200 relations: Absolute monarchy, Administrative subdivisions of the Papal States from 1816 to 1871, Ancient Rome, Ancona, Apostolic Palace, Aurelian Walls, Austrian Empire, Avignon, Avignon Papacy, Azzo VIII d'Este, Marquis of Ferrara, Émile Amann, Battle of Sedan, Benevento, Benito Mussolini, Bologna, Byzantine Empire, Byzantine Iconoclasm, Campagna e Marittima Province, Captain General of the Church, Capture of Rome, Cardinal Secretary of State, Catholic Church, Charlemagne, Childeric III, Churches of Rome, Cisalpine Republic, Cola di Rienzo, Colonna family, Comtat Venaissin, Condottieri, Congress of Vienna, Constantine the Great, Constitutiones Sanctæ Matris Ecclesiæ, Corsica, Counts of Tusculum, Deacon, Departments of France, Despotism, Diploma Ottonianum, Diplomacy, Donation of Constantine, Donation of Pepin, Donation of Sutri, Dragoon, Duchy of Benevento, Duchy of Ferrara, Duchy of Rome, Duchy of the Pentapolis, Duchy of Urbino, Elective monarchy, ..., Emilia (region of Italy), Exarchate of Ravenna, Excommunication, Faenza, Ferrara, First French Empire, Flag of Vatican City, Forlì, Francesco II Ordelaffi, Francia, French Consulate, French Revolution, Gabriele Ferretti, Galeotto I Malatesta, Giacomo Antonelli, Gil Álvarez Carrillo de Albornoz, Giovanni di Vico, Giovanni Manfredi, Giovanni Visconti (archbishop of Milan), Girolamo Dandini (1509–1559), Giuseppe Garibaldi, Gregorian Reform, Guelphs and Ghibellines, Guido Ruggiero, History of Rome, Hohenstaufen, Holy Roman Emperor, Holy Roman Empire, Holy See, House of Bourbon, House of Este, House of Habsburg, House of Malatesta, House of Ordelaffi, House of Savoy, Index of Vatican City-related articles, Irish military diaspora, Italian Fascism, Italian language, Italian nationalism, Italian Peninsula, Italian unification, Italian United Provinces, Justinian I, Kingdom of Italy, Kingdom of Sardinia, Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, Lateran Palace, Lateran Treaty, Latium, Lazio, Leo III the Isaurian, Leonine City, Libellus de imperatoria potestate in urbe Roma, List of historic states of Italy, List of popes, List of Prime Ministers of the Papal States, Liutprand, King of the Lombards, Lombards, Lombardy, Louis-Alexandre Berthier, Manfredi family, March of Ancona, Marche, Marcia trionfale (Hallmayer), Mercenary, Merovingian dynasty, Military volunteer, Montefeltro, Napoleon, Napoleon III, Napoleonic Wars, National Fascist Party, Noi vogliam Dio, Vergine Maria, Occitan language, Odoacer, Orsini family, Ostrogoths, Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor, Palatine Guard, Papal diplomacy, Papal legate, Papal lira, Papal Zouaves, Patrician (post-Roman Europe), Pepin the Short, Pepoli, Personal union, Petrarch, Philip II of Spain, Pontecorvo, Pontifical Swiss Guard, Pope, Pope Alexander VI, Pope Gregory II, Pope Gregory XVI, Pope John XII, Pope Julius II, Pope Leo III, Pope Paul III, Pope Paul IV, Pope Paul VI, Pope Pius IX, Pope Pius VI, Pope Pius VII, Pope Pius XI, Pope Stephen II, Pope Urban V, Pope Zachary, Prisoner in the Vatican, Provence, Raffaele Cadorna, Ravenna, Reactionary, Redshirts (Italy), Referendum, Reformation, Renaissance, Revolutions of 1848, Rimini, Rioni of Rome, Robert, King of Naples, Rocca (architecture), Romagna, Roman Ghetto, Roman Republic (18th century), Roman Republic (19th century), Roman scudo, Rome, Rome (department), Sack of Rome (1527), Saeculum obscurum, Second French Empire, Second Italian War of Independence, Senigallia, Siena, Temporal power (papal), Theocracy, Titular church, Trasimène, Treaty of Venice, Turin, Tuscany, Umbria, Urbino, Vatican City, Vatican Hill, Vicar, Victor Emmanuel II of Italy, War of the Eight Saints. Expand index (150 more) » « Shrink index
Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.
The delegations as they existed in 1859.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Ancona ((elbow)) is a city and a seaport in the Marche region in central Italy, with a population of around 101,997.
The Apostolic Palace (Palatium Apostolicum; Palazzo Apostolico) is the official residence of the Roman Catholic Pope and Bishop of Rome, which is located in Vatican City.
The Aurelian Walls (Mura aureliane) are a line of city walls built between 271 AD and 275 AD in Rome, Italy, during the reign of the Roman Emperors Aurelian and Probus.
The Austrian Empire (Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling Kaisertum Österreich) was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1919, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs.
Avignon (Avenio; Provençal: Avignoun, Avinhon) is a commune in south-eastern France in the department of Vaucluse on the left bank of the Rhône river.
The Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1376 during which seven successive popes resided in Avignon (then in the Kingdom of Arles, part of the Holy Roman Empire, now in France) rather than in Rome.
Azzo VIII d'Este (died 31 January 1308) was lord of Ferrara, Modena and Reggio from 1293 until his death.
Émile Amann (4 June 1880, Pont-à-Mousson – 11 January 1948, Strasbourg) was a French historian of the Church.
The Battle of Sedan was fought during the Franco-Prussian War from 1 to 2 September 1870.
Benevento (Campanian: Beneviénte; Beneventum) is a city and comune of Campania, Italy, capital of the province of Benevento, northeast of Naples.
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).
Bologna (Bulåggna; Bononia) is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna Region in Northern Italy.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Byzantine Iconoclasm (Εἰκονομαχία, Eikonomachía, literally, "image struggle" or "struggle over images") refers to two periods in the history of the Byzantine Empire when the use of religious images or icons was opposed by religious and imperial authorities within the Eastern Church and the temporal imperial hierarchy.
The Campagne and Maritime Province (Latin Campaniæ Maritimæque Provincia, Italian Provincia di Campagna e Marittima) was one of the seven provinces of the Papal States from the 12th century to the end of the 18th.
The Captain General of the Church (Capitano generale della Chiesa) was the de facto commander-in-chief of the papal armed forces during the Middle Ages.
The capture of Rome (Presa di Roma) on 20 September 1870 was the final event of the long process of Italian unification known as the Risorgimento, marking both the final defeat of the Papal States under Pope Pius IX and the unification of the Italian peninsula under King Victor Emmanuel II of the House of Savoy.
The Secretary of State of His Holiness The Pope, commonly known as the Cardinal Secretary of State, presides over the Holy See Secretariat of State, which is the oldest and most important dicastery of the Roman Curia.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.
Childeric III (c. 717 – c. 754) was King of Francia from 743 until he was deposed by Pope Zachary in March 751 at the instigation of Pepin the Short.
There are more than 900 churches in Rome, including some notable Roman Catholic Marian churches.
The Cisalpine Republic (Repubblica Cisalpina) was a sister republic of France in Northern Italy that lasted from 1797 to 1802.
Cola di Rienzo (or de Rienzi; or) (c. 1313 – 8 October 1354) was an Italian medieval politician and popular leader, tribune of the Roman people in the mid-14th century.
The Colonna family, also known as Sciarrillo or Sciarra, is an Italian noble family.
The Comtat Venaissin (Provençal: lou Coumtat Venessin, Mistralian norm: la Coumtat, classical norm: lo Comtat Venaicin; "County of Venaissin"), often called the Comtat for short, was a part of the Papal States in what is now the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region of France.
Condottieri (singular condottiero and condottiere) were the leaders of the professional military free companies (or mercenaries) contracted by the Italian city-states and the Papacy from the late Middle Ages and throughout the Renaissance.
The Congress of Vienna (Wiener Kongress) also called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814.
Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor of Illyrian and Greek origin from 306 to 337 AD.
The Constitutiones Sanctæ Matris Ecclesiæ (Constitutions of the Holy Mother Church), informally known as the Constitutiones Aegidianae (English: Egidian Constitutions, Italian: Costituzioni egidiane), were six books of law which formed the first historic constitution of the Papal States.
Corsica (Corse; Corsica in Corsican and Italian, pronounced and respectively) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 18 regions of France.
The counts of Tusculum were the most powerful secular noblemen in Latium, near Rome, in the present-day Italy between the 10th and 12th centuries.
A deacon is a member of the diaconate, an office in Christian churches that is generally associated with service of some kind, but which varies among theological and denominational traditions.
In the administrative divisions of France, the department (département) is one of the three levels of government below the national level ("territorial collectivities"), between the administrative regions and the commune.
Despotism (Δεσποτισμός, Despotismós) is a form of government in which a single entity rules with absolute power.
The Diploma Ottonianum (also called the Pactum Ottonianum, Privilegium Ottonianum or simply Ottonianum) was an agreement between Pope John XII and Otto I, King of Germany and Italy.
Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of states.
The Donation of Constantine is a forged Roman imperial decree by which the 4th century emperor Constantine the Great supposedly transferred authority over Rome and the western part of the Roman Empire to the Pope.
The Donation of Pepin in 756 provided a legal basis for the erection of the Papal States, which extended the temporal rule of the Popes beyond the duchy of Rome.
The Donation of Sutri was an agreement reached at Sutri by Liutprand, King of the Lombards and Pope Gregory II in 728.
Dragoons originally were a class of mounted infantry, who used horses for mobility but dismounted to fight on foot.
The Duchy of Benevento (after 774, Principality of Benevento) was the southernmost Lombard duchy in the Italian peninsula, centered on Benevento, a city in Southern Italy.
The Duchy of Ferrara (Ducato di Ferrara) was a sovereign state in what is now northern Italy.
The Duchy of Rome (Ducatus Romanus) was a state within the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna.
In the Byzantine Empire, the Duchy of the Pentapolis was a duchy (Latin: ducatus), a territory ruled by a duke (dux) appointed by and under the authority of the Praetorian Prefect of Italy (554–584) and then the Exarch of Ravenna (584–751).
The Duchy of Urbino was a sovereign state in central-northern Italy.
An elective monarchy is a monarchy ruled by an elected monarch, in contrast to a hereditary monarchy in which the office is automatically passed down as a family inheritance.
Emilia (Emîlia) is a historical region of northern Italy which approximately corresponds to the western and north-eastern portions of today’s Emilia-Romagna region, of which Romagna forms the remainder.
The Exarchate of Ravenna or of Italy (Esarcato d'Italia) was a lordship of the Byzantine Empire in Italy, from 584 to 751, when the last exarch was put to death by the Lombards.
Excommunication is an institutional act of religious censure used to deprive, suspend, or limit membership in a religious community or to restrict certain rights within it, in particular receiving of the sacraments.
Faenza (Faventia; Fènza or Fẽza) is an Italian city and comune, in the province of Ravenna, Emilia-Romagna, situated southeast of Bologna.
Ferrara (Ferrarese: Fràra) is a town and comune in Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy, capital of the Province of Ferrara.
The First French Empire (Empire Français) was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century.
The flag of Vatican City was adopted on June 7, 1929, the year Pope Pius XI signed the Lateran Treaty with Italy, creating a new independent state governed by the Holy See.
Forlì (Furlè; Forum Livii) is a comune and city in Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy, and is the capital of the province of Forlì-Cesena.
Francesco II Ordelaffi (c. 1300–1374), also known as Cecco II, was a lord of Forlì, the son of Sinibaldo Ordelaffi (died 1337, brother of Scarpetta and Francesco) and Orestina Calboli, and the grandson of Teobaldo I Ordelaffi.
Francia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks (Regnum Francorum), or Frankish Empire was the largest post-Roman Barbarian kingdom in Western Europe.
The Consulate (French: Le Consulat) was the government of France from the fall of the Directory in the coup of Brumaire in November 1799 until the start of the Napoleonic Empire in May 1804.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Cardinal Gabriele Ferretti, portrait by Francesco Podesti. Gabriele Ferretti; (Ancona, 31 January 1795 – Rome, 13 September 1860) was an Italian Catholic cardinal and Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
Galeotto I Malatesta (1299–1385) was an Italian condottiero, who was lord of Rimini, Fano, Ascoli Piceno, Cesena and Fossombrone.
Giacomo Antonelli (2 April 1806 – 6 November 1876) was an Italian cardinal deacon.
Gil Álvarez Carrillo de Albornoz (Egidio Albornoz) (1310 – 23 August 1367) was a Spanish cardinal and ecclesiastical leader.
Giovanni di Vico (died 1366) was an Italian Ghibelline leader, lord of Viterbo, Vetralla, Orvieto, Narni and numerous other lands in northern Lazio and Umbria.
Giovanni Manfredi (1324–1373) was lord of Faenza from 1341 until 13 September 1356, as well as of numerous other minor fiefs in Romagna.
Giovanni Visconti (1290–1354) was an Italian Roman Catholic cardinal, who was co-ruler in Milan and lord of other Italian cities.
In the Papal curia the first man to fill the position of cardinal-secretary of state was the newly created Cardinal, Girolamo Dandini (1509 – 4 December 1559).
Giuseppe Garibaldi; 4 July 1807 – 2 June 1882) was an Italian general, politician and nationalist. He is considered one of the greatest generals of modern times and one of Italy's "fathers of the fatherland" along with Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, Victor Emmanuel II of Italy and Giuseppe Mazzini. Garibaldi has been called the "Hero of the Two Worlds" because of his military enterprises in Brazil, Uruguay and Europe. He personally commanded and fought in many military campaigns that led eventually to the Italian unification. Garibaldi was appointed general by the provisional government of Milan in 1848, General of the Roman Republic in 1849 by the Minister of War, and led the Expedition of the Thousand on behalf and with the consent of Victor Emmanuel II. His last military campaign took place during the Franco-Prussian War as commander of the Army of the Vosges. Garibaldi was very popular in Italy and abroad, aided by exceptional international media coverage at the time. Many of the greatest intellectuals of his time, such as Victor Hugo, Alexandre Dumas, and George Sand, showered him with admiration. The United Kingdom and the United States helped him a great deal, offering him financial and military support in difficult circumstances. In the popular telling of his story, he is associated with the red shirts worn by his volunteers, the Garibaldini, in lieu of a uniform.
The Gregorian Reforms were a series of reforms initiated by Pope Gregory VII and the circle he formed in the papal curia, c. 1050–80, which dealt with the moral integrity and independence of the clergy.
The Guelphs and Ghibellines (guelfi e ghibellini) were factions supporting the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor, respectively, in the Italian city-states of central and northern Italy.
Guido Ruggiero is a notable microhistorian and professor and chair of the University of Miami History Department.
Roman history has been among the most influential to the modern world, from supporting the tradition of the rule by law to influencing the American Founding Fathers to the creation of the Catholic church.
The Staufer, also known as the House of Staufen, or of Hohenstaufen, were a dynasty of German kings (1138–1254) during the Middle Ages.
The Holy Roman Emperor (historically Romanorum Imperator, "Emperor of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (800-1806 AD, from Charlemagne to Francis II).
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.
The House of Bourbon is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty.
The House of Este (Casa d'Este; originally House of Welf-Este) is a European princely dynasty.
The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.
The House of Malatesta was an Italian family that ruled over Rimini from 1295 until 1500, as well as (in different periods) other lands and towns in Romagna.
The House of Ordelaffi was a noble family that ruled the lower Romagna from the 13th century to 1504, with some interregnums.
The House of Savoy (Casa Savoia) is a royal family that was established in 1003 in the historical Savoy region. Through gradual expansion, the family grew in power from ruling a small county in the Alps of northern Italy to absolute rule of the kingdom of Sicily in 1713 to 1720 (exchanged for Sardinia). Through its junior branch, the House of Savoy-Carignano, it led the unification of Italy in 1861 and ruled the Kingdom of Italy from 1861 until 1946 and, briefly, the Kingdom of Spain in the 19th century. The Savoyard kings of Italy were Victor Emmanuel II, Umberto I, Victor Emmanuel III, and Umberto II. The last monarch ruled for a few weeks before being deposed following the Constitutional Referendum of 1946, after which the Italian Republic was proclaimed.
This is an index of Vatican City-related topics.
The Irish military diaspora refers to the many people of either Irish birth or extraction (see Irish diaspora) who have served in overseas military forces, regardless of rank, duration of service, or success.
Italian Fascism (fascismo italiano), also known simply as Fascism, is the original fascist ideology as developed in Italy.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Italian nationalism builds upon the idea that Italians are the ethnic, cultural, and linguistic successors of the ancient Romans who inhabited the Italian Peninsula for over a millennium.
The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Penisola italiana, Penisola appenninica) extends from the Po Valley in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south.
Italian unification (Unità d'Italia), or the Risorgimento (meaning "the Resurgence" or "revival"), was the political and social movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy in the 19th century.
United Italian Provinces or Italian United Provinces (Provincie Unite Italiane, in modern Italian: Province Unite Italiane) was a short-lived state (a republic) that was established in 1831 in some territories of the Papal State (Romagna, Marche and Umbria) and in the Duchies of Parma and Modena.
Justinian I (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; 482 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
The Kingdom of SardiniaThe name of the state was originally Latin: Regnum Sardiniae, or Regnum Sardiniae et Corsicae when the kingdom was still considered to include Corsica.
The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Regno dê Doje Sicilie, Regnu dî Dui Sicili, Regno delle Due Sicilie) was the largest of the states of Italy before the Italian unification.
The Lateran Palace (Palatium Lateranense), formally the Apostolic Palace of the Lateran (Palatium Apostolicum Lateranense), is an ancient palace of the Roman Empire and later the main papal residence in southeast Rome.
The Lateran Treaty (Patti Lateranensi; Pacta Lateranensia) was one of the Lateran Pacts of 1929 or Lateran Accords, agreements made in 1929 between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy See, settling the "Roman Question".
Latium is the region of central western Italy in which the city of Rome was founded and grew to be the capital city of the Roman Empire.
Lazio (Latium) is one of the 20 administrative regions of Italy.
Leo III the Isaurian, also known as the Syrian (Leōn III ho Isauros; 675 – 18 June 741), was Byzantine Emperor from 717 until his death in 741.
Leonine City (Latin: Civitas Leonina) is the part of the city of Rome around which the ninth-century Pope Leo IV commissioned the construction of the Leonine Wall.
Libellus de imperatoria potestate in urbe Roma is an anonymous Latin treatise on "imperial power in the city of Rome".
Italy, up until the Italian unification in 1860, was a conglomeration of city-states, republics, and other independent entities.
This chronological list of popes corresponds to that given in the Annuario Pontificio under the heading "I Sommi Pontefici Romani" (The Supreme Pontiffs of Rome), excluding those that are explicitly indicated as antipopes.
This is a list of the prime ministers of the Papal States.
Liutprand was the King of the Lombards from 712 to 744 and is chiefly remembered for his Donation of Sutri, in 728, and his long reign, which brought him into a series of conflicts, mostly successful, with most of Italy.
The Lombards or Longobards (Langobardi, Longobardi, Longobard (Western)) were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774.
Lombardy (Lombardia; Lumbardia, pronounced: (Western Lombard), (Eastern Lombard)) is one of the twenty administrative regions of Italy, in the northwest of the country, with an area of.
Louis-Alexandre Berthier (20 November 1753 – 1 June 1815), 1st Prince of Wagram, Sovereign Prince of Neuchâtel, was a French Marshal and Vice-Constable of the Empire, and Chief of Staff under Napoleon.
The Manfredi were a noble family of northern Italy, who, with some interruptions, held the seigniory of the city of Faenza in Romagna from the beginning of the 14th century to the end of the 15th century.
The March of Ancona (also Anconetana) was a frontier march centred on the city of Ancona and, then, Macerata in the Middle Ages.
Marche, or the Marches, is one of the twenty regions of Italy.
The Marcia trionfale (Italian for "Triumphal March") was the second anthem of the Pope and of the Vatican City State, replacing Noi vogliam Dio, Vergine Maria.
A mercenary is an individual who is hired to take part in an armed conflict but is not part of a regular army or other governmental military force.
The Merovingians were a Salian Frankish dynasty that ruled the Franks for nearly 300 years in a region known as Francia in Latin, beginning in the middle of the 5th century.
A military volunteer is a person who enlists in military service by free will, and is not a mercenary or a foreign legionnaire.
Montefeltro is a historical-geographic region in the Marche, which was historically part of Romagna.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (born Charles-Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the President of France from 1848 to 1852 and as Napoleon III the Emperor of the French from 1852 to 1870.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
The National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF) was an Italian political party, created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of fascism (previously represented by groups known as Fasci).
Noi vogliam Dio, Vergin Maria is a Marian hymn from Italian folk tradition which became the national anthem of the Papal States at the start of the nineteenth century.
Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc (langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language.
Flavius Odoacer (c. 433Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, Vol. 2, s.v. Odovacer, pp. 791–793 – 493 AD), also known as Flavius Odovacer or Odovacar (Odoacre, Odoacer, Odoacar, Odovacar, Odovacris), was a soldier who in 476 became the first King of Italy (476–493).
The Orsini family is an Italian noble family; it was one of the most influential princely families in medieval Italy and renaissance Rome.
The Ostrogoths (Ostrogothi, Austrogothi) were the eastern branch of the later Goths (the other major branch being the Visigoths).
Otto I (23 November 912 – 7 May 973), traditionally known as Otto the Great (Otto der Große, Ottone il Grande), was German king from 936 and Holy Roman Emperor from 962 until his death in 973.
The Palatine Guard (Guardia Palatina d'Onore) was a military unit of the Vatican.
Nuncio (officially known as an Apostolic nuncio and also known as a papal nuncio) is the title for an ecclesiastical diplomat, being an envoy or permanent diplomatic representative of the Holy See to a state or international organization.
A woodcut showing Henry II of England greeting the pope's legate. A papal legate or Apostolic legate (from the Ancient Roman title legatus) is a personal representative of the pope to foreign nations, or to some part of the Catholic Church.
The Papal lira was the currency of the Papal States between 1866 and 1870.
The Papal Zouaves (Zuavi Pontifici) were an infantry force formed in defence of the Papal States.
Patricianship, the quality of belonging to a patriciate, began in the ancient world, where cities such as Ancient Rome had a class of patrician families whose members were the only people allowed to exercise many political functions.
Pepin the Short (Pippin der Kurze, Pépin le Bref, c. 714 – 24 September 768) was the King of the Franks from 751 until his death.
The Pepoli are an aristocratic banking family of Bologna, in central Italy.
A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct.
Francesco Petrarca (July 20, 1304 – July 18/19, 1374), commonly anglicized as Petrarch, was a scholar and poet of Renaissance Italy who was one of the earliest humanists.
Philip II (Felipe II; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598), called "the Prudent" (el Prudente), was King of Spain (1556–98), King of Portugal (1581–98, as Philip I, Filipe I), King of Naples and Sicily (both from 1554), and jure uxoris King of England and Ireland (during his marriage to Queen Mary I from 1554–58).
Pontecorvo is a town and comune in the province of Frosinone, Lazio, Italy.
The Pontifical Swiss Guard (also Papal Swiss Guard, or just Swiss Guard; Latin: Pontificia Cohors Helvetica or Cohors Pedestris Helvetiorum a Sacra Custodia Pontificis; Guardia Svizzera Pontificia; Päpstliche Schweizergarde; Garde suisse pontificale) is a small force maintained by the Holy See that is responsible for the safety of the Pope, including the security of the Apostolic Palace.
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Pope Alexander VI, born Rodrigo de Borja (de Borja, Rodrigo Lanzol y de Borja; 1 January 1431 – 18 August 1503), was Pope from 11 August 1492 until his death.
Pope Gregory II (Gregorius II; 669 – 11 February 731) was Pope from 19 May 715 to his death in 731.
Pope Gregory XVI (Gregorius; 18 September 1765 – 1 June 1846), born Bartolomeo Alberto Cappellari EC, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 2 February 1831 to his death in 1846.
Pope John XII (Ioannes XII; c. 930/93714 May 964) was head of the Catholic Church from 16 December 955 to his death in 964.
Pope Julius II (Papa Giulio II; Iulius II) (5 December 1443 – 21 February 1513), born Giuliano della Rovere, and nicknamed "The Fearsome Pope" and "The Warrior Pope".
Pope Saint Leo III (Leo; 12 June 816) was pope from 26 December 795 to his death in 816.
Pope Paul III (Paulus III; 29 February 1468 – 10 November 1549), born Alessandro Farnese, was Pope from 13 October 1534 to his death in 1549.
Pope Paul IV, C.R. (Paulus IV; 28 June 1476 – 18 August 1559), born Gian Pietro Carafa, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 23 May 1555 to his death in 1559.
Pope Paul VI (Paulus VI; Paolo VI; born Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini; 26 September 1897 – 6 August 1978) reigned from 21 June 1963 to his death in 1978.
Pope Pius IX (Pio; 13 May 1792 – 7 February 1878), born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, was head of the Catholic Church from 16 June 1846 to his death on 7 February 1878.
Pope Pius VI (25 December 1717 – 29 August 1799), born Count Giovanni Angelo Braschi, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 15 February 1775 to his death in 1799.
Pope Pius VII (14 August 1742 – 20 August 1823), born Barnaba Niccolò Maria Luigi Chiaramonti, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 14 March 1800 to his death in 1823.
Pope Pius XI, (Pio XI) born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti (31 May 1857 – 10 February 1939), was head of the Catholic Church from 6 February 1922 to his death in 1939.
Pope Stephen II (Stephanus II (or III); 714-26 April 757 a Roman aristocrat was Pope from 26 March 752 to his death in 757. He succeeded Pope Zachary following the death of Pope-elect Stephen (sometimes called Stephen II). Stephen II marks the historical delineation between the Byzantine Papacy and the Frankish Papacy. The safety of Rome was facing invasion by the Kingdom of the Lombards. Pope Stephen II traveled all the way to Paris to seek assistance against the Lombard threat from Pepin the Short. Pepin had been anointed a first time in 751 in Soissons by Boniface, archbishop of Mainz, but named his price. With the Frankish nobles agreeing to campaign in Lombardy, the Pope consecrated Pepin a second time in a lavish ceremony at the Basilica of St Denis in 754, bestowing upon him the additional title of Patricius Romanorum (Latin for "Patrician of the Romans") in the first recorded crowning of a civil ruler by a Pope. Pepin defeated the Lombards – taking control of northern Italy – and made a gift (called the Donation of Pepin) of the properties formerly constituting the Exarchate of Ravenna to the pope, eventually leading to the establishment of the Papal States.
Pope Urban V (Urbanus V; 1310 – 19 December 1370), born Guillaume de Grimoard, was Pope from 28 September 1362 to his death in 1370 and was also a member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
Pope Zachary (Zacharias; 679 – 15 March 752) reigned from 3 December or 5 December 741 to his death in 752.
A prisoner in the Vatican or prisoner of the Vatican (Prigioniero del Vaticano; Captivus Vaticani) is how Pope Pius IX was described following the capture of Rome by the armed forces of the Kingdom of Italy on 20 September 1870.
Provence (Provençal: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône River to the west to the Italian border to the east, and is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the south.
Count Raffaele Cadorna (9 February 1815 – 6 February 1897) was an Italian general who served as one of the major Piedmontese leaders responsible for the unification of Italy during the mid-19th century.
Ravenna (also locally; Ravèna) is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna, in the Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy.
A reactionary is a person who holds political views that favor a return to the status quo ante, the previous political state of society, which they believe possessed characteristics (discipline, respect for authority, etc.) that are negatively absent from the contemporary status quo of a society.
Redshirts or Red coats is the name given to the volunteers who followed Giuseppe Garibaldi in southern Italy during his expedition of the Thousand to southern Italy, but sometimes extended to other campaigns of his.
A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposal.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations, People's Spring, Springtime of the Peoples, or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848.
Rimini (Rémin; Ariminum) is a city of about 150,000 inhabitants in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy and capital city of the Province of Rimini.
A rione of Rome (pl. rioni) is a traditional administrative division of the city of Rome.
Robert of Anjou (Roberto d'Angiò), known as Robert the Wise (Roberto il Saggio; 1275 – 20 January 1343), was King of Naples, titular King of Jerusalem and Count of Provence and Forcalquier from 1309 to 1343, the central figure of Italian politics of his time.
A rocca (literally: "rock") is a type of Italian fortified stronghold, or fortress, typically located on a hilltop, beneath or on which a village or town historically clustered so that the inhabitants might take refuge at times of trouble.
Romagna (Romagnol: Rumâgna) is an Italian historical region that approximately corresponds to the south-eastern portion of present-day Emilia-Romagna.
The Roman Ghetto or Ghetto of Rome, (Ghetto di Roma), was a Jewish ghetto established in 1555 in the Rione Sant'Angelo, in Rome, Italy, in the area surrounded by present-day Via del Portico d'Ottavia, Lungotevere dei Cenci, Via del Progresso and Via di Santa Maria del Pianto, close to the River Tiber and the Theatre of Marcellus.
The Roman Republic was proclaimed on 15 February 1798 after Louis Alexandre Berthier, a general of Napoleon, had invaded the city of Rome on 10 February.
The Roman Republic was a short-lived state declared on 9 February 1849, when the government of Papal States was temporarily replaced by a republican government due to Pope Pius IX's flight to Gaeta.
The Roman scudo (plural: scudi romani) was the currency of the Papal States until 1866.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
Rome was a department of the First French Empire in present-day Italy.
The Sack of Rome on 6 May 1527 was a military event carried out in Rome (then part of the Papal States) by the mutinous troops of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor.
Saeculum obscurum (the Dark Age) is a name given to a period in the history of the Papacy during the first half of the 10th century, beginning with the installation of Pope Sergius III in 904 and lasting for sixty years until the death of Pope John XII in 964.
The French Second Empire (Second Empire) was the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France.
The Second Italian War of Independence, also called the Franco-Austrian War, Austro-Sardinian War or Italian War of 1859 (Campagne d'Italie), was fought by the French Empire and the Kingdom of Sardinia against the Austrian Empire in 1859 and played a crucial part in the process of Italian unification.
Senigallia (or Sinigaglia in Old Italian) is a comune and port town on Italy's Adriatic coast.
Siena (in English sometimes spelled Sienna; Sena Iulia) is a city in Tuscany, Italy.
The temporal power of the popes is the political and secular governmental activity of the popes of the Roman Catholic Church, as distinguished from their spiritual and pastoral activity.
Theocracy is a form of government in which a deity is the source from which all authority derives.
A titular church or titulus (English: title) is a church in Rome assigned or assignable to one of the cardinals, or more specifically to a Cardinal priest.
Trasimène was a department of the First French Empire in present-day Italy.
The Treaty or Peace of Venice, 1177, was a peace treaty between the papacy and its allies, the north Italian city-states of the Lombard League, and Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor.
Turin (Torino; Turin) is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy.
Tuscany (Toscana) is a region in central Italy with an area of about and a population of about 3.8 million inhabitants (2013).
Umbria is a region of central Italy.
Urbino is a walled city in the Marche region of Italy, south-west of Pesaro, a World Heritage Site notable for a remarkable historical legacy of independent Renaissance culture, especially under the patronage of Federico da Montefeltro, duke of Urbino from 1444 to 1482.
Vatican City (Città del Vaticano; Civitas Vaticana), officially the Vatican City State or the State of Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano; Status Civitatis Vaticanae), is an independent state located within the city of Rome.
Vatican Hill (Mons Vaticanus, Colle Vaticano) is a hill located across the Tiber river from the traditional seven hills of Rome.
A vicar (Latin: vicarius) is a representative, deputy or substitute; anyone acting "in the person of" or agent for a superior (compare "vicarious" in the sense of "at second hand").
Victor Emmanuel II (Vittorio Emanuele Maria Alberto Eugenio Ferdinando Tommaso di Savoia; 14 March 1820 – 9 January 1878) was King of Sardinia from 1849 until 17 March 1861.
The War of the Eight Saints (1375–1378) was a war between Pope Gregory XI and a coalition of Italian city-states led by Florence, which contributed to the end of the Avignon Papacy.
Church State, Ecclesiastical States, History of Papal States, History of the Papal States, Papal Army, Papal Domains, Papal State, Papal Troops, Papal army, Papal dominions, Papal governor, Papal legations, Papal state, Papal states, Papal territory, Patria sancti Petri, Pontiff States, Pontifical State, Pontifical States, Pontifical domain, Roman States, State of the Church, States of the Church, States, Papal, Stato Pontificio, Stato della Chiesa, Status Pontificius, The Papal States.