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Index Paracetamol

--> Acetanilide was the first aniline derivative serendipitously found to possess analgesic as well as antipyretic properties, and was quickly introduced into medical practice under the name of Antifebrin by A. Cahn and P. Hepp in 1886. But its unacceptable toxic effects, the most alarming being cyanosis due to methemoglobinemia, prompted the search for less toxic aniline derivatives. Harmon Northrop Morse had already synthesised paracetamol at Johns Hopkins University via the reduction of ''p''-nitrophenol with tin in glacial acetic acid in 1877, but it was not until 1887 that clinical pharmacologist Joseph von Mering tried paracetamol on humans. In 1893, von Mering published a paper reporting on the clinical results of paracetamol with phenacetin, another aniline derivative. Von Mering claimed that, unlike phenacetin, paracetamol had a slight tendency to produce methemoglobinemia. Paracetamol was then quickly discarded in favor of phenacetin. The sales of phenacetin established Bayer as a leading pharmaceutical company. Overshadowed in part by aspirin, introduced into medicine by Heinrich Dreser in 1899, phenacetin was popular for many decades, particularly in widely advertised over-the-counter "headache mixtures", usually containing phenacetin, an aminopyrine derivative of aspirin, caffeine, and sometimes a barbiturate. Paracetamol is the active metabolite of phenacetin and acetanilide, both once popular as analgesics and antipyretics in their own right. However, unlike phenacetin, acetanilide and their combinations, paracetamol is not considered carcinogenic at therapeutic doses. Von Mering's claims remained essentially unchallenged for half a century, until two teams of researchers from the United States analyzed the metabolism of acetanilide and paracetamol. In 1947 David Lester and Leon Greenberg found strong evidence that paracetamol was a major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and in a subsequent study they reported that large doses of paracetamol given to albino rats did not cause methemoglobinemia. In three papers published in the September 1948 issue of the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Bernard Brodie, Julius Axelrod and Frederick Flinn confirmed using more specific methods that paracetamol was the major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and established that it was just as efficacious an analgesic as its precursor. They also suggested that methemoglobinemia is produced in humans mainly by another metabolite, phenylhydroxylamine. A follow-up paper by Brodie and Axelrod in 1949 established that phenacetin was also metabolised to paracetamol. This led to a "rediscovery" of paracetamol. It has been suggested that contamination of paracetamol with 4-aminophenol, the substance von Mering synthesised it from, may be the cause for his spurious findings. Paracetamol was first marketed in the United States in 1950 under the name Triagesic, a combination of paracetamol, aspirin, and caffeine. Reports in 1951 of three users stricken with the blood disease agranulocytosis led to its removal from the marketplace, and it took several years until it became clear that the disease was unconnected. Paracetamol was marketed in 1953 by Sterling-Winthrop Co. as Panadol, available only by prescription, and promoted as preferable to aspirin since it was safe for children and people with ulcers. In 1955, paracetamol was marketed as Children's Tylenol Elixir by McNeil Laboratories. In 1956, 500 mg tablets of paracetamol went on sale in the United Kingdom under the trade name Panadol, produced by Frederick Stearns & Co, a subsidiary of Sterling Drug Inc. In 1963, paracetamol was added to the British Pharmacopoeia, and has gained popularity since then as an analgesic agent with few side-effects and little interaction with other pharmaceutical agents. Concerns about paracetamol's safety delayed its widespread acceptance until the 1970s, but in the 1980s paracetamol sales exceeded those of aspirin in many countries, including the United Kingdom. This was accompanied by the commercial demise of phenacetin, blamed as the cause of analgesic nephropathy and hematological toxicity. In 1988 Sterling Winthrop was acquired by Eastman Kodak which sold the over the counter drug rights to SmithKline Beecham in 1994. Available without a prescription since 1959, it has since become a common household drug. Patents on paracetamol have long expired, and generic versions of the drug are widely available. [1]

223 relations: Acetamide, Acetanilide, Acetic acid, Acetic anhydride, Acetylcysteine, Activated carbon, Acute liver failure, Agranulocytosis, Alcoholism, AM404, American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Physicians, American College of Rheumatology, American Pain Society, Amide, Aminophenazone, Ammonium acetate, Analgesic, Analgesic nephropathy, Anandamide, Aniline, Anti-inflammatory, Antiplatelet drug, Antipyretic, Arene substitution pattern, Arthritis Research & Therapy, Arthritis Research UK, Asphyxia, Aspirin, Asthma, Atomic orbital, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Australian Approved Name, Barbiturate, Base (chemistry), Bayer, BBC News, Beckmann rearrangement, Benzene, Bernard Brodie (biochemist), Bladder cancer, Breastfeeding, British Approved Name, British Pharmacopoeia, Brown tree snake, Buccal administration, Butalbital, Caffeine, Cancer pain, Cannabinoid, ..., Capsule (pharmacy), Carbonyl group, Carcinogen, Celanese, Central nervous system, Charles Frédéric Gerhardt, Chemische Berichte, Chlorphenamine, Cinchona, Clinical Chemistry (journal), Co-codamol, Co-dydramol, Coagulation, Cochrane (organisation), Codeine, Compounding, Confounding, Conjugated system, Cough medicine, Cyanosis, Cyclooxygenase, CYP2E1, CYP3A4, Cysteine, Cytochrome P450, David Lester (biochemist), Developing country, Dextropropoxyphene, Diclofenac, Dihydrocodeine, Diphenhydramine, Doxylamine, Drug metabolism, Drug overdose, Ductus arteriosus, Effervescence, Electrophile, Electrophilic aromatic substitution, Endocannabinoid system, European Medicines Agency, Felix Hoffmann, Fever, Food and Drug Administration, Generic drug, GlaxoSmithKline, Glucuronidation, Glucuronide, Glucuronosyltransferase, Glutathione, Guaifenesin, Guam, Harmon Northrop Morse, Health system, Heinrich Dreser, Heinz body, Hemolytic anemia, Hepatotoxicity, Hoechst AG, Hydrocodone, Hydrolysis, Hydroquinone, Hydroxy group, Hydroxylamine, Ibuprofen, Indometacin, Indophenol, International nonproprietary name, Intramuscular injection, Intravenous therapy, Ion, Isozyme, Japanese Accepted Name, Johns Hopkins University, Joseph von Mering, Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data, Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Julius Axelrod, Kidney disease, Kidney failure, Kilogram, Kodak, Liver, Liver failure, Liver transplantation, Lone pair, Malaria, McNeil Consumer Healthcare, Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency, Metabolic pathway, Metabolite, Methemoglobin, Methemoglobinemia, Methionine, Methylene blue, Metol, Migraine, NAPQI, Naproxen, National Health Service, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, Nausea, Nitration, Nitro compound, Nitrogen, Nomogram, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Opioid, Oral administration, Over-the-counter drug, Oxime, Oxycodone, Pain, Paracetamol brand names, Paracetamol poisoning, Patent, Patent ductus arteriosus, Phenacetin, Phenol, Phenylephrine, Phenylhydroxylamine, Poison control center, Pregnancy, ProPublica, Prostaglandin E2, Prostaglandin EP2 receptor, Prostaglandin EP3 receptor, Prostaglandin EP4 receptor, Public Radio International, Quinine, Recreational drug use, Rectal administration, Rectum, Renal cell carcinoma, Restless legs syndrome, Reye syndrome, Route of administration, Salicin, Salicylic acid, Sodium nitrate, Steam distillation, Sterling Drug, Stevens–Johnson syndrome, Substituent, Sulfate, SULT1A1, Suppository, Symptom, Tablet (pharmacy), The Boston Globe, The Medical Journal of Australia, The New York Times, Thiol, This American Life, Tin, Toxic epidermal necrolysis, Toxication, TRPV1, Tylenol (brand), UDP glucuronosyltransferase 1 family, polypeptide A1, United States Adopted Name, United States dollar, Upper gastrointestinal bleeding, Vitamin C, Volume of distribution, Vomiting, WBEZ, Western world, WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, Willow, World Health Organization, 1,4-Benzoquinone, 4-Aminophenol, 4-Nitrophenol. Expand index (173 more) »


Acetamide (systematic name: ethanamide) is an organic compound with the formula CH3CONH2.

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Acetanilide is an odourless solid chemical of leaf or flake-like appearance.

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Acetic acid

Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2).

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Acetic anhydride

Acetic anhydride, or ethanoic anhydride, is the chemical compound with the formula (CH3CO)2O.

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Acetylcysteine, also known as N-acetylcysteine (NAC), is a medication that is used to treat paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose, and to loosen thick mucus in individuals with cystic fibrosis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

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Activated carbon

Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal, is a form of carbon processed to have small, low-volume pores that increase the surface area available for adsorption or chemical reactions.

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Acute liver failure

Acute liver failure is the appearance of severe complications rapidly after the first signs of liver disease (such as jaundice), and indicates that the liver has sustained severe damage (loss of function of 80–90% of liver cells).

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Agranulocytosis, also known as agranulosis or granulopenia, is an acute condition involving a severe and dangerous leukopenia (lowered white blood cell count), most commonly of neutrophils causing a neutropenia in the circulating blood.

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Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems.

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AM404, also known as N-arachidonoylaminophenol, is an active metabolite of paracetamol (acetaminophen), responsible for all or part of its analgesic action and anticonvulsant effects.

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American Academy of Pediatrics

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is an American professional association of pediatricians, headquartered in Itasca, Illinois.

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American College of Physicians

The American College of Physicians (ACP) is a national organization of internal medicineAmerican Board of Medical Specialties -. Retrieved 20 October 2014 physicians (internists)Mercy Cedar Rapids -. Retrieved 20 October 2014—specialists who apply scientific knowledge and clinical expertise to the diagnosis, treatment, and compassionate care of adults across the spectrum from health to complex illness.

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American College of Rheumatology

The American College of Rheumatology is an organization of and for physicians, health professionals, and scientists that advances rheumatology through programs of education, research, advocacy and practice support that foster excellence in the care of people with arthritis and rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases.

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American Pain Society

The American Pain Society (APS) is a professional membership organization and a national chapter of the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP).

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An amide (or or), also known as an acid amide, is a compound with the functional group RnE(O)xNR′2 (R and R′ refer to H or organic groups).

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Aminophenazone (or aminopyrine, amidopyrine, Piramidon) is a pyrazolone with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties but has risk of agranulocytosis.

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Ammonium acetate

Ammonium acetate, also known as spirit of Mindererus in aqueous solution, is a chemical compound with the formula NH4CH3CO2.

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An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.

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Analgesic nephropathy

Analgesic nephropathy is injury to the kidneys caused by analgesic medications such as aspirin, phenacetin, and paracetamol.

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Anandamide, also known as N-arachidonoylethanolamine or AEA, is a fatty acid neurotransmitter derived from the non-oxidative metabolism of eicosatetraenoic acid (arachidonic acid) an essential ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid.

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Aniline is an organic compound with the formula C6H5NH2.

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Anti-inflammatory, or antiinflammatory, refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation or swelling.

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Antiplatelet drug

An antiplatelet drug (antiaggregant) is a member of a class of pharmaceuticals that decrease platelet aggregation and inhibit thrombus formation.

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Antipyretics (from anti- 'against' and 'feverish') are substances that reduce fever.

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Arene substitution pattern

Arene substitution patterns are part of organic chemistry IUPAC nomenclature and pinpoint the position of substituents other than hydrogen in relation to each other on an aromatic hydrocarbon.

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Arthritis Research & Therapy

Arthritis Research & Therapy, formerly Arthritis Research, is a peer-reviewed open access medical journal covering the field of cellular and molecular mechanisms of arthritis, musculoskeletal conditions, and systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases.

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Arthritis Research UK

Arthritis Research UK is a British medical research charity dedicated to curing arthritis.

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Asphyxia or asphyxiation is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body that arises from abnormal breathing.

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Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.

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Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.

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Atomic orbital

In quantum mechanics, an atomic orbital is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom.

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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.

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Australian Approved Name

An Australian Approved Name (AAN) is a generic drug name set by the TGA for use in Australia.

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A barbiturate is a drug that acts as a central nervous system depressant, and can therefore produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to death.

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Base (chemistry)

In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.

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Bayer AG is a German multinational, pharmaceutical and life sciences company.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Beckmann rearrangement

The Beckmann rearrangement, named after the German chemist Ernst Otto Beckmann (1853–1923), is an acid-catalyzed rearrangement of an oxime to substituted amide.

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Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.

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Bernard Brodie (biochemist)

Bernard Beryl Brodie (7 August 1907 – 28 February 1989), a leading researcher on drug therapy, is considered by many to be the founder of modern pharmacology and brought the field to prominence in the 1940s and 1950s.

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Bladder cancer

Bladder cancer is any of several types of cancer arising from the tissues of the urinary bladder.

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Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast.

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British Approved Name

A British Approved Name (BAN) is the official non-proprietary or generic name given to a pharmaceutical substance, as defined in the British Pharmacopoeia (BP).

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British Pharmacopoeia

The British Pharmacopoeia (BP) is the national pharmacopoeia of the United Kingdom.

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Brown tree snake

The brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis) is an arboreal rear-fanged colubrid snake native to eastern and northern coastal Australia, eastern Indonesia (Sulawesi to Papua), Papua New Guinea, and a large number of islands in northwestern Melanesia.

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Buccal administration

Buccal administration refers to a topical route of administration by which drugs held or applied in the buccal area (in the cheek) diffuse through the oral mucosa (tissues which line the mouth) and enter directly into the bloodstream.

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Butalbital is a barbiturate with an intermediate duration of action.

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Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.

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Cancer pain

Pain in cancer may arise from a tumor compressing or infiltrating nearby body parts; from treatments and diagnostic procedures; or from skin, nerve and other changes caused by a hormone imbalance or immune response.

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A cannabinoid is one of a class of diverse chemical compounds that acts on cannabinoid receptors in cells that alter neurotransmitter release in the brain.

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Capsule (pharmacy)

In the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, encapsulation refers to a range of dosage forms—techniques used to enclose medicines—in a relatively stable shell known as a capsule, allowing them to, for example, be taken orally or be used as suppositories.

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Carbonyl group

In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom: C.

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A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.

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Celanese Corporation, also known as Hoechst Celanese, is a Fortune 500 global technology and specialty materials company with its headquarters in Irving, Texas, United States.

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Central nervous system

The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.

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Charles Frédéric Gerhardt

Charles Frédéric Gerhardt (21 August 1816 – 19 August 1856) was a French chemist.

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Chemische Berichte

Chemische Berichte (usually abbreviated as Ber. or Chem. Ber.) was a German-language scientific journal of all disciplines of chemistry founded in 1868.

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Chlorphenamine (also known as chlorpheniramine, CP, or CPM) is a first-generation antihistamine used in the prevention of the symptoms of allergic conditions such as rhinitis and urticaria.

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Cinchona is a genus of flowering plants in the family Rubiaceae containing at least 23 species of trees and shrubs.

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Clinical Chemistry (journal)

Clinical Chemistry is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering the field of clinical chemistry.

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Codeine/acetaminophen or co-codamol (BAN) is a compound analgesic consisting of a combination of codeine phosphate and paracetamol (acetaminophen).

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Co-dydramol (BAN) is a non-proprietary name used to denote a particular compound analgesic, a combination of dihydrocodeine tartrate and paracetamol.

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Coagulation (also known as clotting) is the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a blood clot.

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Cochrane (organisation)

Cochrane is a non-profit, non-governmental organization formed to organize medical research findings so as to facilitate evidence-based choices about health interventions faced by health professionals, patients, and policy makers.

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Codeine is an opiate used to treat pain, as a cough medicine, and for diarrhea. It is typically used to treat mild to moderate degrees of pain. Greater benefit may occur when combined with paracetamol (acetaminophen) or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) such as aspirin or ibuprofen. Evidence does not support its use for acute cough suppression in children or adults. In Europe it is not recommended as a cough medicine in those under twelve years of age. It is generally taken by mouth. It typically starts working after half an hour with maximum effect at two hours. The total duration of its effects last for about four to six hours. Common side effects include vomiting, constipation, itchiness, lightheadedness, and drowsiness. Serious side effects may include breathing difficulties and addiction. It is unclear if its use in pregnancy is safe. Care should be used during breastfeeding as it may result in opiate toxicity in the baby. Its use as of 2016 is not recommended in children. Codeine works following being broken down by the liver into morphine. How quickly this occurs depends on a person's genetics. Codeine was discovered in 1832 by Pierre Jean Robiquet. In 2013 about 361,000 kilograms of codeine were produced while 249,000 kilograms were used. This makes it the most commonly taken opiate. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 0.04 and 0.29 USD per dose as of 2014. In the United States it costs about one dollar a dose. Codeine occurs naturally and makes up about 2% of opium.

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Pharmaceutical compounding (done in compounding pharmacies) is the creation of a particular pharmaceutical product to fit the unique need of a patient.

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In statistics, a confounder (also confounding variable, confounding factor or lurking variable) is a variable that influences both the dependent variable and independent variable causing a spurious association.

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Conjugated system

In chemistry, a conjugated system is a system of connected p-orbitals with delocalized electrons in molecules which are conventionally represented as having alternating single and multiple bonds, which in general may lower the overall energy of the molecule and increase stability.

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Cough medicine

Cough medicines are medications used in those with coughing and related conditions.

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Cyanosis is defined as the bluish or purplish discolouration of the skin or mucous membranes due to the tissues near the skin surface having low oxygen saturation.

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Cyclooxygenase (COX), officially known as prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (PTGS), is an enzyme (specifically, a family of isozymes) that is responsible for formation of prostanoids, including thromboxane and prostaglandins such as prostacyclin, from arachidonic acid.

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Cytochrome P450 2E1 (abbreviated CYP2E1) is a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system, which is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics in the body.

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Cytochrome P450 3A4 (abbreviated CYP3A4) is an important enzyme in the body, mainly found in the liver and in the intestine.

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Cysteine (symbol Cys or C) is a semi-essential proteinogenic amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH.

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Cytochrome P450

Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are proteins of the superfamily containing heme as a cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.

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David Lester (biochemist)

David Lester (January 22, 1916 – September 15, 1990) was an American biochemist who did extensive studies of alcoholism and was a professor at Rutgers University.

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Developing country

A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.

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Dextropropoxyphene is an analgesic in the opioid category, patented in 1955 and manufactured by Eli Lilly and Company.

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Diclofenac (sold under a number of trade names) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) taken or applied to reduce inflammation and as an analgesic reducing pain in certain conditions.

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Dihydrocodeine is a semi-synthetic opioid analgesic prescribed for pain or severe dyspnea, or as an antitussive, either alone or compounded with paracetamol (as in co-dydramol) or aspirin.

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Diphenhydramine is an antihistamine mainly used to treat allergies.

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Doxylamine is a first-generation antihistamine.

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Drug metabolism

Drug metabolism is the metabolic breakdown of drugs by living organisms, usually through specialized enzymatic systems.

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Drug overdose

The term drug overdose (or simply overdose or OD) describes the ingestion or application of a drug or other substance in quantities greater than are recommended or generally practiced.

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Ductus arteriosus

In the developing fetus, the ductus arteriosus, also called the ductus Botalli, is a blood vessel connecting the main pulmonary artery to the proximal descending aorta.

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Effervescence is the escape of gas from an aqueous solution and the foaming or fizzing that results from that release.

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In organic chemistry, an electrophile is a reagent attracted to electrons.

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Electrophilic aromatic substitution

Electrophilic aromatic substitution is an organic reaction in which an atom that is attached to an aromatic system (usually hydrogen) is replaced by an electrophile.

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Endocannabinoid system

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a biological system composed of endocannabinoids, which are endogenous lipid-based retrograde neurotransmitters that bind to cannabinoid receptors, and cannabinoid receptor proteins that are expressed throughout the mammalian central nervous system (including the brain) and peripheral nervous system.

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European Medicines Agency

The European Medicines Agency (EMA) is a European Union agency for the evaluation of medicinal products.

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Felix Hoffmann

Felix Hoffmann was born on 21 January 1868 in Ludwigsburg, the son of an industrialist.

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Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.

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Food and Drug Administration

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.

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Generic drug

A generic drug is a pharmaceutical drug that is equivalent to a brand-name product in dosage, strength, route of administration, quality, performance, and intended use, but does not carry the brand name.

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GlaxoSmithKline plc (GSK) is a British pharmaceutical company headquartered in Brentford, London.

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Glucuronidation is often involved in drug metabolism of substances such as drugs, pollutants, bilirubin, androgens, estrogens, mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, fatty acid derivatives, retinoids, and bile acids.

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A glucuronide, also known as glucuronoside, is any substance produced by linking glucuronic acid to another substance via a glycosidic bond.

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Uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, UGT) is a cytosolic glycosyltransferase that catalyzes the transfer of the glucuronic acid component of UDP-glucuronic acid to a small hydrophobic molecule.

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Glutathione (GSH) is an important antioxidant in plants, animals, fungi, and some bacteria and archaea.

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Guaifenesin, also known as guaiphenesin or glyceryl guaiacolate, is an expectorant medication sold over the counter and usually taken by mouth to assist the bringing up (expectoration) of phlegm from the airways in acute respiratory tract infections.

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Guam (Chamorro: Guåhån) is an unincorporated and organized territory of the United States in Micronesia in the western Pacific Ocean.

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Harmon Northrop Morse

Harmon Northrop Morse (October 15, 1848 – September 8, 1920) was an American chemist.

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Health system

A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or as healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.

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Heinrich Dreser

Heinrich Dreser (1 October 1860 – December 21, 1924) was a German chemist responsible for the aspirin and heroin projects at Bayer AG.

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Heinz body

Heinz bodies (also referred to as "Heinz-Ehrlich bodies") are inclusions within red blood cells composed of denatured hemoglobin.

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Hemolytic anemia

Hemolytic anemia or haemolytic anaemia is a form of anemia due to hemolysis, the abnormal breakdown of red blood cells (RBCs), either in the blood vessels (intravascular hemolysis) or elsewhere in the human body (extravascular, but usually in the spleen).

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Hepatotoxicity (from hepatic toxicity) implies chemical-driven liver damage.

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Hoechst AG

Hoechst AG was a German chemicals then life-sciences company that became Aventis Deutschland after its merger with France's Rhône-Poulenc S.A. in 1999.

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Hydrocodone, sold under brand names such as Vicodin and Norco among many others, is a semisynthetic opioid derived from codeine, one of the opioid alkaloids found in the opium poppy.

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Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.

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Hydroquinone, also benzene-1,4-diol or quinol, is an aromatic organic compound that is a type of phenol, a derivative of benzene, having the chemical formula C6H4(OH)2.

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Hydroxy group

A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.

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Hydroxylamine is an inorganic compound with the formula NH2OH.

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Ibuprofen is a medication in the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) class that is used for treating pain, fever, and inflammation.

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Indometacin (INN; or USAN indomethacin) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) commonly used as a prescription medication to reduce fever, pain, stiffness, and swelling from inflammation.

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Indophenol is an organic compound with the formula OC6H4NC6H4OH.

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International nonproprietary name

The International Nonproprietary Name (INN) is an official generic and non-proprietary name given to a pharmaceutical drug or an active ingredient.

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Intramuscular injection

Intramuscular (also IM or im) injection is the injection of a substance directly into muscle.

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Intravenous therapy

Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).

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An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).

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Isozymes (also known as isoenzymes or more generally as multiple forms of enzymes) are enzymes that differ in amino acid sequence but catalyze the same chemical reaction.

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Japanese Accepted Name

A Japanese Accepted Name (JAN) is the official non-proprietary or generic name given to a pharmaceutical substance by the government of Japan.

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Johns Hopkins University

Johns Hopkins University is an American private research university in Baltimore, Maryland.

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Joseph von Mering

Josef, Baron von Mering (28 February 1849, in Cologne – 5 January 1908, at Halle an der Saale, Germany) was a German physician.

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Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data

The Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data is a peer-reviewed scientific journal, published since 1956 by the American Chemical Society.

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Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics

The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics (a.k.a. JPET) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering pharmacology.

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Julius Axelrod

Julius Axelrod (May 30, 1912 – December 29, 2004) was an American biochemist.

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Kidney disease

Kidney disease, or renal disease, also known as nephropathy, is damage to or disease of a kidney.

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Kidney failure

Kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer work.

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The kilogram or kilogramme (symbol: kg) is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI), and is defined as being equal to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram (IPK, also known as "Le Grand K" or "Big K"), a cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy stored by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Saint-Cloud, France.

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The Eastman Kodak Company (referred to simply as Kodak) is an American technology company that produces imaging products with its historic basis on photography.

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The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.

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Liver failure

Liver failure or hepatic insufficiency is the inability of the liver to perform its normal synthetic and metabolic function as part of normal physiology.

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Liver transplantation

Liver transplantation or hepatic transplantation is the replacement of a diseased liver with the healthy liver from another person (allograft).

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Lone pair

In chemistry, a lone pair refers to a pair of valence electrons that are not shared with another atomIUPAC Gold Book definition: and is sometimes called a non-bonding pair.

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Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.

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McNeil Consumer Healthcare

McNeil Consumer Healthcare is an American medicals products company belonging to the Johnson & Johnson healthcare products group.

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Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency

The Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) is an executive agency of the Department of Health and Social Care in the United Kingdom which is responsible for ensuring that medicines and medical devices work and are acceptably safe.

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Metabolic pathway

In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a linked series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell.

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A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.

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Methemoglobin (English: methaemoglobin) (pronounced "met-hemoglobin") is a form of the oxygen-carrying metalloprotein hemoglobin, in which the iron in the heme group is in the Fe3+ (ferric) state, not the Fe2+ (ferrous) of normal hemoglobin.

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Methemoglobinemia is a condition caused by elevated levels of methemoglobin in the blood.

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Methionine (symbol Met or M) is an essential amino acid in humans.

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Methylene blue

Methylene blue, also known as methylthioninium chloride, is a medication and dye.

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Metol is the organic compound with the formula HSO4.

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A migraine is a primary headache disorder characterized by recurrent headaches that are moderate to severe.

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NAPBQI (N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine) is a toxic byproduct produced during the xenobiotic metabolism of the analgesic paracetamol (acetaminophen).

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Naproxen (brand names: Aleve, Naprosyn, and many others) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) of the propionic acid class (the same class as ibuprofen) that relieves pain, fever, swelling, and stiffness.

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National Health Service

The National Health Service (NHS) is the name used for each of the public health services in the United Kingdom – the National Health Service in England, NHS Scotland, NHS Wales, and Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland – as well as a term to describe them collectively.

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National Institute for Health and Care Excellence

The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) is an executive non-departmental public body of the Department of Health in the United Kingdom, which publishes guidelines in four areas.

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Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.

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Nitration is a general class of chemical process for the introduction of a nitro group into an organic chemical compound.

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Nitro compound

Nitro compounds are organic compounds that contain one or more nitro functional groups (−2).

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Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.

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A nomogram (from Greek νόμος nomos, "law" and γραμμή grammē, "line"), also called a nomograph, alignment chart or abaque, is a graphical calculating device, a two-dimensional diagram designed to allow the approximate graphical computation of a mathematical function.

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Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a drug class that reduce pain, decrease fever, prevent blood clots and, in higher doses, decrease inflammation.

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Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.

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Oral administration

| name.

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Over-the-counter drug

Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional, as opposed to prescription drugs, which may be sold only to consumers possessing a valid prescription.

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An oxime is a chemical compound belonging to the imines, with the general formula R1R2C.

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Oxycodone, sold under brand names such as Percocet and OxyContin among many others, is an opioid medication which is used for the relief of moderate to severe pain.

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Pain is a distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli.

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Paracetamol brand names

The analgesic (pain reliever) and antipyretic (fever reducer) paracetamol (INN), also known as acetaminophen (USAN), is sold around the world under a number of different brand names.

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Paracetamol poisoning

Paracetamol poisoning, also known as acetaminophen poisoning, is caused by excessive use of the medication paracetamol (acetaminophen).

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A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state or intergovernmental organization to an inventor or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for detailed public disclosure of an invention.

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Patent ductus arteriosus

Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a condition wherein the ductus arteriosus fails to close after birth.

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Phenacetin (or acetophenetidin) is a pain-relieving and fever-reducing drug, which was widely used between its introduction in 1887 and the 1983 ban imposed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

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Phenol, also known as phenolic acid, is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH.

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Phenylephrine is a selective α1-adrenergic receptor agonist of the phenethylamine class used primarily as a decongestant, as an agent to dilate the pupil, to increase blood pressure, and to relieve hemorrhoids.

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Phenylhydroxylamine is the organic compound with the formula C6H5NHOH.

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Poison control center

A poison control center is a medical facility that is able to provide immediate, free, and expert treatment advice and assistance over the telephone in case of exposure to poisonous or hazardous substances.

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Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.

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ProPublica is an American nonprofit organization based in New York City.

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Prostaglandin E2

Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), also known as dinoprostone, is a naturally occurring prostaglandin which is used as a medication.

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Prostaglandin EP2 receptor

Prostaglandin E2 receptor 2 (53kDa), also known as EP2, is a prostaglandin receptor for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) encoded by the human gene PTGER2: it is one of four identified EP receptors, the others being EP1, EP3, and EP4, which bind with and mediate cellular responses to PGE2 and also, but with lesser affinity and responsiveness, certain other prostanoids (see Prostaglandin receptors).

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Prostaglandin EP3 receptor

Prostaglandin EP3 receptor (53kDa), also known as EP3, is a prostaglandin receptor for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) encoded by the human gene PTGER3;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/5733 it is one of four identified EP receptors, the others being EP1, EP2, and EP4, all of which bind with and mediate cellular responses to PGE2 and also, but generally with lesser affinity and responsiveness, certain other prostanoids (see Prostaglandin receptors).

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Prostaglandin EP4 receptor

Prostaglandin E2 receptor 4 (EP4) is a prostaglandin receptor for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) encoded by the PTGER4 gene in humans; it is one of four identified EP receptors, the others being EP1, EP2, and EP3, all of which bind with and mediate cellular responses to PGE2 and also, but generally with lesser affinity and responsiveness, certain other prostanoids (see Prostaglandin receptors).

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Public Radio International

Public Radio International (PRI) is an American public radio organization.

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Quinine is a medication used to treat malaria and babesiosis.

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Recreational drug use

Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.

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Rectal administration

Rectal administration uses the rectum as a route of administration for medication and other fluids, which are absorbed by the rectum's blood vessels,The rectum has numerous blood vessels available to absorb drugs.

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The rectum is the final straight portion of the large intestine in humans and some other mammals, and the gut in others.

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Renal cell carcinoma

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a kidney cancer that originates in the lining of the proximal convoluted tubule, a part of the very small tubes in the kidney that transport primary urine.

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Restless legs syndrome

Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a disorder that causes a strong urge to move one's legs.

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Reye syndrome

Reye syndrome is a rapidly progressive encephalopathy.

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Route of administration

A route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body.

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Salicin is an alcoholic β-glucoside.

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Salicylic acid

Salicylic acid (from Latin salix, willow tree) is a lipophilic monohydroxybenzoic acid, a type of phenolic acid, and a beta hydroxy acid (BHA).

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Sodium nitrate

Sodium nitrate is the chemical compound with the formula NaNO3.

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Steam distillation

Steam distillation is a special type of distillation (a separation process) for temperature sensitive materials like natural aromatic compounds.

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Sterling Drug

Sterling Drug was an American global pharmaceutical company, known as Sterling-Winthrop, Inc. after the merger with Winthrop-Stearns Inc. (which resulted from the merger of Winthrop Chemical Company Inc. and Frederick Stearns & Company).

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Stevens–Johnson syndrome

Stevens–Johnson syndrome (SJS) is a type of severe skin reaction.

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In organic chemistry and biochemistry, a substituent is an atom or group of atoms which replaces one or more hydrogen atoms on the parent chain of a hydrocarbon, becoming a moiety of the resultant new molecule.

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The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.

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Sulfotransferase 1A1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SULT1A1 gene.

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A suppository is a solid dosage form that is inserted into the rectum (rectal suppository), vagina (vaginal suppository), or urethra (urethral suppository), where it dissolves or melts and exerts local or systemic effects.

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A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls", from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease.

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Tablet (pharmacy)

A tablet is a pharmaceutical dosage form.

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The Boston Globe

The Boston Globe (sometimes abbreviated as The Globe) is an American daily newspaper founded and based in Boston, Massachusetts, since its creation by Charles H. Taylor in 1872.

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The Medical Journal of Australia

The Medical Journal of Australia is a peer-reviewed medical journal.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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Thiol is an organosulfur compound that contains a carbon-bonded sulfhydryl (R–SH) group (where R represents an alkyl or other organic substituent).

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This American Life

This American Life (TAL) is an American weekly hour-long radio program produced in collaboration with Chicago Public Media and hosted by Ira Glass.

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Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.

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Toxic epidermal necrolysis

Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a type of severe skin reaction.

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Toxication or toxification is the conversion of a chemical compound into a more toxic form in living organisms or in substrates such as soil or water.

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The transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TrpV1), also known as the capsaicin receptor and the vanilloid receptor 1, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the TRPV1 gene.

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Tylenol (brand)

Tylenol is a brand of drugs advertised for reducing pain, reducing fever, and relieving the symptoms of allergies, cold, cough headache, and influenza.

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UDP glucuronosyltransferase 1 family, polypeptide A1

UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1 also known as UGT-1A is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the UGT1A1 gene.

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United States Adopted Name

United States Adopted Names are unique nonproprietary names assigned to pharmaceuticals marketed in the United States.

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United States dollar

The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.

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Upper gastrointestinal bleeding

Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is gastrointestinal bleeding in the upper gastrointestinal tract, commonly defined as bleeding arising from the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum.

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Vitamin C

Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.

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Volume of distribution

In pharmacology, the volume of distribution (VD, also known as apparent volume of distribution) is the theoretical volume that would be necessary to contain the total amount of an administered drug at the same concentration that it is observed in the blood plasma.

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Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.

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WBEZ is a nonprofit public radio station broadcasting from Chicago, Illinois.

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Western world

The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.

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WHO Model List of Essential Medicines

The WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (EML), published by the World Health Organization (WHO), contains the medications considered to be most effective and safe to meet the most important needs in a health system.

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Willows, also called sallows, and osiers, form the genus Salix, around 400 speciesMabberley, D.J. 1997.

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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.

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1,4-Benzoquinone, commonly known as para-quinone, is a chemical compound with the formula C6H4O2.

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4-Aminophenol (or para-aminophenol or p-aminophenol) is the organic compound with the formula H2NC6H4OH.

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4-Nitrophenol (also called p-nitrophenol or 4-hydroxynitrobenzene) is a phenolic compound that has a nitro group at the opposite position of the hydroxyl group on the benzene ring.

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ATC code N02BE01, ATCvet code QN02BE01, Abenol, Abensanil, Acamol, Accu-Tap, Acephen, Aceta Elixir, Aceta Tablets, Acetagesic, Acetalgin, Acetamanophen, Acetamenophan, Acetamenophen, Acetamenophin, Acetaminofen, Acetaminophen, Aceteminophen, Aceteminophin, Acetominophen, Acetominophin, Actamin, Actimol, Algotropyl, Alpiny, Alpinyl, Alvedon, Amadil, Aminofen, Anacin-3, Anaflon, Anapap, Anelix, Anhiba, Apacet, Apadon, Apamid, Apamide, Arthrolur, Atasol, Avcamol, Banesin, Bayer Select, Becetamol, Bickie-mol, Butapap, Captin, Cetadol, Clixodyne, Co-Gesic, Conacetol, Crocin Brand, Crocin India, Dafalgan, Dapa X-S, Datril, Dexamol, Dimindol, Dirox, Disprol, Dolene AP-65, Dolex, Doliprane, Dololur, Dolprone, Drixoral Plus, Dularin, Dymadon, Dypap, Elixodyne, Enelfa, Eneril, Eu-Med, Exdol, Febridol, Febrilix, Febrinol, Febro-Gesic, Febrolin, Fendon, FeverAll, Feverall, Fevor, Finimal, Genapap, Genebs, Hedex, Homoolan, Hy-Phen, Influbene, Injectapap, Janupap, Korum, Lestemp, Liquagesic, Liquiprin, Lonarid, Lyteca, Multin, Napafen, Napap, Naprinol, Nealgyl, Nebs, Neo-Kiddielets, Neopap, Neotrend, Nobedon, Ofirmev, Oraphen-PD, Ortensan, Pacemo, Painex, Paldesic, Panadol, Panaleve, Panasorb, Panets, Panex, Panocod, Panodil, Panofen, Papa-Deine, Para-acetylaminophenol, Paracet, Paracetam, Paracetamolum, Paracetemol, Paracetimol, Paracetomol, Paradote, Parahexal, Paraspen, Parelan, Parmol, Pasolind, Pasolind N, Pedric, Perdolan, Perfalgan, Phenaphen Caplets, Phendon, Propacet 100, Proval, Pyrinazine, Redutemp, Rivalgyl, Robigesic, Rounox, SK-Apap, Salzone, Sedapap, Seranex, Servigesic, Snaplets-FR, St. Joseph Fever Reducer, Suppap, Synalgos-Dc-A, Tabalgin, Tapanol, Tapar, Temlo, Tempanal, Tencon, Tibizide, Tisin, Tisiodrazida, Tizide, Tralgon, Triaprin, Tussapap, Tycolet, Tylenol (drug redirect), Tylenol PM, Tylenol cold, Tylenol with codeine, Valadol, Valgesic, Valorin, Valorin Extra, Wygesic, Zolben.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paracetamol

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