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Index Parapsychology

Parapsychology is the study of paranormal and psychic phenomena which include telepathy, precognition, clairvoyance, psychokinesis, near-death experiences, reincarnation, apparitional experiences, and other paranormal claims. [1]

309 relations: Affirming the consequent, Agénor de Gasparin, Alchemy, Altered state of consciousness, American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Society for Psychical Research, An Encyclopedia of Claims, Frauds, and Hoaxes of the Occult and Supernatural, Anomalistic psychology, Anomalous experiences, Anthropologist, Antony Flew, Apparitional experience, Apport (paranormal), Arthur Balfour, Arthur Newell Strahler, Astrology, Auditory system, Aura (paranormal), Availability heuristic, Édouard Isidore Buguet, Begging the question, Behavioral engineering, Bergen Evans, Bertold Wiesner, Bias blind spot, Biologist, Boston, Bradley Dowden, Brooklyn, Bruce Greyson, C. D. Broad, C. E. M. Hansel, California State Board of Education, Caste system in India, Celsius, Central Intelligence Agency, Charles Honorton, Charles Massey, Charles Richet, Charles Tart, Chris French, Clairvoyance, Clinical death, Clustering illusion, Cognitive bias, Committee for Skeptical Inquiry, Confabulation, Confirmation bias, Consciousness, Cryptomnesia, ..., Cryptozoology, Czechs, Daryl Bem, Data mining, David Marks (psychologist), Dean Radin, Debunker, Documentation, Douglas Blackburn, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, Eastern Europe, Edward Charles Pickering, Eileen J. Garrett, Eleanor Mildred Sidgwick, Electrical engineering, Electromagnetism, Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, Energy (esotericism), Extrasensory perception, Extrasensory Perception (book), Federal government of the United States, Flim-Flam!, Foundations of Physics, Frank Podmore, Fraud, Frederic W. H. Myers, Frederick Hudson (photographer), Functional magnetic resonance imaging, Gale (publisher), Ganzfeld effect, Ganzfeld experiment, Gary Schwartz, George Albert Smith (film pioneer), George Estabrooks, George G. Ritchie, German language, Goldsmiths, University of London, Gordon Stein, Graham Reed (psychologist), Great Amherst Mystery, Greek alphabet, Greek language, Greenwood Publishing Group, Hallucinogen, Harold E. Puthoff, Harold Gulliksen, Harry Houdini, Harry Price, Helmut Schmidt (parapsychologist), Henri Bergson, Henry Gordon (magician), Henry Sidgwick, Henry Slade, Hereward Carrington, Hypnosis, Ian Stevenson, Ian Wilson (author), Illusion of control, Institute of Noetic Sciences, International Association for Near-Death Studies, Inverse-square law, Irving Langmuir, James Alcock, James Charles Crumbaugh, James H. Hyslop, James Randi, James Randi Educational Foundation, Johann Karl Friedrich Zöllner, John Archibald Wheeler, John Edgar Coover, John G. Taylor, John Mulholland (magician), John Sladek, John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, Joseph Banks Rhine, Joseph Gaither Pratt, Joseph Jastrow, Journal of Consciousness Studies, Journal of Near-Death Studies, Journal of Parapsychology, K. M. Goldney, Karl Zener, Karlis Osis, Kendrick Frazier, Kenneth Ring, Kirlian photography, Koestler Parapsychology Unit, Koneru Ramakrishna Rao, Lee Ross, Leonardo (journal), Lepton, Life After Life (book), Life review, List of reportedly haunted locations, List of topics characterized as pseudoscience, Liverpool Hope University, Liverpool John Moores University, London, Louisa E. Rhine, Magic (illusion), Magical thinking, Maimonides Medical Center, Mainstream, Margaret Mead, Mario Bunge, Martin Gardner, Mary Roach, Massimo Pigliucci, Materialization (paranormal), Max Dessoir, Meditation, Mediumship, Meta-analysis, Michael Shermer, Michael W. Friedlander, Microbalance, Milbourne Christopher, Milton A. Rothman, Mind, Mind–body problem, Momentum, Montague Ullman, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, Near-death experience, Nervous system, New York City, Null hypothesis, Occam's razor, Occult, Odic force, Out-of-body experience, Outline of physical science, P-value, Paganism, Paranormal, Parapsychological Association, Parapsychology research at SRI, Parapsychology: Frontier Science of the Mind, Pathological science, Patience Worth, Paul Edwards (philosopher), Paul Kurtz, Persi Diaconis, Peter Lamont (historian), Physical law, Physics, Pierre L. O. A. Keeler, Post hoc analysis, Power (statistics), Precognition, Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research Lab, Princeton University, Project Alpha, Pseudoscience, Psionics, Psychic, Psychokinesis, Psychological Bulletin, Psychology, Psychophysiology, Publication bias, Qualitative research, Quantitative research, Quark, Radioactive decay, Raimo Tuomela, Random number generation, Randomization, Ray Hyman, Raymond Moody, Reincarnation, Remote viewing, Rhine Research Center, Richard Hodgson (parapsychologist), Richard Wiseman, Robert A. Baker, Robert G. Jahn, Robert H. Thouless, Robert Hare (chemist), Robert L. Morris, Robert L. Park, Robert Todd Carroll, Rufus Osgood Mason, Russell Targ, Samuel Soal, Schizophrenia, Science, Science Applications International Corporation, Scientific American, Scientific community, Scientific control, Sean M. Carroll, Second law of thermodynamics, Selection bias, Sensory cue, Sensory deprivation, Sensory leakage, Simeon Edmunds, Skeptical Inquirer, Skeptical movement, Skepticism, Society for Psychical Research, Society for Scientific Exploration, Society of American Magicians, Software, Soviet Union, Spirit photography, Spiritualism, Spook: Science Tackles the Afterlife, SRI International, Stanford University, Stanley Krippner, Stargate Project, Statistical hypothesis testing, Statistical significance, Statistics, Susan Blackmore, Table tennis, Table-turning, Tarkio College, Telepathy, Terence Hines, The Demon-Haunted World, The New York Review of Books, The Psychology of the Occult, The Psychology of the Psychic, The Washington Post, Thelma Moss, Theory, Thomas Gilovich, Thomas Welton Stanford, Transpersonal psychology, Twenty Cases Suggestive of Reincarnation, Unidentified flying object, United States, University College London, University of Arizona, University of California, Los Angeles, University of Edinburgh, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, University of Northampton, University of Virginia, Vampire, Victor J. Stenger, Visual system, Voodoo Science, W. W. Norton & Company, Walter Franklin Prince, Washington University in St. Louis, White noise, William Crookes, William H. Mumler, William James, William McDougall (psychologist), Witchcraft, York University, Zener cards. Expand index (259 more) »

Affirming the consequent

Affirming the consequent, sometimes called converse error, fallacy of the converse or confusion of necessity and sufficiency, is a formal fallacy of inferring the converse from the original statement.

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Agénor de Gasparin

Agénor Étienne, comte de Gasparin (12 July 1810 - 4 May 1871) was a French statesman and author.

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Alchemy is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa, Brazil and Asia.

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Altered state of consciousness

An altered state of consciousness (ASC), also called altered state of mind or mind alteration, is any condition which is significantly different from a normal waking state.

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American Association for the Advancement of Science

The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an American international non-profit organization with the stated goals of promoting cooperation among scientists, defending scientific freedom, encouraging scientific responsibility, and supporting scientific education and science outreach for the betterment of all humanity.

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American Society for Psychical Research

The American Society for Psychical Research (ASPR) is an organisation dedicated to parapsychology based in New York City, where it maintains offices and a library.

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An Encyclopedia of Claims, Frauds, and Hoaxes of the Occult and Supernatural

An Encyclopedia of Claims, Frauds, and Hoaxes of the Occult and Supernatural is a 1995 book by James Randi with a foreword by Arthur C. Clarke.

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Anomalistic psychology

In psychology, anomalistic psychology is the study of human behaviour and experience connected with what is often called the paranormal, with the assumption that there is nothing paranormal involved.

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Anomalous experiences

Anomalous experiences, such as so-called benign hallucinations, may occur in a person in a state of good mental and physical health, even in the apparent absence of a transient trigger factor such as fatigue, intoxication or sensory deprivation.

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An anthropologist is a person engaged in the practice of anthropology.

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Antony Flew

Antony Garrard Newton Flew (11 February 1923 – 8 April 2010) was an English philosopher.

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Apparitional experience

In parapsychology, an apparitional experience is an anomalous experience characterized by the apparent perception of either a living being or an inanimate object without there being any material stimulus for such a perception.

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Apport (paranormal)

In parapsychology and spiritualism, an apport is the alleged paranormal transference of an article from one place to another, or an appearance of an article from an unknown source that is often associated with poltergeist activity or séances.

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Arthur Balfour

Arthur James Balfour, 1st Earl of Balfour, (25 July 184819 March 1930) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1902 to 1905.

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Arthur Newell Strahler

Arthur Newell Strahler (February 20, 1918 – December 6, 2002) was a geoscience professor at Columbia University who in 1952 developed the Strahler Stream Order system for classifying streams according to the power of their tributaries.

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Astrology is the study of the movements and relative positions of celestial objects as a means for divining information about human affairs and terrestrial events.

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Auditory system

The auditory system is the sensory system for the sense of hearing.

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Aura (paranormal)

An aura or Human energy field is, according to New Age beliefs, a colored emanation said to enclose a human body or any animal or object.

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Availability heuristic

The availability heuristic is a mental shortcut that relies on immediate examples that come to a given person's mind when evaluating a specific topic, concept, method or decision.

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Édouard Isidore Buguet

Édouard Isidore Buguet (1840-1901) was a French medium and spirit photographer.

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Begging the question

Begging the question is a logical fallacy which occurs when an argument's premises assume the truth of the conclusion, instead of supporting it.

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Behavioral engineering

Behavioral engineering is intended to identify issues associated with the interface of technology and the human operators in a system and to generate recommended design practices that consider the strengths and limitations of the human operators.

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Bergen Evans

Bergen Baldwin Evans (September 19, 1904 – February 4, 1978) was a Northwestern University professor of English, and a television host.

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Bertold Wiesner

Bertold Paul Wiesner (1901–1972) was an Austrian Jewish physiologist noted firstly for coining the term 'Psi' to denote parapsychological phenomena; secondly for his contribution to research into human fertility and the diagnosis of pregnancy; and thirdly for being biological father to an estimated 600 offspring by anonymously donating sperm used by his wife the obstetrician Mary Barton to perform artificial insemination on women at a private clinic on Harley Street, London, England.

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Bias blind spot

The bias blind spot is the cognitive bias of recognizing the impact of biases on the judgment of others, while failing to see the impact of biases on one's own judgment.

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A biologist, is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of biology, the scientific study of life.

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Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.

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Bradley Dowden

Bradley Harris Dowden is professor of philosophy at the California State University, Sacramento.

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Brooklyn is the most populous borough of New York City, with a census-estimated 2,648,771 residents in 2017.

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Bruce Greyson

(Charles) Bruce Greyson (born October 1946) is Professor Emeritus of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioral Sciences at the University of Virginia.

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C. D. Broad

Charlie Dunbar Broad (30 December 1887 – 11 March 1971), usually cited as C. D. Broad, was an English epistemologist, historian of philosophy, philosopher of science, moral philosopher, and writer on the philosophical aspects of psychical research.

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C. E. M. Hansel

Charles Edward Mark Hansel (12 October 1917 – 28 March 2011) was a British psychologist most notable for his criticism of parapsychological studies.

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California State Board of Education

The California State Board of Education is the governing and policy-making body of the California Department of Education.

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Caste system in India

The caste system in India is the paradigmatic ethnographic example of caste.

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The Celsius scale, previously known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale used by the International System of Units (SI).

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Central Intelligence Agency

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).

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Charles Honorton

Charles Henry Honorton (February 5, 1946 – November 4, 1992) was an American parapsychologist and was one of the leaders of a collegial group of researchers who were determined to apply established scientific research methods to the examination of what they called "anomalous information transfer" (extrasensory perception) and other phenomena associated with the "mind/body problem"—the idea that mind might, at least in some respects, have a physical existence independent of the body.

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Charles Massey

Charles Carleton Massey (1838-1905) most well known as C. C. Massey was a British barrister, Christian mystic and psychical researcher.

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Charles Richet

Prof Charles Robert Richet (25 August 1850 – 4 December 1935) was a French physiologist at the Collège de France known for his pioneering work in immunology.

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Charles Tart

Charles T. Tart (born 1937) is an American psychologist and parapsychologist known for his psychological work on the nature of consciousness (particularly altered states of consciousness), as one of the founders of the field of transpersonal psychology, and for his research in parapsychology.

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Chris French

Christopher Charles French is a British psychologist specialising in the psychology of paranormal beliefs and experiences, cognition and emotion.

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Clairvoyance (from French clair meaning "clear" and voyance meaning "vision") is the alleged ability to gain information about an object, person, location, or physical event through extrasensory perception.

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Clinical death

Clinical death is the medical term for cessation of blood circulation and breathing, the two necessary criteria to sustain human and many other organisms' lives.

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Clustering illusion

The clustering illusion is the tendency to erroneously consider the inevitable "streaks" or "clusters" arising in small samples from random distributions to be non-random.

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Cognitive bias

A cognitive bias is a systematic pattern of deviation from norm or rationality in judgment.

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Committee for Skeptical Inquiry

The Committee for Skeptical Inquiry (CSI), formerly known as the Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal (CSICOP), is a program within the transnational American non-profit educational organization Center for Inquiry (CFI), which seeks to "promote scientific inquiry, critical investigation, and the use of reason in examining controversial and extraordinary claims." Paul Kurtz proposed the establishment of CSICOP in 1976 as an independent non-profit organization (before merging with CFI as one of its programs in 2015), to counter what he regarded as an uncritical acceptance of, and support for, paranormal claims by both the media and society in general.

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In psychiatry, confabulation (verb: confabulate) is a disturbance of memory, defined as the production of fabricated, distorted, or misinterpreted memories about oneself or the world, without the conscious intention to deceive.

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Confirmation bias

Confirmation bias, also called confirmatory bias or myside bias,David Perkins, a professor and researcher at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, coined the term "myside bias" referring to a preference for "my" side of an issue.

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Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness, or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself.

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Cryptomnesia occurs when a forgotten memory returns without it being recognized as such by the subject, who believes it is something new and original.

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Cryptozoology is a pseudoscience that aims to prove the existence of entities from the folklore record, such as Bigfoot or chupacabras, as well as animals otherwise considered extinct, such as non-avian dinosaurs.

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The Czechs (Češi,; singular masculine: Čech, singular feminine: Češka) or the Czech people (Český národ), are a West Slavic ethnic group and a nation native to the Czech Republic in Central Europe, who share a common ancestry, culture, history and Czech language.

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Daryl Bem

Daryl J. Bem (born June 10, 1938) is a social psychologist and professor emeritus at Cornell University.

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Data mining

Data mining is the process of discovering patterns in large data sets involving methods at the intersection of machine learning, statistics, and database systems.

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David Marks (psychologist)

David Francis Marks (born 1945) is a psychologist, author and editor of twenty-five books largely concerned with four areas of psychological research – health psychology, consciousness, parapsychology and intelligence.

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Dean Radin

Dean Radin (born February 29, 1952) is a parapsychology researcher.

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A debunker is a person or organization who attempts to expose or discredit claims believed to be false, exaggerated, or pretentious.

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Documentation is a set of documents provided on paper, or online, or on digital or analog media, such as audio tape or CDs.

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Douglas Blackburn

Douglas Blackburn (6 August 1857, Southwark – 28 March 1929, Tonbridge) was an English journalist and novelist, who worked in the Transvaal and Natal between 1892 and 1908.

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Duke University

Duke University is a private, non-profit, research university located in Durham, North Carolina.

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Durham, North Carolina

Durham is a city in the U.S. state of North Carolina.

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Eastern Europe

Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.

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Edward Charles Pickering

Prof Edward Charles Pickering FRS(For) HFRSE (July 19, 1846 – February 3, 1919) was an American astronomer and physicist and the older brother to William Henry Pickering.

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Eileen J. Garrett

Eileen Jeanette Vancho Lyttle Garrett (17 March 1893 – 15 September 1970) was an Irish medium and parapsychologist.

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Eleanor Mildred Sidgwick

Eleanor Mildred Sidgwick, (née Balfour; 11 March 1845 – 10 February 1936), known as Nora to her family and friends, was a physics researcher assisting Lord Rayleigh, an activist for the higher education of women, Principal of Newnham College of the University of Cambridge, and a leading figure in the Society for Psychical Research.

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Electrical engineering

Electrical engineering is a professional engineering discipline that generally deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics, and electromagnetism.

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Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.

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Elisabeth Kübler-Ross

Elisabeth Kübler-Ross (July 8, 1926 – August 24, 2004) was a Swiss-American psychiatrist, a pioneer in near-death studies and the author of the groundbreaking book On Death and Dying (1969), where she first discussed her theory of the five stages of grief, also known as the "Kübler-Ross model".

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Energy (esotericism)

The term energy is used by writers and practitioners of various esoteric forms of spirituality and alternative medicine to refer to a variety of phenomena.

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Extrasensory perception

Extrasensory perception or ESP, also called sixth sense or second sight, includes claimed reception of information not gained through the recognized physical senses, but sensed with the mind.

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Extrasensory Perception (book)

Extrasensory Perception is a 1934 book written by parapsychologist Joseph Banks Rhine, which discusses his research work at Duke University.

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Federal government of the United States

The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.

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Flim-Flam! Psychics, ESP, Unicorns, and Other Delusions is a 1980 book by magician and skeptic James Randi about paranormal, occult, and pseudoscience claims.

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Foundations of Physics

Foundations of Physics is a monthly journal "devoted to the conceptual bases and fundamental theories of modern physics and cosmology, emphasizing the logical, methodological, and philosophical premises of modern physical theories and procedures".

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Frank Podmore

Frank Podmore (5 February 1856 – 14 August 1910) was an English author, and founding member of the Fabian Society.

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In law, fraud is deliberate deception to secure unfair or unlawful gain, or to deprive a victim of a legal right.

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Frederic W. H. Myers

Frederic William Henry Myers (6 February 1843 – 17 January 1901) was a poet, classicist, philologist, and a founder of the Society for Psychical Research.

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Frederick Hudson (photographer)

Frederick Augustus Hudson (B. CA. 1812) was a British spirit photographer who was active in the 1870s.

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Functional magnetic resonance imaging

Functional magnetic resonance imaging or functional MRI (fMRI) measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow.

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Gale (publisher)

Gale is an educational publishing company based in Farmington Hills, Michigan, in the western suburbs of Detroit.

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Ganzfeld effect

The ganzfeld effect (from German for "complete field"), or perceptual deprivation, is a phenomenon of perception caused by exposure to an unstructured, uniform stimulation field.

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Ganzfeld experiment

A ganzfeld experiment (from the German for “entire field”) is a technique used in parapsychology which is used to test individuals for extrasensory perception (ESP).

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Gary Schwartz

Gary E. Schwartz is a parapsychologist, author and professor at the University of Arizona and the Director of its Laboratory for Advances in Consciousness and Health.

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George Albert Smith (film pioneer)

George Albert Smith (4 January 1864 – 17 May 1959) was an English stage hypnotist, psychic, magic lantern lecturer, Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society, inventor and a key member of the loose association of early film pioneers dubbed the Brighton School by French film historian Georges Sadoul.

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George Estabrooks

George Hoben Estabrooks (December 16, 1895 – December 30, 1973) was a Canadian-American psychologist who would die in the County of Madison, New York which was the home county for Colgate University.

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George G. Ritchie


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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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Goldsmiths, University of London

Goldsmiths, University of London, is a public research university in London, England, specialising in the arts, design, humanities, and social sciences.

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Gordon Stein

Gordon Stein (April 30, 1941 – August 27, 1996) was an American author, physiologist, and activist for atheism and religious skepticism.

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Graham Reed (psychologist)

Graham F. Reed (1923–1989) was a Canadian psychologist.

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Great Amherst Mystery

The Great Amherst Mystery was a notorious case of reported poltergeist activity in Amherst, Nova Scotia, Canada between 1878 and 1879.

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Greek alphabet

The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Greenwood Publishing Group

ABC-CLIO/Greenwood is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.

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A hallucinogen is a psychoactive agent which can cause hallucinations, perceptual anomalies, and other substantial subjective changes in thoughts, emotion, and consciousness.

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Harold E. Puthoff

Harold E. Puthoff (born June 20, 1936) is an American engineer and parapsychologist.

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Harold Gulliksen

Harold Oliver Gulliksen (July 18, 1903 – October 27, 1996) was an American psychologist.

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Harry Houdini

Harry Houdini (born Erik Weisz, later Ehrich Weiss or Harry Weiss; March 24, 1874 – October 31, 1926) was a Hungarian-born American illusionist and stunt performer, noted for his sensational escape acts.

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Harry Price

Harry Price (17 January 1881 – 29 March 1948) was a British psychic researcher and author, who gained public prominence for his investigations into psychical phenomena and his exposing fraudulent spiritualist mediums.

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Helmut Schmidt (parapsychologist)

Helmut Schmidt (February 21, 1928 – August 18, 2011) was a German-born physicist and parapsychologist.

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Henri Bergson

Henri-Louis Bergson (18 October 1859 – 4 January 1941) was a French-Jewish philosopher who was influential in the tradition of continental philosophy, especially during the first half of the 20th century until World War II.

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Henry Gordon (magician)

Henry Gordon (March 19, 1919 - January 24, 2009) was a Canadian author, journalist, magician and skeptic.

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Henry Sidgwick

Henry Sidgwick (31 May 1838 – 28 August 1900) was an English utilitarian philosopher and economist; he held the Knightbridge Professor of Moral Philosophy from the year 1883 until his death.

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Henry Slade

Henry Slade (1835–1905) was a famous fraudulent medium who lived and practiced in both Europe and North America.

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Hereward Carrington

Hereward Carrington (17 October 1880 – 26 December 1958) was a well-known British-born American investigator of psychic phenomena and author.

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Hypnosis is a state of human consciousness involving focused attention and reduced peripheral awareness and an enhanced capacity to respond to suggestion.

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Ian Stevenson

Ian Pretyman Stevenson (October 31, 1918 – February 8, 2007) was a Canadian-born U.S. psychiatrist.

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Ian Wilson (author)

Ian Wilson (born 1941) is the prolific author of historical and religious books.

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Illusion of control

The illusion of control is the tendency for people to overestimate their ability to control events; for example, it occurs when someone feels a sense of control over outcomes that they demonstrably do not influence.

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Institute of Noetic Sciences

The Institute of Noetic Sciences (IONS) is an American non-profit parapsychological research institute.

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International Association for Near-Death Studies

The International Association for Near-Death Studies (IANDS) is a non-profit organization based in Durham, North Carolina in the United States, associated with the academic field of near-death studies.

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Inverse-square law

The inverse-square law, in physics, is any physical law stating that a specified physical quantity or intensity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source of that physical quantity.

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Irving Langmuir

Irving Langmuir (January 31, 1881 – August 16, 1957) was an American chemist and physicist.

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James Alcock

James E. Alcock (born 24 December 1942) is a Canadian educator.

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James Charles Crumbaugh

James Charles Crumbaugh (1912-2001) was an American psychologist and parapsychologist.

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James H. Hyslop

James Hervey Hyslop, Ph.D, LL.D, (August 18, 1854 – June 17, 1920) was a professor of ethics and logic at Columbia University, a psychologist, and a psychical researcher.

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James Randi

James Randi (born Randall James Hamilton Zwinge; August 7, 1928) is a Canadian-American retired stage magician and a scientific skeptic who has extensively challenged paranormal and pseudoscientific claims.

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James Randi Educational Foundation

The James Randi Educational Foundation (JREF) is an American grant-making foundation.

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Johann Karl Friedrich Zöllner

Johann Karl Friedrich Zöllner (8 November 1834, Berlin25 April 1882, Leipzig) was a German astrophysicist who studied optical illusions.

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John Archibald Wheeler

John Archibald Wheeler (July 9, 1911 – April 13, 2008) was an American theoretical physicist.

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John Edgar Coover

John Edgar Coover (March 16, 1872 – February 19, 1938), also known as J. E. Coover was an American psychologist and parapsychologist known for his experiments into extrasensory perception.

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John G. Taylor

John Gerald Taylor (18 August 1931 – 10 March 2012) was a British physicist and author.

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John Mulholland (magician)

John Mulholland (9 June 1898 in Chicago, Illinois – 25 February 1970 in New York City) was an American magician, author, publisher and intelligence agent.

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John Sladek

John Thomas Sladek (December 15, 1937 – March 10, 2000) was an American science fiction author, known for his satirical and surreal novels.

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John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh

John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, (12 November 1842 – 30 June 1919) was a physicist who, with William Ramsay, discovered argon, an achievement for which he earned the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1904.

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Joseph Banks Rhine

Joseph Banks Rhine (September 29, 1895 – February 20, 1980), usually known as J. B. Rhine, was an American botanist who founded parapsychology as a branch of psychology, founding the parapsychology lab at Duke University, the Journal of Parapsychology, the Foundation for Research on the Nature of Man, and the Parapsychological Association.

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Joseph Gaither Pratt

Joseph Gaither Pratt (August 31, 1910 – November 3, 1979) was an American psychologist who specialized in the field of parapsychology.

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Joseph Jastrow

Joseph Jastrow (January 30, 1863 – January 8, 1944) was a Polish-born American psychologist, noted for inventions in experimental psychology, design of experiments, and psychophysics.

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Journal of Consciousness Studies

The Journal of Consciousness Studies is an interdisciplinary peer-reviewed academic journal dedicated entirely to the field of consciousness studies.

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Journal of Near-Death Studies

The Journal of Near-Death Studies is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal devoted to the field of near-death studies.

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Journal of Parapsychology

The Journal of Parapsychology is a biannual peer-reviewed academic journal covering research on psi phenomena, including telepathy, clairvoyance, precognition, and psychokinesis, as well as human consciousness in general and anomalous experiences.

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K. M. Goldney

Kathleen Mary Hervey Goldney (1894–1992) best known as K. M. Goldney was a British parapsychologist and writer.

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Karl Zener

Karl Edward Zener (April 22, 1903 – September 27, 1964) was a perceptual psychologist best known for his affiliation with Dr.

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Karlis Osis

Karlis Osis (26 December 1917 – 26 December 1997) was a Latvian-born parapsychologist who specialised in exploring deathbed phenomena and life after death.

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Kendrick Frazier

Kendrick Crosby Frazier (born March 19, 1942) is a science writer and longtime editor of Skeptical Inquirer magazine.

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Kenneth Ring

Kenneth Ring (born 1936) is Professor Emeritus of psychology at the University of Connecticut, and a researcher within the field of near-death studies.

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Kirlian photography

Kirlian photography is a collection of photographic techniques used to capture the phenomenon of electrical coronal discharges.

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Koestler Parapsychology Unit

The Koestler Parapsychology Unit is a research group established in 1985 at the University of Edinburgh, in Scotland, to teach and conduct research concerning various aspects of parapsychology.

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Koneru Ramakrishna Rao

Koneru Ramakrishna Rao (born 1932) is a philosopher, psychologist, parapsychologist, educationist, teacher, researcher and administrator.

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Lee Ross

Lee David Ross (born 1942) is a professor of social psychology at Stanford University.

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Leonardo (journal)

Leonardo® is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by the MIT Press covering the application of contemporary science and technology to the arts and music.

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In particle physics, a lepton is an elementary particle of half-integer spin (spin) that does not undergo strong interactions.

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Life After Life (book)

Life After Life is a 1975 book written by psychiatrist Raymond Moody.

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Life review

A life review is a phenomenon widely reported as occurring during near-death experiences, in which a person rapidly sees much or the totality of their life history.

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List of reportedly haunted locations

This is a list of reportedly haunted locations throughout the world, that are said to be haunted by ghosts or other supernatural beings, including demons.

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List of topics characterized as pseudoscience

This is a list of topics that have, at one point or another in their history, been characterized as pseudoscience by academics or researchers.

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Liverpool Hope University

Liverpool Hope University is a public university in Liverpool, England.

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Liverpool John Moores University

Liverpool John Moores University (brevis: LJMU) is a public research university in the city of Liverpool, England.

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London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Louisa E. Rhine

Louisa Ella Rhine (née Weckesser November 9, 1891 – March 17, 1983) was an American doctor of botany and is known for her work in parapsychology.

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Magic (illusion)

Magic, along with its subgenres of, and sometimes referred to as illusion, stage magic or street magic is a performing art in which audiences are entertained by staged tricks or illusions of seemingly impossible feats using natural means.

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Magical thinking

Magical thinking is a term used in anthropology and psychology, denoting the fallacious attribution of causal relationships between actions and events, with subtle differences in meaning between the two fields.

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Maimonides Medical Center

Maimonides Medical Center is a non-profit, non-sectarian hospital located in Borough Park, in the New York City borough of Brooklyn, in the U.S. state of New York.

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Mainstream is current thought that is widespread.

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Margaret Mead

Margaret Mead (December 16, 1901 – November 15, 1978) was an American cultural anthropologist who featured frequently as an author and speaker in the mass media during the 1960s and 1970s.

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Mario Bunge

Mario Augusto Bunge (born September 21, 1919) is an Argentine philosopher, philosopher of science and physicist mainly active in Canada.

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Martin Gardner

Martin Gardner (October 21, 1914May 22, 2010) was an American popular mathematics and popular science writer, with interests also encompassing scientific skepticism, micromagic, philosophy, religion, and literature—especially the writings of Lewis Carroll, L. Frank Baum, and G. K. Chesterton.

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Mary Roach

Mary Roach is an American author, specializing in popular science and humor.

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Massimo Pigliucci

Massimo Pigliucci (born January 16, 1964) is Professor of Philosophy at CUNY-City College, formerly co-host of the Rationally Speaking Podcast, and formerly the editor in chief for the online magazine Scientia Salon.

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Materialization (paranormal)

In spiritualism, paranormal literature and some religions, materialization (or manifestation) is the creation or appearance of matter from unknown sources.

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Max Dessoir

Maximilian Dessoir (8 February 1867 – 19 July 1947) was a German philosopher, psychologist and theorist of aesthetics.

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Meditation can be defined as a practice where an individual uses a technique, such as focusing their mind on a particular object, thought or activity, to achieve a mentally clear and emotionally calm state.

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Mediumship is the practice of certain people—known as mediums—to purportedly mediate communication between spirits of the dead and living human beings.

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A meta-analysis is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple scientific studies.

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Michael Shermer

Michael Brant Shermer (born September 8, 1954) is an American science writer, historian of science, founder of The Skeptics Society, and editor-in-chief of its magazine Skeptic, which is largely devoted to investigating pseudoscientific and supernatural claims.

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Michael W. Friedlander

Michael W. Friedlander (born 1928) is an American physicist and skeptic.

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A microbalance is an instrument capable of making precise measurements of weight of objects of relatively small mass: of the order of a million parts of a gram.

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Milbourne Christopher

Milbourne Christopher (23 March 1914 – 17 June 1984) was a prominent American illusionist, magic historian, and author.

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Milton A. Rothman

Milton A. Rothman (November 30, 1919 – October 6, 2001) was a United States nuclear physicist and college professor.

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The mind is a set of cognitive faculties including consciousness, perception, thinking, judgement, language and memory.

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Mind–body problem

The mind–body problem is a philosophical problem concerning the relationship between the human mind and body, although it can also concern animal minds, if any, and animal bodies.

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In Newtonian mechanics, linear momentum, translational momentum, or simply momentum (pl. momenta) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.

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Montague Ullman

Montague Ullman (September 9, 1916 – June 7, 2008) was a psychiatrist, psychoanalyst and parapsychologist who founded the Dream Laboratory at the Maimonides Medical Center in Brooklyn, New York and for over three decades promoted public interest in dreams and dream sharing groups.

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National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (also known as "NASEM" or "the National Academies") is the collective scientific national academy of the United States.

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National Academy of Sciences

The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization.

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Near-death experience

A near-death experience (NDE) is a personal experience associated with death or impending death.

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Nervous system

The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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Null hypothesis

In inferential statistics, the term "null hypothesis" is a general statement or default position that there is no relationship between two measured phenomena, or no association among groups.

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Occam's razor

Occam's razor (also Ockham's razor or Ocham's razor; Latin: lex parsimoniae "law of parsimony") is the problem-solving principle that, the simplest explanation tends to be the right one.

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The term occult (from the Latin word occultus "clandestine, hidden, secret") is "knowledge of the hidden".

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Odic force

The Odic force (also called Od, Odyle, Önd, Odes, Odylic, Odyllic, or Odems) is the name given in the mid-19th century to a hypothetical vital energy or life force by Baron Carl von Reichenbach.

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Out-of-body experience

An out-of-body experience (OBE or sometimes OOBE) is an experience that typically involves a sensation of floating outside one's body and, in some cases, the feeling of perceiving one's physical body as if from a place outside one's body (autoscopy).

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Outline of physical science

Physical science is a branch of natural science that studies non-living systems, in contrast to life science.

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In statistical hypothesis testing, the p-value or probability value or asymptotic significance is the probability for a given statistical model that, when the null hypothesis is true, the statistical summary (such as the sample mean difference between two compared groups) would be the same as or of greater magnitude than the actual observed results.

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Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).

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Paranormal events are phenomena described in popular culture, folk, and other non-scientific bodies of knowledge, whose existence within these contexts is described to lie beyond normal experience or scientific explanation.

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Parapsychological Association

The Parapsychological Association (PA) was formed in 1957 as a professional society for parapsychologists following an initiative by Joseph B. Rhine.

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Parapsychology research at SRI

Stanford Research Institute (now SRI International) in Menlo Park, California carried out research on various phenomena characterized by the term parapsychology from 1972 until 1991.

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Parapsychology: Frontier Science of the Mind

Parapsychology: Frontier Science of the Mind is a book by Joseph Banks Rhine and Joseph Gaither Pratt, originally published in 1957.

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Pathological science

Pathological science is an area of research where "people are tricked into false results...

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Patience Worth

Patience Worth was allegedly a spirit contacted by Pearl Lenore Curran (February 15, 1883 – December 4, 1937).

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Paul Edwards (philosopher)

Paul Edwards (September 2, 1923 – December 9, 2004) was an Austrian-American moral philosopher.

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Paul Kurtz

Paul Kurtz (December 21, 1925 – October 20, 2012) was a prominent American scientific skeptic and secular humanist.

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Persi Diaconis

Persi Warren Diaconis (born January 31, 1945) is an American mathematician of Greek descent and former professional magician.

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Peter Lamont (historian)

Peter Karl Lamont is a Research Fellow at the University of Edinburgh, working on the history, theory and performance of magic.

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Physical law

A physical law or scientific law is a theoretical statement "inferred from particular facts, applicable to a defined group or class of phenomena, and expressible by the statement that a particular phenomenon always occurs if certain conditions be present." Physical laws are typically conclusions based on repeated scientific experiments and observations over many years and which have become accepted universally within the scientific community.

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Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

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Pierre L. O. A. Keeler

Pierre Louis Ormond Augustus Keeler (1855-1942) most well known as Pierre L. O. A. Keeler was an American spiritualist medium.

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Post hoc analysis

In a scientific study, post hoc analysis (from Latin post hoc, "after this") consists of analyses that were not specified before seeing the data.

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Power (statistics)

The power of a binary hypothesis test is the probability that the test correctly rejects the null hypothesis (H0) when a specific alternative hypothesis (H1) is true.

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Precognition (from the Latin prae-, "before" and cognitio, "acquiring knowledge"), also called prescience, future vision, future sight is an alleged psychic ability to see events in the future.

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Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research Lab

The Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research (PEAR) was a research program at Princeton University that studied parapsychology.

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Princeton University

Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey.

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Project Alpha

Project Alpha was an elaborate hoax that began in 1979 and ended with its deliberate disclosure in 1983.

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Pseudoscience consists of statements, beliefs, or practices that are claimed to be both scientific and factual, but are incompatible with the scientific method.

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Psionics is the study of paranormal phenomena in relation to the application of electronics.

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A psychic is a person who claims to use extrasensory perception (ESP) to identify information hidden from the normal senses, particularly involving telepathy or clairvoyance, or who performs acts that are apparently inexplicable by natural laws.

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Psychokinesis (from Greek ψυχή "mind" and κίνησις "movement"), or telekinesis (from τηλε- "far off" and κίνηση "movement"), is an alleged psychic ability allowing a person to influence a physical system without physical interaction. Psychokinesis experiments have historically been criticized for lack of proper controls and repeatability. There is no convincing evidence that psychokinesis is a real phenomenon, and the topic is generally regarded as pseudoscience.

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Psychological Bulletin

The Psychological Bulletin is a monthly peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes evaluative and integrative research reviews and interpretations of issues in psychology, including both qualitative (narrative) and/or quantitative (meta-analytic) aspects.

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Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.

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Psychophysiology (from Greek ψῡχή, psȳkhē, "breath, life, soul"; φύσις, physis, "nature, origin"; and -λογία, -logia) is the branch of psychology that is concerned with the physiological bases of psychological processes.

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Publication bias

Publication bias is a type of bias that occurs in published academic research.

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Qualitative research

Qualitative research is a scientific method of observation to gather non-numerical data.

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Quantitative research

In natural sciences and social sciences, quantitative research is the systematic empirical investigation of observable phenomena via statistical, mathematical or computational techniques.

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A quark is a type of elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter.

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Radioactive decay

Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.

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Raimo Tuomela

Raimo Tuomela (born October 9, 1940 in Helsinki, Finland) is a Finnish philosopher.

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Random number generation

Random number generation is the generation of a sequence of numbers or symbols that cannot be reasonably predicted better than by a random chance, usually through a hardware random-number generator (RNG).

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Randomization is the process of making something random; in various contexts this involves, for example.

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Ray Hyman

Ray Hyman (born June 23, 1928, Chelsea, Massachusetts) is a Professor Emeritus of Psychology at the University of Oregon in Eugene, Oregon, and a noted critic of parapsychology.

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Raymond Moody

Raymond A. Moody, Jr. (born June 30, 1944) is a philosopher, psychologist, physician and author, most widely known for his books about life after death and near-death experiences (NDE), a term that he coined in 1975 in his best-selling book Life After Life.

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Reincarnation is the philosophical or religious concept that an aspect of a living being starts a new life in a different physical body or form after each biological death.

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Remote viewing

Remote viewing (RV) is the practice of seeking impressions about a distant or unseen target, purportedly using extrasensory perception (ESP) or "sensing" with the mind.

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Rhine Research Center

The Rhine Research Center is an independent, non-profit parapsychology research center that takes a scientific approach to anomalous phenomena and exceptional human experience.

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Richard Hodgson (parapsychologist)

Richard Hodgson (1855–1905) was an Australian-born psychical researcher.

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Richard Wiseman

Richard J. Wiseman (born 1966) is a Professor of the Public Understanding of Psychology at the University of Hertfordshire in the United Kingdom.

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Robert A. Baker

Robert Allen Baker Jr. (June 27, 1921 – August 8, 2005) was an American psychologist, professor of psychology emeritus of the University of Kentucky, skeptic, author, and investigator of ghosts, UFO abductions, lake monsters and other paranormal phenomena.

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Robert G. Jahn

Robert George Jahn (April 1, 1930 – November 15, 2017) was an American plasma physicist, Professor of Aerospace Science, and Dean of Engineering at Princeton University.

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Robert H. Thouless

Robert Henry Thouless (15 July 1894 – 25 September 1984) was a British psychologist and parapsychologist.

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Robert Hare (chemist)

Robert Hare (January 17, 1781 – May 15, 1858) was an early American chemist.

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Robert L. Morris

Robert Lyle Morris (July 9, 1942 in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania – August 12, 2004 in Edinburgh, Scotland) was an American psychologist, parapsychologist and professor at the University of Edinburgh, where he was the first holder of the Koestler Chair of Parapsychology at the Koestler Parapsychology Unit.

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Robert L. Park

Robert Lee Park (born January 16, 1931) is an American emeritus professor of physics at the University of Maryland, College Park, and a former director of public information at the Washington office of the American Physical Society.

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Robert Todd Carroll

Robert Todd Carroll (May 18, 1945 – August 25, 2016) was an American writer and academic.

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Rufus Osgood Mason

Rufus Osgood Mason (January 22, 1830 in Sullivan, New Hampshire – May 11, 1903 in New York City, New York) was a physician, surgeon, and teacher and an early researcher in parapsychology and hypnotherapy.

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Russell Targ

Russell Targ (born April 11, 1934) is an American physicist, parapsychologist and author who is best known for his work on remote viewing.

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Samuel Soal

Samuel George Soal (1889–1975) — known as S.G. Soal — was a British mathematician and parapsychologist.

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Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.

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R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.

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Science Applications International Corporation

Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) is an American company headquartered in Reston, Virginia that provides government services and information technology support.

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Scientific American

Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.

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Scientific community

The scientific community is a diverse network of interacting scientists.

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Scientific control

A scientific control is an experiment or observation designed to minimize the effects of variables other than the independent variable.

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Sean M. Carroll

Sean Michael Carroll (born October 5, 1966) is a cosmologist and physics professor specializing in dark energy and general relativity.

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Second law of thermodynamics

The second law of thermodynamics states that the total entropy of an isolated system can never decrease over time.

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Selection bias

Selection bias is the bias introduced by the selection of individuals, groups or data for analysis in such a way that proper randomization is not achieved, thereby ensuring that the sample obtained is not representative of the population intended to be analyzed.

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Sensory cue

A sensory cue is a statistic or signal that can be extracted from the sensory input by a perceiver, that indicates the state of some property of the world that the perceiver is interested in perceiving.

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Sensory deprivation

Sensory deprivation or perceptual isolation is the deliberate reduction or removal of stimuli from one or more of the senses.

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Sensory leakage

Sensory leakage is a term used to refer to information that transferred to a person by conventional means (other than Psi) during an experiment into Psi.

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Simeon Edmunds

Simeon Edmunds (1917 – 1969) was a British psychical researcher and writer on hypnotism.

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Skeptical Inquirer

Skeptical Inquirer is a bimonthly American magazine published by the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry (CSI) with the subtitle: The Magazine for Science and Reason.

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Skeptical movement

The skeptical movement (also spelled sceptical) is a modern social movement based on the idea of scientific skepticism (also called rational skepticism).

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Skepticism (American English) or scepticism (British English, Australian English) is generally any questioning attitude or doubt towards one or more items of putative knowledge or belief.

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Society for Psychical Research

The Society for Psychical Research (SPR) is a nonprofit organisation in the United Kingdom.

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Society for Scientific Exploration

The Society for Scientific Exploration, or SSE, is a group committed to studying fringe science.

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Society of American Magicians

The Society of American Magicians (S.A.M.) is the oldest fraternal magic organization in the world.

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Computer software, or simply software, is a generic term that refers to a collection of data or computer instructions that tell the computer how to work, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built, that actually performs the work.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Spirit photography

Spirit photography is a type of photography whose primary attempt is to capture images of ghosts and other spiritual entities, especially in ghost hunting and has a strong history dating back to the late 19th century.

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Spiritualism is a new religious movement based on the belief that the spirits of the dead exist and have both the ability and the inclination to communicate with the living.

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Spook: Science Tackles the Afterlife

Spook: Science Tackles the Afterlife (2005), published by W. W. Norton & Company, a non-fiction work by Mary Roach, is a humorous scientific exploration as to whether there is a soul that survives death.

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SRI International

SRI International (SRI) is an American nonprofit research institute headquartered in Menlo Park, California.

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Stanford University

Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.

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Stanley Krippner

Stanley Krippner (born October 4, 1932) is an American psychologist, parapsychologist, and an executive faculty member and Professor of Psychology at Saybrook University in Oakland, California.

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Stargate Project

Stargate Project was the code name for a secret U.S. Army unit established in 1978 at Fort Meade, Maryland, by the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) and SRI International (a California contractor) to investigate the potential for psychic phenomena in military and domestic intelligence applications.

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Statistical hypothesis testing

A statistical hypothesis, sometimes called confirmatory data analysis, is a hypothesis that is testable on the basis of observing a process that is modeled via a set of random variables.

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Statistical significance

In statistical hypothesis testing, a result has statistical significance when it is very unlikely to have occurred given the null hypothesis.

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Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.

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Susan Blackmore

Susan Jane Blackmore (born 29 July 1951) is a British writer, lecturer, sceptic, broadcaster, and a Visiting Professor at the University of Plymouth, in Plymouth.

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Table tennis

Table tennis, also known as ping-pong, is a sport in which two or four players hit a lightweight ball back and forth across a table using small bats.

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Table-turning (also known as table-tapping, table-tipping or table-tilting) is a type of séance in which participants sit around a table, place their hands on it, and wait for rotations.

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Tarkio College

Tarkio College was a college that operated in Tarkio, Missouri, from 1883 to 1992.

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Telepathy (from the Greek τῆλε, tele meaning "distant" and πάθος, pathos or -patheia meaning "feeling, perception, passion, affliction, experience") is the purported transmission of information from one person to another without using any known human sensory channels or physical interaction.

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Terence Hines

Terence Hines (born 22 March 1951) is professor of neurology at Pace University and adjunct professor at the New York Medical College and a science writer.

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The Demon-Haunted World

The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark is a 1995 book by astrophysicist Carl Sagan, in which the author aims to explain the scientific method to laypeople, and to encourage people to learn critical and skeptical thinking.

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The New York Review of Books

The New York Review of Books (or NYREV or NYRB) is a semi-monthly magazine with articles on literature, culture, economics, science and current affairs.

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The Psychology of the Occult

The Psychology of the Occult is a 1952 skeptical book on the paranormal by psychologist D. H. Rawcliffe.

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The Psychology of the Psychic

The Psychology of the Psychic is a skeptical analysis of some of the most publicized cases of parapsychological research by psychologists David Marks and Richard Kammann.

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The Washington Post

The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.

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Thelma Moss

Thelma Moss (born Thelma Schnee, January 6, 1918 – February 1, 1997) was an American actress, and later a psychologist and parapsychologist, best known for her work on Kirlian photography and the human aura.

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A theory is a contemplative and rational type of abstract or generalizing thinking, or the results of such thinking.

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Thomas Gilovich

Thomas Dashiff Gilovich (born January 16, 1954) is the Irene Blecker Rosenfeld Professor of Psychology at Cornell University.

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Thomas Welton Stanford

Thomas Welton Stanford (1832–1918), also known as Welton Stanford, was an American-born Australian businessman, spiritualist and philanthropist, most notably toward Stanford University, which was founded by his older brother Leland Stanford.

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Transpersonal psychology

Transpersonal psychology is a sub-field or "school" of psychology that integrates the spiritual and transcendent aspects of the human experience with the framework of modern psychology.

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Twenty Cases Suggestive of Reincarnation

Twenty Cases Suggestive of Reincarnation is a book written by psychiatrist Ian Stevenson on the phenomenon of what he calls spontaneous recall of information about previous lives by young children.

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Unidentified flying object

An unidentified flying object or "UFO" is an object observed in the sky that is not readily identified.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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University College London

University College London (UCL) is a public research university in London, England, and a constituent college of the federal University of London.

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University of Arizona

The University of Arizona (also referred to as U of A, UA, or Arizona) is a public research university in Tucson, Arizona.

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University of California, Los Angeles

The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) is a public research university in the Westwood district of Los Angeles, United States.

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University of Edinburgh

The University of Edinburgh (abbreviated as Edin. in post-nominals), founded in 1582, is the sixth oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's ancient universities.

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University of Nevada, Las Vegas

The University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) is an American public research university in the Las Vegas suburb of Paradise, Nevada.

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University of Northampton

The University of Northampton is a public university based in Northampton, Northamptonshire, England.

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University of Virginia

The University of Virginia (U.Va. or UVA), frequently referred to simply as Virginia, is a public research university and the flagship for the Commonwealth of Virginia.

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A vampire is a being from folklore that subsists by feeding on the vital force (generally in the form of blood) of the living.

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Victor J. Stenger

Victor John Stenger (January 29, 1935 – August 25, 2014) was an American particle physicist, philosopher, author, and religious skeptic.

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Visual system

The visual system is the part of the central nervous system which gives organisms the ability to process visual detail, as well as enabling the formation of several non-image photo response functions.

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Voodoo Science

Voodoo Science: The Road from Foolishness to Fraud is a book published in 2000 by physics professor Robert L. Park, critical of research that falls short of adhering to the scientific method.

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W. W. Norton & Company


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Walter Franklin Prince

Walter Franklin Prince (22 April 1863 – 7 August 1934) was an American parapsychologist and founder of the Boston Society for Psychical Research in Boston.

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Washington University in St. Louis

Washington University in St.

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White noise

In signal processing, white noise is a random signal having equal intensity at different frequencies, giving it a constant power spectral density.

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William Crookes

Sir William Crookes (17 June 1832 – 4 April 1919) was a British chemist and physicist who attended the Royal College of Chemistry in London, and worked on spectroscopy.

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William H. Mumler

William H. Mumler (1832–1884) was an American spirit photographer who worked in New York and Boston.

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William James

William James (January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910) was an American philosopher and psychologist, and the first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States.

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William McDougall (psychologist)

William McDougall FRS (22 June 1871 – 28 November 1938) was an early 20th century psychologist who spent the first part of his career in the United Kingdom and the latter part in the United States.

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Witchcraft or witchery broadly means the practice of and belief in magical skills and abilities exercised by solitary practitioners and groups.

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York University

York University (Université York) is a public research university in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

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Zener cards

Zener cards are cards used to conduct experiments for extrasensory perception (ESP) or clairvoyance.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parapsychology

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