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Parallel evolution

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Parallel evolution is the development of a similar trait in related, but distinct, species descending from the same ancestor, but from different clades. [1]

73 relations: Amniote, Antechinus, Arabidopsis thaliana, Arboreal locomotion, Archosaur, Australia (continent), Basal body, Bird, Butterfly, Cetacea, Ciliate, Cilium, Clade, Colugo, Convergent evolution, Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, Crocodylidae, Crurotarsal, Divergent evolution, Dorsal fin, Echidna, Ecology, Elytron, Eukaryote, Extinction, Flying frog, Flying squirrel, Giant panda, Gliding flight, Gondwana, Gray wolf, Great American Interchange, Halteres, Hedgehog, Hominini, Homology (biology), Hylidae, Ichthyosaur, Internal fertilization, Leaf, Litopterna, Machairodontinae, Mammal, Marsupial, Marsupial mole, Mixotricha paradoxa, Nearctic realm, Neotropical realm, Old World, Patagium, ..., Placentalia, Porcupine, Primate, Proboscidea, Pyrotheria, Rhacophoridae, Richard Dawkins, Serine, Sesamoid bone, Shark, Stephen Jay Gould, Sugar glider, Symbiosis, Tenrec, The Blind Watchmaker, Therapsid, Thoatherium, Threonine, Thumb, Thylacine, Thylacosmilus, Tree, Volaticotherium. Expand index (23 more) »


Amniotes (from Greek ἀμνίον amnion, "membrane surrounding the fetus", earlier "bowl in which the blood of sacrificed animals was caught", from ἀμνός amnos, "lamb") are a clade of tetrapod vertebrates comprising the reptiles, birds, and mammals.

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Antechinus // ('ant-echinus') is a genus of small dasyurid marsupial indigenous to mainland Australia, Tasmania and New Guinea.

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Arabidopsis thaliana

Arabidopsis thaliana, the thale cress, mouse-ear cress or arabidopsis, is a small flowering plant native to Eurasia and Africa.

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Arboreal locomotion

Arboreal locomotion is the locomotion of animals in trees.

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Archosaurs are a group of diapsid amniotes whose living representatives consist of birds and crocodilians.

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Australia (continent)

The continent of Australia, sometimes known in technical contexts by the names Sahul, Australinea or Meganesia to distinguish it from the country of Australia, consists of the land masses which sit on Australia's continental shelf.

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Basal body

A basal body (synonymous with basal granule, kinetosome, and in older cytological literature with blepharoplast) is a protein structure found at the base of a eukaryotic undulipodium (cilium or flagellum).

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Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.

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Butterflies are insects in the macrolepidopteran clade Rhopalocera from the order Lepidoptera, which also includes moths.

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Cetacea are a widely distributed and diverse clade of aquatic mammals that today consists of the whales, dolphins, and porpoises.

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The ciliates are a group of protozoans characterized by the presence of hair-like organelles called cilia, which are identical in structure to eukaryotic flagella, but are in general shorter and present in much larger numbers, with a different undulating pattern than flagella.

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A cilium (the plural is cilia) is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

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A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".

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Colugos are arboreal gliding mammals found in Southeast Asia.

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Convergent evolution

Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages.

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Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event

The Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) extinction event, also known as the Cretaceous–Tertiary (K–T) extinction, was a sudden mass extinction of some three-quarters of the plant and animal species on Earth, approximately 66 million years ago.

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The crocodylian family Crocodylidae includes the true crocodiles, which are the members of the subfamily Crocodylinae, as well as the false gharial, the only extant member of the subfamily Tomistominae.

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A crurotarsal joint is one that’s situated between the bones of crus, i.e. shin (tibia and fibula) and the proximal tarsal bones, i.e. astragalus and calcaneum.

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Divergent evolution

Divergent evolution is the accumulation of differences between groups, leading to the formation of new species.

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Dorsal fin

A dorsal fin is a fin located on the back of most marine and freshwater vertebrates such as fishes, cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises), and the (extinct) ichthyosaur.

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Echidnas, sometimes known as spiny anteaters, belong to the family Tachyglossidae in the monotreme order of egg-laying mammals.

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Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment.

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An elytron (from Greek ἔλυτρον "sheath, cover"; plural: elytra) is a modified, hardened forewing of certain insect orders, notably beetles (Coleoptera) and a few of the true bugs (Hemiptera); in most true bugs, the forewings are instead called hemelytra (sometimes misspelled as "hemielytra"), as only the basal half is thickened while the apex is membranous.

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Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).

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In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.

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Flying frog

A flying frog (also called a gliding frog) is a frog that has the ability to achieve gliding flight.

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Flying squirrel

Flying squirrels (scientifically known as Pteromyini or Petauristini) are a tribe of 50 species of squirrels in the family Sciuridae.

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Giant panda

The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca, literally "black and white cat-foot";, literally "big bear cat"), also known as panda bear or simply panda, is a bear native to south central China.

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Gliding flight

Gliding flight is heavier-than-air flight without the use of thrust; the term volplaning also refers to this mode of flight in animals.

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Gondwana, or Gondwanaland, was a supercontinent that existed from the Neoproterozoic (about 550 million years ago) until the Carboniferous (about 320 million years ago).

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Gray wolf

The gray wolf (Canis lupus), also known as the timber wolf,Paquet, P. & Carbyn, L. W. (2003).

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Great American Interchange

The Great American Interchange was an important late Cenozoic paleozoogeographic event in which land and freshwater fauna migrated from North America via Central America to South America and vice versa, as the volcanic Isthmus of Panama rose up from the sea floor and bridged the formerly separated continents.

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In dipterous insects, halteres (singular halter or haltere) are minute dumbbell-shaped organs which have been modified from hindwings to provide a means of encoding body rotations during flight.

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A hedgehog is any of the spiny mammals of the subfamily Erinaceinae, in the eulipotyphlan family Erinaceidae.

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The Hominini, or hominins, form a taxonomic tribe of the subfamily Homininae ("hominines").

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Homology (biology)

In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.

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The Hylidae are a wide-ranging family of frogs commonly referred to as "tree frogs and their allies".

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Ichthyosaurs (Greek for "fish lizard" – ιχθυς or ichthys meaning "fish" and σαυρος or sauros meaning "lizard") are large marine reptiles.

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Internal fertilization

Internal fertilization is the union of an egg cell with a sperm during sexual reproduction inside the body of a parent.

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A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.

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Litopterna (from λῑτή πτέρνα "smooth heel") is an extinct order of fossil hoofed mammals (ungulates) from the Cenozoic period that displayed toe reduction – three-toed forms developed; there was even a one-toed horselike form.

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Machairodontinae is an extinct subfamily of carnivoran mammals of the family Felidae (true cats).

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Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.

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Marsupials are any members of the mammalian infraclass Marsupialia.

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Marsupial mole

Marsupial moles (Notoryctidae) are specialized marsupial mammals, known from two species distributed in the Australian interior.

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Mixotricha paradoxa

Mixotricha paradoxa is a species of protozoan that lives inside the gut of the Australian termite species Mastotermes darwiniensis and has multiple bacterial symbionts.

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Nearctic realm

The Nearctic is one of the eight biogeographic realms constituting the Earth's land surface.

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Neotropical realm

The Neotropical realm is one of the eight biogeographic realms constituting the Earth's land surface.

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Old World

The term "Old World" is used in the West to refer to Africa, Asia and Europe (Afro-Eurasia or the World Island), regarded collectively as the part of the world known to its population before contact with the Americas and Oceania (the "New World").

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The patagium (plural: patagia) is a membranous structure that assists an animal in gliding or flight.

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Placentalia ("Placentals") is one of the three extant subdivisions of the class of animals Mammalia; the other two are Monotremata and Marsupialia.

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Porcupines are rodents with a coat of sharp spines, or quills, that protect against predators.

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A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").

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The Proboscidea (from the Greek προβοσκίς and the Latin proboscis) are a taxonomic order of afrotherian mammals containing one living family, Elephantidae, and several extinct families.

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Pyrotheria is an order of extinct meridiungulate mammals.

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The Rhacophoridae are a family of frog species, which occur in tropical sub-Saharan Africa, South India and Sri Lanka, Japan; northeastern India to eastern China south through the Philippines and Greater Sundas, and Sulawesi.

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Richard Dawkins

Clinton Richard Dawkins (born 26 March 1941) is an English ethologist, evolutionary biologist, and author.

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Serine (symbol Ser or S) is an ɑ-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

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Sesamoid bone

In anatomy, a sesamoid bone is a bone embedded within a tendon or a muscle.

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Sharks are a group of elasmobranch fish characterized by a cartilaginous skeleton, five to seven gill slits on the sides of the head, and pectoral fins that are not fused to the head.

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Stephen Jay Gould

Stephen Jay Gould (September 10, 1941 – May 20, 2002) was an American paleontologist, evolutionary biologist, and historian of science.

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Sugar glider

The sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps) is a small, omnivorous, arboreal, and nocturnal gliding possum belonging to the marsupial infraclass.

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Symbiosis (from Greek συμβίωσις "living together", from σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic.

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A tenrec is any species of mammal within the family Tenrecidae, found on Madagascar and in parts of the African mainland.

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The Blind Watchmaker

The Blind Watchmaker: Why the Evidence of Evolution Reveals a Universe without Design is a 1986 book by Richard Dawkins, in which the author presents an explanation of, and argument for, the theory of evolution by means of natural selection.

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Therapsida is a group of synapsids that includes mammals and their ancestors.

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Thoatherium (meaning "active swift-beast") is an extinct genus of litoptern mammals from the Early Miocene of Argentina.

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Threonine (symbol Thr or T) is an amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

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The thumb is the first digit of the hand.

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The thylacine (or, also; Thylacinus cynocephalus) was the largest known carnivorous marsupial of modern times.

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Thylacosmilus is an extinct genus of saber-toothed metatherian that inhabited South America from the Late Miocene to Pliocene epochs.

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In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species.

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Volaticotherium antiquum is an extinct, gliding, insectivorous mammal that lived in what would become Asia during the Jurassic period, around 164 mya.

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Paralell evolution, Parallel Evolution, Parallel descent, Parallelism (biology).


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parallel_evolution

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