124 relations: Actin, Adenosine triphosphate, Algorithm, Alphapapillomavirus, Amniote, Antibody, Apoptosis, Base pair, Betapapillomavirus, Bonobo, Bovine papillomavirus, Bromodomain, Capsid, Cell culture, Cell cycle, Cell membrane, Cell nucleus, Cellular differentiation, Cervical cancer, Consensus sequence, Cottontail rabbit, Cytoskeleton, Cytotoxic T cell, Deltapapillomavirus, Desquamation, Disulfide, DNA, DNA repair, DNA replication, DNA virus, Endosome, Environment (biophysical), Epidermal growth factor, Epidermodysplasia verruciformis, Epithelium, Epsilonpapillomavirus, Etapapillomavirus, Eurasian harvest mouse, Family (biology), Francis Peyton Rous, Furin, Gammapapillomavirus, Gene, Genus, Goldberg polyhedron, Golden hamster, HeLa, Helicase, Histone, Host tropism, ..., HPV vaccines, Human papillomavirus infection, Icosahedral symmetry, Inflammation, Intermediate filament, International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, Iotapapillomavirus, Jackalope, Kappapapillomavirus, Keratinocyte, Lambdapapillomavirus, Lytic cycle, Major histocompatibility complex, Malignant transformation, Mastomys, Metabolic pathway, Mouse, Mucous membrane, Mupapillomavirus, Nanomaterials, NFX1, Nuclear matrix, Nucleic acid sequence, Nupapillomavirus, Omikronpapillomavirus, Oncogene, Open reading frame, Oral cancer, Origin of replication, P53, Papilloma, Papillomaviridae, PDZ domain, Penile cancer, Penrose tiling, Peripheral blood mononuclear cell, Phylogenetic tree, Pipapillomavirus, Plantar wart, Plasmid, Platelet-derived growth factor, Polymerase chain reaction, Polyomaviridae, Promoter (genetics), Reidun Twarock, Retinoblastoma protein, Rous sarcoma virus, Severe combined immunodeficiency (non-human), Shope papilloma virus, Skin cancer in horses, Species, Spherical polyhedron, Stratified squamous epithelium, Stratum basale, Syntaxin, Taxon, Telomerase, Thetapapillomavirus, Transactivation, Transcription (biology), Transcription factor, Tropism, Tumor suppressor, Urban legend, Vector (molecular biology), Vesicle (biology and chemistry), Viral envelope, Virus-like particle, Vulvar cancer, Wart, Wolpertinger, Xipapillomavirus, Zetapapillomavirus, Zinc finger. Expand index (74 more) » « Shrink index
Actin is a family of globular multi-functional proteins that form microfilaments.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.
Alphapapillomavirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Papillomaviridae.
Amniotes (from Greek ἀμνίον amnion, "membrane surrounding the fetus", earlier "bowl in which the blood of sacrificed animals was caught", from ἀμνός amnos, "lamb") are a clade of tetrapod vertebrates comprising the reptiles, birds, and mammals.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.
Betapapillomavirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Papillomaviridae.
The bonobo (Pan paniscus), formerly called the pygmy chimpanzee and less often, the dwarf or gracile chimpanzee, is an endangered great ape and one of the two species making up the genus Pan; the other is Pan troglodytes, or the common chimpanzee.
Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is a group of DNA viruses of the family Papillomaviridae that are common in cattle.
A bromodomain is an approximately 110 amino acid protein domain that recognizes acetylated lysine residues, such as those on the N-terminal tails of histones.
A capsid is the protein shell of a virus.
Cell culture is the process by which cells are grown under controlled conditions, generally outside their natural environment.
The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another.
Cervical cancer is a cancer arising from the cervix.
In molecular biology and bioinformatics, the consensus sequence (or canonical sequence) is the calculated order of most frequent residues, either nucleotide or amino acid, found at each position in a sequence alignment.
Cottontail rabbits are among the 20 lagomorph species in the genus Sylvilagus, found in the Americas.
A cytoskeleton is present in all cells of all domains of life (archaea, bacteria, eukaryotes).
A cytotoxic T cell (also known as TC, cytotoxic T lymphocyte, CTL, T-killer cell, cytolytic T cell, CD8+ T-cell or killer T cell) is a T lymphocyte (a type of white blood cell) that kills cancer cells, cells that are infected (particularly with viruses), or cells that are damaged in other ways.
Deltapapillomavirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Papillomaviridae.
Desquamation, also called skin peeling, is the shedding of the outermost membrane or layer of a tissue, such as the skin.
In chemistry, a disulfide refers to a functional group with the structure R−S−S−R′.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome.
In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.
A DNA virus is a virus that has DNA as its genetic material and replicates using a DNA-dependent DNA polymerase.
In cell biology, an endosome is a membrane-bound compartment inside eukaryotic cells.
A biophysical environment is a biotic and abiotic surrounding of an organism or population, and consequently includes the factors that have an influence in their survival, development, and evolution.
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates cell growth and differentiation by binding to its receptor, EGFR.
Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV), also known as treeman syndrome, is an extremely rare autosomal recessive hereditary skin disorder associated with a high risk of skin cancer.
Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.
Epsilonpapillomavirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Papillomaviridae.
Etapapillomavirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Papillomaviridae.
The harvest mouse (Micromys minutus) is a small rodent native to Europe and Asia.
In biological classification, family (familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus.
Francis Peyton Rous (October 5, 1879 – February 16, 1970) was an American Nobel Prize-winning virologist.
Furin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FURIN gene.
Gammapapillomavirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Papillomaviridae.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
A Goldberg polyhedron is a convex polyhedron made from hexagons and pentagons.
The golden hamster or Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is a rodent in the subfamily Cricetinae, the hamsters.
HeLa (also Hela or hela) is a cell type in an immortal cell line used in scientific research.
Helicases are a class of enzymes vital to all living organisms.
In biology, histones are highly alkaline proteins found in eukaryotic cell nuclei that package and order the DNA into structural units called nucleosomes.
Host tropism is the infection specificity of certain pathogens to particular hosts and host tissues.
Human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccines are vaccines that prevent infection by certain types of human papillomavirus.
Human papillomavirus infection is an infection by human papillomavirus (HPV).
A regular icosahedron has 60 rotational (or orientation-preserving) symmetries, and a symmetry order of 120 including transformations that combine a reflection and a rotation.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Intermediate filaments (IFs) are cytoskeletal components found in the cells of vertebrate animal species, and perhaps also in other animals, fungi, plants, and unicellular organisms.
The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) authorizes and organizes the taxonomic classification of and the nomenclatures for viruses.
Iotapapillomavirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Papillomaviridae.
In American folklore, a jackalope is a fearsome critter described as a jackrabbit with antelope horns.
Kappapapillomavirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Papillomaviridae.
A keratinocyte is the predominant cell type in the epidermis, the outermost layer of the skin, constituting 90% of the cells found there.
Lambdapapillomavirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Papillomaviridae.
The lytic cycle is one of the two cycles of viral reproduction (referring to bacterial viruses or bacteriophages), the other being the lysogenic cycle.
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a set of cell surface proteins essential for the acquired immune system to recognize foreign molecules in vertebrates, which in turn determines histocompatibility.
Malignant transformation is the process by which cells acquire the properties of cancer.
Mastomys is a genus of rodent in the family Muridae endemic to Africa.
In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a linked series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell.
A mouse (Mus), plural mice, is a small rodent characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, a body-length scaly tail and a high breeding rate.
A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.
Mupapillomavirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Papillomaviridae.
Nanomaterials describe, in principle, materials of which a single unit is sized (in at least one dimension) between 1 to 1000 nanometres (10−9 meter) but usually is 1 to 100 nm (the usual definition of nanoscale).
Transcriptional repressor NF-X1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NFX1 gene.
In biology, the nuclear matrix is the network of fibres found throughout the inside of a cell nucleus and is somewhat analogous to the cell cytoskeleton.
A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule.
Nupapillomavirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Papillomaviridae.
Omikronpapillomavirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Papillomaviridae.
An oncogene is a gene that has the potential to cause cancer.
In molecular genetics, an open reading frame (ORF) is the part of a reading frame that has the ability to be translated.
Oral cancer, also known as mouth cancer, is a type of head and neck cancer and is any cancerous tissue growth located in the oral cavity.
The origin of replication (also called the replication origin) is a particular sequence in a genome at which replication is initiated.
Tumor protein p53, also known as p53, cellular tumor antigen p53 (UniProt name), phosphoprotein p53, tumor suppressor p53, antigen NY-CO-13, or transformation-related protein 53 (TRP53), is any isoform of a protein encoded by homologous genes in various organisms, such as TP53 (humans) and Trp53 (mice).
A papilloma (plural papillomas or papillomata) (papillo- + -oma) is a benign epithelial tumor growing exophytically (outwardly projecting) in nipple-like and often finger-like fronds.
Papillomaviridae is an ancient taxonomic family of non-enveloped DNA viruses, collectively known as papillomaviruses.
The PDZ domain is a common structural domain of 80-90 amino-acids found in the signaling proteins of bacteria, yeast, plants, viruses and animals.
Penile cancer is a malignant growth found on the skin or in the tissues of the penis.
A Penrose tiling is an example of non-periodic tiling generated by an aperiodic set of prototiles.
A peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) is any peripheral blood cell having a round nucleus.
A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.
Pipapillomavirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Papillomaviridae.
A plantar wart is a wart occurring on the bottom of the foot or toes.
A plasmid is a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently.
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is one of numerous growth factors that regulate cell growth and division.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used in molecular biology to amplify a single copy or a few copies of a segment of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence.
Polyomaviridae is a family of viruses whose natural hosts are primarily mammals and birds.
In genetics, a promoter is a region of DNA that initiates transcription of a particular gene.
Reidun Twarock is a German-born mathematical biologist at the University of York.
The retinoblastoma protein (protein name abbreviated pRb; gene name abbreviated RB or RB1) is a tumor suppressor protein that is dysfunctional in several major cancers.
Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) is a retrovirus and is the first oncovirus to have been described: it causes sarcoma in chickens.
The severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a severe immunodeficiency genetic disorder that is characterized by the complete inability of the adaptive immune system to mount, coordinate, and sustain an appropriate immune response, usually due to absent or atypical T and B lymphocytes.
The Shope papilloma virus (SPV), also known as cottontail rabbit papilloma virus (CRPV) or Kappapapillomavirus 2, is a papillomavirus which infects certain leporids, causing keratinous carcinomas resembling horns, typically on or near the animal’s head.
Skin cancer, or neoplasia, is the most common type of cancer diagnosed in horses, accounting for 45Beuchner-Maxwell, "Skin tumors.", pg.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
In mathematics, a spherical polyhedron or spherical tiling is a tiling of the sphere in which the surface is divided or partitioned by great arcs into bounded regions called spherical polygons.
A stratified squamous epithelium consists of squamous (flattened) epithelial cells arranged in layers upon a basal membrane.
The stratum basale (basal layer, sometimes referred to as stratum germinativum) is the deepest layer of the five layers of the epidermis, the outer covering of skin in mammals.
Syntaxins are a family of membrane integrated Q-SNARE proteins participating in exocytosis.
In biology, a taxon (plural taxa; back-formation from taxonomy) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit.
Telomerase, also called terminal transferase, is a ribonucleoprotein that adds a species-dependent telomere repeat sequence to the 3' end of telomeres.
Thetapapillomavirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Papillomaviridae.
In the context of gene regulation: transactivation is the increased rate of gene expression triggered either by biological processes or by artificial means, through the expression of an intermediate transactivator protein.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.
A tropism (from Greek τρόπος, tropos, "a turning") is a biological phenomenon, indicating growth or turning movement of a biological organism, usually a plant, in response to an environmental stimulus.
A tumor suppressor gene, or antioncogene, is a gene that protects a cell from one step on the path to cancer.
An urban legend, urban myth, urban tale, or contemporary legend is a form of modern folklore.
In molecular cloning, a vector is a DNA molecule used as a vehicle to artificially carry foreign genetic material into another cell, where it can be replicated and/or expressed (e.g.- plasmid, cosmid, Lambda phages).
In cell biology, a vesicle is a small structure within a cell, or extracellular, consisting of fluid enclosed by a lipid bilayer.
Some viruses (e.g. HIV and many animal viruses) have viral envelopes covering their protective protein capsids.
Virus-like particles resemble viruses, but are non-infectious because they contain no viral genetic material.
Vulvar cancer is a malignant, invasive growth in the vulva, or the outer portion of the female genitals.
Warts are typically small, rough, and hard growths that are similar in color to the rest of the skin.
A wolpertinger (also called wolperdinger or woiperdinger) is a mythological hybrid animal that is said to inhabit the alpine forests of Bavaria in Germany.
Xipapillomavirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Papillomaviridae.
Zetapapillomavirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Papillomaviridae.
A zinc finger is a small protein structural motif that is characterized by the coordination of one or more zinc ions (Zn2+) in order to stabilize the fold.
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