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Index Paraphyly

In taxonomy, a group is paraphyletic if it consists of the group's last common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor excluding a few—typically only one or two—monophyletic subgroups. [1]

138 relations: Actinopterygii, Aculeata, Alfred Romer, Ammonoidea, Amniote, Amphibious fish, Amphisbaenia, Anagenesis, Ancient Greek, Animal, Ant, Ape, Apocrita, Apoidea, Archaea, Archaeoceti, Archosaur, Arginbaatar, Australian National University, Austronesian languages, Édouard Chatton, Bacteria, Baleen whale, Bee, Bilateria, Biology, Bipedalism, Bird, Bryophyte, Butterfly, Cephalopod, Cetacea, Charophyta, Cimolodonta, Clade, Cladistics, Coleoidea, Convergent evolution, Craniate, Crustacean, Diapsid, Dicotyledon, Dorsal fin, Embryophyte, Eoraptor, Eukaryote, Eumetazoa, Euteleostomi, Even-toed ungulate, Evolutionary grade, ..., Fish, Flightless bird, Flowering plant, Formosan languages, Fungus, Glossary of scientific naming, Gymnosperm, Hagfish, Hexapoda, Historical linguistics, Hominidae, Human taxonomy, Hymenoptera, International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes, International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, Invertebrate, Lepidoptera, Linguistics, Lizard, Lophotrochozoa, Lungfish, Malayo-Polynesian languages, Mammal, Mesozoa, Mesozoic, Molecular Biology and Evolution, Monkey, Monocotyledon, Monophyly, Most recent common ancestor, Moth, Mudskipper, Multituberculata, Nautiloid, Neogene, Neomura, Nephrozoa, Organism, Osteichthyes, Palaeos, Pancrustacea, Parasitica, Paraspecies, PDF, Pelycosaur, Phylogenetics, Plagiaulacida, Plant, Platyzoa, Polyphyly, Pongidae, Primate, Prokaryote, Prosimian, Protist, Pteridospermatophyta, Quadrupedalism, Radiata, Reptile, Sarcopterygii, Sauropsida, Sawfly, Simian, Snake, Southern water skink, Speciation, Species, Spermatophyte, Spiralia, Sponge, Squamata, Streptophyta, Symplesiomorphy, Synapsid, Taiwan, Taxonomy (general), Tetrapod, The Ancestor's Tale, Therapsid, Toothed whale, Vascular plant, Vertebral column, Vertebrate, Vespoidea, Viviparity, Wasp, Worm. Expand index (88 more) »


Actinopterygii, or the ray-finned fishes, constitute a class or subclass of the bony fishes.

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Aculeata is a subclade of Hymenoptera.

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Alfred Romer

Alfred Sherwood Romer (December 28, 1894 – November 5, 1973) was an American paleontologist and biologist and a specialist in vertebrate evolution.

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Ammonoids are an extinct group of marine mollusc animals in the subclass Ammonoidea of the class Cephalopoda.

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Amniotes (from Greek ἀμνίον amnion, "membrane surrounding the fetus", earlier "bowl in which the blood of sacrificed animals was caught", from ἀμνός amnos, "lamb") are a clade of tetrapod vertebrates comprising the reptiles, birds, and mammals.

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Amphibious fish

Amphibious fish are fish that are able to leave water for extended periods of time.

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Amphisbaenia (called amphisbaenians or worm lizards) is a group of usually legless squamates, comprising over 180 extant species.

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Anagenesis is an evolutionary pattern defined by a gradual change that occurs in a species without the need for splitting.

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.

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Ants are eusocial insects of the family Formicidae and, along with the related wasps and bees, belong to the order Hymenoptera.

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Apes (Hominoidea) are a branch of Old World tailless anthropoid primates native to Africa and Southeast Asia.

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The Apocrita are a suborder of insects in the order Hymenoptera.

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The superfamily Apoidea is a major group within the Hymenoptera, which includes two traditionally recognized lineages, the "sphecoid" wasps, and the bees.

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Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.

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Archaeoceti ("ancient whales"), or Zeuglodontes in older literature, is a paraphyletic group of primitive cetaceans that lived from the Early Eocene to the late Oligocene.

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Archosaurs are a group of diapsid amniotes whose living representatives consist of birds and crocodilians.

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Arginbaatar is a genus of extinct mammal from the Lower Cretaceous of Mongolia.

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Australian National University

The Australian National University (ANU) is a national research university located in Canberra, the capital of Australia.

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Austronesian languages

The Austronesian languages are a language family that is widely dispersed throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, with a few members in continental Asia.

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Édouard Chatton

Édouard Chatton (11 October 1883 – 23 April 1947, Banyuls-sur-Mer) was a French biologist who first characterized the distinction between the eukaryotic and prokaryotic systems of cellular organization.

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Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Baleen whale

Baleen whales (systematic name Mysticeti), known earlier as whalebone whales, form a parvorder of the infraorder Cetacea (whales, dolphins and porpoises).

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Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, known for their role in pollination and, in the case of the best-known bee species, the European honey bee, for producing honey and beeswax.

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The Bilateria or bilaterians, or triploblasts, are animals with bilateral symmetry, i.e., they have a head (anterior) and a tail (posterior) as well as a back (dorsal) and a belly (ventral); therefore they also have a left side and a right side.

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Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.

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Bipedalism is a form of terrestrial locomotion where an organism moves by means of its two rear limbs or legs.

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Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.

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Bryophytes are an informal group consisting of three divisions of non-vascular land plants (embryophytes): the liverworts, hornworts and mosses.

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Butterflies are insects in the macrolepidopteran clade Rhopalocera from the order Lepidoptera, which also includes moths.

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A cephalopod is any member of the molluscan class Cephalopoda (Greek plural κεφαλόποδα, kephalópoda; "head-feet") such as a squid, octopus or nautilus.

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Cetacea are a widely distributed and diverse clade of aquatic mammals that today consists of the whales, dolphins, and porpoises.

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Charophyta is a division of freshwater green algae.

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The Cimolodonta are a taxon of extinct mammals that lived from the Cretaceous to the Eocene.

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A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".

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Cladistics (from Greek κλάδος, cládos, i.e., "branch") is an approach to biological classification in which organisms are categorized in groups ("clades") based on the most recent common ancestor.

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Subclass Coleoidea, or Dibranchiata, is the grouping of cephalopods containing all the various taxa popularly thought of as "soft-bodied" or "shell-less," i.e., octopus, squid and cuttlefish.

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Convergent evolution

Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages.

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A craniate is a member of the Craniata (sometimes called the Craniota), a proposed clade of chordate animals with a skull of hard bone or cartilage.

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Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.

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Diapsids ("two arches") are a group of amniote tetrapods that developed two holes (temporal fenestra) in each side of their skulls about 300 million years ago during the late Carboniferous period.

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The dicotyledons, also known as dicots (or more rarely dicotyls), are one of the two groups into which all the flowering plants or angiosperms were formerly divided.

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Dorsal fin

A dorsal fin is a fin located on the back of most marine and freshwater vertebrates such as fishes, cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises), and the (extinct) ichthyosaur.

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The Embryophyta are the most familiar group of green plants that form vegetation on earth.

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Eoraptor was one of the earliest known dinosaurs, living approximately 231 to 228 million years ago, during the Late Triassic in Western Gondwana, in the region that is now northwestern Argentina.

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Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).

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Eumetazoa (Greek: εὖ, well + μετά, after + ζῷον, animal) or '''Diploblasts''', or Epitheliozoa, or Histozoa are a proposed basal animal clade as sister group of the Porifera.

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Euteleostomi is a successful clade that includes more than 90% of the living species of vertebrates.

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Even-toed ungulate

The even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla) are ungulates (hoofed animals) whose weight is borne equally by the third and fourth toes.

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Evolutionary grade

In alpha taxonomy, a grade is a taxon united by a level of morphological or physiological complexity.

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Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.

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Flightless bird

Flightless birds are birds that through evolution lost the ability to fly.

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Flowering plant

The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.

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Formosan languages

"Formosan languages" is a cover term for the languages of the indigenous peoples of Taiwan, all of which belong to the Austronesian language family.

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A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.

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Glossary of scientific naming

This is a list of terms and symbols used in scientific names for organisms, and in describing the names.

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The gymnosperms are a group of seed-producing plants that includes conifers, cycads, Ginkgo, and gnetophytes.

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Hagfish, the class '''Myxini''' (also known as Hyperotreti), are eel-shaped, slime-producing marine fish (occasionally called slime eels).

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The subphylum Hexapoda (from the Greek for six legs) constitutes the largest number of species of arthropods and includes the insects as well as three much smaller groups of wingless arthropods: Collembola, Protura, and Diplura (all of these were once considered insects).

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Historical linguistics

Historical linguistics, also called diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change over time.

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The Hominidae, whose members are known as great apes or hominids, are a taxonomic family of primates that includes eight extant species in four genera: Pongo, the Bornean, Sumatran and Tapanuli orangutan; Gorilla, the eastern and western gorilla; Pan, the common chimpanzee and the bonobo; and Homo, which includes modern humans and its extinct relatives (e.g., the Neanderthal), and ancestors, such as Homo erectus.

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Human taxonomy

Human taxonomy is the classification of the human species (systematic name Homo sapiens) within zoological taxonomy.

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Hymenoptera is a large order of insects, comprising the sawflies, wasps, bees, and ants.

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International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants

The International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) is the set of rules and recommendations dealing with the formal botanical names that are given to plants, fungi and a few other groups of organisms, all those "traditionally treated as algae, fungi, or plants".

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International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes

The International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP) formerly the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria (ICNB) or Bacteriological Code (BC) governs the scientific names for Bacteria and Archaea.

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International Code of Zoological Nomenclature

The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is a widely accepted convention in zoology that rules the formal scientific naming of organisms treated as animals.

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Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.

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Lepidoptera is an order of insects that includes butterflies and moths (both are called lepidopterans).

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Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.

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Lizards are a widespread group of squamate reptiles, with over 6,000 species, ranging across all continents except Antarctica, as well as most oceanic island chains.

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Lophotrochozoa ("crest/wheel animals") is a clade of protostome animals within the Spiralia.

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Lungfish are freshwater rhipidistian fish belonging to the subclass Dipnoi.

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Malayo-Polynesian languages

The Malayo-Polynesian languages are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages, with approximately 385.5 million speakers.

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Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.

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The Mesozoa (singular: mesozoon) are minuscule, worm-like parasites of marine invertebrates.

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The Mesozoic Era is an interval of geological time from about.

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Molecular Biology and Evolution

Molecular Biology and Evolution is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

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Monkeys are non-hominoid simians, generally possessing tails and consisting of about 260 known living species.

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Monocotyledons, commonly referred to as monocots, (Lilianae sensu Chase & Reveal) are flowering plants (angiosperms) whose seeds typically contain only one embryonic leaf, or cotyledon.

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In cladistics, a monophyletic group, or clade, is a group of organisms that consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor.

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Most recent common ancestor

In biology and genealogy, the most recent common ancestor (MRCA, also last common ancestor (LCA), or concestor) of any set of organisms is the most recent individual from which all the organisms are directly descended.

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Moths comprise a group of insects related to butterflies, belonging to the order Lepidoptera.

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Mudskippers are amphibious fish, presently included in the subfamily Oxudercinae, within the family Gobiidae (gobies).

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Multituberculata (commonly known as multituberculates, named for the multiple tubercles of their teeth) is an extinct taxon of rodent-like allotherian mammals that existed for approximately 166 million years, the longest fossil history of any mammal lineage.

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Nautiloids are a large and diverse group of marine cephalopods (Mollusca) belonging to the subclass Nautiloidea that began in the Late Cambrian and are represented today by the living Nautilus and Allonautilus.

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The Neogene (informally Upper Tertiary or Late Tertiary) is a geologic period and system that spans 20.45 million years from the end of the Paleogene Period million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the present Quaternary Period Mya.

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Neomura is a possible clade composed of the two domains of life of Archaea and Eukaryota.

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Nephrozoa is a major clade of bilaterians, divided into the protostomes and the deuterostomes, containing almost all animal phyla and over a million extant species.

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In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.

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Osteichthyes, popularly referred to as the bony fish, is a diverse taxonomic group of fish that have skeletons primarily composed of bone tissue, as opposed to cartilage.

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Palaeos.com is a web site on biology, paleontology, phylogeny and geology and which covers the history of Earth.

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Pancrustacea is a clade, comprising all crustaceans and hexapods.

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Parasitica (the parasitican wasps) is an obsolete, paraphyletic infraorder of Apocrita containing the parasitoid wasps.

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A paraspecies (a paraphyletic species) is a species, living or fossil, that gave rise to one or more daughter species without itself becoming extinct.

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The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.

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The pelycosaurs (from Greek πέλυξ pelyx 'wooden bowl' or 'axe' and σαῦρος sauros 'lizard') are an informal grouping (previously considered an order) composed of basal or primitive Late Paleozoic synapsids, sometimes erroneously referred to as "mammal-like reptiles".

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In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.

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Plagiaulacida is a group of extinct multituberculate mammals.

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Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.

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The paraphyletic "Platyzoa" are a group of protostome unsegmented animals proposed by Thomas Cavalier-Smith in 1998.

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A polyphyletic group is a set of organisms, or other evolving elements, that have been grouped together but do not share an immediate common ancestor.

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Pongidae, or the Pongids, is an obsolete primate taxon containing the gorillas, chimpanzees, and orangutans.

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A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").

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A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.

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Prosimians are a group of primates that includes all living and extinct strepsirrhines (lemurs, lorisoids, and adapiforms), as well as the haplorhine tarsiers and their extinct relatives, the omomyiforms, i.e. all primates excluding the simians.

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A protist is any eukaryotic organism that has cells with nuclei and is not an animal, plant or fungus.

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The term Pteridospermatophyta (or "seed ferns" or "Pteridospermatopsida") refers to several distinct groups of extinct seed-bearing plants (spermatophytes).

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Quadrupedalism or pronograde posture is a form of terrestrial locomotion in animals using four limbs or legs.

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Radiata or Radiates is a historical taxonomic rank that was used to classify animals with radially symmetric body plans, and is no longer accepted.

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Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.

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The Sarcopterygii or lobe-finned fish (from Greek σαρξ sarx, flesh, and πτερυξ pteryx, fin) – sometimes considered synonymous with Crossopterygii ("fringe-finned fish", from Greek κροσσός krossos, fringe) – constitute a clade (traditionally a class or subclass) of the bony fish, though a strict cladistic view includes the terrestrial vertebrates.

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Sauropsida ("lizard faces") is a group of amniotes that includes all existing birds and other reptiles as well as their fossil ancestors and other extinct relatives.

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Sawflies are the insects of the suborder Symphyta within the order Hymenoptera alongside ants, bees and wasps.

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The simians (infraorder Simiiformes) are monkeys and apes, cladistically including: the New World monkeys or platyrrhines, and the catarrhine clade consisting of the Old World monkeys and apes (including humans).

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Snakes are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes.

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Southern water skink

The southern water skink (Eulamprus tympanum) is a medium-sized (maximum snout-vent length c. 100 mm) species of skink that is endemic to Australia.

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Speciation is the evolutionary process by which populations evolve to become distinct species.

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In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.

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The spermatophytes, also known as phanerogams or phenogamae, comprise those plants that produce seeds, hence the alternative name seed plants.

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The Spiralia are a morphologically diverse clade of protostome animals, including within their number the molluscs, annelids, platyhelminths and other taxa.

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Sponges, the members of the phylum Porifera (meaning "pore bearer"), are a basal Metazoa clade as sister of the Diploblasts.

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Squamata is the largest order of reptiles, comprising lizards, snakes and amphisbaenians (worm lizards), which are collectively known as squamates or scaled reptiles.

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Streptophyta, informally the streptophytes (from the Greek strepto, for twisted, i.e., the morphology of the sperm of some members), is an unranked clade of plants.

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In phylogenetics, a plesiomorphy, symplesiomorphy or symplesiomorphic character is an ancestral character or trait state shared by two or more taxa.

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Synapsids (Greek, 'fused arch'), synonymous with theropsids (Greek, 'beast-face'), are a group of animals that includes mammals and every animal more closely related to mammals than to other living amniotes.

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Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.

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Taxonomy (general)

Taxonomy is the practice and science of classification.

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The superclass Tetrapoda (from Greek: τετρα- "four" and πούς "foot") contains the four-limbed vertebrates known as tetrapods; it includes living and extinct amphibians, reptiles (including dinosaurs, and its subgroup birds) and mammals (including primates, and all hominid subgroups including humans), as well as earlier extinct groups.

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The Ancestor's Tale

The Ancestor's Tale: A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Life is a 2004 popular science book by Richard Dawkins, with contributions from Dawkins' research assistant Yan Wong.

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Therapsida is a group of synapsids that includes mammals and their ancestors.

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Toothed whale

The toothed whales (systematic name Odontoceti) are a parvorder of cetaceans that includes dolphins, porpoises, and all other whales possessing teeth, such as the beaked whales and sperm whales.

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Vascular plant

Vascular plants (from Latin vasculum: duct), also known as tracheophytes (from the equivalent Greek term trachea) and also higher plants, form a large group of plants (c. 308,312 accepted known species) that are defined as those land plants that have lignified tissues (the xylem) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant.

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Vertebral column

The vertebral column, also known as the backbone or spine, is part of the axial skeleton.

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Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).

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The Vespoidea are a superfamily of wasps in the order Hymenoptera, although older taxonomic schemes may vary in this categorization, particularly in their recognition of a now-obsolete superfamily Scolioidea, as well as the relationship to ants.

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Among animals, viviparity is development of the embryo inside the body of the parent, eventually leading to live birth, as opposed to reproduction by laying eggs that complete their incubation outside the parental body.

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A wasp is any insect of the order Hymenoptera and suborder Apocrita that is neither a bee nor an ant.

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Worms are many different distantly related animals that typically have a long cylindrical tube-like body and no limbs.

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Redirects here:

Diphyletic, Paraphiletic, Paraphyletic, Paraphyletic group, Paraphyletic taxa, Paraphyletically, Parphyletic.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paraphyly

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