178 relations: Act of Settlement 1701, Aleksander Kwaśniewski, Amnesty, Apostolic Pardon, Appeal, Armed Forces Act 2006, Assizes, Australia, Birmingham Six, Boris Yeltsin, Bronisław Komorowski, Bus 300 affair, Canadian nationality law, Canadian Police Information Centre, Cantons of Switzerland, Capital punishment, Chaim Herzog, Chief Executive of Hong Kong, Chile, Christian Klar, Commutation (law), Conditional sentence (Canada), Constitution of Greece, Constitution of India, Constitution of Ireland, Constitution of Italy, Constitution of Poland, Constitution of Russia, Constitution of Spain, Constitution of Turkey, Constitutional Court of Italy, Conviction, Coronation, Costs in English law, Cowardice, Criminal Cases Review Commission, Criminal code, Criminal Code (Canada), Criminal record, Criminal Records Act, Damages, Death sentence with reprieve, Decree, Dictionary.com, Disease, Douglas Hurd, Douglas Hyde, Dublin, Durham, England, Edinburgh, ..., Edward III of England, England and Wales, Expungement, Federal administration of Switzerland, Federal Assembly (Switzerland), Federal crime in the United States, Federal law, Fine (penalty), First Minister of Scotland, French Parliament, George Ryan, Georgia State Board of Pardons and Paroles, Germany, Government procurement, Governor (United States), Governor - India, Governor General of Canada, Grand National Assembly of Turkey, Habeas Corpus Act 1679, Head of state, Hong Kong Basic Law, Horst Köhler, Impeachment, Indictable offence, Indictment, International Transfer of Offenders Act, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Ius strictum, Jimmy Carter, Journal officiel de la République française, Judicial review, Justice ministry, King-in-Council, Lech Kaczyński, Lech Wałęsa, Legal immunity, List of Acts of Parliament of Canada, List of British monarchs, List of governors of Andhra Pradesh, London, Manslaughter, Martin O'Malley, Mary McAleese, Mary Robinson, Michael Howard, Minister of Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness, Ministry of Justice (France), Ministry of Justice (Israel), Ministry of Justice (Turkey), Minnesota Board of Pardons, Misdemeanor, Monarchy of Spain, National Congress of Chile, National Defence Act, Nicky Kelly, Norman conquest of England, Office of the Pardon Attorney, Oklahoma Pardon and Parole Board, Oliver Cromwell, Overprint, Parliament of Canada, Parole board, Parole Board of Canada, Poland, President of Chile, President of France, President of Germany, President of India, President of Ireland, President of Israel, President of Italy, President of Poland, President of Russia, President of the United States, President of Turkey, Prime Minister of France, Probation, Prosecutor, Red Army Faction, Regulation, Relief, Remand (court procedure), Respite (law), Restitution, Rock Valley College, Royal prerogative, Royal prerogative of mercy, Rule of law, Sacrament of Penance, Safe Streets and Communities Act, Scotland, Scottish Criminal Cases Review Commission, Secretary of State for Defence, Secretary of State for Justice, Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, Sentence (law), Shin Bet, South Africa, South Carolina Department of Probation, Parole, and Pardon Services, Structure of the Canadian federal government, Summary offence, Supreme Court of India, Supreme Court of the United States, Supreme Leader of Iran, Sushilkumar Shinde, Switzerland, Toney Anaya, Transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong, Travel visa, Turkey, U.S. state, United Kingdom, United States, United States Department of Justice, United States Federal Witness Protection Program, Vladimir Putin, Waiting period, Wales, Westminster School, William Whitelaw, 1st Viscount Whitelaw, Witness, Witness protection, World War I, World War II, York. Expand index (128 more) » « Shrink index
The Act of Settlement is an Act of the Parliament of England that was passed in 1701 to settle the succession to the English and Irish crowns on Protestants only.
Aleksander Kwaśniewski (born 15 November 1954) is a Polish politician and journalist.
Amnesty (from the Greek ἀμνηστία amnestia, "forgetfulness, passing over") is defined as: "A pardon extended by the government to a group or class of people, usually for a political offense; the act of a sovereign power officially forgiving certain classes of people who are subject to trial but have not yet been convicted." It includes more than pardon, inasmuch as it obliterates all legal remembrance of the offense.
In the Catholic Church, the Apostolic Pardon is an indulgence given for the remission of temporal punishment due to sin.
In law, an appeal is the process in which cases are reviewed, where parties request a formal change to an official decision.
The Armed Forces Act 2006 (c 52) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The courts of assize, or assizes, were periodic courts held around England and Wales until 1972, when together with the quarter sessions they were abolished by the Courts Act 1971 and replaced by a single permanent Crown Court.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The Birmingham Six were six men: Hugh Callaghan, Patrick Joseph Hill, Gerard Hunter, Richard McIlkenny, William Power and John Walker, who, in 1975, were each sentenced to life imprisonment following their false convictions for the Birmingham pub bombings.
Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (p; 1 February 1931 – 23 April 2007) was a Soviet and Russian politician and the first President of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999.
Bronisław Maria Komorowski (born 4 June 1952) is a Polish politician and historian who served as President of Poland from 2010 to 2015.
The Bus 300 affair, also known as Kav 300 affair, was a 1984 incident in which Shin Bet members executed two Palestinian bus hijackers, immediately after the hostage crisis incident ended and they had been captured.
Canadian nationality law is promulgated by the Citizenship Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. C-29) since 1977.
The Canadian Police Information Centre (CPIC; Centre d'information de la police canadienne., CIPC) is the central police database where Canada's law enforcement agencies can access information on a number of matters.
The 26 cantons of Switzerland (Kanton, canton, cantone, chantun) are the member states of the Swiss Confederation.
Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.
Major-General Chaim Herzog (חיים הרצוג; 17 September 1918 – 17 April 1997) was an Israeli politician, general, lawyer and author who served as the sixth President of Israel between 1983 and 1993.
The Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region is the representative of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and head of the Government of Hong Kong in China.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Christian Klar (born 20 May 1952) was a leading member of the second generation Red Army Faction (RAF) between the 1970s and 1980s.
In law, a commutation is the substitution of a lesser penalty for that given after a conviction for a crime.
A conditional sentence is a non-custodial punishment for crime.
The current Constitution of Greece (Σύνταγμα Sýntagma), was created by the Fifth Revisional Parliament of the Hellenes and entered into force in 1975.
The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India.
The Constitution of Ireland (Bunreacht na hÉireann) is the fundamental law of the Republic of Ireland.
The Constitution of the Italian Republic (Costituzione della Repubblica Italiana) was enacted by the Constituent Assembly on 22 December 1947, with 453 votes in favour and 62 against.
The current Constitution of Poland was adopted on 2 April 1997.
The current Constitution of the Russian Federation (Конституция Российской Федерации, Konstitutsiya Rossiyskoy Federatsii) was adopted by national referendum on.
The Spanish Constitution (Constitución Española; Espainiako Konstituzioa; Constitució Espanyola; Constitución Española; Constitucion espanhòla) is the democratic law that is supreme in the Kingdom of Spain.
The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Anayasası), also known as the Constitution of 1982, is Turkey's fundamental law.
The Constitutional Court of the Italian Republic (Corte costituzionale della Repubblica Italiana) is the highest court of Italy in matters of constitutional law.
In law, a conviction is the verdict that usually results when a court of law finds a defendant guilty of a crime.
A coronation is the act of placement or bestowal of a crown upon a monarch's head.
In English civil litigation, costs are the lawyers' fees and disbursements of the parties.
Cowardice is a trait wherein fear and excessive self-concern override doing or saying what is right, good, and of help to others or oneself in a time of need — it is the opposite of courage.
The Criminal Cases Review Commission (CCRC) is the statutory body responsible for investigating alleged miscarriages of justice in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland.
A criminal code (or penal code) is a document which compiles all, or a significant amount of, a particular jurisdiction's criminal law.
The Criminal Code (Code criminelThe citation of this Act by this short title is authorised by the French text of of this Act.) is a law that codifies most criminal offences and procedures in Canada.
A criminal record or police record is a record of a person's criminal history.
The Criminal Records Act (the Act) is a piece of Canadian legislation intended to provide for the relief of persons who have been convicted of offences and have subsequently rehabilitated themselves.
In law, damages are an award, typically of money, to be paid to a person as compensation for loss or injury.
Death sentence with reprieve (abbr.) is a criminal punishment found in the law of the People's Republic of China.
A decree is a rule of law usually issued by a head of state (such as the president of a republic or a monarch), according to certain procedures (usually established in a constitution).
Dictionary.com is an online dictionary whose domain was first registered on May 14, 1995.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
Douglas Richard Hurd, Baron Hurd of Westwell, (born 8 March 1930) is a British Conservative politician who served in the governments of Margaret Thatcher and John Major from 1979 to 1995.
Douglas Ross Hyde (Dubhghlas de hÍde; 17 January 1860 – 12 July 1949), known as An Craoibhín Aoibhinn (lit. "The Pleasant Little Branch"), was an Irish academic, linguist, scholar of the Irish language, politician and diplomat who served as the 1st President of Ireland from June 1938 to June 1945.
Dublin is the capital of and largest city in Ireland.
Durham (locally) is a historic city and the county town of County Durham in North East England.
Edinburgh (Dùn Èideann; Edinburgh) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas.
Edward III (13 November 1312 – 21 June 1377) was King of England and Lord of Ireland from January 1327 until his death; he is noted for his military success and for restoring royal authority after the disastrous and unorthodox reign of his father, Edward II.
England and Wales is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom.
In the common law legal system, an expungement proceeding is a type of lawsuit in which a first time offender of a prior criminal conviction seeks that the records of that earlier process be sealed, making the records unavailable through the state or Federal repositories.
The federal administration of Switzerland (Bundesverwaltung, Administration fédérale, Amministrazione federale, Tribunal administrativ federal) is the ensemble of agencies that constitute, together with the Swiss Federal Council, the executive branch of the Swiss federal authorities.
The Federal Assembly (Bundesversammlung, Assemblée fédérale, Assemblea federale, Assamblea federala) is Switzerland's federal legislature.
In the United States, a federal crime or federal offense is an act that is made illegal by U.S. federal legislation.
Federal law is the body of law created by the federal government of a country.
A fine or mulct is money that a court of law or other authority decides has to be paid as punishment for a crime or other offence.
The First Minister of Scotland (Prìomh Mhinistear na h-Alba; Heid Meinister o Scotland) is the leader of the Scottish Government.
The French Parliament (Parlement français) is the bicameral legislature of the French Republic, consisting of the Senate (Sénat) and the National Assembly (Assemblée nationale).
George Homer Ryan Sr. (born February 24, 1934) is an American former politician who was the 39th Governor of the U.S. state of Illinois from 1999 until 2003.
The Georgia State Board of Pardons and Paroles is a five-member panel authorized to grant paroles, pardons, reprieves, remissions, commutations, and to remove civil and political disabilities imposed by law.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Government procurement or public procurement is the procurement of goods, services or constructions on behalf of a public authority, such as a government agency.
In the United States, a governor serves as the chief executive officer and commander-in-chief in each of the fifty states and in the five permanently inhabited territories, functioning as both head of state and head of government therein.
The governors and lieutenant-governors/administrators of the states and union territories of India have similar powers and functions at the state level as that of the President of India at Union level.
The Governor General of Canada (Gouverneure générale du Canada) is the federal viceregal representative of the.
The Grand National Assembly of Turkey (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi), usually referred to simply as the TBMM or Parliament (Meclis or Parlamento), is the unicameral Turkish legislature.
The Habeas Corpus Act 1679 is an Act of Parliament in England (31 Cha. 2 c. 2) during the reign of King Charles II.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
The Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China is the constitutional document of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.
Horst Köhler (born 22 February 1943) is a German politician of the Christian Democratic Union, and served as President of Germany from 2004 to 2010.
Impeachment is the process by which a legislative body formally levels charges against a high official of government.
In many common law jurisdictions (e.g., England and Wales, Ireland, Canada, Hong Kong, India, Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia, Singapore), an indictable offence is an offence which can only be tried on an indictment after a preliminary hearing to determine whether there is a prima facie case to answer or by a grand jury (in contrast to a summary offence).
An indictment is a formal accusation that a person has committed a crime.
Canada's International Transfer of Offenders Act (Loi sur le transfèrement international des délinquants), passed in 2004, allowed Canadians who had been convicted of a crime in another nation to apply to serve their sentence, or a portion there-of, in a Canadian prison.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Ius strictum means "strict law", or law interpreted without any modification and in its utmost rigor.
James Earl Carter Jr. (born October 1, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 39th President of the United States from 1977 to 1981.
The Journal officiel de la République française (JORF or JO) is the government gazette of the French Republic.
Judicial review is a process under which executive or legislative actions are subject to review by the judiciary.
A justice ministry, ministry of justice, or department of justice is a ministry or other government agency in charge of the administration of justice.
The King-in-Council or Queen-in-Council, depending on the gender of the reigning monarch, is a constitutional term in a number of states.
Lech Aleksander Kaczyński (18 June 194910 April 2010) was a Polish lawyer and politician who served as the Mayor of Warsaw from 2002 until 2005 and as the President of Poland from 2005 until his death in 2010.
Lech Wałęsa (born 29 September 1943) is a retired Polish politician and labour activist.
Legal immunity, or immunity from prosecution, is a legal status wherein an individual or entity can not be held liable for a violation of the law to facilitate societal aims that outweigh the value of imposing liability in such cases.
This is an incomplete list of Acts of the Parliament of Canada.
There have been 12 monarchs of the Kingdom of Great Britain and the United Kingdom (see Monarchy of the United Kingdom) since the merger of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland on 1 May 1707.
This is a list of Governors of Andhra Pradesh since in 1953.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Manslaughter is a common law legal term for homicide considered by law as less culpable than murder.
Martin Joseph O'Malley (born January 18, 1963) is an American politician and attorney who served as the 61st Governor of Maryland from 2007 to 2015.
Mary Patricia McAleese (née Leneghan; Máire Pádraigín Mhic Ghiolla Íosa; born 27 June 1951) is an Irish Fianna Fáil and Independent politician who served as the 8th President of Ireland from November 1997 to November 2011.
Mary Therese Winifred Robinson (née Bourke; Máire Bean Mhic Róibín; born 21 May 1944) is an Irish Independent politician who served as the 7th President of Ireland, she was the first female to hold this office.
Michael Howard, Baron Howard of Lympne, (born 7 July 1941), is a British politician who served as the Leader of the Conservative Party and Leader of the Opposition from November 2003 to December 2005.
The Minister of Public Safety (Ministre de la Sécurité publique), formerly the Solicitor General and then the Minister of Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness, is the Minister of the Crown in the Canadian Cabinet who is responsible for overseeing the federal government's domestic security department, Public Safety Canada.
The Ministry of Justice is controlled by the French Minister of Justice - Keeper of the Seals (Ministre de la Justice - Garde des Sceaux), a top-level cabinet position in the French Government.
The Justice Ministry (מִשְׂרָד הַמִשְׁפָּטִים, Misrad HaMishpatim; وزارة العدل) is the Israeli government ministry that oversees the Israeli judicial system.
The Ministry of Justice (Adalet Bakanlığı) is a government ministry office of the Republic of Turkey, responsible for justice affairs.
The Minnesota Board of Pardons is the pardon board of the state of Minnesota.
A misdemeanor (American English, spelled misdemeanour in British English) is any "lesser" criminal act in some common law legal systems.
The monarchy of Spain (Monarquía de España), constitutionally referred to as the Crown (La Corona), is a constitutional institution and historic office of Spain.
The National Congress of Chile (Congreso Nacional de Chile) is the legislative branch of the government of the Republic of Chile.
The National Defence Act (NDA; French: Loi sur la défense nationale; LDN) is the primary enabling legislation for organizing and funding Canada's military.
Eamonn Noel Kelly (born 9 January 1951), known as Nicky Kelly, is an Irish politician from Arklow in County Wicklow.
The Norman conquest of England (in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.
The Office of the Pardon Attorney, within the US Department of Justice, in consultation with the Attorney General of the United States or his or her designee, assists the President of the United States in the exercise of executive clemency as authorized under Article II, Section 2, of the US Constitution.
The Oklahoma Pardon and Parole Board is the parole board of the state of Oklahoma.
Oliver Cromwell (25 April 15993 September 1658) was an English military and political leader.
An overprint is an additional layer of text or graphics added to the face of a postage stamp, banknote or postal stationery after it has been printed.
The Parliament of Canada (Parlement du Canada) is the federal legislature of Canada, seated at Parliament Hill in Ottawa, the national capital.
A parole board is a panel of people who decide whether an offender should be released from prison on parole after serving at least a minimum portion of their sentence as prescribed by the sentencing judge.
The Parole Board of Canada (Commission des libérations conditionnelles du Canada; formerly known as the National Parole Board) is a Canadian government agency that operates under the auspices of Public Safety Canada.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
The President of the Republic of Chile (Presidente de la República de Chile) is the head of state and the head of government of the Republic of Chile.
The President of the French Republic (Président de la République française) is the executive head of state of France in the French Fifth Republic.
The President of Germany, officially the Federal President of the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundespräsident der Bundesrepublik Deutschland),The official title within Germany is Bundespräsident, with der Bundesrepublik Deutschland being added in international correspondence; the official English title is President of the Federal Republic of Germany is the head of state of Germany.
The President of the Republic of India is the head of state of India and the commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces.
The President of Ireland (Uachtarán na hÉireann) is the head of state of the Republic of Ireland and the Supreme Commander of the Irish Defence Forces.
The President of the State of Israel (נְשִׂיא מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, Nesi Medinat Yisra'el, or נְשִׂיא הַמְדִינָה, Nesi HaMedina, literally President of the State) is the head of state of Israel.
The President of the Italian Republic (Presidente della Repubblica Italiana) is the head of state of Italy and in that role represents national unity and guarantees that Italian politics comply with the Constitution.
The President of the Republic of Poland (Prezydent Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej, shorter form: Prezydent RP) is the head of state of Poland.
The President of the Russian Federation (Prezident Rossiyskoy Federatsii) is the elected head of state of the Russian Federation, as well as holder of the highest office in Russia and commander-in-chief of the Russian Armed Forces.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
The President of the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Cumhurbaşkanı) is the head of state of the Republic of Turkey.
The French Prime Minister (Premier ministre français) in the Fifth Republic is the head of government.
Probation in criminal law is a period of supervision over an offender, ordered by the court instead of serving time in prison.
A prosecutor is a legal representative of the prosecution in countries with either the common law adversarial system, or the civil law inquisitorial system.
The Red Army Faction (RAF; German),See the section ''Faction'' versus ''Fraktion'' also known as the Baader-Meinhof Group or Baader-Meinhof Gang, was a West German far-left militant organization founded in 1970.
Regulation is an abstract concept of management of complex systems according to a set of rules and trends.
Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material.
The remand court procedure is used by higher courts to send cases back to lower courts for further action.
A respite is a delay in the imposition of sentence but in no way modifies a sentence or addresses questions of due process, guilt or innocence.
The law of restitution is the law of gains-based recovery.
Rock Valley College (RVC) is a two-year college located in Rockford, Illinois.
The royal prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege, and immunity, recognized in common law and, sometimes, in civil law jurisdictions possessing a monarchy, as belonging to the sovereign and which have become widely vested in the government.
In the English and British tradition, the royal prerogative of mercy is one of the historic royal prerogatives of the British monarch, in which he or she can grant pardons (informally known as a royal pardon) to convicted persons.
The rule of law is the "authority and influence of law in society, especially when viewed as a constraint on individual and institutional behavior; (hence) the principle whereby all members of a society (including those in government) are considered equally subject to publicly disclosed legal codes and processes".
The Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation (commonly called Penance, Reconciliation, or Confession) is one of the seven sacraments of the Catholic Church (called sacred mysteries in the Eastern Catholic Churches), in which the faithful obtain absolution for the sins committed against God and neighbour and are reconciled with the community of the Church.
The Safe Streets and Communities Act is a bill that was passed by the 41st Canadian Parliament 154-129 on March 12, 2012.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
The Scottish Criminal Cases Review Commission (SCCRC) is an executive non-departmental public body of the Scottish Government, established by the Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act 1995 (as amended by the Crime and Punishment (Scotland) Act 1997).
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Defence (Defence Secretary) is an official within Her Majesty's Government and head of the Ministry of Defence.
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Justice is a senior position in the cabinet of the United Kingdom, held in conjunction with the office of Lord Chancellor since it was created in 2007, replacing the former post of Secretary of State for Constitutional Affairs.
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, informally known as the Northern Ireland Secretary, is the principal secretary of state in Her Majesty's Government with responsibilities for Northern Ireland.
A sentence is a decree of punishment of the court in criminal procedure.
The Israel Security Agency (ISA, שירות הביטחון הכללי Sherut ha-Bitaẖon haKlali "General Security Service"; جهاز الأمن العام), better known by the acronym Shabak (שב״כ,, شاباك) or the Shin Bet (a two-letter Hebrew abbreviation of the name), is Israel's internal security service.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
The South Carolina Department of Probation, Parole, and Pardon Services (SCDPPPS) is a state agency in the state of South Carolina in the United States of America.
The following list outlines the structure of the federal government of Canada.
A summary offence is a crime in some common law jurisdictions that can be proceeded against summarily, without the right to a jury trial and/or indictment (required for an indictable offence).
The Supreme Court of India is the highest judicial forum and final court of appeal under the Constitution of India, the highest constitutional court, with the power of constitutional review.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
The Supreme Leader of Iran (rahbar-e mo'azzam-e irān), also called the Supreme Leader of the Islamic Revolution (رهبر معظم انقلاب اسلامی), officially in Iran, called the Supreme Leadership Authority (مقام معظم رهبری), is the head of state and highest ranking political and religious authority in the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Sushilkumar Sambhajirao Shinde (born 4 September 1941) is an Indian politician from the state of Maharashtra.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Toney Anaya (born April 29, 1941) is an American Democratic politician who served as the 26th Governor of New Mexico from 1983 to 1987.
The transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong from the United Kingdom to China, referred to as "the Handover" internationally or "the Return" in Mainland China, took place on 1 July 1997.
A visa (from the Latin charta visa, meaning "paper which has been seen") is a conditional authorization granted by a country to a foreigner, allowing them to enter, remain within, or to leave that country.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
A state is a constituent political entity of the United States.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Department of Justice (DOJ), also known as the Justice Department, is a federal executive department of the U.S. government, responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice in the United States, equivalent to the justice or interior ministries of other countries. The department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant administration. The Department of Justice administers several federal law enforcement agencies including the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). The department is responsible for investigating instances of financial fraud, representing the United States government in legal matters (such as in cases before the Supreme Court), and running the federal prison system. The department is also responsible for reviewing the conduct of local law enforcement as directed by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. The department is headed by the United States Attorney General, who is nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate and is a member of the Cabinet. The current Attorney General is Jeff Sessions.
The United States Federal Witness Protection Program, also known as the Witness Security Program or WITSEC, is a witness protection program administered by the United States Department of Justice and operated by the United States Marshals Service that is designed to protect threatened witnesses before, during, and after a trial.
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (a; born 7 October 1952) is a Russian statesman and former intelligence officer serving as President of Russia since 2012, previously holding the position from 2000 until 2008.
A waiting period is the period of time between when an action is requested or mandated and when it occurs.
Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.
Westminster School is an independent day and boarding school in London, England, located within the precincts of Westminster Abbey.
William Stephen Ian Whitelaw, 1st Viscount Whitelaw, (28 June 1918 – 1 July 1999), often known as Willie Whitelaw, was a British Conservative Party politician who served in a wide number of Cabinet positions, most notably as Home Secretary and de facto Deputy Prime Minister.
A witness is someone who has, who claims to have, or is thought, by someone with authority to compel testimony, to have knowledge relevant to an event or other matter of interest.
Witness protection is protection of a threatened witness involved in the justice system, including defendants and other clients, before, during, and after a trial, usually by police.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
York is a historic walled city at the confluence of the rivers Ouse and Foss in North Yorkshire, England.
Clemency, Commute a sentence, Criminal pardon, Executive clemency, Grace (law), King's Pardon, Pardon (law), Pardon power, Pardoned, Pardoning, Pardons, Presidential Pardon, Presidential pardon, Presidential pardons, Right of grace, Rights of grace, Royal Pardon.