168 relations: Absorbance, Acid, Acid-free paper, Alum, Aluminium sulfate, Ancient Egypt, Arches paper, Art, Bagasse, Banana paper, Bank paper, Banknote, Bleaching of wood pulp, Blotting paper, Bond paper, Book, Book paper, Buckypaper, Cai Lun, Calcium carbonate, Calender, Card stock, Cellulose, Chalk, Charles Fenerty, Charta emporetica, Cheque, China, Coated paper, Communication, Composite material, Construction paper, Continuous stationery, Corrugated box design, Cotton, Cotton paper, Cyperus papyrus, Data storage, Deforestation, Deinking, Density, Diary, Dielectric, Electrical energy, Electrical insulation paper, Emery paper, Envelope, Environmental impact of paper, Eunuch, Facial tissue, ..., Fiber, Fiber crop, Filter paper, Fishpaper, Graph paper, Graphene oxide paper, Greek language, Halftone, Han dynasty, Handkerchief, Hardcover, Hardwood, Hemp, History of China, History of the Mediterranean region, History of writing, Housekeeping, Hydrogen, Hydrolysis, Ingres paper, Ink, Inkjet paper, ISO 216, Justus Claproth, Kaolinite, Kraft paper, Kraft process, Laid paper, Latin, Letter (message), Library of Congress, Lignin, Linen, Litmus, Litter box, Lokta paper, Magazine, Mass deacidification, Middle Ages, Middle East, Mummy paper, Newspaper, Newsprint, Notebook, Old-growth forest, Organochloride, Origami, Packing and wrapping paper, Paper and ink testing, Paper bag, Paper chemicals, Paper chromatography, Paper clothing, Paper craft, Paper cup, Paper engineering, Paper honeycomb, Paper machine, Paper mill, Paper plane, Paper recycling, Paper size, Paper towel, Paperback, Papier-mâché, Papyrus, Parchment, Parchment paper, Perfluorooctanoic acid, Permittivity, Petabyte, Poaceae, Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, Printing, Pulp (paper), Pulp and paper industry, Quilling, Ragpicker, Roll hardness tester, Sandpaper, Sappi, Scale armour, Science (journal), Security, Security paper, Seed paper, Silicate, Sizing, Slow fire, Soda pulping, Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, Straw, Sulfite process, Teslin (material), Textile, The Straight Dope, Ticket (admission), Tissue paper, Toilet paper, Tree-free paper, Tyvek, United States customary units, Universal indicator, Voucher, Vulcanization, Wallpaper, Washi, Watermark, Waterproof paper, Wax paper, Wood, Wood-free paper, World Health Organization, Wove paper, Writing, Xuan paper, Zein, Zine. Expand index (118 more) » « Shrink index
In chemistry, absorbance or decadic absorbance is the common logarithm of the ratio of incident to transmitted radiant power through a material, and spectral absorbance or spectral decadic absorbance is the common logarithm of the ratio of incident to transmitted spectral radiant power through a material.
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
Acid-free paper is paper that if infused in water yields a neutral or basic pH (7 or slightly greater).
An alum is a type of chemical compound, usually a hydrated double sulfate salt of aluminium with the general formula, where X is a monovalent cation such as potassium or ammonium.
Aluminium sulfate is a chemical compound with the formula Al2(SO4)3.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Arches paper is a brand of air-dried paper that is used by printers and watercolorists.
Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts (artworks), expressing the author's imaginative, conceptual idea, or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power.
Bagasse is the fibrous matter that remains after sugarcane or sorghum stalks are crushed to extract their juice.
Banana paper is used in two different senses: one refers to a paper made from the bark of the banana plant and which is mainly used for artistic purposes; the other to paper made from banana fiber obtained, through an industrial process, from stems and the non-utilizable fruits.
Bank paper is a thin strong writing paper of less than 50g/m2.
A banknote (often known as a bill, paper money, or simply a note) is a type of negotiable promissory note, made by a bank, payable to the bearer on demand.
Bleaching of wood pulp is the chemical processing of wood pulp to lighten its color and whiten the pulp.
Blotting paper, sometimes called bibulous paper, is a highly absorbent type of paper or other material.
Bond paper is a high quality durable writing paper similar to bank paper but having a weight greater than 50 g/m2.
A book is a series of pages assembled for easy portability and reading, as well as the composition contained in it.
A book paper (or publishing paper) is a paper that is designed specifically for the publication of printed books.
Buckypaper is a thin sheet made from an aggregate of carbon nanotubes or carbon nanotube grid paper.
Cai Lun (CE 48– 121), courtesy name Jingzhong (敬仲), was a Chinese eunuch, inventor, and politician of the Han dynasty.
Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.
A calender is a series of hard pressure rollers used to finish or smooth a sheet of material such as paper, textiles, or plastics.
Card stock, also called cover stock or pasteboard, is a paper stock that is thicker and more durable than normal writing or printing paper, but thinner and more flexible than other forms of paperboard.
Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.
Chalk is a soft, white, porous, sedimentary carbonate rock, a form of limestone composed of the mineral calcite.
Charles Fenerty (January, 1821 – 10 June 1892), was a Canadian inventor who invented the wood pulp process for papermaking, which was first adapted into the production of newsprint.
In pharmacy, etc., charta emporetica was a kind of paper made very soft and porous, used as a filter.
A cheque, or check (American English; see spelling differences), is a document that orders a bank to pay a specific amount of money from a person's account to the person in whose name the cheque has been issued.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Coated paper is paper which has been coated by a mixture of materials or a polymer to impart certain qualities to the paper, including weight, surface gloss, smoothness or reduced ink absorbency.
Communication (from Latin commūnicāre, meaning "to share") is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules.
A composite material (also called a composition material or shortened to composite, which is the common name) is a material made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties that, when combined, produce a material with characteristics different from the individual components.
Construction paper (also called sugar paper) is a tough, coarse, coloured paper.
Continuous stationery (UK) or continuous form paper (US) is paper which is designed for use with dot-matrix and line printers with appropriate paper-feed mechanisms.
Corrugated box design is the process of matching design factors for corrugated fiberboard boxes with the functional physical, processing and end-use requirements.
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.
Cotton paper, also known as rag paper, is made using cotton linters or cotton from used cloth (rags) as the primary material.
Cyperus papyrus (papyrus,papyrus sedge, paper reed, Indian matting plant, Nile grass) is a species of aquatic flowering plant belonging to the sedge family Cyperaceae.
Data storage is the recording (storing) of information (data) in a storage medium.
Deforestation, clearance, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.
Deinking is the industrial process of removing printing ink from paperfibers of recycled paper to make deinked pulp.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
A diary is a record (originally in handwritten format) with discrete entries arranged by date reporting on what has happened over the course of a day or other period.
A dielectric (or dielectric material) is an electrical insulator that can be polarized by an applied electric field.
Electrical energy is the energy newly derived from electric potential energy or kinetic energy.
Electrical insulation papers are paper types that are used as electrical insulation in many applications due to pure cellulose having outstanding electrical properties.
Emery paper is a type of abrasive paper or sandpaper, that can be used to abrade (remove material from) surfaces or mechanically finish a surface.
An envelope is a common packaging item, usually made of thin flat material.
The environmental impact of paper is significant, which has led to changes in industry and behaviour at both business and personal levels.
The term eunuch (εὐνοῦχος) generally refers to a man who has been castrated, typically early enough in his life for this change to have major hormonal consequences.
Facial tissue, paper handkerchief, and Kleenex refers to a class of soft, absorbent, disposable papers that are suitable for use on the face.
Fiber or fibre (see spelling differences, from the Latin fibra) is a natural or synthetic substance that is significantly longer than it is wide.
Fiber crops are field crops grown for their fibers, which are traditionally used to make paper, cloth, or rope.
Filter paper is a semi-permeable paper barrier placed perpendicular to a liquid or air flow.
Fish paper or fishpaper is a strong, flexible, fibrous dielectric paper.
Graph paper, coordinate paper, grid paper, or squared paper is writing paper that is printed with fine lines making up a regular grid.
Graphene oxide paper or graphite oxide paper is a material fabricated from graphite oxide.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Halftone is the reprographic technique that simulates continuous tone imagery through the use of dots, varying either in size or in spacing, thus generating a gradient-like effect.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
A handkerchief (also called a hankie or, historically, a handkercher) is a form of a kerchief or bandanna, typically a hemmed square of thin fabric or paper which can be carried in the pocket or handbag, and which is intended for personal hygiene purposes such as wiping one's hands or face, or blowing one's nose.
A hardcover or hardback (also known as hardbound, and sometimes as case-bound) book is one bound with rigid protective covers (typically of Binder's board or heavy paperboard covered with buckram or other cloth, heavy paper, or occasionally leather).
Hardwood is wood from dicot trees.
Hemp, or industrial hemp (from Old English hænep), typically found in the northern hemisphere, is a variety of the Cannabis sativa plant species that is grown specifically for the industrial uses of its derived products.
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.
The Mediterranean Sea was the central superhighway of transport, trade and cultural exchange between diverse peoples encompassing three continents: Western Asia, North Africa, and Southern Europe.
The history of writing traces the development of expressing language by letters or other marks and also the studies and descriptions of these developments.
Housekeeping refers to the management of duties and chores involved in the running of a household, such as cleaning, cooking, home maintenance, shopping, laundry and bill pay.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
Ingres paper is a type of drawing paper.
Ink is a liquid or paste that contains pigments or dyes and is used to color a surface to produce an image, text, or design.
Inkjet paper is a special fine paper designed for inkjet printers, typically classified by its weight, brightness and smoothness, and sometimes by its opacity.
ISO 216 specifies international standard (ISO) paper sizes used in most countries in the world today, although not in Canada, the United States, Mexico, or the Dominican Republic.
Justus Claproth (28 December 1728 – 20 February 1805) was a German jurist and inventor of the deinking process of recycled paper.
Kaolinite is a clay mineral, part of the group of industrial minerals, with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4.
Kraft paper or kraft is paper or paperboard (cardboard) produced from chemical pulp produced in the kraft process.
The kraft process (also known as kraft pulping or sulfate process) is a process for conversion of wood into wood pulp, which consists of almost pure cellulose fibers, the main component of paper.
Laid paper is a type of paper having a ribbed texture imparted by the manufacturing process.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
A letter is one person's written message to another pertaining to some matter of common concern.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
Lignin is a class of complex organic polymers that form important structural materials in the support tissues of vascular plants and some algae. Lignins are particularly important in the formation of cell walls, especially in wood and bark, because they lend rigidity and do not rot easily. Chemically, lignins are cross-linked phenolic polymers.
Linen is a textile made from the fibers of the flax plant.
Litmus is a water-soluble mixture of different dyes extracted from lichens.
A litter box, sometimes called a sandbox, litter tray, cat pan, litter pan, or catbox, is an indoor feces and urine collection box for cats (as well as rabbits, ferrets, micro pigs; small dogs, such as Beagles and Chihuahuas; and other pets that instinctively or through training will make use of such a repository) that are permitted free roam of a home but who cannot or do not always go outside to relieve themselves.
Lokta paper is a wildcrafted, handmade artisan paper indigenous to Nepal.
A magazine is a publication, usually a periodical publication, which is printed or electronically published (sometimes referred to as an online magazine).
Mass deacidification is a term used in Library and Information Science for one possible measure against the degradation of paper in old books (the so-called "slow fires").
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
Mummy paper is paper that is claimed to be made from the linen wrappings and other fibers (e.g. papyrus) from Egyptian mummies imported to America circa 1855.
A newspaper is a periodical publication containing written information about current events.
Newsprint is a low-cost non-archival paper consisting mainly of wood pulp and most commonly used to print newspapers and other publications and advertising material.
A notebook (notepad, writing pad, drawing pad, legal pad) is a small book or binder of paper pages, often ruled, used for purposes such as recording notes or memoranda, writing, drawing or scrapbooking.
An old-growth forest — also termed primary forest, virgin forest, primeval forest, or late seral forest— is a forest that has attained great age without significant disturbance and thereby exhibits unique ecological features and might be classified as a climax community.
An organochloride, organochlorine compound, chlorocarbon, or chlorinated hydrocarbon is an organic compound containing at least one covalently bonded atom of chlorine that has an effect on the chemical behavior of the molecule.
) is the art of paper folding, which is often associated with Japanese culture.
Packing and Wrapping Paper broadly refers to any sort of papers which are used for the purpose of packaging, or simply speaking to Pack or Wrap any article like shoes, garments, toys, handicrafts, fruits, gifts, flowers, etc.
A variety of tests are used to determine ink and paper and paperboard quality, and to measure their interactions.
A paper bag is a bag made of paper, usually kraft paper.
Paper chemicals designate a group of chemicals that modify the properties of paper.
Paper chromatography is an analytical method used to separate colored chemicals or substances.
Paper clothing, in the form of women's dresses and other clothes made from disposable cellulose fabric, was a short-lived fashion novelty item in the United States in the 1960s.
Paper craft is the collection of art forms employing paper or card as the primary artistic medium for the creation of three-dimensional objects.
A paper cup is a disposable cup made out of paper and often lined or coated with plastic or wax to prevent liquid from leaking out or soaking through the paper.
Paper engineering is a branch of engineering that deals with the usage of physical science (e.g. chemistry and physics) and life sciences (e.g. biology and biochemistry) in conjunction with mathematics as applied to the converting of raw materials into useful paper products and co-products.
Paper honeycomb is a building and packing material.
A paper machine (or paper-making machine) is an industrial machine used in the Pulp and paper industry to create paper in large quantities at high speed.
A paper mill is a factory devoted to making paper from vegetable fibres such as wood pulp, old rags and other ingredients.
A paper plane, paper aeroplane (UK), paper airplane (US), paper glider, paper dart or dart is a toy aircraft, usually a glider made out of folded paper or paperboard.
There are three categories of paper that can be used as feedstocks for making recycled paper: mill broke, pre-consumer waste, and post-consumer waste.
Many paper size standards conventions have existed at different times and in different countries.
A kitchen roll (or kitchen paper) is an absorbent towel made from tissue paper instead of cloth.
A paperback is a type of book characterized by a thick paper or paperboard cover, and often held together with glue rather than stitches or staples.
Papier-mâché (literally "chewed paper") is a composite material consisting of paper pieces or pulp, sometimes reinforced with textiles, bound with an adhesive, such as glue, starch, or wallpaper paste.
Papyrus is a material similar to thick paper that was used in ancient times as a writing surface.
Parchment is a writing material made from specially prepared untanned skins of animals—primarily sheep, calves, and goats.
Parchment paper and bakery release paper are cellulose-based papers that are used in baking as a disposable non-stick surface.
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (conjugate base perfluorooctanoate), also known as C8, is a synthetic perfluorinated carboxylic acid and fluorosurfactant.
In electromagnetism, absolute permittivity, often simply called permittivity, usually denoted by the Greek letter ε (epsilon), is the measure of resistance that is encountered when forming an electric field in a particular medium.
The petabyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information.
Poaceae or Gramineae is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses, commonly referred to collectively as grass.
Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), or simply dioxins, are a group of polyhalogenated organic compounds that are significant environmental pollutants.
Printing is a process for reproducing text and images using a master form or template.
Pulp is a lignocellulosic fibrous material prepared by chemically or mechanically separating cellulose fibres from wood, fiber crops, waste paper, or rags.
The pulp and paper industry comprises companies that use wood as raw material and produce pulp, paper, paperboard and other cellulose-based products.
Quilling or paper filigree is an art form that involves the use of strips of paper that are rolled, shaped, and glued together to create decorative designs.
A Rag-picker, or Chiffonnier, is term for someone who makes a living by rummaging through refuse in the streets to collect material for salvage.
A roll hardness tester is a device to measure the roll hardness, hardness profile and hardness variation of paper rolls.
Sandpaper and glasspaper are names used for a type of coated abrasive that consists of sheets of paper or cloth with abrasive material glued to one face.
Sappi Limited, originally incorporated as South African Pulp and Paper Industries Limited in 1936, is a South African pulp and paper company with global operations.
Scale armour is an early form of armour consisting of many individual small armour scales (plates) of various shapes attached to each other and to a backing of cloth or leather in overlapping rows.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Security is freedom from, or resilience against, potential harm (or other unwanted coercive change) from external forces.
Security paper is a paper that incorporates features that can be used to identify or authenticate a document as original, e.g., watermarks or invisible fibres in paper, or features that demonstrate tamper evidence when fraud is attempted, e.g., to remove or alter print such as amounts or signatures on a cheque.
Seed paper is a type of handmade paper that includes any number of different plant seeds.
In chemistry, a silicate is any member of a family of anions consisting of silicon and oxygen, usually with the general formula, where 0 ≤ x Silicate anions are often large polymeric molecules with an extense variety of structures, including chains and rings (as in polymeric metasilicate), double chains (as in, and sheets (as in. In geology and astronomy, the term silicate is used to mean silicate minerals, ionic solids with silicate anions; as well as rock types that consist predominantly of such minerals. In that context, the term also includes the non-ionic compound silicon dioxide (silica, quartz), which would correspond to x.
Sizing or size is any one of numerous substances that is applied to, or incorporated into, other materials — especially papers and textiles — to act as a protective filler or glaze.
A slow fire is a term used in library and information science to describe paper embrittlement resulting from acid decay.
Soda pulping is a chemical process for making wood pulp with sodium hydroxide as the cooking chemical.
Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants is an international environmental treaty, signed in 2001 and effective from May 2004, that aims to eliminate or restrict the production and use of persistent organic pollutants (POPs).
Straw is an agricultural by-product, the dry stalks of cereal plants, after the grain and chaff have been removed.
The sulfite process produces wood pulp which is almost pure cellulose fibers by using various salts of sulfurous acid to extract the lignin from wood chips in large pressure vessels called digesters.
Teslin is a waterproof synthetic printing medium manufactured by PPG Industries.
A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread).
"The Straight Dope" was an online question-and-answer newspaper column published from 1973 to 2018 in the Chicago Reader and syndicated in eight newspapers in the United States.
A ticket is a voucher that indicates that an individual is entitled to admission to an event or establishment such as a theatre, amusement park or tourist attraction, or has a right to travel on a vehicle, such as with an airline ticket, bus ticket or train ticket.
Tissue paper or simply tissue is a lightweight paper or, light crêpe paper.
Toilet paper is a tissue paper product people primarily use to clean the anus and surrounding area of fecal material after defecation and to clean the perineal area of urine after urination and other bodily fluid releases.
Tree-free paper or tree-free newsprint describes an alternative to wood-pulp paper by its raw material composition.
Tyvek is a brand of flashspun high-density polyethylene fibers, a synthetic material; the name is a registered trademark of DuPont.
United States customary units are a system of measurements commonly used in the United States.
A universal indicator is a pH indicator composed of a solution of several compounds that exhibits several smooth colour changes over a pH value range from 0 to 14 (it may be negative or higher depending on the concentration) to indicate the acidity or alkalinity of solutions, where 7 indicates neutral.
A voucher is a bond of the redeemable transaction type which is worth a certain monetary value and which may be spent only for specific reasons or on specific goods.
Vulcanization or vulcanisation is a chemical process for converting natural rubber or related polymers into more durable materials by heating them with sulfur or other equivalent curatives or accelerators.
Wallpaper is a material used in interior decoration to decorate the interior walls of domestic and public buildings.
is traditional Japanese paper.
A watermark is an identifying image or pattern in paper that appears as various shades of lightness/darkness when viewed by transmitted light (or when viewed by reflected light, atop a dark background), caused by thickness or density variations in the paper.
Waterproof paper is a type of paper that is good for outdoor, marine, field use and general wet environments.
Wax paper (also waxed paper or paraffin paper) is paper that has been made moisture-proof through the application of wax.
Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants.
Wood-free paper is paper created exclusively from chemical pulp rather than mechanical pulp.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
Wove paper is a writing paper with a uniform surface, not ribbed or watermarked.
Writing is a medium of human communication that represents language and emotion with signs and symbols.
Xuan paper (xuanzhi), or Shuen paper or rice paper, is a kind of paper originating in ancient China used for writing and painting.
Zein is a class of prolamine protein found in maize (corn).
A zine (short for magazine or fanzine) is a small-circulation self-published work of original or appropriated texts and images, usually reproduced via photocopier.