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Paradigm

Index Paradigm

In science and philosophy, a paradigm is a distinct set of concepts or thought patterns, including theories, research methods, postulates, and standards for what constitutes legitimate contributions to a field. [1]

83 relations: Albert Einstein, Anaximenes of Lampsacus, Ancient Greek, Antoine Lavoisier, Archetype, Aristarchus of Samos, B. F. Skinner, Basic belief, Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, Classical mechanics, Closed system, Commensurability (philosophy of science), Concept, Conceptual framework, Conceptual schema, Confirmation bias, Contextualism, Cybernetics, Data dredging, Discourse, Dogma, Edwin Mellen Press, Electrostatics, Empirical evidence, Entropy, Episteme, Evidence-based medicine, Fable, Fallibilism, Ferdinand de Saussure, Flat Earth, Galileo Galilei, Giles of Rome, Grammar, Heliocentrism, Heuristic, Ideology, Imre Lakatos, Larry Laudan, Linguistics, Mattei Dogan, Mental model, Mental representation, Merriam-Webster, Metanarrative, Methodology, Michel Foucault, Mindset, Nicolaus Copernicus, Oxford English Dictionary, ..., Parable, Paradigm shift, Personal construct theory, Perspectivism, Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, Philosophy, Photography, Physics, Plato, Polysemy, Pope Boniface VIII, Pope Innocent III, Post-structuralism, Programming paradigm, Quartz clock, Rabbit–duck illusion, Radical behaviorism, Rhetoric, Schema (psychology), Science, Scientific method, Set (psychology), Special relativity, Speed of light, Standard Model, The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Thomas Kuhn, Timaeus (dialogue), Time, William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, World view, Xerography. Expand index (33 more) »

Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).

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Anaximenes of Lampsacus

Anaximenes of Lampsacus (Ἀναξιμένης ὁ Λαμψακηνός) (320 BC) was a Greek rhetorician and historian.

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Antoine Lavoisier

Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (also Antoine Lavoisier after the French Revolution;; 26 August 17438 May 1794) CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) was a French nobleman and chemist who was central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and who had a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology.

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Archetype

The concept of an archetype appears in areas relating to behavior, modern psychological theory, and literary analysis.

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Aristarchus of Samos

Aristarchus of Samos (Ἀρίσταρχος ὁ Σάμιος, Aristarkhos ho Samios; c. 310 – c. 230 BC) was an ancient Greek astronomer and mathematician who presented the first known model that placed the Sun at the center of the known universe with the Earth revolving around it (see Solar system).

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B. F. Skinner

Burrhus Frederic Skinner (March 20, 1904 – August 18, 1990), commonly known as B. F. Skinner, was an American psychologist, behaviorist, author, inventor, and social philosopher.

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Basic belief

Basic beliefs (also commonly called foundational beliefs or core beliefs) are, under the epistemological view called foundationalism, the axioms of a belief system.

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Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences

The Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences (CASBS) is a interdisciplinary research lab at Stanford University that offers a residential postdoctoral fellowship program for scientists and scholars studying "the five core social and behavioral disciplines of anthropology, economics, political science, psychology, and sociology".

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Classical mechanics

Classical mechanics describes the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, and astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars and galaxies.

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Closed system

A closed system is a physical system that does not allow certain types of transfers (such as transfer of mass and energy transfer) in or out of the system.

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Commensurability (philosophy of science)

Commensurability is a concept in the philosophy of science whereby scientific theories are commensurable if scientists can discuss them using a shared nomenclature that allows direct comparison of theories to determine which theory is more valid or useful.

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Concept

Concepts are mental representations, abstract objects or abilities that make up the fundamental building blocks of thoughts and beliefs.

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Conceptual framework

A conceptual framework is an analytical tool with several variations and contexts.

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Conceptual schema

A conceptual schema is a high-level description of a business's informational needs.

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Confirmation bias

Confirmation bias, also called confirmatory bias or myside bias,David Perkins, a professor and researcher at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, coined the term "myside bias" referring to a preference for "my" side of an issue.

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Contextualism

Contextualism describes a collection of views in philosophy which emphasize the context in which an action, utterance, or expression occurs, and argues that, in some important respect, the action, utterance, or expression can only be understood relative to that context.

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Cybernetics

Cybernetics is a transdisciplinary approach for exploring regulatory systems—their structures, constraints, and possibilities.

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Data dredging

Data dredging (also data fishing, data snooping, and '''''p'''''-hacking) is the use of data mining to uncover patterns in data that can be presented as statistically significant, without first devising a specific hypothesis as to the underlying causality.

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Discourse

Discourse (from Latin discursus, "running to and from") denotes written and spoken communications.

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Dogma

The term dogma is used in pejorative and non-pejorative senses.

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Edwin Mellen Press

The Edwin Mellen Press is a scholarly publishing house with offices in Lewiston, New York, and Lampeter, Wales.

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Electrostatics

Electrostatics is a branch of physics that studies electric charges at rest.

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Empirical evidence

Empirical evidence, also known as sensory experience, is the information received by means of the senses, particularly by observation and documentation of patterns and behavior through experimentation.

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Entropy

In statistical mechanics, entropy is an extensive property of a thermodynamic system.

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Episteme

"Episteme" is a philosophical term derived from the Ancient Greek word ἐπιστήμη epistēmē, which can refer to knowledge, science or understanding, and which comes from the verb ἐπίστασθαι, meaning "to know, to understand, or to be acquainted with".

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Evidence-based medicine

Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is an approach to medical practice intended to optimize decision-making by emphasizing the use of evidence from well-designed and well-conducted research.

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Fable

Fable is a literary genre: a succinct fictional story, in prose or verse, that features animals, legendary creatures, plants, inanimate objects, or forces of nature that are anthropomorphized (given human qualities, such as the ability to speak human language) and that illustrates or leads to a particular moral lesson (a "moral"), which may at the end be added explicitly as a pithy maxim or saying.

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Fallibilism

Broadly speaking, fallibilism (from Medieval Latin: fallibilis, "liable to err") is the philosophical claim that no belief can have justification which guarantees the truth of the belief.

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Ferdinand de Saussure

Ferdinand de Saussure (26 November 1857 – 22 February 1913) was a Swiss linguist and semiotician.

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Flat Earth

The flat Earth model is an archaic conception of Earth's shape as a plane or disk.

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Galileo Galilei

Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564Drake (1978, p. 1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar. – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath.

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Giles of Rome

Giles of Rome (Latin: Aegidius Romanus; Italian: Egidio Colonna; c. 1243 – 22 December 1316), was an archbishop of Bourges who was famed for his logician commentary on the Organon by Aristotle.

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Grammar

In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.

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Heliocentrism

Heliocentrism is the astronomical model in which the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun at the center of the Solar System.

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Heuristic

A heuristic technique (εὑρίσκω, "find" or "discover"), often called simply a heuristic, is any approach to problem solving, learning, or discovery that employs a practical method, not guaranteed to be optimal, perfect, logical, or rational, but instead sufficient for reaching an immediate goal.

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Ideology

An Ideology is a collection of normative beliefs and values that an individual or group holds for other than purely epistemic reasons.

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Imre Lakatos

Imre Lakatos (Lakatos Imre; November 9, 1922 – February 2, 1974) was a Hungarian philosopher of mathematics and science, known for his thesis of the fallibility of mathematics and its 'methodology of proofs and refutations' in its pre-axiomatic stages of development, and also for introducing the concept of the 'research programme' in his methodology of scientific research programmes.

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Larry Laudan

Larry Laudan (born 1941) is a contemporary American philosopher of science and epistemologist.

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Linguistics

Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.

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Mattei Dogan

Mattei Dogan (16 October 1920 – 10 October 2010) was a Romanian-born French political sociologist and senior research officer emeritus of the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) and professor emeritus of political science of the University of California, Los Angeles.

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Mental model

A mental model is an explanation of someone's thought process about how something works in the real world.

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Mental representation

A mental representation (or cognitive representation), in philosophy of mind, cognitive psychology, neuroscience, and cognitive science, is a hypothetical internal cognitive symbol that represents external reality, or else a mental process that makes use of such a symbol: "a formal system for making explicit certain entities or types of information, together with a specification of how the system does this".

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Merriam-Webster

Merriam–Webster, Incorporated is an American company that publishes reference books which is especially known for its dictionaries.

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Metanarrative

A metanarrative (also meta-narrative and grand narrative; métarécit) in critical theory and particularly in postmodernism is a narrative about narratives of historical meaning, experience, or knowledge, which offers a society legitimation through the anticipated completion of a (as yet unrealized) master idea.

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Methodology

Methodology is the systematic, theoretical analysis of the methods applied to a field of study.

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Michel Foucault

Paul-Michel Foucault (15 October 1926 – 25 June 1984), generally known as Michel Foucault, was a French philosopher, historian of ideas, social theorist, and literary critic.

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Mindset

In decision theory and general systems theory, a mindset is a set of assumptions, methods, or notations held by one or more people or groups of people.

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Nicolaus Copernicus

Nicolaus Copernicus (Mikołaj Kopernik; Nikolaus Kopernikus; Niklas Koppernigk; 19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance-era mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe, likely independently of Aristarchus of Samos, who had formulated such a model some eighteen centuries earlier.

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Oxford English Dictionary

The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.

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Parable

A parable is a succinct, didactic story, in prose or verse that illustrates one or more instructive lessons or principles.

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Paradigm shift

A paradigm shift (also radical theory change), a concept identified by the American physicist and philosopher Thomas Kuhn (1922–1996), is a fundamental change in the basic concepts and experimental practices of a scientific discipline.

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Personal construct theory

Personal construct theory or personal construct psychology (PCP) is a theory of personality and cognition developed by the American psychologist George Kelly in the 1950s.

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Perspectivism

Perspectivism (Perspektivismus) is the philosophical view (touched upon as far back as Plato's rendition of Protagoras) that all ideations take place from particular perspectives, and that there are many possible conceptual schemes, or perspectives in which judgment of truth or value can be made.

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Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica

Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Latin for Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), often referred to as simply the Principia, is a work in three books by Isaac Newton, in Latin, first published 5 July 1687.

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Philosophy

Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.

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Photography

Photography is the science, art, application and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film.

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Physics

Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

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Plato

Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.

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Polysemy

Polysemy (or; from πολυ-, poly-, "many" and σῆμα, sêma, "sign") is the capacity for a sign (such as a word, phrase, or symbol) to have multiple meanings (that is, multiple semes or sememes and thus multiple senses), usually related by contiguity of meaning within a semantic field.

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Pope Boniface VIII

Pope Boniface VIII (Bonifatius VIII; born Benedetto Caetani (c. 1230 – 11 October 1303), was Pope from 24 December 1294 to his death in 1303. He organized the first Catholic "jubilee" year to take place in Rome and declared that both spiritual and temporal power were under the pope's jurisdiction, and that kings were subordinate to the power of the Roman pontiff. Today, he is probably best remembered for his feuds with King Philip IV of France, who caused the Pope's death, and Dante Alighieri, who placed the pope in the Eighth Circle of Hell in his Divine Comedy, among the simoniacs.

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Pope Innocent III

Pope Innocent III (Innocentius III; 1160 or 1161 – 16 July 1216), born Lotario dei Conti di Segni (anglicized as Lothar of Segni) reigned from 8 January 1198 to his death in 1216.

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Post-structuralism

Post-structuralism is associated with the works of a series of mid-20th-century French, continental philosophers and critical theorists who came to be known internationally in the 1960s and 1970s.

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Programming paradigm

Programming paradigms are a way to classify programming languages based on their features.

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Quartz clock

A quartz clock is a clock that uses an electronic oscillator that is regulated by a quartz crystal to keep time.

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Rabbit–duck illusion

The rabbit–duck illusion is an ambiguous image in which a rabbit or a duck can be seen.

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Radical behaviorism

Radical behaviorism, or the conceptual analysis of behavior, was pioneered by B. F. Skinner and is his "philosophy of the science of behavior." It refers to the philosophy behind behavior analysis, and is to be distinguished from methodological behaviorism—which has an intense emphasis on observable behaviors—by its inclusion of thinking, feeling, and other private events in the analysis of human and animal psychology.

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Rhetoric

Rhetoric is the art of discourse, wherein a writer or speaker strives to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations.

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Schema (psychology)

In psychology and cognitive science, a schema (plural schemata or schemas) describes a pattern of thought or behavior that organizes categories of information and the relationships among them.

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Science

R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.

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Scientific method

Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.

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Set (psychology)

In psychology, a set is a group of expectations that shape experience by making people especially sensitive to specific kinds of information.

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Special relativity

In physics, special relativity (SR, also known as the special theory of relativity or STR) is the generally accepted and experimentally well-confirmed physical theory regarding the relationship between space and time.

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Speed of light

The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.

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Standard Model

The Standard Model of particle physics is the theory describing three of the four known fundamental forces (the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, and not including the gravitational force) in the universe, as well as classifying all known elementary particles.

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The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy

The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (1994; second edition 2008; third edition 2016) is a dictionary of philosophy by Simon Blackburn, published by Oxford University Press.

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The Structure of Scientific Revolutions

The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962; second edition 1970; third edition 1996; fourth edition 2012) is a book about the history of science by the philosopher Thomas S. Kuhn.

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Thomas Kuhn

Thomas Samuel Kuhn (July 18, 1922 – June 17, 1996) was an American physicist, historian and philosopher of science whose controversial 1962 book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions was influential in both academic and popular circles, introducing the term paradigm shift, which has since become an English-language idiom.

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Timaeus (dialogue)

Timaeus (Timaios) is one of Plato's dialogues, mostly in the form of a long monologue given by the title character Timaeus of Locri, written c. 360 BC.

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Time

Time is the indefinite continued progress of existence and events that occur in apparently irreversible succession from the past through the present to the future.

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William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin

William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, (26 June 1824 – 17 December 1907) was a Scots-Irish mathematical physicist and engineer who was born in Belfast in 1824.

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World view

A world view or worldview is the fundamental cognitive orientation of an individual or society encompassing the whole of the individual's or society's knowledge and point of view.

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Xerography

Xerography or electrophotography is a dry photocopying technique.

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Conceptual scheme, Paradigm paralysis, Paradigmatic, Paradigmic, Paradigms, Scientific paradigm, Social paradigm.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paradigm

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