86 relations: Adenosine monophosphate, Alkaline phosphatase, Alkaloid, Angioplasty, Angiotensin II receptor blocker, Anticonvulsant, Antipsychotic, Antispasmodic, Anxiogenic, August Wilhelm von Hofmann, Beta blocker, Bile, Bile duct, Blood vessel, Bromsulphthalein, Bronchiolitis obliterans, Calcium channel blocker, Camphorsulfonic acid, Cellular respiration, Cerebrum, Codeine, Conjugated system, Coronary, Coronary artery bypass surgery, Corpus cavernosum penis, Cryopreservation, Drug eruption, Enzyme, Eosinophilia, Erectile dysfunction, Erection, Heinrich Emanuel Merck, Hepatitis, Heroin, Hungary, Hydrobromide, Hydrochloride, Hyperhidrosis, Hypotension, Intracavernous injection, Intramuscular injection, Intravenous therapy, Jaundice, Justus von Liebig, Kidney, Latin, Liver, Merck Group, Mesenteric ischemia, Methylhomatropine, ..., Microsurgery, Migraine, Mitochondrion, Morphine, Niacin, Nifedipine, Noscapine, Opiate, Opium, Pantopon, Papaver, Papaver somniferum, Papaveretum, Phentolamine, Phosphodiesterase inhibitor, Preventive healthcare, Pyridoxal phosphate, Sauropus androgynus, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Smooth muscle tissue, Sodium nitroprusside, Somnolence, Spasm, Striatum, Subarachnoid hemorrhage, Thrombocytopenia, Tolazoline, Transaminase, Tricyclic antidepressant, Ureter, Valproate, Vasodilation, Vasospasm, Ventricular tachycardia, Verapamil, Vertigo. Expand index (36 more) » « Shrink index
Adenosine monophosphate (AMP), also known as 5'-adenylic acid, is a nucleotide.
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP, ALKP, ALPase, Alk Phos) or basic phosphatase is a homodimeric protein enzyme of 86 kilodaltons.
Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms.
Angioplasty, also known as balloon angioplasty and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), is a minimally invasive, endovascular procedure to widen narrowed or obstructed arteries or veins, typically to treat arterial atherosclerosis.
Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), also known as angiotensin II receptor antagonists, AT1 receptor antagonists or sartans, are a group of pharmaceuticals that modulate the renin–angiotensin system.
Anticonvulsants (also commonly known as antiepileptic drugs or as antiseizure drugs) are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures.
Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers, are a class of medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
An antispasmodic (synonym: spasmolytic) is a pharmaceutical drug or other agent that suppresses muscle spasms.
An anxiogenic or panicogenic substance is one that causes anxiety.
August Wilhelm von Hofmann (8 April 18185 May 1892) was a German chemist.
Beta blockers, also written β-blockers, are a class of medications that are particularly used to manage abnormal heart rhythms, and to protect the heart from a second heart attack (myocardial infarction) after a first heart attack (secondary prevention).
Bile or gall is a dark green to yellowish brown fluid, produced by the liver of most vertebrates, that aids the digestion of lipids in the small intestine.
A bile duct is any of a number of long tube-like structures that carry bile, and is present in most vertebrates.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
Bromsulphthalein or bromosulfophthalein (BSP) is a dye used in liver function tests.
Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO), informally known as popcorn lung, is a disease that results in obstruction of the smallest airways of the lungs (bronchioles) due to inflammation.
Calcium channel blockers (CCB), calcium channel antagonists or calcium antagonists are several medications that disrupt the movement of calcium through calcium channels.
Camphorsulfonic acid, sometimes abbreviated CSA or 10-CSA is an organosulfur compound.
Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.
The cerebrum is a large part of the brain containing the cerebral cortex (of the two cerebral hemispheres), as well as several subcortical structures, including the hippocampus, basal ganglia, and olfactory bulb.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Codeine is an opiate used to treat pain, as a cough medicine, and for diarrhea. It is typically used to treat mild to moderate degrees of pain. Greater benefit may occur when combined with paracetamol (acetaminophen) or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) such as aspirin or ibuprofen. Evidence does not support its use for acute cough suppression in children or adults. In Europe it is not recommended as a cough medicine in those under twelve years of age. It is generally taken by mouth. It typically starts working after half an hour with maximum effect at two hours. The total duration of its effects last for about four to six hours. Common side effects include vomiting, constipation, itchiness, lightheadedness, and drowsiness. Serious side effects may include breathing difficulties and addiction. It is unclear if its use in pregnancy is safe. Care should be used during breastfeeding as it may result in opiate toxicity in the baby. Its use as of 2016 is not recommended in children. Codeine works following being broken down by the liver into morphine. How quickly this occurs depends on a person's genetics. Codeine was discovered in 1832 by Pierre Jean Robiquet. In 2013 about 361,000 kilograms of codeine were produced while 249,000 kilograms were used. This makes it the most commonly taken opiate. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 0.04 and 0.29 USD per dose as of 2014. In the United States it costs about one dollar a dose. Codeine occurs naturally and makes up about 2% of opium.
In chemistry, a conjugated system is a system of connected p-orbitals with delocalized electrons in molecules which are conventionally represented as having alternating single and multiple bonds, which in general may lower the overall energy of the molecule and increase stability.
Coronary may, as shorthand in English, be used to mean: to coronate or cremate a body.
Coronary artery bypass surgery, also known as coronary artery bypass graft (CABG, pronounced "cabbage") surgery, and colloquially heart bypass or bypass surgery, is a surgical procedure to restore normal blood flow to an obstructed coronary artery.
A corpus cavernosum penis (singular) (cavernous body of the penis) is one of a pair of sponge-like regions of erectile tissue, the corpora cavernosa (plural) (cavernous bodies), which contain most of the blood in the penis during an erection.
Cryo-preservation or cryo-conservation is a process where organelles, cells, tissues, extracellular matrix, organs or any other biological constructs susceptible to damage caused by unregulated chemical kinetics are preserved by cooling to very low temperatures (typically −80 °C using solid carbon dioxide or −196 °C using liquid nitrogen).
In medicine, a drug eruption is an adverse drug reaction of the skin.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Eosinophilia is a condition in which the eosinophil count in the peripheral blood exceeds.
Erectile dysfunction (ED), also known as impotence, is a type of sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis during sexual activity.
An erection (clinically: penile erection or penile tumescence) is a physiological phenomenon in which the penis becomes firm, engorged, and enlarged.
Heinrich Emanuel Merck (15 September 1794 – 14 February 1855) was an apothecary whose descendants are the founders of Merck and Company and Merck KGaA.
Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver tissue.
Heroin, also known as diamorphine among other names, is an opioid most commonly used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
In chemistry, a hydrobromide is an acid salt resulting, or regarded as resulting, from the reaction of hydrobromic acid with an organic base (e.g. an amine).
In chemistry, a hydrochloride is an acid salt resulting, or regarded as resulting, from the reaction of hydrochloric acid with an organic base (e.g. an amine).
Hyperhidrosis is a condition characterized by abnormally increased sweating, in excess of that required for regulation of body temperature.
Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.
An intracavernous (or intracavernosal, intradicular) injection is an injection into the base of the penis.
Intramuscular (also IM or im) injection is the injection of a substance directly into muscle.
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
Jaundice, also known as icterus, is a yellowish or greenish pigmentation of the skin and whites of the eyes due to high bilirubin levels.
Justus Freiherr von Liebig (12 May 1803 – 18 April 1873) was a German chemist who made major contributions to agricultural and biological chemistry, and was considered the founder of organic chemistry.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Merck KGaA, branded and commonly known as Merck, is a German multinational pharmaceutical, chemical and life sciences company headquartered in Darmstadt, with around 50,000 employees in around 70 countries.
Mesenteric ischemia is a medical condition in which injury of the small intestine occurs due to not enough blood supply.
Homatropine methylbromide or methylhomatropine bromide is a quaternary ammonium salt of methylhomatropine.
Microsurgery is a general term for surgery requiring an operating microscope.
A migraine is a primary headache disorder characterized by recurrent headaches that are moderate to severe.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate variety which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid, is an organic compound and a form of vitamin B3, an essential human nutrient.
Nifedipine, sold under the brand names Adalat among others, is a medication used to manage angina, high blood pressure, Raynaud's phenomenon, and premature labor.
Noscapine (also known as Narcotine, Nectodon, Nospen, Anarcotine and (archaic) Opiane) is a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid from plants of the poppy family, without painkilling properties.
Opiate is a term classically used in pharmacology to mean a drug derived from opium.
Opium (poppy tears, with the scientific name: Lachryma papaveris) is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy (scientific name: Papaver somniferum).
Pantopon is a preparation of opiates made up of all of the alkaloids present in opium in their natural proportions as hydrochloride salts.
Papaver is a genus of 70–100 species of frost-tolerant annuals, biennials, and perennials native to temperate and cold regions of Eurasia, Africa and North America.
Papaver somniferum, commonly known as the opium poppy, or breadseed poppy, is a species of flowering plant in the family Papaveraceae.
Papaveretum (BAN) is a preparation containing a mixture of hydrochloride salts of opium alkaloids.
Phentolamine (Regitine) is a reversible nonselective α-adrenergic antagonist.
A phosphodiesterase inhibitor is a drug that blocks one or more of the five subtypes of the enzyme phosphodiesterase (PDE), thereby preventing the inactivation of the intracellular second messengers cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) by the respective PDE subtype(s).
Preventive healthcare (alternately preventive medicine, preventative healthcare/medicine, or prophylaxis) consists of measures taken for disease prevention, as opposed to disease treatment.
Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, P5P), the active form of vitamin B6, is a coenzyme in a variety of enzymatic reactions.
Sauropus androgynus, also known as katuk, star gooseberry, or sweet leaf, is a shrub grown in some tropical regions as a leaf vegetable.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.
Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle.
Sodium nitroprusside (SNP), sold under the brand name Nitropress among others, is a medication used to lower blood pressure.
Somnolence (alternatively "sleepiness" or "drowsiness") is a state of strong desire for sleep, or sleeping for unusually long periods (compare hypersomnia).
A spasm is a sudden involuntary contraction of a muscle, a group of muscles, or a hollow organ such as the heart.
The striatum, or corpus striatum (also called the neostriatum and the striate nucleus) is a nucleus (a cluster of neurons) in the subcortical basal ganglia of the forebrain.
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is bleeding into the subarachnoid space—the area between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater surrounding the brain.
Thrombocytopenia is a condition characterized by abnormally low levels of thrombocytes, also known as platelets, in the blood.
Tolazoline is a non-selective competitive α-adrenergic receptor antagonist.
Transaminases or aminotransferases are enzymes that catalyze a transamination reaction between an amino acid and an α-keto acid.
Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are a class of medications that are used primarily as antidepressants.
In human anatomy, the ureters are tubes made of smooth muscle fibers that propel urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.
Valproate (VPA), and its valproic acid, sodium valproate, and valproate semisodium forms, are medications primarily used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder and to prevent migraine headaches.
Vasodilation is the widening of blood vessels.
Vasospasm refers to a condition in which an arterial spasm leads to vasoconstriction.
Ventricular tachycardia (V-tach or VT) is a type of regular and fast heart rate that arises from improper electrical activity in the ventricles of the heart.
Verapamil, sold under various trade names, is a medication used for the treatment of high blood pressure, angina (chest pain from not enough blood flow to the heart), and supraventricular tachycardia.
Vertigo is a symptom where a person feels as if they or the objects around them are moving when they are not.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
ATC code A03AD01, ATC code G04BE02, ATCvet code QA03AD01, ATCvet code QG04BE02, Alapav, Artegodan, Cardiospan, Cardoverina, Cepaverin, Cerebid, Cerespan, Delapav, Dilaves, Dispamil, Drapavel, Durapav, Dynovas, Forpavin, Genabid, Myobid, Optenyl, Pameion, Pamelon, Panergon, Pap H, Papacon, Papalease, Papanerin, Papanerin-Hcl, Papanerine, Papaverine hydrochloride, Papaversan, Papital T.R., Paptial T.R., Pavabid, Pavabid Hp, Pavacap, Pavacels, Pavacen, Pavacot, Pavadel, Pavagen, Pavakey, Pavarine, Pavased, Pavatest, Pavatine, Pavatym, Paverolan, Paveron, Pavnell, Qua Bid, Ro-Papav, Robaxapap, Spasmo-Nit, Therapav, Vaso-Pav.