121 relations: Acetazolamide, Acute radiation syndrome, Anticonvulsant, Antiviral drug, Anxiety, Atherosclerosis, Autoimmune disease, Baclofen, Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome, Blood sugar level, Bone disease, Carpal tunnel syndrome, Central nervous system, Cerebral amyloid angiopathy, Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy, Chiari malformation, Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, Circulatory system, Coeliac disease, Complex regional pain syndrome, CT scan, Decompression sickness, Dehydration, Dermatome (anatomy), Dextromethorphan, Diabetes mellitus, Dictionary.com, Diphenoxylate, Erythromelalgia, Fabry disease, Fibromyalgia, Formication, Frostbite, GABA receptor, Gabapentin, Gamma globulin, Greek language, Guillain–Barré syndrome, Heavy metals, Herpes simplex virus, Hydroxy alpha sanshool, Hyperaemia, Hyperglycemia, Hyperkalemia, Hypermagnesemia, Hyperventilation, Hyperventilation syndrome, Hypocalcaemia, Hypoglycemia, Hypomagnesemia, ..., Hypoparathyroidism, Hypothyroidism, Immunodeficiency, Immunosuppressive drug, Ischemia, Β-Alanine, Ketorolac, Lhermitte's sign, Lidocaine, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Lupus erythematosus, Lyme disease, Malnutrition, Medication, Menopause, Mercury poisoning, Migraine, Multiple sclerosis, Narcotic, Nerve, Nerve injury, Neurology, Neuron, Nitrous oxide, Obdormition, Opiate, Opioid, Panic attack, Panic disorder, Pantothenic acid, Paroxetine, Peripheral artery disease, Peripheral neuropathy, Pesticide, Prednisone, Prilocaine, Proton-pump inhibitor, Psoriatic arthritis, Psychiatry, Pyrethroid, Pyrethrum, Quinolone antibiotic, Rabies, Raynaud syndrome, Rheumatoid arthritis, Sarcoidosis, Scorpion sting, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Shingles, Sichuan pepper, Sitting, Sphingolipidoses, Spinal disc herniation, Spinal stenosis, Stenosis, Substance abuse, Sultiame, Syringomyelia, Tiagabine, Topiramate, Transient ischemic attack, Transverse myelitis, Urtica dioica, Varicella zoster virus, Venlafaxine, Vitamin B12 deficiency, Vitamin deficiency, Vulnerable plaque, Whiplash (medicine), Wolters Kluwer. Expand index (71 more) » « Shrink index
Acetazolamide, sold under the trade name Diamox among others, is a medication used to treat glaucoma, epilepsy, altitude sickness, periodic paralysis, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, and heart failure.
Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) is a collection of health effects that are present within 24 hours of exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation.
Anticonvulsants (also commonly known as antiepileptic drugs or as antiseizure drugs) are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures.
Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections rather than bacterial ones.
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
Atherosclerosis is a disease in which the inside of an artery narrows due to the build up of plaque.
An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part.
Baclofen, sold under the brand name Lioresal among others, is a medication used to treat spasticity.
Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome—often abbreviated to benzo withdrawal—is the cluster of symptoms that emerge when a person who has taken benzodiazepines, either medically or recreationally, and has developed a physical dependence undergoes dosage reduction or discontinuation.
The blood sugar level, blood sugar concentration, or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose present in the blood of humans and other animals.
Bone disease refers to the medical conditions which affect the bone.
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a medical condition due to compression of the median nerve as it travels through the wrist at the carpal tunnel.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), also known as congophilic angiopathy, is a form of angiopathy in which amyloid deposits form in the walls of the blood vessels of the central nervous system.
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a progressive, enduring, and often irreversible condition featuring pain, numbness, tingling and sensitivity to cold in the hands and feet (sometimes progressing to the arms and legs) that afflicts between 30% and 40% of patients undergoing chemotherapy.
Chiari malformations (CMs) are structural defects in the cerebellum.
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an acquired immune-mediated inflammatory disorder of the peripheral nervous system.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Coeliac disease, also spelled celiac disease, is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the small intestine.
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), also known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) or algodystrophy, is a disorder of a portion of the body, usually the arms or legs, which manifests as pain, swelling, limited range of motion, and changes to the skin and bones.
A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.
Decompression sickness (DCS; also known as divers' disease, the bends, aerobullosis, or caisson disease) describes a condition arising from dissolved gases coming out of solution into bubbles inside the body on depressurisation.
In physiology, dehydration is a deficit of total body water, with an accompanying disruption of metabolic processes.
A dermatome is an area of skin that is mainly supplied by a single spinal nerve.
Dextromethorphan (DXM or DM) is a drug of the morphinan class with sedative, dissociative, and stimulant properties (at higher doses).
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Dictionary.com is an online dictionary whose domain was first registered on May 14, 1995.
Diphenoxylate is a centrally active opioid drug of the phenylpiperidine series that is used in a combination drug with atropine for the treatment of diarrhea.
Erythromelalgia, formerly known as Mitchell's disease (after Silas Weir Mitchell), is a rare vascular peripheral pain disorder in which blood vessels, usually in the lower extremities or hands, are episodically blocked (frequently on and off daily), then become hyperemic and inflamed.
Fabry disease is a rare genetic disease.
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a medical condition characterised by chronic widespread pain and a heightened pain response to pressure.
In medicine, formication is the sensation that resembles that of small insects crawling on (or under) the skin.
Frostbite occurs when exposure to low temperatures causes freezing of the skin or other tissues.
The GABA receptors are a class of receptors that respond to the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the chief inhibitory compound in the mature vertebrate central nervous system.
Gabapentin, sold under the brand name Neurontin among others, is a medication which is used to treat epilepsy (specifically partial seizures), neuropathic pain, hot flashes, and restless legs syndrome.
Gamma globulins are a class of globulins, identified by their position after serum protein electrophoresis.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rapid-onset muscle weakness caused by the immune system damaging the peripheral nervous system.
Heavy metals are generally defined as metals with relatively high densities, atomic weights, or atomic numbers.
Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), also known as human herpesvirus 1 and 2 (HHV-1 and HHV-2), are two members of the herpesvirus family, Herpesviridae, that infect humans.
Hydroxy-alpha sanshool is a molecule found in plants from the genus Zanthoxylum.
Hyperemia, hyperæmia, or hyperaemia (Greek ὑπέρ (hupér, "over") + αἷμα (haîma, “blood”)) is the increase of blood flow to different tissues in the body.
Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar (also spelled hyperglycaemia or hyperglycæmia) is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma.
Hyperkalemia, also spelled hyperkalaemia, is an elevated level of potassium (K+) in the blood serum.
Hypermagnesemia is an electrolyte disturbance in which there is a high level of magnesium in the blood.
Hyperventilation (a.k.a. overbreathing) occurs when the rate or tidal volume of breathing eliminates more carbon dioxide than the body can produce.
Hyperventilation syndrome (HVS); also chronic hyperventilation syndrome (CHVS) and dysfunctional breathing hyperventilation syndrome is a respiratory disorder, psychologically or physiologically based, involving breathing too deeply or too rapidly (hyperventilation).
Hypocalcaemia, also spelled hypocalcemia, is low calcium levels in the blood serum.
Hypoglycemia, also known as low blood sugar, is when blood sugar decreases to below normal levels.
Hypomagnesemia, also spelled hypomagnesaemia, is an electrolyte disturbance in which there is a low level of magnesium in the blood.
Hypoparathyroidism is decreased function of the parathyroid glands with underproduction of parathyroid hormone.
Hypothyroidism, also called underactive thyroid or low thyroid, is a disorder of the endocrine system in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone.
Immunodeficiency (or immune deficiency) is a state in which the immune system's ability to fight infectious disease and cancer is compromised or entirely absent.
Immunosuppressive drugs or immunosuppressive agents or antirejection medications are drugs that inhibit or prevent activity of the immune system.
Ischemia or ischaemia is a restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing a shortage of oxygen that is needed for cellular metabolism (to keep tissue alive).
β-Alanine (or beta-alanine) is a naturally occurring beta amino acid, which is an amino acid in which the amino group is at the β-position from the carboxylate group (i.e., two atoms away, see Figure 1).
Ketorolac, sold under the brand name Toradol among others, is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) in the family of heterocyclic acetic acid derivatives, used as an analgesic.
Lhermitte's phenomenon or the Lhermitte phenomenon, sometimes called the barber chair phenomenon, is an uncomfortable electrical sensation that runs through the back and into the limbs.
Lidocaine, also known as xylocaine and lignocaine, is a medication used to numb tissue in a specific area.
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins (LWW) is an imprint of the publishing conglomerate Wolters Kluwer.
Lupus erythematosus is a collection of autoimmune diseases in which the human immune system becomes hyperactive and attacks healthy tissues.
Lyme disease, also known as Lyme borreliosis, is an infectious disease caused by bacteria of the Borrelia type which is spread by ticks.
Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children.
Mercury poisoning is a type of metal poisoning due to mercury exposure.
A migraine is a primary headache disorder characterized by recurrent headaches that are moderate to severe.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.
The term narcotic (from ancient Greek ναρκῶ narkō, "to make numb") originally referred medically to any psychoactive compound with sleep-inducing properties.
A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (nerve fibers, the long and slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system.
Nerve injury is injury to nervous tissue.
Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Nitrous oxide, commonly known as laughing gas or nitrous, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula.
Obdormition (from Latin obdormire "to fall asleep") is a medical term describing numbness in a limb, often caused by constant pressure on nerves or lack of movement.
Opiate is a term classically used in pharmacology to mean a drug derived from opium.
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
Panic attacks are sudden periods of intense fear that may include palpitations, sweating, shaking, shortness of breath, numbness, or a feeling that something bad is going to happen.
Panic disorder is an anxiety disorder characterized by reoccurring unexpected panic attacks.
Pantothenic acid, also called vitamin B5 (a B vitamin), is a water-soluble vitamin.
Paroxetine, also known by trade names including Paxil and Seroxat among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class. It is used to treat major depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. It has also been used in the treatment of hot flashes and night sweats associated with menopause. It has a similar tolerability profile to other SSRIs. The common side effects include drowsiness, dry mouth, loss of appetite, sweating, trouble sleeping and delayed ejaculation. It may also be associated with a slightly increased risk of birth defects. The rate of withdrawal symptoms in young people may be higher with paroxetine and venlafaxine than other SSRIs and SNRIs. Several studies have associated paroxetine with suicidal thinking and behavior in children and adolescents. Marketing of the drug began in 1992 by the pharmaceutical company SmithKline Beecham, known since 2000 as GlaxoSmithKline. Generic formulations have been available since 2003 when the patent expired. The United States Department of Justice fined GlaxoSmithKline $3 billion in 2012, including a sum for withholding data on paroxetine, unlawfully promoting it for under-18s and preparing an article, following one of its clinical trials, study 329, that misleadingly reported the drug was effective in treating adolescent depression.
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a narrowing of the arteries other than those that supply the heart or the brain.
Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is damage to or disease affecting nerves, which may impair sensation, movement, gland or organ function, or other aspects of health, depending on the type of nerve affected.
Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.
Prednisone is a synthetic glucocorticoid drug that is mostly used to suppress the immune system.
Prilocaine is a local anesthetic of the amino amide type first prepared by Claes Tegner and Nils Löfgren.
Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) are a group of drugs whose main action is a pronounced and long-lasting reduction of stomach acid production.
Psoriatic arthritis is a long-term inflammatory arthritis that occurs in people affected by the autoimmune disease psoriasis.
Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.
A pyrethroid is an organic compound similar to the natural pyrethrins produced by the flowers of pyrethrums (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium and C. coccineum).
Pyrethrum was a genus of several Old World plants now classified as Chrysanthemum or Tanacetum (e.g., C. coccineum) which are cultivated as ornamentals for their showy flower heads.
A quinolone antibiotic is any member of a large group of broad-spectrum bactericides that share a bicyclic core structure related to the compound 4-quinolone.
Rabies is a viral disease that causes inflammation of the brain in humans and other mammals.
Raynaud syndrome, also known as Raynaud's phenomenon, is a medical condition in which spasm of arteries cause episodes of reduced blood flow.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects joints.
Sarcoidosis is a disease involving abnormal collections of inflammatory cells that form lumps known as granulomas.
Scorpion stings are a cutaneous condition caused by the stinging of scorpions, usually resulting in pain, paresthesia, and variable swelling.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.
Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are a class of antidepressant drugs that treat major depressive disorder (MDD) and can also treat anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), chronic neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), and menopausal symptoms.
Shingles, also known as herpes zoster, is a viral disease characterized by a painful skin rash with blisters in a localized area.
Sichuan pepper, Sichuan peppercorn, or Szechuan pepper, is a commonly used spice in Chinese cuisine.
Sitting is a basic human resting position.
Sphingolipidoses (singular "sphingolipidosis") are a class of lipid storage disorders relating to sphingolipid metabolism.
Spinal disc herniation, also known as a slipped disc, is a medical condition affecting the spine in which a tear in the outer, fibrous ring of an intervertebral disc allows the soft, central portion to bulge out beyond the damaged outer rings.
Spinal stenosis is an abnormal narrowing of the spinal canal or neural foramen that results in pressure on the spinal cord or nerve roots.
A stenosis is an abnormal narrowing in a blood vessel or other tubular organ or structure.
Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder.
Sultiame, also known as sulthiame, is a sulfonamide and inhibitor of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase.
Syringomyelia is a generic term referring to a disorder in which a cyst or cavity forms within the spinal cord.
Tiagabine (trade name Gabitril) is an anticonvulsant medication used in the treatment of epilepsy that is produced by Cephalon.
Topiramate (brand name Topamax) is an anticonvulsant (antiepilepsy) drug.
A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a brief episode of neurological dysfunction caused by loss of blood flow (ischemia) in the brain, spinal cord, or retina, without tissue death (infarction).
Transverse myelitis (TM) is a rare neurological condition in which the spinal cord is inflamed.
Urtica dioica, often called common nettle, stinging nettle (although not all plants of this species sting) or nettle leaf, is a herbaceous perennial flowering plant in the family Urticaceae.
Varicella zoster virus or varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is one of eight herpesviruses known to infect humans.
Venlafaxine, sold under the brand name Effexor among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) class.
Vitamin B12 deficiency, also known as cobalamin deficiency, is the medical condition of low blood levels of vitamin B12.
A vitamin deficiency can cause a disease or syndrome known as an avitaminosis or hypovitaminosis.
A vulnerable plaque is a kind of atheromatous plaque – a collection of white blood cells (primarily macrophages) and lipids (including cholesterol) in the wall of an artery – that is particularly unstable and prone to produce sudden major problems such as a heart attack or stroke.
Whiplash is a non-medical term describing a range of injuries to the neck caused by or related to a sudden distortion of the neck associated with extension, although the exact injury mechanisms remain unknown.
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Acanthethesia, Acroparaesthesia, Acroparesthesia, Asleep limb, Bubble feeling, Chronic numbness, Circumoral paresthesia, Hands falling asleep, Numbness and tingling, Paraesthesia, Paraesthesiae, Parasthesia, Parasthesias, Parathesia, Paresthesias, Pins and needles, Pins and needles sensation, Tingling of skin, Tingling sensation, Transient paresthesia.