerging after the disintegration of the confederacy of the Xiongnu.
The Treasure of Sânnicolau Mare or Treasure of Nagyszentmiklós is an important hoard of 23 early medieval gold vessels, in total weighing 9.945 kg (about 22 lbs), found in 1799 near the town of Sânnicolau Mare (Nagyszentmiklós in Hungarian, Groß-Sankt-Niklaus in German, all meaning "Great St Nicholas") in northern Banat (then part of the Torontál County of the Kingdom of Hungary within the Habsburg Empire, today in Timiş County in western Romania).
A tudun was a governor resident in a town or other settlement in the ancient Bulgar, Avar or Gokturk empires, particularly those of the Bulgars and the Khazars.
The Tungusic languages (also known as Manchu-Tungus, Tungus) form a language family spoken in Eastern Siberia and northeast China by Tungusic peoples.
Tungusic peoples are the peoples who speak Tungusic languages.
The Turanid race was a sub-race of the greater Caucasian race.
The Turkic Khaganate (Old Turkic: 𐰜𐰇𐰛:𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰰 Kök Türük) or Göktürk Khaganate was a khaganate established by the Ashina clan of the Göktürks in medieval Inner Asia.
The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).
Turkish people or the Turks (Türkler), also known as Anatolian Turks (Anadolu Türkleri), are a Turkic ethnic group and nation living mainly in Turkey and speaking Turkish, the most widely spoken Turkic language.
The Uar or Warr were an Ugric people, that lived in the Aral Sea region during the 1st millennium CE.
Ukrainians (українці, ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The Uralic peoples or Uralic speaking peoples are the peoples speaking Uralic languages, divided into two large groups: Finno-Ugric peoples and Samoyedic peoples.
Utigurs were nomadic equestrians who flourished in the Pontic-Caspian steppe in the 6th century AD.
The Uyghurs or Uygurs (as the standard romanisation in Chinese GB 3304-1991) are a Turkic ethnic group who live in East and Central Asia.
The Volga Delta is the largest river delta in Europe, and occurs where Europe's largest river system, the Volga River, drains into the Caspian Sea in Russia's Astrakhan Oblast, north-east of the republic of Kalmykia.
Walter Pohl (born 27 December 1953, in Vienna) is an Austrian historian.
The West Slavs are a subgroup of Slavic peoples who speak the West Slavic languages.
The Western Turkic Khaganate or Onoq Khaganate was a Turkic khaganate formed as a result of the wars in the beginning of the 7th century (AD 593–603) after the split of the Göktürk Khaganate (founded in the 6th century in Mongolia by the Ashina clan) into the Western khaganate and the Eastern Turkic Khaganate. At its height, the Western Turkic Khaganate included what is now Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and parts of Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Russia. The ruling elite or perhaps the whole confederation was called Onoq or "ten arrows", possibly from oğuz (literally "arrow"), a subdivision of the Turkic tribes. A connection to the earlier Onogurs, which also means 'ten tribes', is questionable. The khaganate's capitals were Navekat (the summer capital) and Suyab (the principal capital), both situated in the Chui River valley of Kyrgyzstan, to the east from Bishkek. Tong Yabgu's summer capital was near Tashkent and his winter capital Suyab. Turkic rule in Mongolia was restored as Second Turkic Khaganate in 682.
The Western Wei followed the disintegration of the Northern Wei, and ruled northern China from 535 to 557.
Xionites, Chionites, or Chionitae (Middle Persian: Xiyōn or Hiyōn; Avestan: Xiiaona; Sogdian xwn; Pahlavi Xyon) are Romanisations of the ethnonym of a nomadic people who were prominent in Transoxania, Bactria and Iran during the 4th and 7th centuries CE.
Yugra or Iuhra (Old Russian Югра Jugra; Byzantine Greek Οὔγγροι Oὔggroi) was a collective name for lands and peoples between the Pechora River and Urals (modern north-west Russia), in the Russian annals of the 12th–17th Centuries.
Ancient Avars, Avar people (Carpathians), Avars (Carpathia), Avars (Carpathian Basin), Avars (Carpathian Mountains), Avars (Carpathian), Avars (Carpathians), Avars (Central and Eastern Europe), Avars (Pannonia), Avars (Pannonian Basin), Avars (Pannonian), Carpathian Avar, Carpathian Avars, Khagan of the Avars, Pannonian Avar, Pseudo-Avar, Pseudo-Avars, Turkic Avar, Turkic Avar language, Warhonits.