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Papyrus

Index Papyrus

Papyrus is a material similar to thick paper that was used in ancient times as a writing surface. [1]

145 relations: Alfred Chester Beatty, Amate, Amherst Papyrus, Ancient Egypt, Arabs, Archduke Rainer Ferdinand of Austria, Arthur Surridge Hunt, Artifact (archaeology), Ashmolean Museum, Basket, Battiscombe Gunn, Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Berlin, Berliner griechische Urkunden, Bernard Pyne Grenfell, Birch bark manuscript, Bodmer Library, Bodmer Papyri, Book of the Dead, British Museum, Brooklyn Museum, Brooklyn Papyrus, Byblos, Byzantine Empire, Cairo, Cambridge Antiquarian Society, Caspar Reuvens, Cellulose, Charles Wycliffe Goodwin, Chester Beatty Library, Chester Beatty Papyri, Clay tablet, Climate, Codex, Cologny, Copts, Cyperaceae, Cyperus papyrus, David Diringer, Dead Sea Scrolls, Decomposition, Deir el-Medina, Ebers Papyrus, Edwin Smith Papyrus, Egypt Exploration Society, Egyptian language, Egyptian Museum, Egyptian Museum of Berlin, Elephantine papyri, English language, ..., Eucalyptus, Faiyum, First Dynasty of Egypt, Florence, Frederic G. Kenyon, Gaul, Great Pyramid of Giza, Greece, Greek language, Greek Magical Papyri, Harbor, Henri Pirenne, Herculaneum, Herculaneum papyri, Heroninos Archive, History of the Mediterranean region, Houghton Library, Isidore of Seville, Italy, James Bruce, Jaroslav Černý (Egyptologist), Julius Caesar, Kasr El Harit, Khufu, Kingdom of Kush, Latin, Laurentian Library, Leyden papyrus X, List of ancient Egyptian papyri, List of early Christian writers, List of New Testament papyri, London, Maadi, Magdalen papyrus, Martin Bodmer, Mat, Menander, Merovingian dynasty, Mold, Morgan Library & Museum, Mount Vesuvius, Nag Hammadi, Nag Hammadi library, National Archaeological Museum, Naples, Natural History (Pliny), Nile Delta, Ostracon, Oxford, Oxyrhynchus, Oxyrhynchus Papyri, Palimpsest, Palm-leaf manuscript, Palmette, Papal bull, Paper, Papyrology, Papyrus Harris I, Papyrus sanitary pad, Parchment, Phoenicia, Pith, Pliny the Elder, Pope Victor II, Pre-Greek substrate, Princeton Papyri, Princeton University, Recto and verso, Red Sea, Reed boat, Rhind Mathematical Papyrus, Robert S. P. Beekes, Rope, Rylands Papyri, Saite Oracle Papyrus, Sandal, Schøyen Collection, Scotland, Scroll, Sicily, Strasbourg papyrus, Sudan, Syracuse, Sicily, Theophrastus, Twentieth Dynasty of Egypt, University of Manchester Library, University of Michigan, University of Michigan Papyrology Collection, Vellum, Villa of the Papyri, Wadi al-Jarf, Washington University Libraries, Wax tablet, Will of Naunakhte, William Tyssen-Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst of Hackney, Writing material. Expand index (95 more) »

Alfred Chester Beatty

Sir Alfred Chester Beatty (7 February 1875 – 19 January 1968),Seanad 1985: "Chester Beatty died at the Princess Grace Clinic, Monte Carlo, on 19 January 1968, " (some sources give this as 20 January).

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Amate

Amate (amate from āmatl) is a type of bark paper that has been manufactured in Mexico since the precontact times.

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Amherst Papyrus

The ancient Egyptian document Amherst Papyrus, now known as the Leopold II and Amherst Papyrus, is part of the original court records dealing with the tomb robberies under Ramesses IX and dates to Year 16 of Ramesses IX.

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Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.

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Arabs

Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.

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Archduke Rainer Ferdinand of Austria

Archduke Rainer Ferdinand Maria Johann Evangelist Franz Ignaz of Austria (11 January 1827 – 27 January 1913), a member of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine and nephew of Emperor Francis I, was an Austrian politician who served as Minister-President of Austria from 1861 to 1865.

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Arthur Surridge Hunt

Arthur Surridge Hunt, FBA (1 March 1871 – 18 June 1934) was an English papyrologist.

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Artifact (archaeology)

An artifact, or artefact (see American and British English spelling differences), is something made or given shape by humans, such as a tool or a work of art, especially an object of archaeological interest.

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Ashmolean Museum

The Ashmolean Museum (in full the Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology) on Beaumont Street, Oxford, England, is the world's first university museum.

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Basket

A basket is a container which is traditionally constructed from stiff fibers, which can be made from a range of materials, including wood splints, runners, and cane.

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Battiscombe Gunn

Battiscombe George "Jack" Gunn, (30 June 1883 – 27 February 1950) was an English Egyptologist and philologist.

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Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library

The Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library is the rare book library and literary archive of the Yale University Library in New Haven, Connecticut.

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Berlin

Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.

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Berliner griechische Urkunden

BGU or Berliner griechische Urkunden (commenced in 1895) is an ongoing publishing program of Greek documents, primarily Greek papyri by the Berlin State Museums, primarily from the papyrus collection of the Egyptian Museum of Berlin.

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Bernard Pyne Grenfell

Bernard Pyne Grenfell, FBA (16 December 1869 – 18 May 1926) was an English scientist and Egyptologist.

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Birch bark manuscript

Birch bark manuscripts are documents written on pieces of the inner layer of birch bark, which was commonly used for writing before the advent of mass production of paper.

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Bodmer Library

The Bodmer Foundation (French: Fondation Bodmer) is a library and museum specialised in manuscripts and precious editions.

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Bodmer Papyri

The Bodmer Papyri are a group of twenty-two papyri discovered in Egypt in 1952.

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Book of the Dead

The Book of the Dead is an ancient Egyptian funerary text, used from the beginning of the New Kingdom (around 1550 BCE) to around 50 BCE.

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British Museum

The British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture.

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Brooklyn Museum

The Brooklyn Museum is an art museum located in the New York City borough of Brooklyn.

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Brooklyn Papyrus

The Brooklyn Papyrus (47.218.48 and 47.218.85, also known as the Brooklyn Medical Papyrus) is a medical papyrus dating from ancient Egypt and is one of the oldest preserved writings about medicine and ophiology.

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Byblos

Byblos, in Arabic Jbail (جبيل Lebanese Arabic pronunciation:; Phoenician: 𐤂𐤁𐤋 Gebal), is a Middle Eastern city on Levant coast in the Mount Lebanon Governorate, Lebanon.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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Cairo

Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.

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Cambridge Antiquarian Society

The Cambridge Antiquarian Society is a society dedicated to study and preservation of the archaeology, history, and architecture of Cambridgeshire, England.

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Caspar Reuvens

Caspar Jacob Christiaan Reuvens (22 January 1793 – 26 July 1835) was a Dutch historian and archaeologist.

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Cellulose

Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.

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Charles Wycliffe Goodwin

Charles Wycliffe Goodwin (1817–1878) was an English Egyptologist, bible scholar, lawyer and judge.

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Chester Beatty Library

The Chester Beatty Library was established in Dublin, Ireland in 1950, to house the collections of mining magnate, Sir Alfred Chester Beatty.

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Chester Beatty Papyri

The Chester Beatty Biblical Papyri or simply the Chester Beatty Papyri are a group of early papyrus manuscripts of biblical texts.

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Clay tablet

In the Ancient Near East, clay tablets (Akkadian ṭuppu(m) 𒁾) were used as a writing medium, especially for writing in cuneiform, throughout the Bronze Age and well into the Iron Age.

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Climate

Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.

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Codex

A codex (from the Latin caudex for "trunk of a tree" or block of wood, book), plural codices, is a book constructed of a number of sheets of paper, vellum, papyrus, or similar materials.

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Cologny

Cologny is a municipality in the Canton of Geneva, Switzerland.

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Copts

The Copts (ⲚⲓⲢⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ̀ⲛ̀Ⲭⲣⲏⲥⲧⲓ̀ⲁⲛⲟⲥ,; أقباط) are an ethnoreligious group indigenous to North Africa who primarily inhabit the area of modern Egypt, where they are the largest Christian denomination in the country.

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Cyperaceae

The Cyperaceae are a family of monocotyledonous graminoid flowering plants known as sedges, which superficially resemble grasses and rushes.

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Cyperus papyrus

Cyperus papyrus (papyrus,papyrus sedge, paper reed, Indian matting plant, Nile grass) is a species of aquatic flowering plant belonging to the sedge family Cyperaceae.

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David Diringer

David Diringer (1900–1975) was a British linguist, palaeographer and writer.

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Dead Sea Scrolls

Dead Sea Scrolls (also Qumran Caves Scrolls) are ancient Jewish religious, mostly Hebrew, manuscripts found in the Qumran Caves near the Dead Sea.

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Decomposition

Decomposition is the process by which organic substances are broken down into simpler organic matter.

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Deir el-Medina

Deir el-Medina (دير المدينة) is an ancient Egyptian village which was home to the artisans who worked on the tombs in the Valley of the Kings during the 18th to 20th dynasties of the New Kingdom period (ca. 1550–1080 BC)Oakes, p. 110 The settlement's ancient name was "Set Maat" (translated as "The Place of Truth"), and the workmen who lived there were called “Servants in the Place of Truth”.

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Ebers Papyrus

The Ebers Papyrus, also known as Papyrus Ebers, is an Egyptian medical papyrus of herbal knowledge dating to circa 1550 BC.

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Edwin Smith Papyrus

The Edwin Smith Papyrus is an ancient Egyptian medical text, named after the dealer who bought it in 1862, and the oldest known surgical treatise on trauma.

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Egypt Exploration Society

The Egypt Exploration Society (EES) is a British non-profit organization.

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Egyptian language

The Egyptian language was spoken in ancient Egypt and was a branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages.

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Egyptian Museum

The Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, known commonly as the Egyptian Museum or Museum of Cairo, in Cairo, Egypt, is home to an extensive collection of ancient Egyptian antiquities.

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Egyptian Museum of Berlin

The Egyptian Museum of Berlin (Ägyptisches Museum und Papyrussammlung) is home to one of the world's most important collections of Ancient Egyptian artifacts, including the iconic Nefertiti Bust.

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Elephantine papyri

The Elephantine Papyri consist of 175 documents from the Egyptian border fortresses of Elephantine and Syene (Aswan), which yielded hundreds of papyri in Hieratic and Demotic Egyptian, Aramaic, Greek, Latin and Coptic, spanning a period of 2000 years.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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Eucalyptus

Eucalyptus L'Héritier 1789 (plural eucalypti, eucalyptuses or eucalypts) is a diverse genus of flowering trees and shrubs (including a distinct group with a multiple-stem mallee growth habit) in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae.

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Faiyum

Faiyum (الفيوم; ̀Ⲫⲓⲟⲙ or Ⲫⲓⲱⲙ) is a city in Middle Egypt.

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First Dynasty of Egypt

The First Dynasty of ancient Egypt (Dynasty I) covers the first series of Egyptian kings to rule over a unified Egypt.

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Florence

Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.

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Frederic G. Kenyon

Sir Frederic George Kenyon (15 January 1863 – 23 August 1952) was a British palaeographer and biblical and classical scholar.

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Gaul

Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.

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Great Pyramid of Giza

The Great Pyramid of Giza (also known as the Pyramid of Khufu or the Pyramid of Cheops) is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza pyramid complex bordering what is now El Giza, Egypt.

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Greece

No description.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Greek Magical Papyri

The Greek Magical Papyri (Latin Papyri Graecae Magicae, abbreviated PGM) is the name given by scholars to a body of papyri from Graeco-Roman Egypt, which each contain a number of magical spells, formulae, hymns, and rituals.

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Harbor

A harbor or harbour (see spelling differences; synonyms: wharves, haven) is a sheltered body of water where ships, boats, and barges can be docked.

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Henri Pirenne

Henri Pirenne (23 December 1862 – 24 October 1935) was a Belgian historian.

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Herculaneum

Located in the shadow of Mount Vesuvius, Herculaneum (Italian: Ercolano) was an ancient Roman town destroyed by volcanic pyroclastic flows in 79 AD.

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Herculaneum papyri

The Herculaneum papyri are more than 1,800 papyri found in the Herculaneum Villa of the Papyri, in the 18th century, carbonized by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79.

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Heroninos Archive

The Heroninos Archive is a collection of around a thousand papyrus documents, dating to the third century AD, found at the very end of the 19th century at Kasr El Harit, the site of ancient, in the Faiyum area of Egypt by Bernard Pyne Grenfell and Arthur Surridge Hunt.

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History of the Mediterranean region

The Mediterranean Sea was the central superhighway of transport, trade and cultural exchange between diverse peoples encompassing three continents: Western Asia, North Africa, and Southern Europe.

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Houghton Library

Houghton Library, on the south side of Harvard Yard adjacent to Widener Library, is Harvard University's primary repository for rare books and manuscripts.

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Isidore of Seville

Saint Isidore of Seville (Isidorus Hispalensis; c. 560 – 4 April 636), a scholar and, for over three decades, Archbishop of Seville, is widely regarded as the last of the Fathers of the Church, as the 19th-century historian Montalembert put it in an oft-quoted phrase, "The last scholar of the ancient world." At a time of disintegration of classical culture, and aristocratic violence and illiteracy, he was involved in the conversion of the Arian Visigothic kings to Catholicism, both assisting his brother Leander of Seville, and continuing after his brother's death.

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Italy

Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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James Bruce

James Bruce of Kinnaird (14 December 1730 – 27 April 1794) was a Scottish traveller and travel writer who spent more than a dozen years in North Africa and Ethiopia, where he traced the origins of the Blue Nile.

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Jaroslav Černý (Egyptologist)

Jaroslav Černý (22 August 1898 – 29 May 1970) was a Czech Egyptologist.

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Julius Caesar

Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.

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Kasr El Harit

Kasr El Harit is a small town located in the heart of the Egyptian desert, near the Nile.

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Khufu

Khufu (full name Khnum Khufu, known to the Greeks as Cheops, was an ancient Egyptian monarch who ruled during the Fourth Dynasty, in the first half of the Old Kingdom period (26th century BC). Khufu was the second ruler of the 4th dynasty; he followed his possible father, king Sneferu, on the throne. He is generally accepted as having commissioned the Great Pyramid of Giza, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, but many other aspects of his reign are rather poorly documented. The only completely preserved portrait of the king is a three-inch high ivory figurine found in a temple ruin of a later period at Abydos in 1903. All other reliefs and statues were found in fragments, and many buildings of Khufu are lost. Everything known about Khufu comes from inscriptions in his necropolis at Giza and later documents. For example, Khufu is the main character noted in the Papyrus Westcar from the 13th dynasty. Most documents that mention king Khufu were written by ancient Egyptian and Greek historians around 300 BC. Khufu's obituary is presented there in a conflicting way: while the king enjoyed a long lasting cultural heritage preservation during the period of the Old Kingdom and the New Kingdom, the ancient historians Manetho, Diodorus and Herodotus hand down a very negative depiction of Khufu's character. Thanks to these documents, an obscure and critical picture of Khufu's personality persists.

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Kingdom of Kush

The Kingdom of Kush or Kush was an ancient kingdom in Nubia, located at the confluences of the Blue Nile, White Nile and the Atbarah River in what are now Sudan and South Sudan.

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Latin

Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Laurentian Library

The Laurentian Library (Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana) is a historic library in Florence, Italy, containing more than 11,000 manuscripts and 4,500 early printed books.

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Leyden papyrus X

The Leyden papyrus X (P. Leyden X) is a papyrus codex written in Greek at about the end of the 3rd century A.D.E.R.Caley, The Leyden Paprus X: An English Translation with Brief Notes,: "These two papyri have, however, upon the basis of unquestioned philological and paleographic evidence, been ascertained to have been written at about the end of the third century A.D. so that they are by far the earliest original historical evidence that we have in our possession concerning the nature and the extent of ancient chemical knowledge." or perhaps around 250 A.D. and buried with its owner, and today preserved at Leiden University in the Netherlands.

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List of ancient Egyptian papyri

This list of ancient Egyptian papyri includes some of the better known individual papyri written in hieroglyphs, hieratic, demotic or in Greek.

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List of early Christian writers

Various Early Christian writers wrote gospels and other books, some of which were canonized as the New Testament canon developed.

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List of New Testament papyri

A New Testament papyrus is a copy of a portion of the New Testament made on papyrus.

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London

London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Maadi

Maadi or al-Ma'adi (معادي الخبيري - المعادي / transliterated) is an affluent, leafy suburban district south of Cairo, Egypt, on the east bank of the Nile about 12 km upriver from downtown Cairo.

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Magdalen papyrus

The "Magdalen" papyrus was purchased in Luxor, Egypt in 1901 by Reverend Charles Bousfield Huleatt (1863–1908), who identified the Greek fragments as portions of the Gospel of Matthew (Chapter 26:23 and 31) and presented them to Magdalen College, Oxford, where they are cataloged as P. Magdalen Greek 17 (Gregory-Aland \mathfrak64) and whence they have their name.

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Martin Bodmer

Martin Bodmer (November 13, 1899 – March 22, 1971) was a Swiss bibliophile, scholar and collector.

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Mat

A mat is a piece of fabric material that generally is placed on a floor or other flat surface.

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Menander

Menander (Μένανδρος Menandros; c. 342/41 – c. 290 BC) was a Greek dramatist and the best-known representative of Athenian New Comedy.

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Merovingian dynasty

The Merovingians were a Salian Frankish dynasty that ruled the Franks for nearly 300 years in a region known as Francia in Latin, beginning in the middle of the 5th century.

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Mold

A mold or mould (is a fungus that grows in the form of multicellular filaments called hyphae.

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Morgan Library & Museum

The Morgan Library & Museum – formerly the Pierpont Morgan Library – is a museum and research library located at 225 Madison Avenue at East 36th Street in the Murray Hill neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City.

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Mount Vesuvius

Mount Vesuvius (Monte Vesuvio; Vesuvio; Mons Vesuvius; also Vesevus or Vesaevus in some Roman sources) is a somma-stratovolcano located on the Gulf of Naples in Campania, Italy, about east of Naples and a short distance from the shore.

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Nag Hammadi

Nag Hammadi (نجع حمادى Najʿ Ḥammādī) is a city in Upper Egypt.

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Nag Hammadi library

The Nag Hammadi library (also known as the "Chenoboskion Manuscripts" and the "Gnostic Gospels") is a collection of early Christian and Gnostic texts discovered near the Upper Egyptian town of Nag Hammadi in 1945.

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National Archaeological Museum, Naples

The National Archaeological Museum of Naples (italic, sometimes abbreviated to MANN) is an important Italian archaeological museum, particularly for ancient Roman remains.

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Natural History (Pliny)

The Natural History (Naturalis Historia) is a book about the whole of the natural world in Latin by Pliny the Elder, a Roman author and naval commander who died in 79 AD.

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Nile Delta

The Nile Delta (دلتا النيل or simply الدلتا) is the delta formed in Northern Egypt (Lower Egypt) where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea.

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Ostracon

An ostracon (Greek: ὄστρακον ostrakon, plural ὄστρακα ostraka) is a piece of pottery, usually broken off from a vase or other earthenware vessel.

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Oxford

Oxford is a city in the South East region of England and the county town of Oxfordshire.

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Oxyrhynchus

Oxyrhynchus (Ὀξύρρυγχος Oxýrrhynkhos; "sharp-nosed"; ancient Egyptian Pr-Medjed; Coptic Pemdje; modern Egyptian Arabic El Bahnasa) is a city in Middle Egypt, located about 160 km south-southwest of Cairo, in the governorate of Al Minya.

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Oxyrhynchus Papyri

The Oxyrhynchus Papyri are a group of manuscripts discovered during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries by papyrologists Bernard Pyne Grenfell and Arthur Surridge Hunt at an ancient rubbish dump near Oxyrhynchus in Egypt (modern el-Bahnasa).

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Palimpsest

In textual studies, a palimpsest is a manuscript page, either from a scroll or a book, from which the text has been scraped or washed off so that the page can be reused for another document.

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Palm-leaf manuscript

Palm-leaf manuscripts are manuscripts made out of dried palm leaves.

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Palmette

The palmette is a motif in decorative art which, in its most characteristic expression, resembles the fan-shaped leaves of a palm tree.

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Papal bull

A papal bull is a type of public decree, letters patent, or charter issued by a pope of the Roman Catholic Church.

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Paper

Paper is a thin material produced by pressing together moist fibres of cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets.

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Papyrology

Papyrology is the study of ancient literature, correspondence, legal archives, etc..., as preserved in manuscripts written on papyrus, the most common form of writing material in the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Greece, and Rome.

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Papyrus Harris I

Papyrus Harris I is also known as the Great Harris Papyrus and (less accurately) simply the Harris Papyrus (though there are a number of other papyri in the Harris collection).

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Papyrus sanitary pad

A papyrus sanitary pad, or Makapad, is a sanitary napkin made from papyrus, a natural material.

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Parchment

Parchment is a writing material made from specially prepared untanned skins of animals—primarily sheep, calves, and goats.

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Phoenicia

Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.

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Pith

Pith, or medulla, is a tissue in the stems of vascular plants.

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Pliny the Elder

Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.

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Pope Victor II

Pope Victor II (c. 1018 – 28 July 1057), born Gebhard, Count of Calw, Tollenstein, and, was Pope from 13 April 1055 until his death in 1057.

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Pre-Greek substrate

The Pre-Greek substrate (or Pre-Greek substratum) consists of the unknown language or languages spoken in prehistoric ancient Greece before the settlement of Proto-Hellenic speakers in the area.

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Princeton Papyri

The Princeton University's collection of papyri, housed at the Princeton University, was compiled by Rosalie Cook and other papyrologists, working under the supervision of Don C. Skemer.

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Princeton University

Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey.

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Recto and verso

The terms recto and verso refer to the text written or printed on the "right" or "front" side and on the "back" side of a leaf of paper in a bound item such as a codex, book, broadsheet, or pamphlet.

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Red Sea

The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.

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Reed boat

Reed boats and rafts, along with dugout canoes and other rafts, are among the oldest known types of boats.

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Rhind Mathematical Papyrus

The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus (RMP; also designated as papyrus British Museum 10057 and pBM 10058) is one of the best known examples of Egyptian mathematics.

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Robert S. P. Beekes

Robert Stephen Paul Beekes (2 September 1937 – 21 September 2017) was Emeritus Professor of Comparative Indo-European Linguistics at Leiden University and the author of many monographs on the Proto-Indo-European language.

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Rope

A rope is a group of yarns, plies, fibers or strands that are twisted or braided together into a larger and stronger form.

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Rylands Papyri

The Rylands Papyri are a collection of thousands of papyrus fragments and documents from North Africa and Greece housed at the John Rylands University Library, Manchester, UK.

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Saite Oracle Papyrus

This papyrus was from the Late Period of ancient Egypt and records the petition of a man named Pemou on behalf of his father, Harsiese.

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Sandal

Sandals are an open type of footwear, consisting of a sole held to the wearer's foot by straps going over the instep and, sometimes, around the ankle.

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Schøyen Collection

The Schøyen Collection is the largest private manuscript collection in the world, mostly located in Oslo and London.

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Scotland

Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.

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Scroll

A scroll (from the Old French escroe or escroue), also known as a roll, is a roll of papyrus, parchment, or paper containing writing.

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Sicily

Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.

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Strasbourg papyrus

The Strasbourg papyrus is a papyrus made of six fragments on a single leaf written in Greek and conserved at the Strasbourg National University Library, cataloged Gr.

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Sudan

The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.

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Syracuse, Sicily

Syracuse (Siracusa,; Sarausa/Seragusa; Syrācūsae; Συράκουσαι, Syrakousai; Medieval Συρακοῦσαι) is a historic city on the island of Sicily, the capital of the Italian province of Syracuse.

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Theophrastus

Theophrastus (Θεόφραστος Theόphrastos; c. 371 – c. 287 BC), a Greek native of Eresos in Lesbos,Gavin Hardy and Laurence Totelin, Ancient Botany, 2015, p. 8.

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Twentieth Dynasty of Egypt

The Twentieth Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XX, alternatively 20th Dynasty or Dynasty 20) is classified as the third and last dynasty of the Ancient Egyptian New Kingdom period, lasting from 1189 BC to 1077 BC.

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University of Manchester Library

The University of Manchester Library is The University of Manchester's library and information service.

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University of Michigan

The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, or UMich), often simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan.

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University of Michigan Papyrology Collection

The Papyrology Collection of the University of Michigan Library is an internationally respected collection of ancient papyrus and a center for research on ancient culture, language, and history.

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Vellum

Vellum is prepared animal skin or "membrane" used as a material for writing on.

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Villa of the Papyri

The Villa of the Papyri (Villa dei Papiri, also known as Villa dei Pisoni) is named after its unique library of papyri (or scrolls), but is also one of the most luxurious houses in all of Herculaneum and in the Roman world.

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Wadi al-Jarf

Wadi al-Jarf (وادي الجرف) is the present name for an area on the Red Sea coast of Egypt, south of Suez, that is the site of the oldest known artificial harbour in the world.

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Washington University Libraries

Washington University Libraries is the library system of Washington University in St. Louis.

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Wax tablet

A wax tablet is a tablet made of wood and covered with a layer of wax, often linked loosely to a cover tablet, as a "double-leaved" diptych.

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Will of Naunakhte

The will of Naunakhte (also referred to as Naunakht) is a papyrus found at the workmen's village of Deir el-Medina that dates to the 20th dynasty during the reign of Ramesses V (Černý 1945 pg. 29).

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William Tyssen-Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst of Hackney

William Amhurst Tyssen-Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst of Hackney DL, JP (25 April 1835 – 16 January 1909) was a British Conservative Member of Parliament and collector of books and works of art.

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Writing material

Writing material refers to the materials that provide the surfaces on which humans use writing instruments to inscribe writings.

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Papyri, Papyrii.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Papyrus

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