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Index Parasitism

In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life. [1]

394 relations: Acanthocephala, Acari, Ad infinitum, Adaptation, African trypanosomiasis, Aggregated distribution, Aleurocanthus woglumi, Algernon Phillips Withiel Thomas, Alien (creature in Alien franchise), Alien (film), Allopatric speciation, Amblyomma, American chestnut, Amoebiasis, Amphipoda, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek, Ancient Rome, Anglerfish, Annelid, Anopheles, Anseriformes, Ant, Ant mimicry, Anthelmintic, Anthrax, Antimalarial medication, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, Aphid, Archaea, Aristophanes, Armillaria, Armillaria mellea, Arthropod, Ascariasis, Ascaris lumbricoides, Autoimmunity, Avicenna, B cell, Babesiosis, Bacillus anthracis, Bacteria, Bacteriocin, Bacteriophage, Barnacle, BBC, Bed bug, Bee, Behavior-altering parasite, ..., Behavioral Ecology (journal), Biological life cycle, Biological pest control, Biome, Bird, Bivalvia, Black rat, Black-headed duck, Bombus bohemicus, Bonellia viridis, Borrelia, Braconidae, Bram Stoker, Branchiura, Bronchitis, Brood parasite, Bumblebee, Cabbage, California coastal salt marsh, California condor, Campylobacter jejuni, Carrot, Cat, Caterpillar, Cell (biology), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Cephenemyiini, Cestoda, Chalcid wasp, Cheating (biology), Cheetah, Chela (organ), Chemical substance, Chestnut blight, Chickpea, Chlorophyll, Class (biology), Classical antiquity, Clonorchis sinensis, Cnidaria, Coinfection, Colpocephalum californici, Commensalism, Common cuckoo, Competition (biology), Consumer-resource systems, Convergent evolution, Copepod, Cospeciation, Cotton, Count Dracula, Cowbird, Crab, Cuckoo, Cuckoo bee, Cuscuta, Cytochrome c oxidase subunit II, David Bruce (microbiologist), Deer, Dermatophytosis, Digenea, DNA, DNA virus, Dracula, Dracula in popular culture, Dracunculus medinensis, Drug resistance, E. O. Wilson, Early modern period, Ebers Papyrus, Ecdysis, Ecdysteroid, Echinococcus granulosus, Ecology, Egret, Emery's rule, Encarsia perplexa, Entamoeba, Entamoeba histolytica, Entomology, Enzyme, Euhaplorchis californiensis, Eukaryote, Eurasian sparrowhawk, Eusociality, Evolutionary biology, Facultative parasite, Family (biology), Fasciola hepatica, Fecal–oral route, Fecundity, Filarioidea, Fish reproduction, Fitness (biology), Flatworm, Flea, Flowering plant, Fly, Food web, Fossil, Francesco Redi, Free Press (publisher), Fungus, Galen, Gastroenteritis, Gastropoda, Generalist and specialist species, Genetic recombination, Genome, Giacinto Cestoni, Giardia lamblia, Giovanni Battista Grassi, Gnathiidae, Gothic fiction, Gray wolf, Great skua, Grebe, Guppy, Gyrodactylus turnbulli, Haemophilus influenzae, Haustorium, Helminths, Hematophagy, Herbivore, Hippocratic Corpus, Honey bee, Honeycomb, Hookworm infection, Host (biology), Host switch, Host–parasite coevolution, Human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Human parasite, Human sexual activity, Human skin, Hydrochloric acid, Hymenoptera, Hyperparasite, Immune system, Immunocompetence, Influenza, Insect flight, Insecticide, Intestinal parasite infection, Ixodes, Ixodes scapularis, James Paget, Japanese macaque, Jasmonic acid, Jonathan Swift, Keystone species, Killifish, Kleptoparasitism, Krøyer's deep sea angler fish, Lamprey, Large blue, Latin, Latinisation of names, Laura Otis, Leech, Lepidoptera, Lion, Lipid, List of domesticated animals, Louse, Lyme disease, Lymphatic filariasis, Lymphocyte, Lynn Margulis, Lysozyme, Maize, Malaria, Malaria prophylaxis, Malaria vaccine, Mammal, Mandible, Mass provisioning, Mathematical model, Medicine, Melipona scutellaris, Meningitis, Microbial cyst, Microsporidia, Microsporidiosis, Mimicry, Mistletoe, Mollusca, Monogenea, Mosquito, Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution, Mutualism (biology), Myco-heterotrophy, Mycorrhiza, Mycosis, Myxozoa, Natural History (magazine), Natural selection, Nematode, Nematomorpha, Nonparametric statistics, Oak apple, Obligate parasite, Old French, Organ (anatomy), Orobanchaceae, Orobanche, Oryza sativa, Oviparity, Ovipositor, Parametric statistics, Parasite Rex, Parasites in fiction, Parasitic castration, Parasitic disease, Parasitic life cycle, Parasitic plant, Parasitism (social offense), Parasitoid, Parasitoid wasp, Parasitology, Pathogen, Pathogenic bacteria, Pathology, Patrick Manson, Patronage in ancient Rome, Pattern recognition receptor, Pea, Peafowl, Pentastomida, Pesticide resistance, Peter Kropotkin, Peter Simon Pallas, Phloem, Phoenicopteriformes, Phoridae, Photorhabdus, Photosynthesis, Phylum, Pimplinae, Pinworm (parasite), Plant, Plant pathology, Plasmodium, Plasmodium falciparum, Polistes canadensis, Polyctenidae, Polyphenol oxidase, Poultry, Predation, Preventive healthcare, Protein, Protozoa, Pupa, Quantitative parasitology, Red Queen hypothesis, Relapsing fever, Reproduction, Ridley Scott, RNA, RNA virus, Ronald Ross, Root, Royal Horticultural Society, RTS,S, Rudolf Leuckart, Sacculina, Salicylic acid, Saliva, Saprotrophic nutrition, Sarcoptes scabiei, Satire, Scabies, Scale insect, Schistosoma, Science fiction, Scientific control, Sebaceous gland, Secondary sex characteristic, Serum protein electrophoresis, Sexual reproduction, Sexual selection, Sexually transmitted infection, Shoot, Simian foamy virus, Skin, Skua, Snubnosed eel, Sociality, Sorghum, Species, Spontaneous generation, Spore, Squib (explosive), Stomach, Stork, Strepsiptera, Striga, Strongyloides, Strongyloides stercoralis, Symbiogenesis, Symbiosis, Sympatry, Syphilis, T cell, Taenia solium, Teladorsagia circumcincta, Termite, Terpene, Testosterone, Tetramorium inquilinum, The Canon of Medicine, The Guardian, The New England Journal of Medicine, Tick, Tineidae, Tomato, Toxin, Toxoplasma gondii, Transmission (medicine), Trematoda, Trematode life cycle stages, Treponema pallidum, Trichinella spiralis, Trichomonas, Tritia obsoleta, Trypanosoma, Tsetse fly, Tuatara, Tyrannosaurus, University of Chicago Press, Vampire bat, Vascular bundle, Vector (epidemiology), Vertebrate, Viduidae, Virulence, Virus, W. D. Hamilton, Wedge-capped capuchin, Whale louse, Wolbachia, Xenorhabdus, Xylem, Yellow-necked mouse. Expand index (344 more) »


Acanthocephala (Greek ἄκανθος, akanthos, thorn + κεφαλή, kephale, head) is a phylum of parasitic worms known as acanthocephalans, thorny-headed worms, or spiny-headed worms, characterized by the presence of an eversible proboscis, armed with spines, which it uses to pierce and hold the gut wall of its host.

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Acari (or Acarina) are a taxon of arachnids that contains mites and ticks.

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Ad infinitum

Ad infinitum is a Latin phrase meaning "to infinity" or "forevermore".

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In biology, adaptation has three related meanings.

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African trypanosomiasis

African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness, is an insect-borne parasitic disease of humans and other animals.

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Aggregated distribution

An aggregated distribution, commonly found among predators and parasites, is a highly uneven statistical distribution pattern in which they collect or aggregate in regions, which may be widely separated, where their prey or hosts are at high density.

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Aleurocanthus woglumi

Aleurocanthus woglumi is a species of whitefly in the family Aleyrodidae.

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Algernon Phillips Withiel Thomas

Sir Algernon Phillips Withiel Thomas (3 June 1857 – 28 December 1937) was a New Zealand university professor, geologist, biologist and educationalist.

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Alien (creature in Alien franchise)

The "Alien" (colloquial: "Xenomorph XX121"; binomial: Internecivus raptus Alien: The Weyland-Yutani Report) is a fictional endoparasitoid extraterrestrial species that is the eponymous antagonist of the ''Alien'' film series.

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Alien (film)

Alien is a 1979 science fiction horror film directed by Ridley Scott, and starring Sigourney Weaver, Tom Skerritt, Veronica Cartwright, Harry Dean Stanton, John Hurt, Ian Holm and Yaphet Kotto.

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Allopatric speciation

Allopatric speciation (from the ancient Greek allos, meaning "other", and patris, meaning "fatherland"), also referred to as geographic speciation, vicariant speciation, or its earlier name, the dumbbell model, is a mode of speciation that occurs when biological populations of the same species become isolated from each other to an extent that prevents or interferes with genetic interchange.

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Amblyomma is a genus of hard ticks.

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American chestnut

The American chestnut (Castanea dentata) is a large, monoecious deciduous tree of the beech family native to eastern North America.

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Amoebiasis, also known amoebic dysentery, is an infection caused by any of the amoebae of the Entamoeba group.

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Amphipoda is an order of malacostracan crustaceans with no carapace and generally with laterally compressed bodies.

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Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Ancient Rome

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.

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Anglerfish are fish of the teleost order Lophiiformes.

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The annelids (Annelida, from Latin anellus, "little ring"), also known as the ringed worms or segmented worms, are a large phylum, with over 22,000 extant species including ragworms, earthworms, and leeches.

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Anopheles (Greek anofelís: "useless") is a genus of mosquito first described and named by J. W. Meigen in 1818.

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Anseriformes is an order of birds that comprise about 180 living species in three families: Anhimidae (the screamers), Anseranatidae (the magpie goose), and Anatidae, the largest family, which includes over 170 species of waterfowl, among them the ducks, geese, and swans.

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Ants are eusocial insects of the family Formicidae and, along with the related wasps and bees, belong to the order Hymenoptera.

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Ant mimicry

Ant mimicry or myrmecomorphy is mimicry of ants by other organisms.

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Anthelmintics or antihelminthics are a group of antiparasitic drugs that expel parasitic worms (helminths) and other internal parasites from the body by either stunning or killing them and without causing significant damage to the host.

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Anthrax is an infection caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis.

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Antimalarial medication

Antimalarial medications, also known as antimalarials, are designed to prevent or cure malaria.

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Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

Antonie Philips van Leeuwenhoek FRS (24 October 1632 – 26 August 1723) was a Dutch businessman and scientist in the Golden Age of Dutch science and technology.

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Aphids are small sap-sucking insects and members of the superfamily Aphidoidea.

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Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.

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Aristophanes (Ἀριστοφάνης,; c. 446 – c. 386 BC), son of Philippus, of the deme Kydathenaion (Cydathenaeum), was a comic playwright of ancient Athens.

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Armillaria, is a genus of parasitic fungi that includes the A. mellea species known as honey fungi that live on trees and woody shrubs.

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Armillaria mellea

Armillaria mellea, commonly known as honey fungus, is a basidiomycete fungus in the genus Armillaria.

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An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages.

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Ascariasis is a disease caused by the parasitic roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides.

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Ascaris lumbricoides

Ascaris lumbricoides is the "large roundworm" of humans, growing to a length of up to.

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Autoimmunity is the system of immune responses of an organism against its own healthy cells and tissues.

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Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.

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B cell

B cells, also known as B lymphocytes, are a type of white blood cell of the lymphocyte subtype.

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Babesiosis is a malaria-like parasitic disease caused by infection with Babesia, a genus of Apicomplexa.

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Bacillus anthracis

Bacillus anthracis is the etiologic agent of anthrax—a common disease of livestock and, occasionally, of humans—and the only obligate pathogen within the genus Bacillus.

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Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Bacteriocins are proteinaceous or peptidic toxins produced by bacteria to inhibit the growth of similar or closely related bacterial strain(s).

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A bacteriophage, also known informally as a phage, is a virus that infects and replicates within Bacteria and Archaea.

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A barnacle is a type of arthropod constituting the infraclass Cirripedia in the subphylum Crustacea, and is hence related to crabs and lobsters.

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The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.

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Bed bug

Bed bugs are parasitic insects in the genus Cimex that feed exclusively on blood.

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Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, known for their role in pollination and, in the case of the best-known bee species, the European honey bee, for producing honey and beeswax.

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Behavior-altering parasite

Behavior-altering parasites are parasites with two or more hosts, capable of causing changes in the behavior of one of their hosts to facilitate their transmission, sometimes directly affecting the hosts' decision-making and behavior control mechanisms.

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Behavioral Ecology (journal)

Behavioral Ecology is a bimonthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology.

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Biological life cycle

In biology, a biological life cycle (or just life cycle when the biological context is clear) is a series of changes in form that an organism undergoes, returning to the starting state.

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Biological pest control

Biological control or biocontrol is a method of controlling pests such as insects, mites, weeds and plant diseases using other organisms.

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A biome is a community of plants and animals that have common characteristics for the environment they exist in.

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Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.

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Bivalvia, in previous centuries referred to as the Lamellibranchiata and Pelecypoda, is a class of marine and freshwater molluscs that have laterally compressed bodies enclosed by a shell consisting of two hinged parts.

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Black rat

The black rat (Rattus rattus), also known as the ship rat, roof rat, house rat, is a common long-tailed rodent of the genus Rattus (rats) in the subfamily Murinae.

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Black-headed duck

The black-headed duck (Heteronetta atricapilla) is a South American duck allied to the stiff-tailed ducks in the tribe Oxyurini of the family Anatidae.

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Bombus bohemicus

Bombus bohemicus, also known as the gypsy's cuckoo bumblebee, is a species of socially parasitic cuckoo bumblebee found in most of Europe and the United Kingdom with the exception of the southern Iberian Peninsula and Iceland.

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Bonellia viridis

Bonellia viridis, the green spoonworm, is a marine worm (Class Echiura, phylum Annelida) noted for displaying exceptional sexual dimorphism and for the biocidal properties of a pigment in its skin.

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Borrelia is a genus of bacteria of the spirochete phylum.

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The Braconidae are a family of parasitoid wasps.

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Bram Stoker

Abraham "Bram" Stoker (8 November 1847 – 20 April 1912) was an Irish author, best known today for his 1897 Gothic novel Dracula.

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Branchiura is a group of crustaceans ranked as a subclass of the class Maxillopoda.

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Bronchitis is inflammation of the bronchi (large and medium-sized airways) in the lungs.

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Brood parasite

Brood parasites are organisms that rely on others to raise their young.

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A bumblebee (or bumble bee, bumble-bee or humble-bee) is any of over 250 species in the genus Bombus, part of Apidae, one of the bee families.

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Cabbage or headed cabbage (comprising several cultivars of Brassica oleracea) is a leafy green, red (purple), or white (pale green) biennial plant grown as an annual vegetable crop for its dense-leaved heads.

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California coastal salt marsh

California's coastal salt marsh is a wetland plant community that occurs sporadically along the Pacific Coast from Humboldt Bay to San Diego.

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California condor

The California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) is a New World vulture, the largest North American land bird.

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Campylobacter jejuni

Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common causes of food poisoning in the United States and in Europe.

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The carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus) is a root vegetable, usually orange in colour, though purple, black, red, white, and yellow cultivars exist.

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The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus or Felis catus) is a small, typically furry, carnivorous mammal.

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Caterpillars are the larval stage of members of the order Lepidoptera (the insect order comprising butterflies and moths).

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Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.

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Cephenemyiini is a tribe within the family Oestridae which includes large flies, parasitic on deer and related ungulates.

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Cestoda is a class of parasitic worms in the flatworm (Platyhelminthes) phylum, commonly known as tapeworms.

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Chalcid wasp

Chalcid wasps (for their metallic colour) are insects within the superfamily Chalcidoidea, part of the order Hymenoptera.

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Cheating (biology)

Cheating is a term used in behavioral ecology and ethology to describe behavior whereby organisms receive a benefit at the cost of other organisms.

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List |F. jubata Erxleben, 1777 |F. jubatus Schreber, 1775 |Felis guttata Hermann, 1804 |F. venatica Griffith, 1821 |Acinonyx venator Brookes, 1828 |F. fearonii Smith, 1834 |F. megaballa Heuglin, 1868 |C. jubatus Blanford, 1888 |Cynælurus jubata Mivart, 1900 |C. guttatus Hollister, 1911 --> The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) is a large cat of the subfamily Felinae that occurs in Southern, North and East Africa, and a few localities in Iran. The species is IUCN Red Listed as vulnerable, as it suffered a substantial decline in its historic range in the 20th century due to habitat loss, poaching, illegal pet trade, and conflict with humans. By 2016, the global cheetah population has been estimated at approximately 7,100 individuals in the wild. Several African countries have taken steps to improve cheetah conservation measures. It is the fastest land animal. The only extant member of the genus Acinonyx, the cheetah was formally described by Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber in 1775. The cheetah is characterised by a slender body, deep chest, spotted coat, small rounded head, black tear-like streaks on the face, long thin legs and long spotted tail. Its lightly built, slender form is in sharp contrast with the robust build of the big cats, making it more similar to the cougar. The cheetah reaches nearly at the shoulder, and weighs. Though taller than the leopard, it is notably smaller than the lion. Typically yellowish tan or rufous to greyish white, the coat is uniformly covered with nearly 2,000 solid black spots. Cheetahs are active mainly during the day, with hunting their major activity. Adult males are sociable despite their territoriality, forming groups called coalitions. Females are not territorial; they may be solitary or live with their offspring in home ranges. Carnivores, cheetah mainly prey upon antelopes and gazelles. They will stalk their prey to within, charge towards it and kill it by tripping it during the chase and biting its throat to suffocate it to death. Cheetahs can reach speeds of in short bursts, but this is disputed by more recent measurements. The average speed of cheetahs is about. Cheetahs are induced ovulators, breeding throughout the year. Gestation is nearly three months long, resulting in a litter of typically three to five cubs (the number can vary from one to eight). Weaning occurs at six months; siblings tend to stay together for some time. Cheetah cubs face higher mortality than most other mammals, especially in the Serengeti region. Cheetahs inhabit a variety of habitatsdry forests, scrub forests and savannahs. Because of its prowess at hunting, the cheetah was tamed and used to kill game at hunts in the past. The animal has been widely depicted in art, literature, advertising and animation.

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Chela (organ)

A chela, also named claw, nipper, or pincer, is a pincer-like organ terminating certain limbs of some arthropods.

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Chemical substance

A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.

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Chestnut blight

The pathogenic fungus Cryphonectria parasitica (formerly Endothia parasitica) is a member of the Ascomycota (sac fungi) taxon.

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The chickpea or chick pea (Cicer arietinum) is a legume of the family Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae.

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Chlorophyll (also chlorophyl) is any of several related green pigments found in cyanobacteria and the chloroplasts of algae and plants.

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Class (biology)

In biological classification, class (classis) is a taxonomic rank, as well as a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank.

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Classical antiquity

Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.

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Clonorchis sinensis

Clonorchis sinensis, the Chinese liver fluke, is a human liver fluke belonging to the class Trematoda, phylum Platyhelminthes.

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Cnidaria is a phylum containing over 10,000 species of animals found exclusively in aquatic (freshwater and marine) environments: they are predominantly marine species.

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In microbiology, coinfection is the simultaneous infection of a host by multiple pathogen species.

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Colpocephalum californici

Colpocephalum californici, the California condor louse, was a species of chewing louse which parasitized the critically endangered California condor.

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Commensalism is a long term biological interaction (symbiosis) in which members of one species gain benefits while those of the other species are neither benefited nor harmed.

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Common cuckoo

The common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) is a member of the cuckoo order of birds, Cuculiformes, which includes the roadrunners, the anis and the coucals.

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Competition (biology)

Competition is an interaction between organisms or species in which both the organisms or species are harmed.

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Consumer-resource systems

Consumer-resource interactions are the core motif of ecological food chains or food webs, and are an umbrella term for a variety of more specialized types of biological species interactions including prey-predator (see predation), host-parasite (see parasitism), plant-herbivore and victim-exploiter systems.

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Convergent evolution

Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages.

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Copepods (meaning "oar-feet") are a group of small crustaceans found in the sea and nearly every freshwater habitat.

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Cospeciation is a form of coevolution in which the speciation of one species dictates speciation of another species and is most commonly studied in host-parasite relationships.

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Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.

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Count Dracula

Count Dracula is the title character of Bram Stoker's 1897 gothic horror novel Dracula.

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Cowbirds are birds belonging to the genus Molothrus in the family Icteridae.

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Crabs are decapod crustaceans of the infraorder Brachyura, which typically have a very short projecting "tail" (abdomen) (translit.

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The cuckoos are a family of birds, Cuculidae, the sole taxon in the order Cuculiformes.

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Cuckoo bee

The term cuckoo bee is used for a variety of different bee lineages which have evolved the kleptoparasitic behaviour of laying their eggs in the nests of other bees, reminiscent of the behavior of cuckoo birds.

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Cuscuta (dodder) is a genus of about 100–170 species of yellow, orange, or red (rarely green) parasitic plants.

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Cytochrome c oxidase subunit II

Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2, also known as cytochrome c oxidase polypeptide II, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MT-CO2 gene.

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David Bruce (microbiologist)

Major-General Sir David Bruce (29 May 1855 in Melbourne – 27 November 1931 in London) was a Scottish pathologist and microbiologist who investigated Malta fever (later called brucellosis in his honour) and African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in animals).

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Deer (singular and plural) are the ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae.

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Dermatophytosis, also known as ringworm, is a fungal infection of the skin.

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Digenea (Gr. Dis – double, Genos – race) is a class of trematodes in the Platyhelminthes phylum, consisting of parasitic flatworms (known as flukes) with a syncytial tegument and, usually, two suckers, one ventral and one oral.

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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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DNA virus

A DNA virus is a virus that has DNA as its genetic material and replicates using a DNA-dependent DNA polymerase.

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Dracula is an 1897 Gothic horror novel by Irish author Bram Stoker.

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Dracula in popular culture

The character of Count Dracula from the 1897 novel Dracula by Bram Stoker, has remained popular over the years, and many films have used the Count as a villain, while others have named him in their titles, such as Dracula's Daughter, The Brides of Dracula, and Dracula's Dog.

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Dracunculus medinensis

Dracunculus medinensis or Guinea worm is a nematode that causes dracunculiasis, also known as guinea worm disease.

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Drug resistance

Drug resistance is the reduction in effectiveness of a medication such as an antimicrobial or an antineoplastic in curing a disease or condition.

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E. O. Wilson

Edward Osborne Wilson (born June 10, 1929), usually cited as E. O. Wilson, is an American biologist, researcher, theorist, naturalist and author.

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Early modern period

The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.

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Ebers Papyrus

The Ebers Papyrus, also known as Papyrus Ebers, is an Egyptian medical papyrus of herbal knowledge dating to circa 1550 BC.

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Ecdysis is the moulting of the cuticle in many invertebrates of the clade Ecdysozoa.

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Ecdysteroids are arthropod steroid hormones that are mainly responsible for molting, development and, to a lesser extent, reproduction; examples of ecdysteroids include ecdysone, ecdysterone, turkesterone and 20-hydroxyecdysone.

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Echinococcus granulosus

Echinococcus granulosus, also called the hydatid worm, hyper tape-worm or dog tapeworm, is a cyclophyllid cestode that dwells in the small intestine of canids as an adult, but which has important intermediate hosts such as livestock and humans, where it causes cystic echinococcosis, also known as hydatid disease.

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Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment.

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An egret is any of several herons, most of which are white or buff, and several of which develop fine plumes (usually milky white) during the breeding season.

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Emery's rule

In 1909, the entomologist Carlo Emery noted that social parasites among insects (e.g., kleptoparasites) tend to be parasites of species or genera to which they are closely related.

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Encarsia perplexa

Encarsia perplexa is a tiny parasitic wasp, a parasitoid of the citrus blackfly, Aleurocanthus woglumi, which is a global pest of citrus trees.

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Entamoeba is a genus of Amoebozoa found as internal parasites or commensals of animals.

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Entamoeba histolytica

Entamoeba histolytica is an anaerobic parasitic amoebozoan, part of the genus Entamoeba.

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Entomology is the scientific study of insects, a branch of zoology.

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Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Euhaplorchis californiensis

Euhaplorchis californiensis is a trophically transmitted parasite (TTP) that lives in the salt-water marshes of Southern California.

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Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).

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Eurasian sparrowhawk

The Eurasian sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus), also known as the northern sparrowhawk or simply the sparrowhawk, is a small bird of prey in the family Accipitridae.

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Eusociality (from Greek εὖ eu "good" and social), the highest level of organization of animal sociality, is defined by the following characteristics: cooperative brood care (including care of offspring from other individuals), overlapping generations within a colony of adults, and a division of labor into reproductive and non-reproductive groups.

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Evolutionary biology

Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth, starting from a single common ancestor.

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Facultative parasite

A facultative parasite is an organism that may resort to parasitic activity, but does not absolutely rely on any host for completion of its life cycle.

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Family (biology)

In biological classification, family (familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus.

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Fasciola hepatica

Fasciola hepatica, also known as the common liver fluke or sheep liver fluke, is a parasitic trematode (fluke or flatworm, a type of helminth) of the class Trematoda, phylum Platyhelminthes.

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Fecal–oral route

The fecal–oral route (or oral–fecal route or fecal oral route) describes a particular route of transmission of a disease.

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In human demography and population biology, fecundity is the potential for reproduction of an organism or population, measured by the number of gametes (eggs), seed set, or asexual propagules.

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The Filarioidea are a superfamily of highly specialised parasitic nematodes.

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Fish reproduction

Fish reproductive organs include testes and ovaries.

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Fitness (biology)

Fitness (often denoted w or ω in population genetics models) is the quantitative representation of natural and sexual selection within evolutionary biology.

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The flatworms, flat worms, Platyhelminthes, Plathelminthes, or platyhelminths (from the Greek πλατύ, platy, meaning "flat" and ἕλμινς (root: ἑλμινθ-), helminth-, meaning "worm") are a phylum of relatively simple bilaterian, unsegmented, soft-bodied invertebrates.

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Fleas are small flightless insects that form the order Siphonaptera.

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Flowering plant

The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.

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True flies are insects of the order Diptera, the name being derived from the Greek δι- di- "two", and πτερόν pteron "wings".

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Food web

A food web (or food cycle) is a natural interconnection of food chains and a graphical representation (usually an image) of what-eats-what in an ecological community.

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A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.

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Francesco Redi

Francesco Redi (18 February 1626 – 1 March 1697) was an Italian physician, naturalist, biologist and poet.

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Free Press (publisher)

Free Press was a book publishing imprint of Simon & Schuster.

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A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.

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Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.

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Gastroenteritis, also known as infectious diarrhea, is inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract -- the stomach and small intestine.

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The gastropods, more commonly known as snails and slugs, belong to a large taxonomic class of invertebrates within the phylum Mollusca, called Gastropoda.

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Generalist and specialist species

A generalist species is able to thrive in a wide variety of environmental conditions and can make use of a variety of different resources (for example, a heterotroph with a varied diet).

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Genetic recombination

Genetic recombination (aka genetic reshuffling) is the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent.

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In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.

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Giacinto Cestoni

Diacinto (or Giacinto) Cestoni (May 13, 1637 – January 29, 1718) was an Italian naturalist.

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Giardia lamblia

Giardia lamblia, also known as Giardia intestinalis, is a flagellated parasite that colonizes and reproduces in the small intestine, causing giardiasis.

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Giovanni Battista Grassi

Giovanni Battista Grassi (27 March 1854 – 4 May 1925) was an Italian physician and zoologist, most well known for his pioneering works on parasitology, especially on malariology.

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The Gnathiidae are a family of isopod crustaceans.

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Gothic fiction

Gothic fiction, which is largely known by the subgenre of Gothic horror, is a genre or mode of literature and film that combines fiction and horror, death, and at times romance.

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Gray wolf

The gray wolf (Canis lupus), also known as the timber wolf,Paquet, P. & Carbyn, L. W. (2003).

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Great skua

The great skua (Stercorarius skua) is a large seabird in the skua family Stercorariidae.

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A grebe is a member of the order Podicipediformes and the only type of bird associated with this order.

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The guppy (Poecilia reticulata), also known as millionfish and rainbow fish, is one of the world's most widely distributed tropical fish, and one of the most popular freshwater aquarium fish species.

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Gyrodactylus turnbulli

Gyrodactylus turnbulli is an ectoparasite from the class Monogenea, is part of the phylum Platyhelminthes, and from the genus Gyrodactylus.

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Haemophilus influenzae

Haemophilus influenzae (formerly called Pfeiffer's bacillus or Bacillus influenzae) is a Gram-negative, coccobacillary, facultatively anaerobic pathogenic bacterium belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family.

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In botany and mycology, a haustorium (plural haustoria) is a structure that grows into or around another structure to absorb water or nutrients.

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Helminths, also commonly known as parasitic worms, are large multicellular parasites, which can generally be seen with the naked eye when they are mature.

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Hematophagy (sometimes spelled haematophagy or hematophagia) is the practice by certain animals of feeding on blood (from the Greek words αἷμα haima "blood" and φάγειν phagein "to eat").

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A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example foliage, for the main component of its diet.

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Hippocratic Corpus

The Hippocratic Corpus (Latin: Corpus Hippocraticum), or Hippocratic Collection, is a collection of around 60 early Ancient Greek medical works strongly associated with the physician Hippocrates and his teachings.

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Honey bee

A honey bee (or honeybee) is any member of the genus Apis, primarily distinguished by the production and storage of honey and the construction of perennial, colonial nests from wax.

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A honeycomb is a mass of hexagonal prismatic wax cells built by honey bees in their nests to contain their larvae and stores of honey and pollen.

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Hookworm infection

Hookworm infection is an infection by a type of intestinal parasite in the roundworm group.

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Host (biology)

In biology and medicine, a host is an organism that harbours a parasitic, a mutualistic, or a commensalist guest (symbiont), the guest typically being provided with nourishment and shelter.

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Host switch

In parasitology and epidemiology, a host switch (or host shift) is an evolutionary change of host specificity.

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Host–parasite coevolution

Host–parasite coevolution is a special case of coevolution, the reciprocal adaptive genetic change of a host and a parasite through reciprocal selective pressures.

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Human granulocytic anaplasmosis

Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is a tick-borne, infectious disease caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, an obligate intracellular bacterium that is typically transmitted to humans by ticks of the Ixodes ricinus species complex, including Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus in North America.

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Human parasite

Human parasites include various protozoa and worms which may infect humans that cause parasitic diseases.

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Human sexual activity

Human sexual activity, human sexual practice or human sexual behaviour is the manner in which humans experience and express their sexuality.

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Human skin

The human skin is the outer covering of the body.

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Hydrochloric acid

Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.

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Hymenoptera is a large order of insects, comprising the sawflies, wasps, bees, and ants.

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A hyperparasite is a parasite whose host, often an insect, is also a parasite, often specifically a parasitoid.

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Immune system

The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.

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Immunocompetence is the ability of the body to produce a normal immune response following exposure to an antigen.

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Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.

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Insect flight

Insects are the only group of invertebrates that have evolved wings and flight.

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Insecticides are substances used to kill insects.

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Intestinal parasite infection

An intestinal parasite infection is a condition in which a parasite infects the gastro-intestinal tract of humans and other animals.

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Ixodes is a genus of hard-bodied ticks (family Ixodidae).

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Ixodes scapularis

Ixodes scapularis is commonly known as the deer tick or black-legged tick (although some people reserve the latter term for Ixodes pacificus, which is found on the west coast of the USA), and in some parts of the USA as the bear tick.

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James Paget

Sir James Paget, 1st Baronet FRS HFRSE DCL (11 January 1814 – 30 December 1899) (rhymes with "gadget") was an English surgeon and pathologist who is best remembered for naming Paget's disease and who is considered, together with Rudolf Virchow, as one of the founders of scientific medical pathology.

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Japanese macaque

The Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata), also known as the snow monkey, is a terrestrial Old World monkey species that is native to Japan.

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Jasmonic acid

Jasmonic acid (JA) is an organic compound found in several plants including jasmine.

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Jonathan Swift

Jonathan Swift (30 November 1667 – 19 October 1745) was an Anglo-Irish satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer (first for the Whigs, then for the Tories), poet and cleric who became Dean of St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin.

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Keystone species

A keystone species is a species that has a disproportionately large effect on its environment relative to its abundance.

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A killifish is any of various oviparous (egg-laying) cyprinodontiform fish (including families Aplocheilidae, Cyprinodontidae, Fundulidae, Profundulidae and Valenciidae).

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Kleptoparasitism (literally, parasitism by theft) is a form of feeding in which one animal takes prey or other food from another that has caught, collected, or otherwise prepared the food, including stored food (as in the case of cuckoo bees, which lay their eggs on the pollen masses made by other bees; food resources could also be in the form of hosts of parasitic or parasitoid wasps).

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Krøyer's deep sea angler fish

Krøyer's deep sea angler fish (Ceratias holboelli) is a species of fish in the family Ceratiidae, the sea devils.

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Lampreys (sometimes also called, inaccurately, lamprey eels) are an ancient lineage of jawless fish of the order Petromyzontiformes, placed in the superclass Cyclostomata.

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Large blue

The large blue (Phengaris arion) is a species of butterfly in the family Lycaenidae.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Latinisation of names

Latinisation or Latinization is the practice of rendering a non-Latin name (or word) in a Latin style.

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Laura Otis

Laura Otis is an American historian of science, and Professor of English, at Emory University.

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Leeches are segmented parasitic or predatory worm-like animals that belong to the phylum Annelida and comprise the subclass Hirudinea.

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Lepidoptera is an order of insects that includes butterflies and moths (both are called lepidopterans).

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The lion (Panthera leo) is a species in the cat family (Felidae).

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In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.

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List of domesticated animals

This page gives a list of domestic animals, also including a list of animals which are or may be currently undergoing the process of domestication and animals that have an extensive relationship with humans beyond simple predation.

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Louse (plural: lice) is the common name for members of the order Phthiraptera, which contains nearly 5,000 species of wingless insect.

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Lyme disease

Lyme disease, also known as Lyme borreliosis, is an infectious disease caused by bacteria of the Borrelia type which is spread by ticks.

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Lymphatic filariasis

Lymphatic filariasis, also known as elephantiasis, is a human disease caused by parasitic worms known as filarial worms.

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A lymphocyte is one of the subtypes of white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system.

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Lynn Margulis

Lynn Margulis (born Lynn Petra Alexander; March 5, 1938 – November 22, 2011) was an American evolutionary theorist and biologist, science author, educator, and popularizer, and was the primary modern proponent for the significance of symbiosis in evolution.

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Lysozyme, also known as muramidase or N-acetylmuramide glycanhydrolase is an antimicrobial enzyme produced by animals that forms part of the innate immune system.

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Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.

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Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.

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Malaria prophylaxis

Malaria prophylaxis is the preventive treatment of malaria.

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Malaria vaccine

Malaria vaccine is a vaccine that is used to prevent malaria.

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Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.

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The mandible, lower jaw or jawbone is the largest, strongest and lowest bone in the human face.

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Mass provisioning

Mass provisioning is a form of parental investment in which an adult insect, most commonly a hymenopteran such as a bee or wasp, stocks all the food for each of her offspring in a small chamber (a "cell") before she lays the egg.

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Mathematical model

A mathematical model is a description of a system using mathematical concepts and language.

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Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.

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Melipona scutellaris

Melipona scutellaris is a eusocial stingless bee species of the order Hymenoptera and the genus Melipona.

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Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges.

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Microbial cyst

A microbial cyst is a resting or dormant stage of a microorganism, usually a bacterium or a protist or rarely an invertebrate animal, that helps the organism to survive in unfavorable environmental conditions.

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Microsporidia are a group of spore-forming unicellular parasites.

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Microsporidiosis is an opportunistic intestinal infection that causes diarrhea and wasting in immunocompromised individuals (HIV, for example).

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In evolutionary biology, mimicry is a similarity of one organism, usually an animal, to another that has evolved because the resemblance is selectively favoured by the behaviour of a shared signal receiver that can respond to both.

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Mistletoe is the English common name for most obligate hemiparasitic plants in the order Santalales.

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Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.

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Monogeneans are a group of ectoparasites commonly found on the skin, gills, or fins of fish.

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Mosquitoes are small, midge-like flies that constitute the family Culicidae.

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Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution

Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution is a 1902 essay collection by Russian naturalist and anarchist philosopher Peter Kropotkin.

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Mutualism (biology)

Mutualism or interspecific cooperation is the way two organisms of different species exist in a relationship in which each individual benefits from the activity of the other.

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Myco-heterotrophy (from Greek μύκης mykes, "fungus", ἕτερος heteros, "another", "different" and τροφή trophe, "nutrition") is a symbiotic relationship between certain kinds of plants and fungi, in which the plant gets all or part of its food from parasitism upon fungi rather than from photosynthesis.

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A mycorrhiza (from Greek μύκης mýkēs, "fungus", and ῥίζα rhiza, "root"; pl. mycorrhizae, mycorrhiza or mycorrhizas) is a symbiotic association between a fungus and the roots of a vascular host plant.

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Mycosis is a fungal infection of animals, including humans.

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Myxozoa (etymology: Greek: μύξα myxa "slime" or "mucus" + thematic vowel o + ζῷον zoon "animals") is a class of aquatic, obligately parasitic cnidarian animals.

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Natural History (magazine)

Natural History is a natural history magazine published in the United States.

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Natural selection

Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.

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The nematodes or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda (also called Nemathelminthes).

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Nematomorpha (sometimes called Gordiacea, and commonly known as horsehair worms or Gordian worms) are a phylum of parasitoid animals superficially similar to nematode worms in morphology, hence the name.

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Nonparametric statistics

Nonparametric statistics is the branch of statistics that is not based solely on parameterized families of probability distributions (common examples of parameters are the mean and variance).

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Oak apple

Oak apple or oak gall is the common name for a large, round, vaguely apple-like gall commonly found on many species of oak.

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Obligate parasite

An obligate parasite or holoparasite is a parasitic organism that cannot complete its life-cycle without exploiting a suitable host.

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Old French

Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.

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Organ (anatomy)

Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.

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Orobanchaceae, the broomrapes, is a family of mostly parasitic plants of the order Lamiales, with about 90 genera and more than 2000 species.

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Orobanche (broomrape or broom-rape) is a genus of over 200 species of parasitic herbaceous plants in the family Orobanchaceae, mostly native to the temperate Northern Hemisphere.

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Oryza sativa

Oryza sativa, commonly known as Asian rice, is the plant species most commonly referred to in English as rice.

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Oviparous animals are animals that lay eggs, with little or no other embryonic development within the mother.

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The ovipositor is an organ used by some animals for the laying of eggs.

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Parametric statistics

Parametric statistics is a branch of statistics which assumes that sample data comes from a population that follows a probability distribution based on a fixed set of parameters.

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Parasite Rex

Parasite Rex: Inside the Bizarre World of Nature's Most Dangerous Creatures is a nonfiction book by Carl Zimmer that was published by Atria Books on November 9, 2001.

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Parasites in fiction

Parasites appear frequently in fiction, from ancient times onwards as seen in mythical figures like the blood-drinking Lilith, with a flowering in the nineteenth century.

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Parasitic castration

Parasitic castration is the strategy, by a parasite, of blocking reproduction by its host, completely or in part, to its own benefit.

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Parasitic disease

A parasitic disease, also known as parasitosis, is an infectious disease caused or transmitted by a parasite.

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Parasitic life cycle

Parasitic life cycles occur in a variety of forms, all involving the exploitation of one or more hosts.

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Parasitic plant

A parasitic plant is a plant that derives some or all of its nutritional requirement from another living plant.

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Parasitism (social offense)

Social parasitism is a pejorative that is leveled against a group or class which is considered to be detrimental to society.

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A parasitoid is an organism that lives in close association with its host and at the host's expense, and which sooner or later kills it.

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Parasitoid wasp

Parasitoid wasps are a large group of hymenopteran superfamilies, all but the wood wasps (Orussoidea) being in the wasp-waisted Apocrita.

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Parasitology is the study of parasites, their hosts, and the relationship between them.

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In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.

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Pathogenic bacteria

Pathogenic bacteria are bacteria that can cause disease.

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Pathology (from the Ancient Greek roots of pathos (πάθος), meaning "experience" or "suffering" and -logia (-λογία), "study of") is a significant field in modern medical diagnosis and medical research, concerned mainly with the causal study of disease, whether caused by pathogens or non-infectious physiological disorder.

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Patrick Manson

Sir Patrick Manson, (3 October 1844 – 9 April 1922), was a Scottish physician who made important discoveries in parasitology, and was the founder of the field of tropical medicine.

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Patronage in ancient Rome

Patronage (clientela) was the distinctive relationship in ancient Roman society between the patronus (plural patroni, "patron") and their cliens (plural clientes, "client").

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Pattern recognition receptor

Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) play a crucial role in the proper function of the innate immune system.

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The pea is most commonly the small spherical seed or the seed-pod of the pod fruit Pisum sativum.

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The peafowl include three species of birds in the genera Pavo and Afropavo of the Phasianidae family, the pheasants and their allies.

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Pentastomida are an enigmatic group of parasitic crustaceans commonly known as tongue worms due to the resemblance of the species of the genus Linguatula to a vertebrate tongue.

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Pesticide resistance

Pesticide resistance describes the decreased susceptibility of a pest population to a pesticide that was previously effective at controlling the pest.

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Peter Kropotkin

Pyotr Alexeevich Kropotkin (Пётр Алексе́евич Кропо́ткин; December 9, 1842 – February 8, 1921) was a Russian activist, revolutionary, scientist and philosopher who advocated anarcho-communism.

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Peter Simon Pallas

Peter Simon Pallas FRS FRSE (22 September 1741 – 8 September 1811) was a Prussian zoologist and botanist who worked in Russia (1767–1810).

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In vascular plants, phloem is the living tissue that transports the soluble organic compounds made during photosynthesis and known as photosynthates, in particular the sugar sucrose, to parts of the plant where needed.

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Phoenicopteriformes is a group of water birds which comprises flamingos and their extinct relatives.

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The Phoridae are a family of small, hump-backed flies resembling fruit flies.

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Photorhabdus is a genus of bioluminescent, gram-negative bacilli which lives symbiotically within entomopathogenic nematodes, hence the name photo (which means light-producing) and rhabdus (rod-shape).

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Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).

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In biology, a phylum (plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class.

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Pimplinae are a worldwide subfamily of the parasitic wasp family Ichneumonidae.

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Pinworm (parasite)

The pinworm (species Enterobius vermicularis), also known as threadworm (in the United Kingdom and Australasia) or seatworm, is a parasitic worm.

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Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.

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Plant pathology

Plant pathology (also phytopathology) is the scientific study of diseases in plants caused by pathogens (infectious organisms) and environmental conditions (physiological factors).

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Plasmodium is a genus of unicellular eukaryotes that are obligate parasites of vertebrates and insects.

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Plasmodium falciparum

Plasmodium falciparum is a unicellular protozoan parasite of humans, and the deadliest species of Plasmodium that cause malaria in humans.

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Polistes canadensis

Polistes canadensis, commonly known as the red paper wasp, is a Neotropical, primitively eusocial wasp.

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The Polyctenidae are a family of parasitic bugs of the superfamily Cimicoidea that prefer bats as their hosts.

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Polyphenol oxidase

Polyphenol oxidase (PPO; also monophenol monooxygenase or polyphenol oxidase i, chloroplastic) is a tetramer that contains four atoms of copper per molecule, and binding sites for two aromatic compounds and oxygen.

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Poultry are domesticated birds kept by humans for their eggs, their meat or their feathers.

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Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a hunting animal) kills and eats its prey (the organism that is attacked).

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Preventive healthcare

Preventive healthcare (alternately preventive medicine, preventative healthcare/medicine, or prophylaxis) consists of measures taken for disease prevention, as opposed to disease treatment.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Protozoa (also protozoan, plural protozoans) is an informal term for single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic, which feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.

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A pupa (pūpa, "doll"; plural: pūpae) is the life stage of some insects undergoing transformation between immature and mature stages.

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Quantitative parasitology

In parasitology, the quantitative study of parasitism in a host population involves the use of statistics to draw meaningful conclusions from observations of the prevalence and intensity of parasitic infection.

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Red Queen hypothesis

The Red Queen hypothesis, also referred to as Red Queen's, Red Queen's race or the Red Queen effect, is an evolutionary hypothesis which proposes that organisms must constantly adapt, evolve, and proliferate not merely to gain reproductive advantage, but also simply to survive while pitted against ever-evolving opposing organisms in an ever-changing environment.

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Relapsing fever

Relapsing fever is a vector-borne disease caused by infection with certain bacteria in the genus Borrelia, which are transmitted through the bites of lice or soft-bodied ticks (genus Ornithodoros).

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Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents".

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Ridley Scott

Sir Ridley Scott (born 30 November 1937) is an English film director and producer.

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Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.

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RNA virus

An RNA virus is a virus that has RNA (ribonucleic acid) as its genetic material.

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Ronald Ross

Sir Ronald Ross (13 May 1857 – 16 September 1932), was a British medical doctor who received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1902 for his work on the transmission of malaria, becoming the first British Nobel laureate, and the first born outside Europe.

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In vascular plants, the root is the organ of a plant that typically lies below the surface of the soil.

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Royal Horticultural Society

The Royal Horticultural Society (RHS), founded in 1804 as the Horticultural Society of London, is the UK's leading gardening charity.

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RTS,S/AS01 — trade name Mosquirix — is a recombinant protein-based malaria vaccine.

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Rudolf Leuckart

Karl Georg Friedrich Rudolf Leuckart (7 October 1822 – 22 February 1898) was a German zoologist born in Helmstedt.

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Sacculina is a genus of barnacles that is a parasitic castrator of crabs.

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Salicylic acid

Salicylic acid (from Latin salix, willow tree) is a lipophilic monohydroxybenzoic acid, a type of phenolic acid, and a beta hydroxy acid (BHA).

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Saliva is a watery substance formed in the mouths of animals, secreted by the salivary glands.

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Saprotrophic nutrition

Saprotrophic nutrition or lysotrophic nutrition is a process of chemoheterotrophic extracellular digestion involved in the processing of decayed (dead or waste) organic matter.

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Sarcoptes scabiei

Sarcoptes scabiei or the itch mite is a parasitic mite (an arthropod) that burrows into skin and causes scabies.

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Satire is a genre of literature, and sometimes graphic and performing arts, in which vices, follies, abuses, and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, ideally with the intent of shaming individuals, corporations, government, or society itself into improvement.

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Scabies, also known as the seven-year itch, is a contagious skin infestation by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei.

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Scale insect

The scale insects are small insects of the order Hemiptera, suborder Sternorrhyncha.

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Schistosoma is a genus of trematodes, commonly known as blood flukes.

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Science fiction

Science fiction (often shortened to Sci-Fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction, typically dealing with imaginative concepts such as advanced science and technology, spaceflight, time travel, and extraterrestrial life.

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Scientific control

A scientific control is an experiment or observation designed to minimize the effects of variables other than the independent variable.

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Sebaceous gland

Sebaceous glands are microscopic exocrine glands in the skin that secrete an oily or waxy matter, called sebum, to lubricate and waterproof the skin and hair of mammals.

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Secondary sex characteristic

Secondary sex characteristics are features that appear during puberty in humans, and at sexual maturity in other animals.

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Serum protein electrophoresis

Serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP or SPE) is a laboratory test that examines specific proteins in the blood called globulins.

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Sexual reproduction

Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.

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Sexual selection

Sexual selection is a mode of natural selection where members of one biological sex choose mates of the other sex to mate with (intersexual selection), and compete with members of the same sex for access to members of the opposite sex (intrasexual selection).

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Sexually transmitted infection

Sexually transmitted infections (STI), also referred to as sexually transmitted diseases (STD) or venereal diseases (VD), are infections that are commonly spread by sexual activity, especially vaginal intercourse, anal sex and oral sex.

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In botany, shoots consist of stems including their appendages, the leaves and lateral buds, flowering stems and flower buds.

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Simian foamy virus

The Simian Foamy Virus (SFV) is species of the genus Spumavirus, which belongs to the family of Retroviridae.

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Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.

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The skuas are a group of seabirds with about seven species forming the family Stercorariidae and the genus Stercorarius.

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Snubnosed eel

The snubnosed eel, Simenchelys parasitica, also known as the pug-nosed eel, slime eel, or snub-nose parasitic eel, is a species of deep-sea eel and the only member of its genus.

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Sociality is the degree to which individuals in an animal population tend to associate in social groups (Gregariousness) and form cooperative societies.

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Sorghum is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family Poaceae.

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In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.

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Spontaneous generation

Spontaneous generation refers to an obsolete body of thought on the ordinary formation of living organisms without descent from similar organisms.

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In biology, a spore is a unit of sexual or asexual reproduction that may be adapted for dispersal and for survival, often for extended periods of time, in unfavourable conditions.

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Squib (explosive)

A squib is a miniature explosive device used in a wide range of industries, from special effects to military applications.

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The stomach (from ancient Greek στόμαχος, stomachos, stoma means mouth) is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.

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Storks are large, long-legged, long-necked wading birds with long, stout bills.

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The Strepsiptera (translation: "twisted wing"', giving rise to the insects' common name, twisted-wing parasites) are an endopterygote order of insects with nine extant families making up about 600 species.

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Striga, commonly known as witchweed, is a genus of parasitic plants that occur naturally in parts of Africa, Asia, and Australia.

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Strongyloides (from Greek strongylos, round, + eidos, resemblance), anguillula, or threadworm is a genus of small nematode parasites, belonging to the family Strongylidae, commonly found in the small intestine of mammals (particularly ruminants), that are characterized by an unusual lifecycle that involves one or several generations of free-living adult worms.

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Strongyloides stercoralis

Strongyloides stercoralis is a human pathogenic parasitic roundworm causing the disease strongyloidiasis.

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Symbiogenesis, or endosymbiotic theory, is an evolutionary theory of the origin of eukaryotic cells from prokaryotic organisms, first articulated in 1905 and 1910 by the Russian botanist Konstantin Mereschkowski, and advanced and substantiated with microbiological evidence by Lynn Margulis in 1967.

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Symbiosis (from Greek συμβίωσις "living together", from σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic.

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In biology, two species or populations are considered sympatric when they exist in the same geographic area and thus frequently encounter one another.

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Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.

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T cell

A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.

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Taenia solium

Taenia solium is the pork tapeworm belonging to cyclophyllid cestodes in the family Taeniidae.

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Teladorsagia circumcincta

Teladorsagia circumcincta (also known as Ostertagia circumcincta) is a species of parasitic nematodes that infect sheep and goats.

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Termites are eusocial insects that are classified at the taxonomic rank of infraorder Isoptera, or as epifamily Termitoidae within the cockroach order Blattodea.

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Terpenes are a large and diverse class of organic compounds, produced by a variety of plants, particularly conifers, and by some insects.

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Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.

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Tetramorium inquilinum

Tetramorium inquilinum is an ectoparasitic ant found in Europe.

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The Canon of Medicine

The Canon of Medicine (القانون في الطب al-Qānūn fī al-Ṭibb) is an encyclopedia of medicine in five books compiled by Persian philosopher Avicenna (Ibn Sina) and completed in 1025.

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

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The New England Journal of Medicine

The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) is a weekly medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society.

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Ticks are small arachnids, part of the order Parasitiformes.

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Tineidae is a family of moths in the order Lepidoptera described by Pierre André Latreille in 1810.

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The tomato (see pronunciation) is the edible, often red, fruit/berry of the plant Solanum lycopersicum, commonly known as a tomato plant.

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A toxin (from toxikon) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms; synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded.

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Toxoplasma gondii

Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular, parasitic alveolate that causes the disease toxoplasmosis.

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Transmission (medicine)

In medicine, public health, and biology, transmission is the passing of a pathogen causing communicable disease from an infected host individual or group to a particular individual or group, regardless of whether the other individual was previously infected.

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Trematoda is a class within the phylum Platyhelminthes.

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Trematode life cycle stages

Trematodes are any parasitic flatworm of the class Trematoda, especially a parasitic fluke.

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Treponema pallidum

Treponema pallidum is a spirochaete bacterium with subspecies that cause the diseases syphilis, bejel, and yaws.

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Trichinella spiralis

Trichinella spiralis is an ovoviviparous nematode parasite, occurring in rodents, pigs, horses, bears, and humans, and is responsible for the disease trichinosis.

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Trichomonas is a genus of anaerobic excavate parasites of vertebrates.

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Tritia obsoleta

The eastern mudsnail, Tritia obsoleta, is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Nassariidae, the nassa mud snails.

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Trypanosoma is a genus of kinetoplastids (class Kinetoplastida), a monophyletic group of unicellular parasitic flagellate protozoa.

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Tsetse fly

Tsetse, sometimes spelled tzetze and also known as tik-tik flies, are large biting flies that inhabit much of tropical Africa.

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Tuatara are reptiles endemic to New Zealand.

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Tyrannosaurus is a genus of coelurosaurian theropod dinosaur.

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University of Chicago Press

The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.

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Vampire bat

Vampire bats are bats whose food source is blood, a dietary trait called hematophagy.

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Vascular bundle

A vascular bundle is a part of the transport system in vascular plants.

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Vector (epidemiology)

In epidemiology, a disease vector is any agent that carries and transmits an infectious pathogen into another living organism; most agents regarded as vectors are organisms, such as intermediate parasites or microbes, but it could be an inanimate medium of infection such as dust particles.

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Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).

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The indigobirds and whydahs, together with the Cuckoo-finch make up the family Viduidae; they are small passerine birds native to Africa.

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Virulence is a pathogen's or microbe's ability to infect or damage a host.

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A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.

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W. D. Hamilton

William Donald Hamilton, FRS (1 August 1936 – 7 March 2000) was an English evolutionary biologist, widely recognised as one of the most significant evolutionary theorists of the 20th century.

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Wedge-capped capuchin

The wedge-capped capuchin or weeper capuchin (Cebus olivaceus) is a capuchin monkey from South America.

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Whale louse

A whale louse is a commensal crustacean of the family Cyamidae.

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Wolbachia is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria which infects arthropod species, including a high proportion of insects, but also some nematodes.

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Xenorhabdus is a genus of motile, gram-negative bacteria from the family of the Enterobacteriaceae.

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Xylem is one of the two types of transport tissue in vascular plants, phloem being the other.

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Yellow-necked mouse

The yellow-necked mouse (Apodemus flavicollis), also called yellow-necked field mouse, yellow-necked wood mouse, and South China field mouse, is closely related to the wood mouse, with which it was long confused.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parasitism

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