89 relations: Alexandria, Alkali, Archivist, Assyria, Babylonia, Bava Batra, Bibliothèque nationale de France, British Museum, Calligraphy, Cambridge University Press, Cattle, Cennino Cennini, Chromium, Codex Argenteus, Codex Brixianus, Codex Vercellensis, Collagen, Conservation and restoration of parchment, Conservator-restorer, Cuneiform script, David Diringer, Diploma, Edward Johnston, Egyptian Museum, Fetus, Fluorine, Fourth Dynasty of Egypt, Gevil, Goat, Gutenberg Bible, Hamlet, Hellenistic period, Heriot-Watt University, Herodotus, Israel, Jews, Johannes Trithemius, Kashrut, Klaf, Latin, Librarian, Library of Alexandria, Library of Pergamum, Lime (material), List of lexicographers, Manuscript culture, Mezuzah, Middle Ages, Natural History (Pliny), Nile Delta, ..., Nome (Egypt), Old French, Palimpsest, Paper, Papyrus, Pergamon, Pliny the Elder, Printing, Pumice, Purple parchment, Rabbi, Rabbinic literature, Radiocarbon dating, Ramesses II, Religion, Renaissance, Rossano Gospels, Samuel Johnson, Scribe, Secretum Philosophorum, Sefer Torah, Sheep, Silicone, Sinope Gospels, Sixth Dynasty of Egypt, Stillbirth, Stockholm Codex Aureus, Sulfuric acid, Talmud, Tefillin, Ten Commandments, Torah, Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt, University of Glasgow, University of Notre Dame, Vellum, Vienna Genesis, William Horman, William Shakespeare. Expand index (39 more) » « Shrink index
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.
An archivist (AR-kiv-ist) is an information professional who assesses, collects, organizes, preserves, maintains control over, and provides access to records and archives determined to have long-term value.
Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.
Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).
Bava Batra (also Baba Batra; Talmudic Aramaic: בבא בתרא "The Last Gate") is the third of the three tractates in the Talmud in the order Nezikin; it deals with a person's responsibilities and rights as the owner of property.
The (BnF, English: National Library of France) is the national library of France, located in Paris.
The British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture.
Calligraphy (from Greek: καλλιγραφία) is a visual art related to writing.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.
Cennino d'Andrea Cennini (c. 1360 – before 1427) was an Italian painter influenced by Giotto.
Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.
The Codex Argenteus (Latin for "Silver Book/Codex") is a 6th-century manuscript, originally containing a 4th century translation of the Bible into the Gothic language.
The Codex Brixianus (Brescia, Biblioteca Civica Queriniana, s.n.), designated by f, is a 6th-century Latin Gospel Book which was probably produced in Italy.
The title Codex Vercellensis Evangeliorum refers to two manuscript codices preserved in the cathedral library of Vercelli, in the Piedmont Region, Italy.
Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies.
The conservation and restoration of parchment constitutes the care and treatment of parchment materials which have cultural and historical significance.
A conservator-restorer is a professional responsible for the preservation of artistic and cultural artifacts, also known as cultural heritage.
Cuneiform script, one of the earliest systems of writing, was invented by the Sumerians.
David Diringer (1900–1975) was a British linguist, palaeographer and writer.
A diploma is a certificate or deed issued by an educational institution, such as college or university, that testifies that the recipient has successfully completed a particular course of study.
Edward Johnston, CBE (11 February 1872 – 26 November 1944) was a Uruguayan-British craftsman who is regarded, with Rudolf Koch, as the father of modern calligraphy, in the particular form of the broad edged pen as a writing tool.
The Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, known commonly as the Egyptian Museum or Museum of Cairo, in Cairo, Egypt, is home to an extensive collection of ancient Egyptian antiquities.
A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.
Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.
The Fourth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty IV or Dynasty 4) is characterized as a "golden age" of the Old Kingdom of Egypt.
Gevil or Gewil (גוויל) is animal hide that has been prepared as a writing material in Jewish scribal documents, in particular a Sefer Torah (Torah scroll).
The domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe.
The Gutenberg Bible (also known as the 42-line Bible, the Mazarin Bible or the B42) was the first major book printed using mass-produced movable metal type in Europe.
The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, often shortened to Hamlet, is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare at an uncertain date between 1599 and 1602.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
Heriot-Watt University is a public university based in Edinburgh, Scotland.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Johannes Trithemius (1 February 1462 – 13 December 1516), born Johann Heidenberg, was a German Benedictine abbot and a polymath who was active in the German Renaissance as a lexicographer, chronicler, cryptographer, and occultist.
Kashrut (also kashruth or kashrus) is a set of Jewish religious dietary laws.
Klaf or qelaf (קָלַף) is the designation given a particular piece of skin.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
A librarian is a person who works professionally in a library, providing access to information and sometimes social or technical programming.
The Royal Library of Alexandria or Ancient Library of Alexandria in Alexandria, Egypt, was one of the largest and most significant libraries of the ancient world.
The Library of Pergamum in Pergamum, Turkey, was one of the most important libraries in the ancient world.
Lime is a calcium-containing inorganic mineral in which oxides, and hydroxides predominate.
This list contains people who contributed to the field of lexicography, the theory and practice of compiling dictionaries.
Manuscript culture uses manuscripts to store and disseminate information; in the West, it generally preceded the age of printing.
A mezuzah (מְזוּזָה "doorpost"; plural: mezuzot) comprises a piece of parchment called a klaf contained in a decorative case and inscribed with specific Hebrew verses from the Torah (and). These verses consist of the Jewish prayer Shema Yisrael, beginning with the phrase: "Hear, O Israel, the (is) our God, the is One".
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Natural History (Naturalis Historia) is a book about the whole of the natural world in Latin by Pliny the Elder, a Roman author and naval commander who died in 79 AD.
The Nile Delta (دلتا النيل or simply الدلتا) is the delta formed in Northern Egypt (Lower Egypt) where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea.
A nome (from νομός, nomós, “district”) was a territorial division in ancient Egypt.
Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.
In textual studies, a palimpsest is a manuscript page, either from a scroll or a book, from which the text has been scraped or washed off so that the page can be reused for another document.
Paper is a thin material produced by pressing together moist fibres of cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets.
Papyrus is a material similar to thick paper that was used in ancient times as a writing surface.
Pergamon, or Pergamum (τὸ Πέργαμον or ἡ Πέργαμος), was a rich and powerful ancient Greek city in Aeolis.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Printing is a process for reproducing text and images using a master form or template.
Pumice, called pumicite in its powdered or dust form, is a volcanic rock that consists of highly vesicular rough textured volcanic glass, which may or may not contain crystals.
Purple parchment, Purple vellum or Codex Purpureus refers to manuscripts written on parchment dyed purple.
In Judaism, a rabbi is a teacher of Torah.
Rabbinic literature, in its broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of rabbinic writings throughout Jewish history.
Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.
Ramesses II (variously also spelt Rameses or Ramses; born; died July or August 1213 BC; reigned 1279–1213 BC), also known as Ramesses the Great, was the third pharaoh of the 19th Dynasty of Egypt.
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
The Rossano Gospels, designated by 042 or Σ (in the Gregory-Aland numbering), ε 18 (Soden), at the cathedral of Rossano in Italy, is a 6th-century illuminated manuscript Gospel Book written following the reconquest of the Italian peninsula by the Byzantine Empire.
Samuel Johnson LL.D. (18 September 1709 – 13 December 1784), often referred to as Dr.
A scribe is a person who serves as a professional copyist, especially one who made copies of manuscripts before the invention of automatic printing.
The Secretum philosophorum was a popular Latin text originating in England c.1300–1350.
A Sefer Torah (ספר תורה; "Book of Torah" or "Torah scroll"; plural: Sifrei Torah) is a handwritten copy of the Torah, the holiest book in Judaism.
Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are quadrupedal, ruminant mammal typically kept as livestock.
Silicones, also known as polysiloxanes, are polymers that include any inert, synthetic compound made up of repeating units of siloxane, which is a chain of alternating silicon atoms and oxygen atoms, combined with carbon, hydrogen, and sometimes other elements.
The Sinope Gospels, designated by O or 023 (in the Gregory-Aland numbering), ε 21 (Soden), also known as the Codex Sinopensis, is a fragment of a 6th-century illuminated Greek Gospel Book.
The Sixth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty VI) along with Dynasties III, IV and V constitute the Old Kingdom of Dynastic Egypt.
Stillbirth is typically defined as fetal death at or after 20 to 28 weeks of pregnancy.
The Stockholm Codex Aureus (Stockholm, National Library of Sweden, MS A. 135, also known as the Codex Aureus of Canterbury and Codex Aureus Holmiensis) is a Gospel book written in the mid-eighth century in Southumbria, probably in Canterbury, whose decoration combines Insular and Italian elements.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד talmūd "instruction, learning", from a root LMD "teach, study") is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law and theology.
Tefillin (Askhenazic:; Israeli Hebrew:, תפילין), also called phylacteries, are a set of small black leather boxes containing scrolls of parchment inscribed with verses from the Torah.
The Ten Commandments (עֲשֶׂרֶת הַדִּבְּרוֹת, Aseret ha'Dibrot), also known as the Decalogue, are a set of biblical principles relating to ethics and worship, which play a fundamental role in Judaism and Christianity.
Torah (תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings.
The Twelfth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (Dynasty XII), is often combined with the Eleventh, Thirteenth and Fourteenth Dynasties under the group title Middle Kingdom.
The University of Glasgow (Oilthigh Ghlaschu; Universitas Glasguensis; abbreviated as Glas. in post-nominals) is the fourth-oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's four ancient universities.
The University of Notre Dame du Lac (or simply Notre Dame or ND) is a private, non-profit Catholic research university in the community of Notre Dame, Indiana, near the city of South Bend, in the United States.
Vellum is prepared animal skin or "membrane" used as a material for writing on.
The Vienna Genesis (Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, cod. theol. gr. 31), designated by siglum L (Ralphs), is an illuminated manuscript, probably produced in Syria in the first half of the 6th Century.
William Horman (c. 1440 – April 1535) was a headmaster at Eton and Winchester College in the early Tudor period of English history.
William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.