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Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488. [1]

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A86 autoroute

A86 (sometimes called "Paris super-périphérique") is the second ring road around Paris, France.

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Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés

The Benedictine Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés, just beyond the outskirts of early medieval Paris, was the burial place of Merovingian kings of Neustria.

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Abstract art

Abstract art uses a visual language of shape, form, color and line to create a composition which may exist with a degree of independence from visual references in the world.

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Académie française

The Académie française is the pre-eminent French council for matters pertaining to the French language.

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Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture

The Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture (Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture), Paris, was the premier art institution in France in the eighteenth century.

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Accordion

Accordions (from 19th-century German Akkordeon, from Akkord—"musical chord, concord of sounds") are a family of box-shaped musical instruments of the bellows-driven free-reed aerophone type, colloquially referred to as a squeezebox.

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AccorHotels Arena

AccorHotels Arena (originally known as Palais Omnisports de Paris-Bercy and formerly known as Bercy Arena) is an indoor sports arena and concert hall, that is located on boulevard de Bercy, in the 12th arrondissement of Paris, France.

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Administrative division

An administrative division, unit, entity, area or region, also referred to as a subnational entity, statoid, constituent unit, or country subdivision, is a portion of a country or other region delineated for the purpose of administration.

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Adolphe Alphand

Jean-Charles Adolphe Alphand, born in 1817 and died in 1891, interred at Père Lachaise Cemetery (division 66), was a French engineer of the Corps of Bridges and Roads.

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Adolphe Willette

Adolphe Léon Willette (30 July 18574 February 1926) was a French painter, illustrator, caricaturist, and lithographer, as well as an architect of the famous Moulin Rouge cabaret.

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Age of Enlightenment

The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".

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Agence France-Presse

Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris, France.

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Agro ParisTech

AgroParisTech (officially French Institut des sciences et industries du vivant et de l'environnement, or Paris Institute of Technology for Life, Food and Environmental Sciences) is a French university-level institution, also known as a "Grande Ecole".

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Air France

Air France (formally Société Air France, S.A.), stylized as AIRFRANCE, is the French flag carrier headquartered in Tremblay-en-France.

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Air pollution

Air pollution occurs when harmful or excessive quantities of substances including gases, particulates, and biological molecules are introduced into Earth's atmosphere.

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Airbnb

Airbnb is an American company which operates an online marketplace and hospitality service for people to lease or rent short-term lodging including holiday cottages, apartments, homestays, hostel beds, or hotel rooms, to participate in or facilitate experiences related to tourism such as walking tours, and to make reservations at restaurants.

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Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula

Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (lit or, Tanẓīm Qā‘idat al-Jihād fī Jazīrat al-‘Arab, "Organization of Jihad's Base in the Arabian Peninsula"), or AQAP, also known as Ansar al-Sharia in Yemen (جماعة أنصار الشريعة, Jamā‘at Anṣār ash-Sharī‘ah, "Group of the Helpers of the Sharia"), is a militant Islamist organization, primarily active in Yemen and Saudi Arabia.

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Alain Ducasse

Alain Ducasse (born 13 September 1956) is a French-born Monégasque chef.

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Alain Passard

Alain Passard (born 4 August 1956 at La Guerche-de-Bretagne, France) is a French chef and owner of the three-star restaurant L'Arpège in Paris.

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Albert Camus

Albert Camus (7 November 1913 – 4 January 1960) was a French philosopher, author, and journalist.

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Albert Gleizes

Albert Gleizes (8 December 1881 – 23 June 1953) was a French artist, theoretician, philosopher, a self-proclaimed founder of Cubism and an influence on the School of Paris.

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Alexandre Dumas

Alexandre Dumas (born Dumas Davy de la Pailleterie; 24 July 1802 – 5 December 1870), also known as Alexandre Dumas, père ("father"), was a French writer.

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Alfred de Musset

Alfred Louis Charles de Musset-Pathay (11 December 1810 – 2 May 1857) was a French dramatist, poet, and novelist.

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Algeria

Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.

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Algerian War

No description.

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Algiers

Algiers (الجزائر al-Jazā’er, ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻ, Alger) is the capital and largest city of Algeria.

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Alphonse Mucha

Alfons Maria Mucha (24 July 1860 – 14 July 1939), known as Alphonse Mucha, was a Czech Art Nouveau painter and decorative artist, known best for his distinct style.

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Amedeo Modigliani

Amedeo Clemente Modigliani (12 July 1884 – 24 January 1920) was an Italian-Jewish painter and sculptor who worked mainly in France.

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American Hospital of Paris

The American Hospital of Paris, founded in 1906, is a private, not-for-profit hospital that is certified under the French healthcare system.

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Americas

The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.

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Amman

Amman (عمّان) is the capital and most populous city of Jordan, and the country's economic, political and cultural centre.

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Amphitheatre

An amphitheatre or amphitheater is an open-air venue used for entertainment, performances, and sports.

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André Gide

André Paul Guillaume Gide (22 November 1869 – 19 February 1951) was a French author and winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature.

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André Le Nôtre

André Le Nôtre (12 March 1613 – 15 September 1700), originally rendered as André Le Nostre, was a French landscape architect and the principal gardener of King Louis XIV of France.

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André Malraux

André Malraux DSO (3 November 1901 – 23 November 1976) was a French novelist, art theorist and Minister of Cultural Affairs.

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Anne Hidalgo

Ana María "Anne" Hidalgo (born 19 June 1959) is a Spanish-French politician serving as Mayor of Paris since the 2014 municipal election.

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Antoine Beauvilliers

Antoine B. Beauvilliers (1754 – 31 January 1817) was a pioneering restaurateur who opened the first prominent grand restaurant in Paris.

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Antoine Bourdelle

Antoine Bourdelle (30 October 1861 – 1 October 1929), born Émile Antoine Bordelles, was an influential and prolific French sculptor, painter, and teacher.

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Antoine Coysevox

Charles Antoine Coysevox (29 September 164010 October 1720), French sculptor, was born at Lyon, and belonged to a family which had emigrated from Franche-Comté, a Spanish possession at the time.

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Arc de Triomphe

The Arc de Triomphe de l'Étoile (Triumphal Arch of the Star) is one of the most famous monuments in Paris, standing at the western end of the Champs-Élysées at the center of Place Charles de Gaulle, formerly named Place de l'Étoile — the étoile or "star" of the juncture formed by its twelve radiating avenues.

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Argenteuil

Argenteuil is a commune in the northwestern suburbs of Paris, France.

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Argot

An argot (from French argot 'slang') is a secret language used by various groups—e.g., schoolmates, outlaws, colleagues, among many others—to prevent outsiders from understanding their conversations.

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Aristide Maillol

Aristide Joseph Bonaventure Maillol (December 8, 1861 – September 27, 1944) was a French sculptor, painter, and printmaker.

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Arrondissements of Paris

The city of Paris is divided into twenty arrondissements municipaux, administrative districts, more simply referred to as arrondissements (pronounced in French).

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Art Deco

Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts, architecture and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. Art Deco influenced the design of buildings, furniture, jewelry, fashion, cars, movie theatres, trains, ocean liners, and everyday objects such as radios and vacuum cleaners.

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Art Nouveau

Art Nouveau is an international style of art, architecture and applied art, especially the decorative arts, that was most popular between 1890 and 1910.

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Arte

ARTE (Association relative à la télévision européenne) is a public Franco-German TV network that promotes programming in the areas of culture and the arts.

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Arts et Métiers ParisTech

Arts et Métiers ParisTech is a French engineering and research graduate school (Grande Ecole).

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Asia

Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.

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Assistance Publique – Hôpitaux de Paris

Assistance publique – Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP) is the university hospital trust operating in Paris and its surroundings.

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Association football

Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.

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Association of Tennis Professionals

The Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) was formed in September 1972 by Donald Dell, Bob Briner, Jack Kramer, and Cliff Drysdale to protect the interests of male professional tennis players.

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Astrance

Astrance is a restaurant in Paris, France.

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Athens

Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.

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Auguste and Louis Lumière

The Lumière brothers, Auguste Marie Louis Nicolas; 19 October 1862 – 10 April 1954) and Louis Jean; 5 October 1864 – 7 June 1948), were among the first filmmakers in history. They patented an improved cinematograph, which in contrast to Thomas Edison's "peepshow" kinetoscope allowed simultaneous viewing by multiple parties.

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Auguste Rodin

François Auguste René Rodin (12 November 1840 – 17 November 1917), known as Auguste Rodin, was a French sculptor.

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Aulnay-sous-Bois

Aulnay-sous-Bois is a commune in the Seine-Saint-Denis department in the Île-de-France region in the north-eastern suburbs of Paris, France.

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Auschwitz concentration camp

Auschwitz concentration camp was a network of concentration and extermination camps built and operated by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II.

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Autonomous Port of Paris

The Autonomous Port of Paris (French: "Port autonome de Paris") is a public institution of the France set up in 1970.

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AXA

AXA is a French multinational insurance firm headquartered in the 8th arrondissement of Paris that engages in global insurance, investment management, and other financial services.

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École des ponts ParisTech

École des Ponts ParisTech (originally called École nationale des ponts et chaussées or ENPC, also nicknamed Ponts) is a university-level institution of higher education and research in the field of science, engineering and technology.

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École nationale d'administration

The École nationale d'administration (generally referred to as ÉNA;; National School of Administration) is a French grande école, created in 1945 by French President, Charles de Gaulle, and principal author of the French Constitution, Michel Debré, to democratise access to the senior civil service.

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École normale supérieure (Paris)

The École normale supérieure (also known as Normale sup', Ulm, ENS Paris, l'École and most often just as ENS) is one of the most selective and prestigious French grandes écoles (higher education establishment outside the framework of the public university system) and a constituent college of Université PSL.

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École Polytechnique

École Polytechnique (also known as EP or X) is a French public institution of higher education and research in Palaiseau, a suburb southwest of Paris.

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Édith Piaf

Édith Piaf (19 December 1915 – 10 October 1963; nee Édith Giovanna Gassion) was a French singer, songwriter, cabaret performer and film actress noted as France's national chanteuse and one of the country's most widely known international stars.

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Édouard Manet

Édouard Manet (23 January 1832 – 30 April 1883) was a French painter.

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Électricité de France

Électricité de France S.A. (EDF; Electricity of France) is a French electric utility company, largely owned by the French state.

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Élysée Palace

The Élysée Palace (Palais de l'Élysée) is the official residence of the President of France.

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Émile Zola

Émile Édouard Charles Antoine Zola (2 April 1840 – 29 September 1902) was a French novelist, playwright, journalist, the best-known practitioner of the literary school of naturalism, and an important contributor to the development of theatrical naturalism.

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Étienne-Jules Marey

Étienne-Jules Marey (5 March 1830, Beaune, Côte-d'Or – 15 May 1904, Paris) was a French scientist, physiologist and chronophotographer.

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Évry, Essonne

Évry is a commune in the southern suburbs of Paris, France, prefecture of the department of Essonne.

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Île de la Cité

The Île de la Cité is one of two remaining natural islands in the Seine within the city of Paris (the other being the Île Saint-Louis).

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Île Saint-Louis

The Île Saint-Louis is one of two natural islands in the Seine river, in Paris, France (the other natural island is Île de la Cité; the Île aux Cygnes is artificial).

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Île-de-France

Île-de-France ("Island of France"), also known as the région parisienne ("Parisian Region"), is one of the 18 regions of France and includes the city of Paris.

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Île-de-France Mobilités

Île-de-France Mobilités (ÎDF Mobilités), formerly STIF (Syndicat des Transports d'Île-de-France), is the organisation authority that controls and coordinates the different transport companies operating in the Paris-area public transport network and rest of Île-de-France region.

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Île-de-France tramway Line 1

Île-de-France tramway Line 1 (usually called simply T1) is a tramway operated by the Régie autonome des transports parisiens (Autonomous Operator of Parisian Transports; RATP) just outside the city limits of Paris, connecting Les Courtilles with Noisy-le-Sec, parallel to the Paris northern city limit.

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Île-de-France tramway Line 2

Tramway line T2 (Trans Val-de-Seine) is a tramway in Île-de-France.

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Île-de-France tramway Line 4

Line 4 of the Tramways in Île-de-France or the T4 is an long tram-train line operated by the SNCF.

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Île-de-France tramway Line 5

Tramway line T5 is the first rubber-tyred tramway in Île-de-France.

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Île-de-France tramway Line 6

Tramway line T6 is the second rubber-tyred tramway in Île-de-France operated by the RATP.

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Île-de-France tramway Line 7

Line 7 of the Tramways in Île-de-France or the T7 is an long tram-train line operated by the RATP.

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Île-de-France tramway Line 8

The Île-de-France tramway Line 8 (T8) is an long tram-train line operated by the RATP.

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Île-de-France tramway Lines 3a and 3b

Tramway line T3 is the first modern tramway in Paris proper, since the 1937 closure of the previous comparable system.

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Bagneux, Hauts-de-Seine

Bagneux is a commune in the southern suburbs of Paris, France.

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Bagpipes

Bagpipes are a woodwind instrument using enclosed reeds fed from a constant reservoir of air in the form of a bag.

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Bal-musette

Bal-musette is a style of French music and dance that first became popular in Paris in the 1880s.

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Ballets Russes

The Ballets Russes was an itinerant ballet company based in Paris that performed between 1909 and 1929 throughout Europe and on tours to North and South America.

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Baroque

The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.

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Baroque music

Baroque music is a style of Western art music composed from approximately 1600 to 1750.

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Basilica of St Denis

The Basilica of Saint Denis (Basilique royale de Saint-Denis, or simply Basilique Saint-Denis) is a large medieval abbey church in the city of Saint-Denis, now a northern suburb of Paris.

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Basketball

Basketball is a team sport played on a rectangular court.

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Bastille Day

Bastille Day is the common name given in English-speaking countries/lands to the French National Day, which is celebrated on the 14th of July each year.

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Beaujon Hospital

The Beaujon Hospital is located in Clichy, Paris, France and is operated by APHDP.

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Beauvais–Tillé Airport

Beauvais–Tillé Airport (Aéroport de Beauvais-Tillé), branded as Paris-Beauvais Airport, is an international airport near the city of Beauvais in the commune of Tillé in France.

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Beijing

Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.

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Beirut

Beirut (بيروت, Beyrouth) is the capital and largest city of Lebanon.

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Belle Époque

The Belle Époque or La Belle Époque (French for "Beautiful Era") was a period of Western history.

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Belleville, Paris

Belleville is a neighbourhood of Paris, France, parts of which lie in four different arrondissements.

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Bellows

A bellows or pair of bellows is a device constructed to furnish a strong blast of air.

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Berlin

Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.

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Berthe Morisot

Berthe Marie Pauline Morisot (January 14, 1841 – March 2, 1895) was a painter and a member of the circle of painters in Paris who became known as the Impressionists.

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Bertrand Delanoë

Bertrand Delanoë (born 30 May 1950) is a retired French politician who was Mayor of Paris from 25 March 2001 to 5 April 2014.

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BFM TV

BFM TV (stylised as BFMTV and seen on logo as BFMTV News 24/7) is a 24-hour rolling news and weather channel based in France and available globally via digital, cable and satellite television.

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Biarritz Pays Basque Airport

Biarritz Pays Basque Airport, also known as Biarritz Airport or Biarritz-Parme Airport, is an airport serving Biarritz, France.

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Bièvre (river)

The Bièvre is a long river of the Île-de-France région that flows into the Seine (left bank) in Paris.

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Bibliothèque de l'Arsenal

The Bibliothèque de l'Arsenal (Library of the Arsenal, founded 1757) in Paris has been part of the Bibliothèque nationale de France since 1934.

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Bibliothèque de la Sorbonne

The Bibliothèque de la Sorbonne (officially, "Bibliothèque interuniversitaire de la Sorbonne"; translation, "'Sorbonne Interuniversity Library"') is an inter-university library in Paris, France.

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Bibliothèque historique de la ville de Paris

The Bibliothèque Historique de la Ville de Paris, commonly abbreviated with the acronym BHVP, is a public library specializing in the history of the city of Paris, France.

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Bibliothèque Mazarine

The Bibliothèque Mazarine, or Mazarin Library, is located within the Palais de l'institut de France, or the Palace of the Institute of France (previously the Collège des Quatre-Nations of the University of Paris), at 23 quai de Conti in the 6th arrondissement, on the Left Bank of the Seine facing the Pont des Arts and the Louvre.

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Bibliothèque nationale de France

The (BnF, English: National Library of France) is the national library of France, located in Paris.

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Bicêtre Hospital

The Bicêtre Hospital is located in Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, which is a commune in the southern suburbs of Paris, France.

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Bicycle-sharing system

A bicycle-sharing system, public bicycle system, or bike-share scheme, is a service in which bicycles are made available for shared use to individuals on a short term basis for a price or free.

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Biens nationaux

The biens nationaux were properties confiscated during the French Revolution from the Catholic Church, the monarchy, émigrés, and suspected counter-revolutionaries for "the good of the nation".

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Bistro

A bistro or bistrot, is, in its original Parisian incarnation, a small restaurant, serving moderately priced simple meals in a modest setting.

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BNP Paribas

BNP Paribas is a French international banking group.

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Bobigny

Bobigny is a ''commune'', or town, in the northeastern suburbs of Paris, France.

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Bois de Boulogne

The Bois de Boulogne is a large public park located along the western edge of the 16th arrondissement of Paris, near the suburb of Boulogne-Billancourt and Neuilly-sur-Seine.

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Bois de Vincennes

The Bois de Vincennes, located on the eastern edge of Paris, is the largest public park in the city.

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Boléro

Boléro is a one-movement orchestral piece by the French composer Maurice Ravel (1875–1937).

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Bordeaux–Mérignac Airport

Bordeaux–Mérignac Airport (Aéroport de Bordeaux-Mérignac) is the international airport of Bordeaux, in south-western France.

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Boris Vian

Boris Vian (10 March 1920 – 23 June 1959) was a French polymath: writer, poet, musician, singer, translator, critic, actor, inventor and engineer.

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Boulevard des Italiens

The boulevard des Italiens is one of the four 'grands boulevards' in Paris, a chain running east west and also including boulevard de la Madeleine, Boulevard des Capucines and boulevard Montmartre.

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Boulevard Périphérique

Boulevard Périphérique, sometimes called Périph', is a controlled-access dual-carriageway ring road in Paris, France.

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Boulogne-Billancourt

Boulogne-Billancourt (often colloquially called simply Boulogne, until 1924 Boulogne-sur-Seine) is a commune in the western suburbs of Paris, France.

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Bourbon Restoration

The Bourbon Restoration was the period of French history following the fall of Napoleon in 1814 until the July Revolution of 1830.

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Bourrée

The bourrée (borrèia; also in England, borry or bore) is a dance of French origin and the words and music that accompany it.

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Brasserie

In France and the Francophone world, a brasserie is a type of French restaurant with a relaxed setting, which serves single dishes and other meals.

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British Isles

The British Isles are a group of islands off the north-western coast of continental Europe that consist of the islands of Great Britain, Ireland, the Isle of Man and over six thousand smaller isles.

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Brussels

Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.

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Buenos Aires

Buenos Aires is the capital and most populous city of Argentina.

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Bureau International des Expositions

The Bureau International des Expositions or the Bureau of International Expositions (BIE) is an intergovernmental organization created to supervise international exhibitions (also known as expos or world expos) falling under the jurisdiction of the Convention Relating to International Exhibitions.

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Bus (RATP)

The RATP operates the majority of buses in Paris and a significant number of lines in its suburbs.

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C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group

The C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group (C40) connects 90 of the world’s greatest cities, representing 650+ million people and one quarter of the global economy.

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Cabaret

Cabaret is a form of theatrical entertainment featuring music, song, dance, recitation, or drama.

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Cabrette

The cabrette (French: literally "little goat", alternately musette) is a type of bagpipe which appeared in Auvergne, France in the 19th century, and rapidly spread to Haute-Auvergne and Aubrac.

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Café Anglais

The Café Anglais (English café) was a famous French restaurant located at the corner of the Boulevard des Italiens (n° 13) and the Rue de Marivaux in Paris, France.

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Café de Flore

The Café de Flore is one of the oldest coffeehouses in Paris, celebrated for its famous clientele, which in the past included high-profile writers and philosophers.

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Café de la Rotonde

The Café de la Rotonde is a famous café in the Montparnasse Quarter of Paris, France.

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Café Procope

The Café Procope, in rue de l'Ancienne Comédie, 6th arrondissement, is called the oldest restaurant of Paris in continuous operation.

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Cahiers du cinéma

Cahiers du Cinéma (Notebooks on Cinema) is a French film magazine founded in 1951 by André Bazin, Jacques Doniol-Valcroze and Joseph-Marie Lo Duca.

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Cairo

Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.

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Calais

Calais (Calés; Kales) is a city and major ferry port in northern France in the department of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sub-prefecture.

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Camille Claudel

Camille Claudel (8 December 1864 19 October 1943) was a French sculptor.

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Camille Saint-Saëns

Charles-Camille Saint-Saëns (9 October 183516 December 1921) was a French composer, organist, conductor and pianist of the Romantic era.

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Can-can

The can-can (or cancan as in the original French) is a high-energy, physically demanding dance that became a popular music hall dance in the 1840s, continuing in popularity in French cabaret to this day.

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Canal 8 (TV channel)

Canal 8, stylized as C8, is a private national French TV channel, owned by Canal+ Group.

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Canal de l'Ourcq

The Canal de l'Ourcq is a 108.1 km (67.2 mi) long canal of in the Île-de-France region (greater Paris) with 10 locks.

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Canal Saint-Martin

The Canal Saint-Martin is a 4.6 km (2.86 mi) long canal in Paris, connecting the Canal de l'Ourcq to the river Seine.

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Canal+

Canal+ (Canal Plus,, meaning 'Channel Plus'; sometimes abbreviated C+) is a French premium cable television channel launched in 1984.

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Capital city

A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government.

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Cardinal Richelieu

Cardinal Armand Jean du Plessis, 1st Duke of Richelieu and Fronsac (9 September 15854 December 1642), commonly referred to as Cardinal Richelieu (Cardinal de Richelieu), was a French clergyman, nobleman, and statesman.

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Carmen

Carmen is an opera in four acts by French composer Georges Bizet.

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Carnavalet Museum

The Carnavalet Museum (French: Musée Carnavalet) in Paris is dedicated to the history of the city.

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Carrefour

Carrefour S.A. is a French multinational retailer headquartered in Boulogne Billancourt, France, in the Hauts-de-Seine Department near Paris.

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Carrousel du Louvre

The Carrousel du Louvre is an underground shopping mall in Paris, France.

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Cartier (jeweler)

Société Cartier is a French luxury goods conglomerate company which designs, manufactures, distributes, and sells jewellery and watches.

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Casablanca

Casablanca (ad-dār al-bayḍāʾ; anfa; local informal name: Kaẓa), located in the central-western part of Morocco bordering the Atlantic Ocean, is the largest city in Morocco.

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Casino de Paris

The Casino de Paris, located at 16, rue de Clichy, in the 9th arrondissement, is one of the well known music halls of Paris, with a history dating back to the 18th century.

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Catacombs of Paris

The Catacombs of Paris (French: Catacombes de Paris) are underground ossuaries in Paris, France, which hold the remains of more than six million people in a small part of a tunnel network built to consolidate Paris' ancient stone mines.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Catholic League (French)

The Catholic League of France (Ligue catholique), sometimes referred to by contemporary (and modern) Catholics as the Holy League (La Sainte Ligue), was a major participant in the French Wars of Religion.

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CELSA Paris

CELSA is a French communication and journalism school (grande école) located in the West of Paris, (Neuilly-sur-Seine) and is part of the Sorbonne University.

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Celts

The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.

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Centre Georges Pompidou

Centre Georges Pompidou, commonly shortened to Centre Pompidou and also known as the Pompidou Centre in English, is a complex building in the Beaubourg area of the 4th arrondissement of Paris, near Les Halles, rue Montorgueil, and the Marais.

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Champs-Élysées

The Avenue des Champs-Élysées is an avenue in the 8th arrondissement of Paris, long and wide, running between the Place de la Concorde and the Place Charles de Gaulle, where the Arc de Triomphe is located.

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Champs-Élysées stage in the Tour de France

The Tour de France has finished on the Champs-Élysées every year since 1975.

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Chanel

Chanel S.A. is a French, privately held company owned by Alain Wertheimer and Gérard Wertheimer, grandsons of Pierre Wertheimer, who was an early business partner of the couturière Gabrielle Bonheur Chanel.

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Chapel of Our Lady of the Miraculous Medal

The Chapel of Our Lady of the Miraculous Medal in Paris, France, is the chapel where the Blessed Virgin Mary appeared to Saint Catherine Labouré in 1830 and requested the creation of the medal which came to be known as the Miraculous Medal.

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Charles Aznavour

Charles Aznavour (born Shahnour Vaghinag Aznavourian, Շահնուր Վաղինակ Ազնավուրեան; 22 May 1924) is a French, later naturalised Armenian, singer, lyricist, actor, public activist and diplomat.

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Charles Baudelaire

Charles Pierre Baudelaire (April 9, 1821 – August 31, 1867) was a French poet who also produced notable work as an essayist, art critic, and pioneering translator of Edgar Allan Poe.

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Charles de Gaulle

Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France.

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Charles de Gaulle Airport

Paris Charles de Gaulle Airport (Aéroport de Paris-Charles-de-Gaulle), also known as Roissy Airport (name of the local district), is the largest international airport in France and the second largest in Europe.

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Charles Gounod

Charles-François Gounod (17 June 181817 or 18 October 1893) was a French composer, best known for his Ave Maria, based on a work by Bach, as well as his opera Faust.

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Charles Trenet

Louis Charles Auguste Claude Trenet, known as Charles Trenet (18 May 1913 – 19 February 2001), was a French singer and songwriter.

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Charlie Hebdo shooting

On 7 January 2015 at about 11:30 local time, two brothers, Saïd and Chérif Kouachi, forced their way into the offices of the French satirical weekly newspaper Charlie Hebdo in Paris.

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Château de la Muette

The Château de la Muette is a château located on the edge of the Bois de Boulogne in Paris, France, near the Porte de la Muette.

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Chicago

Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Christ the Redeemer (statue)

Christ the Redeemer (Cristo Redentor, standard) is an Art Deco statue of Jesus Christ in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, created by French sculptor Paul Landowski and built by Brazilian engineer Heitor da Silva Costa, in collaboration with French engineer Albert Caquot.

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Christian Dior SE

Christian Dior SE, commonly known as Dior, is a European luxury goods company controlled and chaired by French businessman Bernard Arnault, who also heads LVMH – the world's largest luxury group.

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Christian Lacroix

Christian Marie Marc Lacroix (born 16 May 1951) is a French fashion designer.

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Christianity

ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Christophe Josse

Christophe Josse is a French fashion designer and an haute couture fashion brand.

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Cimetière parisien de Pantin

The Cimetière parisien de Pantin (sometimes known as cimetière parisien de Pantin-Bobigny) is one of the three Parisien cemeteries extra muros, located in the commune of Pantin which is in the Seine-Saint-Denis department, in the Île-de-France region.

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Cinema of France

Cinema of France refers to the film industry based in France.

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Cité des Sciences et de l'Industrie

The Cité des Sciences et de l'Industrie ("City of Science and Industry") is the biggest science museum in Europe.

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City walls of Paris

Walls of Paris (enceintes de Paris or murs de Paris in French), refers to the city walls that surrounded Paris as it grew from ancient times until the 20th century, built primarily to defend the city.

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Claude Debussy

Achille-Claude Debussy (22 August 1862 – 25 March 1918) was a French composer.

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Claude Lelouch

Claude Barruck Joseph Lelouch (born 30 October 1937) is a French film director, writer, cinematographer, actor and producer.

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Claude Luter

Claude Luter (23 July 1923 – 6 October 2006) was a jazz clarinetist who doubled on soprano saxophone.

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Claude Monet

Oscar-Claude Monet (14 November 1840 – 5 December 1926) was a founder of French Impressionist painting, and the most consistent and prolific practitioner of the movement's philosophy of expressing one's perceptions before nature, especially as applied to plein air landscape painting.

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Claude Zidi

Claude Zidi (born 25 July 1934) is a French film director and screenwriter who is noted for his mainstream burlesque comedies.

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Clovis I

Clovis (Chlodovechus; reconstructed Frankish: *Hlōdowig; 466 – 27 November 511) was the first king of the Franks to unite all of the Frankish tribes under one ruler, changing the form of leadership from a group of royal chieftains to rule by a single king and ensuring that the kingship was passed down to his heirs.

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Coffeehouse

A coffeehouse, coffee shop or café (sometimes spelt cafe) is an establishment which primarily serves hot coffee, related coffee beverages (café latte, cappuccino, espresso), tea, and other hot beverages.

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Colette

Colette (Sidonie-Gabrielle Colette, 28 January 1873 – 3 August 1954) was a French novelist nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1948.

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Collège des Quatre-Nations

The Collège des Quatre-Nations ("College of the Four Nations"), also known as the Collège Mazarin after its founder, was one of the colleges of the historic University of Paris.

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College of Sorbonne

The College of Sorbonne (Collège de Sorbonne) was a theological college of the University of Paris, founded in 1253 by Robert de Sorbon (1201–1274), after whom it was named.

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Cologne

Cologne (Köln,, Kölle) is the largest city in the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the fourth most populated city in Germany (after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich).

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Comédie-Française

The Comédie-Française or Théâtre-Français is one of the few state theatres in France and is considered the oldest still-active theatre in the world.

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Comédie-Italienne

Comédie-Italienne or Théâtre-Italien are French names which have been used to refer to Italian-language theatre and opera when performed in France.

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Communes of France

The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic.

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Compagnies Républicaines de Sécurité

The Compagnies Républicaines de Sécurité (Republican Security Companies), abbreviated CRS, are the general reserve of the French National Police.

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Conseil d'État (France)

In France, the Council of State (Conseil d'État) is a body of the French national government that acts both as legal adviser of the executive branch and as the supreme court for administrative justice.

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Conservatoire de Paris

The Conservatoire de Paris (English: Paris Conservatory) is a college of music and dance founded in 1795 associated with PSL Research University.

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Constitutional Council (France)

The Constitutional Council (Conseil constitutionnel) is the highest constitutional authority in France.

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Controlled-access highway

A controlled-access highway is a type of highway which has been designed for high-speed vehicular traffic, with all traffic flow and ingress/egress regulated.

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Copenhagen

Copenhagen (København; Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark.

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Corail (train)

Corail is the name given to a class of passenger rail cars of the SNCF that first entered commercial service in 1975.

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Corbeil-Essonnes

Corbeil-Essonnes on the River Seine is a commune in the southern suburbs of Paris, France.

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Cosmetics

Cosmetics are substances or products used to enhance or alter the appearance of the face or fragrance and texture of the body.

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Council of Paris

The Council of Paris (Conseil de Paris) is the deliberative body responsible for the governing of Paris, the capital of France.

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Count of Paris

Count of Paris was a title for the local magnate of the district around Paris in Carolingian times.

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Coup of 18 Brumaire

The Coup of 18 Brumaire brought General Napoleon Bonaparte to power as First Consul of France and in the view of most historians ended the French Revolution.

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Courbevoie

Courbevoie is a commune located from the center of Paris, France.

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Court of Cassation (France)

The Court of Cassation (Cour de cassation) founded in 1804 is one of France's courts of last resort having jurisdiction over all matters triable in the judicial stream with scope of certifying questions of law and review in determining miscarriages of justice.

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Crazy Horse (cabaret)

Le Crazy Horse Saloon or Le Crazy Horse de Paris is a Parisian cabaret known for its stage shows performed by nude female dancers and for the diverse range of magic and variety 'turns' between each nude show and the next.

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Crédit Agricole

Crédit Agricole Group, sometimes called "la banque verte" (the green bank) due to its historical ties to farming, is a French network of cooperative and mutual banks comprising Crédit Agricole local banks, the 39 Crédit Agricole regional banks and a central institute Crédit Agricole S.A..

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Cubism

Cubism is an early-20th-century art movement which brought European painting and sculpture historically forward toward 20th century Modern art.

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Curie Institute (Paris)

Centre of protontherapy Institut Curie is one of the leading medical, biological and biophysical research centres in the world.

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Cycling in Paris

Paris has steadily increased its network of bicycle paths since the late 1990s.

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Dalida

Iolanda Cristina Gigliotti (17 January 1933 – 3 May 1987), better known as Dalida (داليدا), was a French-Italian-Egyptian singer and actress who spent most of her career in France.

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Denis

Saint Denis was a legendary 3rd-century Christian martyr and saint.

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Denis Diderot

Denis Diderot (5 October 171331 July 1784) was a French philosopher, art critic, and writer, best known for serving as co-founder, chief editor, and contributor to the Encyclopédie along with Jean le Rond d'Alembert.

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Departments of France

In the administrative divisions of France, the department (département) is one of the three levels of government below the national level ("territorial collectivities"), between the administrative regions and the commune.

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Digital cinema

Digital cinema refers to the use of digital technology to distribute or project motion pictures as opposed to the historical use of reels of motion picture film, such as 35 mm film.

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Disneyland Paris

Disneyland Paris, originally Euro Disney Resort, is an entertainment resort in Marne-la-Vallée, a new town located east of the centre of Paris, and is the most visited theme park in all of Europe.

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District heating

District heating (also known as heat networks or teleheating) is a system for distributing heat generated in a centralized location for residential and commercial heating requirements such as space heating and water heating.

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Django Reinhardt

Jean Reinhardt (or; 23 January 1910 – 16 May 1953) stage name Django Reinhardt, was a Belgian-born Romani French jazz guitarist, musician and composer, regarded as one of the greatest musicians of the twentieth century.

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Dominique Perrault

Dominique Perrault (1953, Clermont-Ferrand) is a French architect and urban planner.

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Dover Publications

Dover Publications, also known as Dover Books, is an American book publisher founded in 1941 by Hayward Cirker and his wife, Blanche.

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Duke of the Franks

The title Duke of the Franks (dux Francorum) has been used for three different offices, always with "duke" implying military command and "prince", on those occasions when it was used either with or in preference to "duke", implying something approaching sovereign or regalian rights.

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Economist Intelligence Unit

The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) is a British business within the Economist Group providing forecasting and advisory services through research and analysis, such as monthly country reports, five-year country economic forecasts, country risk service reports, and industry reports.

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Economy of Paris

Paris, including both the City of Paris and the Île-de-France region (Paris Region), is the most important center of economic activity in France, accounting for about thirty percent of the French GDP.

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Egypt

Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Eiffel Tower

The Eiffel Tower (tour Eiffel) is a wrought iron lattice tower on the Champ de Mars in Paris, France.

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Encyclopédie

Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers (English: Encyclopedia, or a Systematic Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Crafts), better known as Encyclopédie, was a general encyclopedia published in France between 1751 and 1772, with later supplements, revised editions, and translations.

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Enghien-les-Bains

Enghien-les-Bains is a commune in the northern suburbs of Paris, France.

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Engie

ENGIE (known as GDF Suez prior to April 2015) is a French multinational electric utility company, headquartered in La Défense, Courbevoie, which operates in the fields of electricity generation and distribution, natural gas, nuclear and renewable energy.

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English Channel

The English Channel (la Manche, "The Sleeve"; Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Mor Bretannek, "Sea of Brittany"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.

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Erik Satie

Éric Alfred Leslie Satie (17 May 18661 July 1925), who signed his name Erik Satie after 1884, was a French composer and pianist.

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Ernest Hemingway

Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short story writer, and journalist.

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ESCP Europe

ESCP Europe (full name: École supérieure de commerce de Paris) is a European business school with campuses in Paris, Berlin, London, Madrid, Turin, and Warsaw.

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ESSEC Business School

ESSEC Business School is an international higher education institution located in France (Cergy-Pontoise and La Défense in the Paris area), Singapore and Morocco.

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Essonne

Essonne is a French department in the region of Île-de-France.

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Eugène Atget

Eugène Atget (12 February 1857 – 4 August 1927) was a French flâneur and a pioneer of documentary photography, noted for his determination to document all of the architecture and street scenes of Paris before their disappearance to modernization.

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Eugène Belgrand

Eugène Belgrand (23 April 1810 – 8 April 1878) was a French engineer who made significant contributions to the modernization of the Parisian sewer system during the 19th century rebuilding of Paris.

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Eugène Grasset

Eugène Samuel Grasset (25 May 1845 – 23 October 1917) was a Franco-Swiss decorative artist who worked in Paris, France in a variety of creative design fields during the Belle Époque.

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Euro

The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.

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EuroBasket 1999

The 1999 FIBA European Championship, commonly called FIBA EuroBasket 1999, was the 31st FIBA EuroBasket regional basketball championship held by FIBA Europe, which also served as Europe qualifier for the 2000 Olympic Tournament, giving a berth to the top five (or six, depending on Yugoslavia reaching one of the top five places) teams in the final standings.

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Europe

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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European Space Agency

The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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European Union Institute for Security Studies

The European Union Institute for Security Studies (EUISS) is a Paris-based agency of the European Union.

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Eurostat

Eurostat is a Directorate-General of the European Commission located in Luxembourg.

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Eurozone

No description.

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Exposition Universelle (1855)

The Exposition Universelle of 1855 was an International Exhibition held on the Champs-Élysées in Paris from 15 May to 15 November 1855.

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Exposition Universelle (1889)

The Exposition Universelle of 1889 was a world's fair held in Paris, France, from 6 May to 31 October 1889.

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Exposition Universelle (1900)

The Exposition Universelle of 1900 was a world's fair held in Paris, France, from 14 April to 12 November 1900, to celebrate the achievements of the past century and to accelerate development into the next.

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Family of Saltimbanques

Family of Saltimbanques (La famille de saltimbanques) is a 1905 painting by Pablo Picasso.

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Faubourg Saint-Antoine

The Faubourg Saint-Antoine was one of the traditional suburbs of Paris, France.

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Faust (opera)

Faust is a grand opera in five acts by Charles Gounod to a French libretto by Jules Barbier and Michel Carré from Carré's play Faust et Marguerite, in turn loosely based on Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's Faust, Part One.

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Fauvism

Fauvism is the style of les Fauves (French for "the wild beasts"), a group of early twentieth-century modern artists whose works emphasized painterly qualities and strong color over the representational or realistic values retained by Impressionism.

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Fayard

Fayard (complete name: Librairie Arthème Fayard) is a French Paris-based publishing house established in 1857.

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Fête de la Musique

The Fête de la Musique, also known as Music Day, Make Music Day or World Music Day, is an annual music celebration that takes place on 21 June.

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Feces

Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.

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Financial services

Financial services are the economic services provided by the finance industry, which encompasses a broad range of businesses that manage money, including credit unions, banks, credit-card companies, insurance companies, accountancy companies, consumer-finance companies, stock brokerages, investment funds, individual managers and some government-sponsored enterprises.

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First Battle of the Marne

The Battle of the Marne (Première bataille de la Marne, also known as the Miracle of the Marne, Le Miracle de la Marne) was a World War I battle fought from It resulted in an Allied victory against the German armies in the west.

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Flag carrier

A flag carrier is a transportation company, such as an airline or shipping company, that, being locally registered in a given sovereign state, enjoys preferential rights or privileges accorded by the government for international operations.

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Flamboyant

Flamboyant (from French flamboyant, "flaming") is the name given to a florid style of late Gothic architecture in vogue in France from about 1350, until it was superseded by Renaissance architecture during the early 16th century.

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Fluctuat nec mergitur

Fluctuat nec mergitur is a Latin phrase meaning "(She) is tossed by the waves but doesn’t sink".

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Flypast

A flypast is a ceremonial or honorific flight by a group of aircraft or a single aircraft.

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Folies Bergère

The Folies Bergère is a cabaret music hall, located in Paris, France.

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Fortune (magazine)

Fortune is an American multinational business magazine headquartered in New York City, United States.

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Fortune Global 500

The Fortune Global 500, also known as Global 500, is an annual ranking of the top 500 corporations worldwide as measured by revenue and the list is compiled and published annually by Fortune magazine.

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Four Seasons Hotel George V

Four Seasons Hotel George V is a luxury hotel on avenue George V in the 8th arrondissement of Paris.

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François Couperin

François Couperin (10 November 1668 – 11 September 1733) was a French Baroque composer, organist and harpsichordist.

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François Girardon

François Girardon (10 March 1628 – 1 September 1715) was a French sculptor.

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François Mauriac

François Charles Mauriac (11 October 1885 – 1 September 1970) was a French novelist, dramatist, critic, poet, and journalist, a member of the Académie française (from 1933), and laureate of the Nobel Prize in Literature (1952).

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François Mitterrand

François Maurice Adrien Marie Mitterrand (26 October 1916 – 8 January 1996) was a French statesman who was President of France from 1981 to 1995, the longest time in office of any French president.

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France

France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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France 2

France 2 is a French public national television channel.

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France 24

France 24 (pronounced "France vingt-quatre") is a state-owned 24-hour international news and current affairs television network based in Paris.

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France 3

France 3 is the second largest French public television channel and part of the France Télévisions group, which also includes France 2, France 4, France 5, and France Ô. It is made up of a network of regional television services providing daily news programming and around ten hours of entertainment and cultural programming produced for and about the regions each week.

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France 4

France 4 is a French public channel owned by France Télévisions, dedicated to entertainment.

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France 5

France 5 is a public television network in France, part of the France Télévisions group.

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France national football team

The France national football team (Équipe de France de football) represents France in international football and is controlled by the French Football Federation, also known as FFF, or in Fédération française de football.

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France national rugby union team

The France national rugby union team competes annually against England, Ireland, Italy, Scotland and Wales in the Six Nations Championship.

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Francien language

Francien is a 19th-century term in linguistics that was applied to the French dialect that was spoken in the Île-de-France region (with Paris at its centre) before the establishment of the French language as a standard language.

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Francilienne

The Francilienne is a partial ring road around Île-de-France (Paris' région), France, lying outside the A86.

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Francis I of France

Francis I (François Ier) (12 September 1494 – 31 March 1547) was the first King of France from the Angoulême branch of the House of Valois, reigning from 1515 until his death.

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Franco-Prussian War

The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War (Deutsch-Französischer Krieg, Guerre franco-allemande), often referred to in France as the War of 1870 (19 July 1871) or in Germany as 70/71, was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia.

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Frank Gehry

Frank Owen Gehry,, FAIA (born Frank Owen Goldberg)Reinhart, Anthony (July 28, 2010), Globe and Mail is a Canadian-born American architect, residing in Los Angeles.

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Franks

The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.

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Franz Liszt

Franz Liszt (Liszt Ferencz, in modern usage Liszt Ferenc;Liszt's Hungarian passport spelt his given name as "Ferencz". An orthographic reform of the Hungarian language in 1922 (which was 36 years after Liszt's death) changed the letter "cz" to simply "c" in all words except surnames; this has led to Liszt's given name being rendered in modern Hungarian usage as "Ferenc". From 1859 to 1867 he was officially Franz Ritter von Liszt; he was created a Ritter (knight) by Emperor Francis Joseph I in 1859, but never used this title of nobility in public. The title was necessary to marry the Princess Carolyne zu Sayn-Wittgenstein without her losing her privileges, but after the marriage fell through, Liszt transferred the title to his uncle Eduard in 1867. Eduard's son was Franz von Liszt. 22 October 181131 July 1886) was a prolific 19th-century Hungarian composer, virtuoso pianist, conductor, music teacher, arranger, organist, philanthropist, author, nationalist and a Franciscan tertiary during the Romantic era.

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Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi

Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi (2 April 1834 – 4 October 1904) was a French sculptor who is best known for designing Liberty Enlightening the World, commonly known as the Statue of Liberty.

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Frédéric Chopin

Frédéric François Chopin (1 March 181017 October 1849) was a Polish composer and virtuoso pianist of the Romantic era who wrote primarily for solo piano.

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French Academy of Sciences

The French Academy of Sciences (French: Académie des sciences) is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research.

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French Armed Forces

The French Armed Forces (Forces armées françaises) encompass the Army, the Navy, the Air Force, the National Guard and the Gendarmerie of the French Republic.

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French colonial empire

The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward.

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French Fifth Republic

The Fifth Republic, France's current republican system of government, was established by Charles de Gaulle under the Constitution of the Fifth Republic on 4 October 1958.

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French hip hop

French hip hop is the hip hop music style which was developed in French-speaking countries.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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French Open

The French Open (Championnats Internationaux de France de Tennis), officially called Roland-Garros, is a major tennis tournament held over two weeks between late May and early June at the Stade Roland-Garros in Paris, France.

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French Revolution

The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.

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French Wars of Religion

The French Wars of Religion refers to a prolonged period of war and popular unrest between Roman Catholics and Huguenots (Reformed/Calvinist Protestants) in the Kingdom of France between 1562 and 1598.

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French West Indies

The term French West Indies or French Antilles (Antilles françaises) refers to the seven territories currently under French sovereignty in the Antilles islands of the Caribbean.

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Fronde

The Fronde was a series of civil wars in France between 1648 and 1653, occurring in the midst of the Franco-Spanish War, which had begun in 1635.

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Gallo-Roman culture

The term "Gallo-Roman" describes the Romanized culture of Gaul under the rule of the Roman Empire.

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Gare d'Austerlitz

The Gare d'Austerlitz (Austerlitz Station), officially Paris-Austerlitz, is one of the six large terminus railway stations in Paris.

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Gare d'Orsay

Gare d'Orsay is a former Paris railway station and hotel, built in 1900 to designs by Victor Laloux, Lucien Magne and Émile Bénard; it served as a terminus for the Chemin de Fer de Paris à Orléans (Paris-Orléans Railway).

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Gare de l'Est

The Gare de l'Est ("Station of the East" in English), officially Paris-Est, is one of the six large SNCF termini in Paris.

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Gare de Lyon

The Gare de Lyon (Lyon Station), officially Paris-Gare-de-Lyon, is one of the six large mainline railway station termini in Paris, France.

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Gare de Paris-Bercy-Bourgogne-Pays d'Auvergne

The Gare de Paris-Bercy-Bourgogne-Pays d'Auvergne, formerly Bercy is a railway station and terminus in Paris, France, operated by the SNCF.

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Gare du Nord

The Gare du Nord (North Station), officially Paris-Nord, is one of the six large terminus stations of the SNCF mainline network for Paris, France.

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Gare Montparnasse

The Gare Montparnasse (Montparnasse Station), officially Paris-Montparnasse, is one of the six large Paris railway termini, in the 14th and 15th arrondissements of Paris.

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Gare Saint-Lazare

The Gare Saint-Lazare (St Lazarus Station), officially Paris-Saint-Lazare, is one of the six large terminus railway stations of Paris.

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General aviation

General aviation (GA) is all civil aviation operations other than scheduled air services and non-scheduled air transport operations for remuneration or hire.

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Geneva

Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.

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Gentrification

Gentrification is a process of renovation of deteriorated urban neighborhoods by means of the influx of more affluent residents.

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Georges Bizet

Georges Bizet (25 October 18383 June 1875), registered at birth as Alexandre César Léopold Bizet, was a French composer of the romantic era.

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Georges de Feure

Georges de Feure (real name Georges Joseph van Sluijters, 6 September 1868 – 26 November 1943) was a French painter, theatrical designer, and industrial art designer in the symbolism and Art Nouveau styles.

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Georges Pompidou

Georges Jean Raymond Pompidou (5 July 19112 April 1974) was Prime Minister of France from 1962 to 1968—the longest tenure in the position's history—and later President of the French Republic from 1969 until his death in 1974.

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Georges-Eugène Haussmann

Georges-Eugène Haussmann, commonly known as Baron Haussmann (27 March 180911 January 1891), was a prefect of the Seine Department of France chosen by Emperor Napoleon III to carry out a massive urban renewal program of new boulevards, parks and public works in Paris that is commonly referred to as Haussmann's renovation of Paris.

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Germany

Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Gnossiennes

The Gnossiennes are several piano compositions written by the French composer Erik Satie in the late 19th century.

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Gothic architecture

Gothic architecture is an architectural style that flourished in Europe during the High and Late Middle Ages.

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Goutte d'Or

The Goutte d'Or (Drop of Gold) is a neighbourhood in Paris, located in the 18th arrondissement.

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Government of France

The Government of the French Republic (Gouvernement de la République française) exercises executive power in France.

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Grand Palais

The Grand Palais des Champs-Élysées, commonly known as the Grand Palais (English: Great Palace), is a large historic site, exhibition hall and museum complex located at the Champs-Élysées in the 8th arrondissement of Paris, France.

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Grand Paris Express

Grand Paris Express is a group of new rapid transit lines being built in the Île-de-France region in France.

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Grand Rex

Le Grand Rex is a cinema and concert venue in Paris, France.

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Grand Slam (tennis)

The Grand Slam tournaments, also called majors, are the four most important annual tennis events.

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Grande Arche

La Grande Arche de la Défense (also La Grande Arche de la Fraternité) is a monument and building in the business district of La Défense and in the commune of Puteaux, to the west of Paris, France.

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Grandes écoles

The Grandes Écoles (literally in French "Great Schools") of France are higher education establishments that are outside the main framework of the French public university system.

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Grands établissements

The grands établissements are French public institutions under ministerial charter under the administrative category referred to as Établissements publics à caractère scientifique, culturel et professionnel (EPCSP).

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Grateful Dead

The Grateful Dead was an American rock band formed in 1965 in Palo Alto, California.

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Greek mythology

Greek mythology is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices.

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Gross domestic product

Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.

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Groupe BPCE

Groupe BPCE is a French banking group, formed by the 2009 merger of CNCE (Caisse nationale des caisses d'épargne) and BFBP (Banque fédérale des banques populaires), has more than 8,200 branches nationwide under their respective brand names serving nearly 40 million customers.

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Guimet Museum

The Guimet Museum (Musée national des arts asiatiques or Musée Guimet) is an art museum located at 6, place d'Iéna in the 16th arrondissement of Paris, France.

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Gulli

Gulli is a French television network dedicated to children's programming.

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Gustave Courbet

Jean Désiré Gustave Courbet (10 June 1819 – 31 December 1877) was a French painter who led the Realism movement in 19th-century French painting.

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Gustave Flaubert

Gustave Flaubert (12 December 1821 – 8 May 1880) was a French novelist.

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Guy de La Brosse

Guy de La Brosse (1586 – 1641 in Paris), was a French botanist, doctor, and pharmacist.

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Guy de Maupassant

Henri René Albert Guy de Maupassant (5 August 1850 – 6 July 1893) was a French writer, remembered as a master of the short story form, and as a representative of the naturalist school of writers, who depicted human lives and destinies and social forces in disillusioned and often pessimistic terms.

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Gymnopédies

The Gymnopédies, published in Paris starting in 1888, are three piano compositions written by French composer and pianist Erik Satie.

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Gypsy jazz

Gypsy jazz (also known as gypsy swing or hot club jazz) is a style of jazz music generally accepted to have been started by the gypsy guitarist Jean "Django" Reinhardt in and around Paris in the 1930s.

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HarperCollins

HarperCollins Publishers L.L.C. is one of the world's largest publishing companies and is one of the Big Five English-language publishing companies, alongside Hachette, Macmillan, Penguin Random House, and Simon & Schuster.

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Haussmann's renovation of Paris

Haussmann's renovation of Paris was a vast public works program commissioned by Emperor Napoléon III and directed by his prefect of the Seine, Georges-Eugène Haussmann, between 1853 and 1870.

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Haute couture

Haute couture (French for "high sewing" or "high dressmaking" or "high fashion") is the creation of exclusive custom-fitted clothing.

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Haute cuisine

Haute cuisine (French: literally "high cooking") or grande cuisine refers to the cuisine of "high-level" establishments, gourmet restaurants and luxury hotels.

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Hauts-de-Seine

Hauts-de-Seine (literally Seine Heights) is a department of France.

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Hôpital Cochin

The Hôpital Cochin is a famous hospital of public assistance in the rue du Faubourg-Saint-Jacques Paris 14e.

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Hôpital de la Charité

Hôpital de la Charité ("Charity Hospital") was a hospital in Paris founded in the 17th century and closed in 1935.

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Hôpital Européen Georges-Pompidou

The Hôpital Européen Georges-Pompidou (HEGP) (Georges Pompidou European Hospital) is a French hospital located in Paris.

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Hôpital Saint-Louis

Hôpital Saint-Louis is a hospital in Paris, France.

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Hôtel de Crillon

The Hôtel de Crillon in Paris is a historic luxury hotel that opened in 1909 — in a building dating to 1758.

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Hôtel de Sens

The Hôtel de Sens or Hôtel des archevêques de Sens is a medieval hôtel particulier, or private mansion, in the Marais, in the 4th arrondissement of Paris, France.

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Hôtel de Ville, Paris

The Hôtel de Ville (City Hall) in Paris, France, is the building housing the city's local administration.

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Hôtel Le Bristol Paris

Hôtel Le Bristol is a five star hotel located in Paris, France at 112 rue du Faubourg Saint Honoré, in the heart of the fashion, design, and art district.

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Hôtel Matignon

The Hôtel de Matignon is the official residence of the Prime Minister of France.

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Hôtel Ritz Paris

The Ritz Paris is a hotel in central Paris, in the 1st arrondissement.

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Hôtel-Dieu de Paris

The Hôtel-Dieu de Paris founded by Saint Landry in 651 AD is the oldest hospital in the city of Paris, France, and is the most central of the Assistance publique - hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP) hospitals.

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HEC Paris

HEC Paris (École des hautes études commerciales de Paris) is an international business school established in 1881 and located in Jouy-en-Josas, France.

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Hector Berlioz

Louis-Hector Berlioz; 11 December 1803 – 8 March 1869) was a French Romantic composer, best known for his compositions Symphonie fantastique, Harold en Italie, Roméo et Juliette, Grande messe des morts (Requiem), L'Enfance du Christ, Benvenuto Cellini, La Damnation de Faust, and Les Troyens. Berlioz made significant contributions to the modern orchestra with his Treatise on Instrumentation. He specified huge orchestral forces for some of his works, and conducted several concerts with more than 1,000 musicians. He also composed around 50 compositions for voice, accompanied by piano or orchestra. His influence was critical for the further development of Romanticism, especially in composers like Richard Wagner, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, Franz Liszt, Richard Strauss, and Gustav Mahler.

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Henri Cartier-Bresson

Henri Cartier-Bresson (August 22, 1908 – August 3, 2004) was a French humanist photographer considered a master of candid photography, and an early user of 35 mm film.

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Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec

Henri Marie Raymond de Toulouse-Lautrec-Monfa (24 November 1864 – 9 September 1901), also known as Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, was a French painter, printmaker, draughtsman, caricaturist, and illustrator whose immersion in the colourful and theatrical life of Paris in the late 19th century allowed him to produce a collection of enticing, elegant, and provocative images of the modern, sometimes decadent, affairs of those times.

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Henri Labrouste

Pierre-François-Henri Labrouste (11 May 1801 – 24 June 1875) was a French architect from the famous École des Beaux-Arts school of architecture.

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Henri Matisse

Henri Émile Benoît Matisse (31 December 1869 – 3 November 1954) was a French artist, known for both his use of colour and his fluid and original draughtsmanship.

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Henri Rousseau

Henri Julien Félix Rousseau (May 21, 1844 – September 2, 1910) at the Guggenheim was a French post-impressionist painter in the Naïve or Primitive manner.

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Henri Salvador

Henri Salvador (18 July 1917 – 13 February 2008) was a French Caribbean comedian and singer.

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Henri-Gabriel Ibels

Henri-Gabriel Ibels (30 November 1867 Paris – February 1936 Paris), was a French illustrator, printmaker, painter and author.

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Henry IV of France

Henry IV (Henri IV, read as Henri-Quatre; 13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), also known by the epithet Good King Henry, was King of Navarre (as Henry III) from 1572 to 1610 and King of France from 1589 to 1610.

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Henry V of England

Henry V (9 August 1386 – 31 August 1422) was King of England from 1413 until his death at the age of 36 in 1422.

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Hermès

Hermès International S.A., or simply Hermès is a French high fashion luxury goods manufacturer established in 1837.

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Hermitage Plaza

Hermitage Plaza is a project consisting of a podium and 6 buildings, including two towers, proposed by Hermitage Group for the Paris-La Défense business district.

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High-speed rail

High-speed rail is a type of rail transport that operates significantly faster than traditional rail traffic, using an integrated system of specialized rolling stock and dedicated tracks.

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Ho Chi Minh

Hồ Chí Minh (Chữ nôm: 胡志明; 19 May 1890 – 2 September 1969), born Nguyễn Sinh Cung, also known as Nguyễn Tất Thành and Nguyễn Ái Quốc, was a Vietnamese Communist revolutionary leader who was Chairman and First Secretary of the Workers' Party of Vietnam.

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Holy Innocents' Cemetery

The Holy Innocents' Cemetery (French: Cimetière des Saints-Innocents or Cimetière des Innocents) is a defunct cemetery in Paris that was used from the Middle Ages until the late 18th century.

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Honoré de Balzac

Honoré de Balzac (born Honoré Balzac, 20 May 1799 – 18 August 1850) was a French novelist and playwright.

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House of Capet

The House of Capet or the Direct Capetians (Capétiens directs, Maison capétienne), also called the House of France (la maison de France), or simply the Capets, ruled the Kingdom of France from 987 to 1328.

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Hugh Capet

Hugh CapetCapet is a byname of uncertain meaning distinguishing him from his father Hugh the Great.

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Hundred Years' War

The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the House of Valois, over the right to rule the Kingdom of France.

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Hungary

Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.

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Hurdy-gurdy

The hurdy-gurdy is a stringed instrument that produces sound by a hand crank-turned, rosined wheel rubbing against the strings.

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Hypercacher kosher supermarket siege

This attack occurred at a Hypercacher kosher supermarket in Porte de Vincennes (20th arrondissement of Paris) in the wake of the ''Charlie Hebdo'' shooting two days earlier, and concurrently with the Dammartin-en-Goële hostage crisis in which the two Charlie Hebdo gunmen were cornered.

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I. M. Pei

Ieoh Ming Pei, FAIA, RIBA – website of Pei Cobb Freed & Partners (born 26 April 1917), commonly known as I. M.

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Igor Stravinsky

Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (ˈiɡərʲ ˈfʲɵdərəvʲɪtɕ strɐˈvʲinskʲɪj; 6 April 1971) was a Russian-born composer, pianist, and conductor.

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Impressionism

Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement characterised by relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time), ordinary subject matter, inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience, and unusual visual angles.

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Impressionism in music

Impressionism in music was a movement among various composers in Western classical music (mainly during the late 19th and early 20th centuries) whose music focuses on suggestion and atmosphere, "conveying the moods and emotions aroused by the subject rather than a detailed tone‐picture".

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Indirect election

An indirect election is an election in which voters do not choose between candidates for an office, but elect people who then choose.

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INSEAD

INSEAD is a graduate and proprofit business school with campuses in Europe (Fontainebleau, France), Asia (Singapore), and the Middle East (Abu Dhabi).

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INSEP

INSEP, the National Institute of Sport, expertise, and performance (Institut national du sport, de l'expertise et de la performance), is a French teacher training institute and center for excellence in sports that trains elite athletes.

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Institut français d'opinion publique

The Institut français d'opinion publique (IFOP) (French Institute of Public Opinion) is an international polling and market research firm, whose motto is "Connection creates value".

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Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques

The National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies (Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques), abbreviated INSEE, is the national statistics bureau of France.

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InterContinental Paris Le Grand Hotel

The InterContinental Paris Le Grand Hotel is a historic hotel in Paris, France, opened in 1862.

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International Bureau of Weights and Measures

The International Bureau of Weights and Measures (Bureau international des poids et mesures) is an intergovernmental organization established by the Metre Convention, through which Member States act together on matters related to measurement science and measurement standards.

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International Chamber of Commerce

The International Chamber of Commerce (ICC; French: Chambre de commerce internationale) is the largest, most representative business organization in the world.

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International Energy Agency

The International Energy Agency (IEA) (Agence internationale de l'énergie) is a Paris-based autonomous intergovernmental organization established in the framework of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 1974 in the wake of the 1973 oil crisis.

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International Exhibition of Modern Decorative and Industrial Arts

The International Exhibition of Modern Decorative and Industrial Arts (Exposition internationale des arts décoratifs et industriels modernes) was a World's fair held in Paris, France, from April to October 1925.

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International Federation for Human Rights

The International Federation for Human Rights (Fédération internationale des ligues des droits de l'homme; FIDH) is a non-governmental federation for human rights organizations.

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Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.

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Issy-les-Moulineaux

Issy-les-Moulineaux is a commune in the southwestern suburban area of Paris, France, lying on the left bank of the river Seine.

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Italy

Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Ivry-sur-Seine

Ivry-sur-Seine is a commune in the Val-de-Marne department in the southeastern suburbs of Paris, France.

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Jacques Chirac

Jacques René Chirac (born 29 November 1932) is a French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 1995 to 2007.

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Jacques Henri Lartigue

Jacques Henri Lartigue (June 13, 1894 – September 12, 1986) was a French photographer and painter, known for his photographs of automobile races, planes and female Parisian fashion models.

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Jacques Offenbach

Jacques Offenbach (20 June 1819 – 5 October 1880) was a German-born French composer, cellist and impresario of the romantic period.

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Jakarta

Jakarta, officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta (Daerah Khusus Ibu Kota Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia.

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James Joyce

James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (2 February 1882 – 13 January 1941) was an Irish novelist, short story writer, and poet.

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Jardin des plantes

The Jardin des plantes (French for 'Garden of the Plants'), also known as the jardin des plantes de Paris when distinguished from other jardins des plantes in other cities, is the main botanical garden in France.

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Jardin du Luxembourg

The Jardin du Luxembourg, also known in English as the Luxembourg Gardens, is located in the 6th arrondissement of Paris, France.

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Jazz

Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in blues and ragtime.

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Je te veux

"Je te veux" ("I want you") is a song composed by Erik Satie to a text by Henry Pacory.

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Jean de La Fontaine

Jean de La Fontaine (8 July 162113 April 1695) was a French fabulist and one of the most widely read French poets of the 17th century.

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Jean le Rond d'Alembert

Jean-Baptiste le Rond d'Alembert (16 November 1717 – 29 October 1783) was a French mathematician, mechanician, physicist, philosopher, and music theorist.

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Jean Metzinger

Jean Dominique Antony Metzinger (24 June 1883 – 3 November 1956) was a major 20th-century French painter, theorist, writer, critic and poet, who along with Albert Gleizes wrote the first theoretical work on Cubism.

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Jean Nouvel

Jean Nouvel (born 12 August 1945) is a French architect.

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Jean Racine

Jean Racine, baptismal name Jean-Baptiste Racine (22 December 163921 April 1699), was a French dramatist, one of the three great playwrights of 17th-century France (along with Molière and Corneille), and an important literary figure in the Western tradition.

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Jean Sylvain Bailly

Jean Sylvain Bailly (15 September 1736 – 12 November 1793) was a French astronomer, mathematician, freemason, and political leader of the early part of the French Revolution.

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Jean-Baptiste Lully

Jean-Baptiste Lully (born Giovanni Battista Lulli,; 28 November 1632 – 22 March 1687) was an Italian-born French composer, instrumentalist, and dancer who spent most of his life working in the court of Louis XIV of France.

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Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer.

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Jean-Luc Godard

Jean-Luc Godard (born 3 December 1930) is a French-Swiss film director, screenwriter and film critic.

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Jean-Paul Gaultier

Jean-Paul Gaultier (born 24 April 1952) is a French haute couture and prêt-à-porter fashion designer.

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Jean-Paul Sartre

Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (21 June 1905 – 15 April 1980) was a French philosopher, playwright, novelist, political activist, biographer, and literary critic.

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Jean-Philippe Rameau

Jean-Philippe Rameau (–) was one of the most important French composers and music theorists of the 18th century.

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Joan of Arc

Joan of Arc (Jeanne d'Arc; 6 January c. 1412Modern biographical summaries often assert a birthdate of 6 January for Joan, which is based on a letter from Lord Perceval de Boulainvilliers on 21 July 1429 (see Pernoud's Joan of Arc By Herself and Her Witnesses, p. 98: "Boulainvilliers tells of her birth in Domrémy, and it is he who gives us an exact date, which may be the true one, saying that she was born on the night of Epiphany, 6 January"). – 30 May 1431), nicknamed "The Maid of Orléans" (La Pucelle d'Orléans), is considered a heroine of France for her role during the Lancastrian phase of the Hundred Years' War and was canonized as a Roman Catholic saint.

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Johann Heynlin

Johann Heynlin, variously spelled Heynlein, Henelyn, Henlin, Hélin, Hemlin, Hegelin, Steinlin; and translated as Jean à Lapide, Jean La Pierre (Lapierre, de la Pierre), Johannes Lapideus, Johannes Lapidanus, Johannes de Lapide (c. 1425 – 12 March 1496) was a German-born scholar, humanist, and theologian who introduced the first printing press to Paris (and France in general) in the late fifteenth century.

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Josephine Baker

Josephine Baker (born Freda Josephine McDonald; 3 June 1906 – 12 April 1975) was an American-born French entertainer, activist, and French Resistance agent.

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Judy Garland

Judy Garland (born Frances Ethel Gumm; June 10, 1922 – June 22, 1969) was an American singer, actress, and vaudevillian.

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Jules Chéret

Jules Chéret (31 May 1836 – 23 September 1932) was a French painter and lithographer who became a master of Belle Époque poster art.

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Jules Massenet

Jules Émile Frédéric Massenet (12 May 184213 August 1912) was a French composer of the Romantic era best known for his operas, of which he wrote more than thirty.

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Jules Verne

Jules Gabriel Verne (Longman Pronunciation Dictionary.; 8 February 1828 – 24 March 1905) was a French novelist, poet, and playwright.

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July Column

The July Column (French: Colonne de Juillet) is a monumental column in Paris commemorating the Revolution of 1830.

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July Revolution

The French Revolution of 1830, also known as the July Revolution (révolution de Juillet), Third French Revolution or Trois Glorieuses in French ("Three Glorious "), led to the overthrow of King Charles X, the French Bourbon monarch, and the ascent of his cousin Louis Philippe, Duke of Orléans, who himself, after 18 precarious years on the throne, would be overthrown in 1848.

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Karl Lagerfeld

Karl Otto Lagerfeld (Hamburg, 10 September 1933) is a German creative director, artist, and photographer based in Paris.

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Köppen climate classification

The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.

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Kepi

The kepi is a cap with a flat circular top and a peak, or visor.

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Kyoto

, officially, is the capital city of Kyoto Prefecture, located in the Kansai region of Japan.

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L'Ambroisie

L'Ambroisie is a Michelin three-starred restaurant in Paris, France.

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L'heure espagnole

L'heure espagnole is a 1911 one-act opera, described as a comédie musicale, with music by Maurice Ravel to a French libretto by Franc-Nohain, based on Franc-Nohain's 1904 play ('comédie-bouffe') of the same nameStoullig E. Les Annales du Théâtre et de la Musique, 30eme edition, 1904. Librairie Paul Ollendorff, Paris, 1905.

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L'Obs

L’Obs, previously known as Le Nouvel Observateur (1964–2014), is a weekly French news magazine.

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L'Oréal

L'Oréal S.A. is a French personal care company headquartered in Clichy, Hauts-de-Seine with a registered office in Paris.

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La Chaîne parlementaire

La Chaîne parlementaire (French for The parliamentary Channel) is a French television network responsible for broadcasting activity from the National Assembly of France (LCP) and the Senate of France (Public Sénat).

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La Croix

La Croix (English: The Cross) is a daily French general-interest Roman Catholic newspaper. It is published in Paris and distributed throughout France, with a circulation of just under 110,000 as of 2009.

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La Défense

La Défense is a major business district, three kilometres west of the city limits of Paris.

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La Madeleine, Paris

L'église de la Madeleine (Madeleine Church; more formally, L'église Sainte-Marie-Madeleine; less formally, just La Madeleine) is a Roman Catholic church occupying a commanding position in the 8th arrondissement of Paris.

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La mer (Debussy)

La mer, trois esquisses symphoniques pour orchestre (French for The sea, three symphonic sketches for orchestra), or simply La mer (i.e. The Sea), L. 109, is an orchestral composition by the French composer Claude Debussy.

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La Poste (France)

La Poste is a postal service company in France, operating in Metropolitan France as well as in the five French overseas departments and the overseas collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon.

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La Symphonie fantastique

La Symphonie fantastique is a 1942 French drama film by Christian-Jaque and produced by the German-controlled French film production company Continental Films.

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La Tour d'Argent

La Tour d'Argent (The Silver Tower) is a historic restaurant in Paris, France.

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La Tribune

La Tribune is a French weekly financial newspaper founded in 1985.

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La valse

La valse, poème chorégraphique pour orchestre (a choreographic poem for orchestra), is a work written by Maurice Ravel between February 1919 and 1920; it was first performed on 12 December 1920 in Paris.

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Lakmé

Lakmé is an opera in three acts by Léo Delibes to a French libretto by Edmond Gondinet and Philippe Gille.

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Lariboisière Hospital

Lariboisière Hospital (Hôpital Lariboisière) is a hospital in the 10th arrondissement of Paris, France.

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Latin Quarter, Paris

The Latin Quarter of Paris (Quartier latin) is an area in the 5th and the 6th arrondissements of Paris.

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Léo Delibes

Clément Philibert Léo Delibes (21 February 1836 – 16 January 1891) was a French composer of the Romantic era (1815–1910), who specialised in ballets, operas, and other works for the stage.

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Léopold Sédar Senghor

Léopold Sédar Senghor (9 October 1906 – 20 December 2001) was a Senegalese poet, politician, and cultural theorist who for two decades served as the first president of Senegal (1960–80).

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Le Bateau-Lavoir

Le Bateau-Lavoir ("The Boat Wash-house") is the nickname for a building in the Montmartre district of the 18th arrondissement of Paris that is famous in art history as the residence and meeting place for a group of outstanding early 20th-century artists, men of letters, theater people, and art dealers.

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Le Canard enchaîné

Le Canard enchaîné (English: The Chained Duck or The Chained Paper, as "canard" is French slang meaning "newspaper"), is a satirical weekly newspaper in France.

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Le Dôme Café

Le Dôme Café or Café du Dôme is a restaurant in Montparnasse, Paris.

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Le Figaro

Le Figaro is a French daily morning newspaper founded in 1826 and published in Paris.

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Le Grand Véfour

Le Grand Véfour, the first grand restaurant in Paris, France, was opened in the arcades of the Palais-Royal in 1784 by Antoine Aubertot, as the Café de Chartres, and was purchased in 1820 by Jean Véfour, who was able to retire within three years, selling the restaurant to Jean Boissier.

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Le Lido

Le Lido is a cabaret and burlesque show located on the Champs-Élysées in Paris, France.

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Le Meurice

Le Meurice is a 5-star hotel in the 1st arrondissement of Paris opposite the Tuileries Garden, between Place de la Concorde and the Musée du Louvre on the Rue de Rivoli.

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Le Monde

Le Monde (The World) is a French daily afternoon newspaper founded by Hubert Beuve-Méry at the request of Charles de Gaulle (as Chairman of the Provisional Government of the French Republic) on 19 December 1944, shortly after the Liberation of Paris, and published continuously since its first edition.

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Le Parisien

Le Parisien (French for "The Parisian") is a French daily newspaper covering both international and national news, and local news of Paris and its suburbs.

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Le Tabou

Le Tabou was a cellar club located at 33 Rue Dauphine in Saint-Germain-des-Prés, Paris.

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Les Échos (newspaper)

Les Échos is the first daily French financial newspaper, edited in Paris since 1908.

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Les Demoiselles d'Avignon

Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (The Young Ladies of Avignon, and originally titled The Brothel of Avignon) is a large oil painting created in 1907 by the Spanish artist Pablo Picasso (1881–1973) and now on exhibit in New York's Museum of Modern Art.

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Les Deux Magots

Les Deux Magots is a famous café in the Saint-Germain-des-Prés area of Paris, France.

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Les Halles

Les Halles (The Halls) was Paris's central fresh food market.

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Les Invalides

Les Invalides, commonly known as Hôtel national des Invalides (The National Residence of the Invalids), or also as Hôtel des Invalides, is a complex of buildings in the 7th arrondissement of Paris, France, containing museums and monuments, all relating to the military history of France, as well as a hospital and a retirement home for war veterans, the building's original purpose.

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Les Misérables

Les Misérables is a French historical novel by Victor Hugo, first published in 1862, that is considered one of the greatest novels of the 19th century.

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Les Mureaux

Les Mureaux is a commune in the Yvelines department in the Île-de-France region in north-central France.

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Levallois Metropolitans

Levallois Metropolitans is a French professional basketball club that is based in Levallois-Perret.

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Levallois-Perret

Levallois-Perret is a commune in the northwestern suburbs of Paris, France.

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LGV Est

The Ligne à Grande Vitesse Est européenne (English: East European High Speed Line), typically shortened to LGV Est, is a French high-speed rail line that connects Vaires-sur-Marne (near Paris) and Vendenheim (near Strasbourg).

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LGV Méditerranée

The LGV Méditerranée (French: Ligne à Grande Vitesse; English: high-speed line) is a 250 kilometre-long (160 miles) French high-speed rail line running between Saint-Marcel-lès-Valence, Drôme and Marseille, Bouches-du-Rhône, also featuring a connection to Nîmes, Gard (west of the line).

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Libération

Libération (popularly known as Libé), is a daily newspaper in France, founded in Paris by Jean-Paul Sartre and Serge July in 1973 in the wake of the protest movements of May 1968.

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Liberty Leading the People

Liberty Leading the People (La Liberté guidant le peuple) is a painting by Eugène Delacroix commemorating the July Revolution of 1830, which toppled King Charles X of France.

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Licentiate (degree)

A licentiate is a degree below that of a PhD given by universities in some countries.

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Lisbon

Lisbon (Lisboa) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 552,700, Census 2011 results according to the 2013 administrative division of Portugal within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2.

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List of busiest airports by international passenger traffic

The following is a list of the world's largest airports by international passenger traffic.

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List of busiest city airport systems by passenger traffic

The world's busiest city airport systems by passenger traffic are measured by total number of passengers from all airports within a city or metropolitan area combined.

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List of cities by GDP

This is a list of cities and/or their metropolitan areas in the world by GDP.

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List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants

Below is a list of communes in France (Overseas departments included) with a population over 20,000 at the 2013 census.

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List of European Cup and UEFA Champions League finals

The UEFA Champions League is a seasonal football competition established in 1955.

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List of French monarchs

The monarchs of the Kingdom of France and its predecessors (and successor monarchies) ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of the Franks in 486 until the fall of the Second French Empire in 1870, with several interruptions.

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List of metropolitan areas in Europe

This is a list of metropolitan areas in Europe, with their population according to three different sources.

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List of most visited art museums

This article lists the most visited art museums in the world, as listed by Art Newspaper Review Visitor Figures Survey (April 2018) and the Museum Index of the Themed Entertainment Association (TEA) and engineering firm (AECOM).

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List of Presidents of the Senate of France

The Senate of France is the upper house of the French Parliament.

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List of the busiest airports in the Arab states of Persian Gulf

This is a list of the busiest airports in Arab states of the Persian Gulf.

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List of urban areas in the European Union

This is a list of urban areas in the European Union with over 500,000 inhabitants as of 2014.

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London

London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Louis Daguerre

Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre (18 November 1787 – 10 July 1851), better known as Louis Daguerre, was a French artist and photographer, recognized for his invention of the daguerreotype process of photography.

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Louis Philippe I

Louis Philippe I (6 October 1773 – 26 August 1850) was King of the French from 1830 to 1848 as the leader of the Orléanist party.

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Louis VII of France

Louis VII (called the Younger or the Young; Louis le Jeune; 1120 – 18 September 1180) was King of the Franks from 1137 until his death.

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Louis Vuitton

Louis Vuitton Malletier, commonly referred to as Louis Vuitton, or shortened to LV, is a French fashion house and luxury retail company founded in 1854 by Louis Vuitton.

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Louis Vuitton Foundation

The building of the Louis Vuitton Foundation (previously Louis Vuitton Foundation for Creation, in French "Fondation Louis-Vuitton pour la création"), started in 2006, is an art museum and cultural center sponsored by the group LVMH and its subsidiaries.

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Louis XIII of France

Louis XIII (27 September 1601 – 14 May 1643) was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1610 to 1643 and King of Navarre (as Louis II) from 1610 to 1620, when the crown of Navarre was merged with the French crown.

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Louis XIV of France

Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.

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Louvre

The Louvre, or the Louvre Museum, is the world's largest art museum and a historic monument in Paris, France.

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Louvre Pyramid

The Louvre Pyramid (Pyramide du Louvre) is a large glass and metal pyramid designed by Chinese-American architect I.M. Pei, surrounded by three smaller pyramids, in the main courtyard (Cour Napoléon) of the Louvre Palace (Palais du Louvre) in Paris.

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Low-cost carrier

A low-cost carrier or low-cost airline (also known as ''no-frills'', ''discount'' or budget carrier or airline, or LCC) is an airline without most of the traditional services provided in the fare, resulting in lower fares and fewer comforts.

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Luc Besson

Luc Besson (born 18 March 1959) is a French film director, screenwriter, and producer.

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Lute

A lute is any plucked string instrument with a neck (either fretted or unfretted) and a deep round back enclosing a hollow cavity, usually with a sound hole or opening in the body.

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Lutetia

The Gallo-Roman city of Lutetia (also Lutetia Parisiorum in Latin, in French Lutèce) was the predecessor of present-day Paris.

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Lutetian Limestone

Lutetian Limestone (in French, calcaire lutécien, and formerly calcaire grossier) — also known as “Paris stone” — is a variety of limestone particular to the Paris, France, area.

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Luxembourg Palace

The Luxembourg Palace (Palais du Luxembourg) is located at 15 rue de Vaugirard in the 6th arrondissement of Paris.

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Lycée Henri-IV

The Lycée Henri-IV is a public secondary school located in Paris.

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Lycée Janson de Sailly

Lycée Janson de Sailly is a lycée located in the 16th arrondissement of Paris, France.

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Lycée Louis-le-Grand

The Lycée Louis-le-Grand is a prestigious secondary school located in Paris.

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Lyon

Lyon (Liyon), is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France.

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Lyon–Saint-Exupéry Airport

Lyon–Saint Exupéry Airport (Aéroport de Lyon-Saint Exupéry), formerly known as Lyon Satolas Airport, is the international airport of Lyon, the third-biggest city in France and an important transport facility for the entire Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region.

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M6 (TV channel)

M6, also known as Metropole Television, is the most profitable private national French television channel and the third most watched television network in the French-speaking world.

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Madrid

Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole.

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Maghreb

The Maghreb (al-Maɣréb lit.), also known as the Berber world, Barbary, Berbery, and Northwest Africa, is a major region of North Africa that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania.

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Maghrebi Jews

Maghrebi Jews (מַגּרֶבִּים Maghrebim or) or North African Jews (Yehudei Tzfon Africa) are Jews who had traditionally lived in the Maghreb region of North Africa (al-Maghrib, Arabic for "the west") under Arab rule during the Middle Ages.

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Mainland China

Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, is the geopolitical as well as geographical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC).

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Maison de Balzac

The Maison de Balzac is a writer's house museum in the former residence of French novelist Honoré de Balzac (1799–1850).

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Maison de Victor Hugo

Maison de Victor Hugo is a writer's house museum located where Victor Hugo lived for 16 years between 1832–1848.

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Maison dorée (Paris)

The Maison Dorée (the "Gilded House") was a famous restaurant located at 20 Boulevard des Italiens, Paris.

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Man Ray

Man Ray (born Emmanuel Radnitzky; August 27, 1890 – November 18, 1976) was an American visual artist who spent most of his career in France.

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Mantes-la-Jolie

Mantes-la-Jolie (often informally called Mantes) is a commune based in the Yvelines department in the Île-de-France region in north-central France.

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Marc Chagall

Marc Zakharovich Chagall (born Moishe Zakharovich Shagal; 28 March 1985) was a Russian-French artist of Belarusian Jewish origin.

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Marcel Bovis

Marcel Bovis (1904–1997) was a French photographer, most notable for his photographs of Paris.

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Marcel Proust

Valentin Louis Georges Eugène Marcel Proust (10 July 1871 – 18 November 1922), known as Marcel Proust, was a French novelist, critic, and essayist best known for his monumental novel À la recherche du temps perdu (In Search of Lost Time; earlier rendered as Remembrance of Things Past), published in seven parts between 1913 and 1927.

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Marie de' Medici

Marie de' Medici (Marie de Médicis, Maria de' Medici; 26 April 1575 – 3 July 1642) was Queen of France as the second wife of King Henry IV of France, of the House of Bourbon.

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Marlene Dietrich

Marie Magdalene "Marlene" Dietrich (27 December 1901 – 6 May 1992) was a German actress and singer who held both German and American citizenship.

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Marne-la-Vallée

Marne-la-Vallée is a new town located near Paris, France.

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Marseille

Marseille (Provençal: Marselha), is the second-largest city of France and the largest city of the Provence historical region.

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Marseille Provence Airport

Marseille Provence Airport or Aéroport de Marseille Provence is an international airport located 27 km (17 miles) northwest of Marseille, on the territory of Marignane, both communes of the Bouches-du-Rhône département in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur région of France.

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Martinique Aimé Césaire International Airport

Martinique Aimé Césaire International Airport, Aéroport International Martinique Aimé Césaire, is the international airport of Martinique in the French West Indies.

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Maurice Chevalier

Maurice Auguste Chevalier (September 12, 1888 – January 1, 1972) was a French actor, cabaret singer and entertainer.

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Maurice de Sully

Maurice de Sully (died 11 September 1196) was Bishop of Paris from 1160 until his death.

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Maurice Ravel

Joseph Maurice Ravel (7 March 1875 – 28 December 1937) was a French composer, pianist and conductor.

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Maurice Tabard

Maurice Tabard (July 12, 1897 – February 23, 1984) was a French photographer.

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Maxim's

Maxim's is a restaurant in Paris, France, located at No.

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May 1968 events in France

The volatile period of civil unrest in France during May 1968 was punctuated by demonstrations and massive general strikes as well as the occupation of universities and factories across France.

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Mayor (France)

In France, a mayor (maire in French) is chairperson of the municipal council, which organizes the work and deliberates on municipal matters.

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Médiathèque Musicale Mahler

The Médiathèque Musicale Mahler is a multimedia library with collections relating to music of the 19th and 20th centuries.

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Météo-France

Météo-France is the French national meteorological service.

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Métropole du Grand Paris

The Métropole du Grand Paris (meaning roughly "Metropolis of Greater Paris"There is no official or widely-used English translation yet.) is an administrative structure for cooperation covering the City of Paris and its nearest suburbs that surround it.

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Medieval art

The medieval art of the Western world covers a vast scope of time and place, over 1000 years of art in Europe, and at times the Middle East and North Africa.

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Megacity

A megacity is a very large city, typically with a total population in excess of 10 million people.

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Merovingian dynasty

The Merovingians were a Salian Frankish dynasty that ruled the Franks for nearly 300 years in a region known as Francia in Latin, beginning in the middle of the 5th century.

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Metres above sea level

Metres above mean sea level (MAMSL) or simply metres above sea level (MASL or m a.s.l.) is a standard metric measurement in metres of the elevation or altitude of a location in reference to a historic mean sea level.

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Metropolitan area

A metropolitan area, sometimes referred to as a metro area or commuter belt, is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing.

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Metropolitan France

Metropolitan France (France métropolitaine or la Métropole), also known as European France or Mainland France, is the part of France in Europe.

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Mexico City

Mexico City, or the City of Mexico (Ciudad de México,; abbreviated as CDMX), is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America.

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Mezz Mezzrow

Milton Mesirow (November 9, 1899 – August 5, 1972), better known as Mezz Mezzrow, was an American jazz clarinetist and saxophonist from Chicago, Illinois.

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Michelin Guide

Michelin Guides are a series of guide books published by the French tyre company Michelin for more than a century.

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Milan Kundera

Milan Kundera (born 1 April 1929) is a Czech-born French writer who went into exile in France in 1975, and became a naturalised French citizen in 1981.

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Miles Davis

Miles Dewey Davis III (May 26, 1926September 28, 1991) was an American jazz trumpeter, bandleader, and composer.

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Mines of Paris

The mines of Paris (in French carrières de Paris — "quarries of Paris") comprise a number of abandoned, subterranean mines under Paris, France, connected together by galleries.

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Mines ParisTech

MINES ParisTech (officially École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris in French or Paris School of Mines in English, also known as École des mines de Paris, ENSMP, Mines Paris or simply les Mines), created in 1783 by King Louis XVI, is a French engineer school and a constituent college of Université PSL.

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Ministry of Europe and Foreign Affairs

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is the ministry in the government of France that handles France's foreign relations.

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Miroirs

Miroirs (French for "Mirrors") is a five-movement suite for solo piano written by French composer Maurice Ravel between 1904 and 1905.

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Mistinguett

Mistinguett (3 April 1875 – 5 January 1956) was a French actress and singer, whose birth name was Jeanne Florentine Bourgeois.

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Molière

Jean-Baptiste Poquelin, known by his stage name Molière (15 January 162217 February 1673), was a French playwright, actor and poet, widely regarded as one of the greatest writers in the French language and universal literature.

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Mona Lisa

The Mona Lisa (Monna Lisa or La Gioconda, La Joconde) is a half-length portrait painting by the Italian Renaissance artist Leonardo da Vinci that has been described as "the best known, the most visited, the most written about, the most sung about, the most parodied work of art in the world".

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Montgolfier brothers

Joseph-Michel Montgolfier (26 August 1740 – 26 June 1810) and Jacques-Étienne Montgolfier (6 January 1745 – 2 August 1799) were paper manufacturers from Annonay, in Ardèche, France best known as inventors of the Montgolfière-style hot air balloon, globe aérostatique.

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Montmartre

Montmartre is a large hill in Paris's 18th arrondissement.

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Montmartre Cemetery

Montmartre Cemetery (Cimetière de Montmartre) is a cemetery in the 18th arrondissement of Paris, France, that dates to the early 19th century.

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Montparnasse

Montparnasse(French) is an area of Paris, France, on the left bank of the river Seine, centred at the crossroads of the Boulevard du Montparnasse and the Rue de Rennes, between the Rue de Rennes and boulevard Raspail.

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Montparnasse Cemetery

Montparnasse Cemetery (Cimetière du Montparnasse) is a cemetery in the Montparnasse quarter of Paris, part of the city's 14th arrondissement.

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Montpellier–Méditerranée Airport

Montpellier–Méditerranée Airport or Aéroport de Montpellier–Méditerranée, also known as Fréjorgues Airport, is an airport in southern France.

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Montreal

Montreal (officially Montréal) is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada.

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Morocco

Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.

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Moscow

Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.

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Moscow Metro

The Moscow Metro (p) is a rapid transit system serving Moscow, Russia and the neighbouring Moscow Oblast cities of Krasnogorsk, Reutov, Lyubertsy and Kotelniki.

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Motocrotte

The Motocrotte, officially called Caninette was a small motorized vehicle designed to vacuum up dog faeces in Paris and other French cities.

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Moulin Rouge

Moulin Rouge (French for "Red Mill") is a cabaret in Paris, France.

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Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris

Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris (City of Paris' Museum of Modern Art) or MAMVP, is a major municipal museum dedicated to modern and contemporary art of the 20th and 21st centuries.

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Musée d'Orsay

The Musée d'Orsay is a museum in Paris, France, on the Left Bank of the Seine.

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Musée de Cluny – Musée national du Moyen Âge

The Musée de Cluny - Musée national du Moyen Âge, formerly the Musée national du Moyen Âge, or just the Musée de Cluny, or the Musée national du Moyen Âge – Thermes et hôtel de Cluny ("National Museum of the Middle Ages – Cluny thermal baths and mansion"), is a museum in Paris, France.

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Musée de l'Armée

The Musée de l'Armée (Army Museum) is a national military museum of France located at Les Invalides in the 7th arrondissement of Paris.

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Musée de l'Orangerie

The Musée de l'Orangerie is an art gallery of impressionist and post-impressionist paintings located in the west corner of the Tuileries Gardens next to the Place de la Concorde in Paris.

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Musée du quai Branly – Jacques Chirac

Musée du quai Branly – Jacques Chirac The musée du quai Branly – Jacques Chirac in Paris, France, is a museum featuring the indigenous art and cultures of Africa, Asia, Oceania, and the Americas.

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Musée National d'Art Moderne

The Musée National d'Art Moderne (National Museum of Modern Art) is the national museum for modern art of France.

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Musée national Eugène Delacroix

The Musée national Eugène Delacroix, also known as the Musée Delacroix, is an art museum dedicated to painter Eugène Delacroix (1798–1863) and located in the 6th arrondissement at 6, rue de Furstenberg, Paris, France.

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Musée Picasso

The Musée Picasso is an art gallery located in the Hôtel Salé in rue de Thorigny, in the Marais district of Paris, France, dedicated to the work of the Spanish artist Pablo Picasso (1881–1973).

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Nanterre

Nanterre is a commune in the Hauts-de-Seine department, the western suburbs of Paris.

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Nanterre 92

Nanterre 92 is a professional basketball club from the city of Nanterre (a western suburb of Paris), France.

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Nantes

Nantes (Gallo: Naunnt or Nantt) is a city in western France on the Loire River, from the Atlantic coast.

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Napoleon

Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.

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Napoleon III

Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (born Charles-Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the President of France from 1848 to 1852 and as Napoleon III the Emperor of the French from 1852 to 1870.

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National Assembly (France)

The National Assembly (Assemblée nationale) is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic, the upper house being the Senate (Sénat).

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National Gendarmerie

The National Gendarmerie (Gendarmerie nationale) is one of two national police forces of France, along with the National Police.

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National Liberation Front (Algeria)

The National Liberation Front (جبهة التحرير الوطني Jabhatu l-Taḥrīru l-Waṭanī; Front de libération nationale, FLN) is a socialist political party in Algeria.

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National Museum of Natural History (France)

The French National Museum of Natural History, known in French as the (abbreviation MNHN), is the national natural history museum of France and a grand établissement of higher education part of Sorbonne Universities.

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National Police (France)

The National Police (Police nationale), formerly known as the Sûreté nationale, is one of two national police forces, along with the National Gendarmerie, and the main civil law enforcement agency of France, with primary jurisdiction in cities and large towns.

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Naturalism (literature)

The term naturalism was coined by Émile Zola, who defines it as a literary movement which emphasizes observation and the scientific method in the fictional portrayal of reality.

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Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital

The Hôpital Necker – Enfants Malades (Necker Hospital – Sick Children) is a French teaching hospital in central Paris.

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Neuilly-sur-Seine

Neuilly-sur-Seine is a French commune just west of Paris, in the department of Hauts-de-Seine.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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Nicéphore Niépce

Joseph Nicéphore Niépce (7 March 1765 – 5 July 1833) was a French inventor, now usually credited as the inventor of photography and a pioneer in that field.

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Niccolò Paganini

Niccolò (or Nicolò) Paganini (27 October 178227 May 1840) was an Italian violinist, violist, guitarist, and composer.

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Nice Côte d'Azur Airport

Nice Côte d'Azur Airport (Aéroport Nice Côte d'Azur) is an international airport located southwest of Nice, in the Alpes-Maritimes départment of France.

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Nicolas Boileau-Despréaux

Nicolas Boileau-Despréaux (1 November 1636 – 13 March 1711), often known simply as Boileau, was a French poet and critic.

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Nicolas Coustou

Nicolas Coustou (9 January 1658 – 1 May 1733) was a French sculptor and academic.

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Nicolas Sarkozy

Nicolas Paul Stéphane Sarközy de Nagy-Bocsa KOGF GCB (born 28 January 1955) is a French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 16 May 2007 until 15 May 2012.

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Nobel Prize in Literature

The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) is a Swedish literature prize that has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: "den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning").

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Nogent Nuclear Power Plant

The Nogent Nuclear Power Plant is located in the French commune of Nogent-sur-Seine, on the right bank of the Seine, in the west of the Aube department.

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North Atlantic Current

The North Atlantic Current (NAC), also known as North Atlantic Drift and North Atlantic Sea Movement, is a powerful warm western boundary current that extends the Gulf Stream north-eastward.

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Notre-Dame de Paris

Notre-Dame de Paris (meaning "Our Lady of Paris"), also known as Notre-Dame Cathedral or simply Notre-Dame, is a medieval Catholic cathedral on the Île de la Cité in the fourth arrondissement of Paris, France.

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November 2015 Paris attacks

The November 2015 Paris attacks were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks that occurred on Friday, 13 November 2015 in Paris, France and the city's northern suburb, Saint-Denis.

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NRJ 12

NRJ 12 (sounding like énergie, "energy") is a French television network established in 2005.

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Nuit Blanche

Nuit Blanche (White Night) is an annual all-night or night-time arts festival.

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Oceania

Oceania is a geographic region comprising Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia and Australasia.

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Oceanic climate

An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.

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Odéon-Théâtre de l'Europe

The Odéon-Théâtre de l'Europe (formerly the Théâtre de l'Odéon) is one of France's six national theatres.

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OECD

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.

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Olympia (Paris)

Olympia (commonly known as L'Olympia, Olympia Hall or Paris Olympia) is a music hall located in the 9th arrondissement of Paris, France.

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One-way traffic

One-way traffic (or uni-directional traffic) is traffic that moves in a single direction.

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Opéra Bastille

The Opéra Bastille (French) (Bastille Opera House) is a modern opera house in Paris, France.

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Open city

In war, in the event of the imminent capture of a city, the government/military structure of the nation that controls the city will sometimes declare it an open city, thus announcing that it has abandoned all defensive efforts.

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Optile

Optile (Organisation Professionnelle des Transports d'Île-de-France, or Professional Transport Organisation of Île-de-France) is a public transport organisation, created in October 2000 from a merger between several private bus companies serving suburban Paris.

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Orchestre de Paris

The Orchestre de Paris is a French orchestra based in Paris.

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Organisation armée secrète

The Organisation armée secrète or OAS (meaning Secret Army Organisation) was a short-lived right-wing French dissident paramilitary organization during the Algerian War (1954–62).

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Organisation internationale de la Francophonie

Flag of the Francophonie The Organisation internationale de la Francophonie (OIF), generally known as the Francophonie (La Francophonie), but also called International Organisation of La Francophonie in English language context, is an international organization representing countries and regions where French is a lingua franca or customary language, where a significant proportion of the population are francophones (French speakers), or where there is a notable affiliation with French culture.

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Orly Airport

Paris Orly Airport (Aéroport de Paris-Orly), commonly referred to as Orly, is an international airport located partially in Orly and partially in Villeneuve-le-Roi, south of Paris, France.

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Outline of France

The following outline is provided as an overview and topical guide of France: France – country in Western Europe with several overseas regions and territories.

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Overseas France

Overseas France (France d'outre-mer) consists of all the French-administerd territories outside the European continent.

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Pablo Picasso

Pablo Ruiz Picasso (25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973) was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, poet and playwright who spent most of his adult life in France.

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Palace of Fontainebleau

The Palace of Fontainebleau or Château de Fontainebleau, located southeast of the center of Paris, in the commune of Fontainebleau, is one of the largest French royal châteaux.

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Palace of Versailles

The Palace of Versailles (Château de Versailles;, or) was the principal residence of the Kings of France from Louis XIV in 1682 until the beginning of the French Revolution in 1789.

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Palais Bourbon

The Palais Bourbon is a government building located in the 7th arrondissement of Paris, on the left bank of the Seine, across from the Place de la Concorde.

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Palais de Justice, Paris

The Palais de Justice ('"Palace of Justice"), formerly the Palais de la Cité ("Palace of the City"), is located on the Boulevard du Palais in the Île de la Cité in central Paris, France.

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Palais de la Cité

The Palais de la Cité, located on the Île de la Cité in the Seine River in the center of Paris, was the residence of the Kings of France from the sixth century until the 14th century.

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Palais de Tokyo

The Palais de Tokyo (Palace of Tokyo) is a building dedicated to modern and contemporary art, located at 13 avenue du Président-Wilson, near the Trocadéro, in the 16th arrondissement of Paris.

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Palais Garnier

The Palais Garnier (French) is a 1,979-seat opera house, which was built from 1861 to 1875 for the Paris Opera.

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Palais-Royal

The Palais-Royal, originally called the Palais-Cardinal, is a former royal palace located in the 1st arrondissement of Paris, France.

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Panthéon

The Panthéon (pantheon, from Greek πάνθειον (ἱερόν) '(temple) to all the gods') is a building in the Latin Quarter in Paris, France.

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Pantin

Pantin is a commune in the northeastern suburbs of Paris, France.

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Parade (ballet)

Parade is a ballet with music by Erik Satie and a one-act scenario by Jean Cocteau.

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Paralympic Games

The Paralympic Games is a major international multi-sport event involving athletes with a range of disabilities, including impaired muscle power (e.g. paraplegia and quadriplegia, muscular dystrophy, post-polio syndrome, spina bifida), impaired passive range of movement, limb deficiency (e.g. amputation or dysmelia), leg length difference, short stature, hypertonia, ataxia, athetosis, vision impairment and intellectual impairment.

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Paray-Vieille-Poste

Paray-Vieille-Poste is a commune in the Essonne department in Île-de-France in northern France.

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Parc André Citroën

Parc André Citroën is a public park located on the left bank of the river Seine in the 15th arrondissement of Paris.

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Parc de Bercy

Parc de Bercy is a public park located along the right bank of the Seine in the 12th arrondissement of Paris.

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Parc de la Villette

The Parc de la Villette is the third-largest park in Paris, 55.5 hectares in area, located at the northeastern edge of the city in the 19th arrondissement.

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Parc des Buttes Chaumont

The Parc des Buttes-Chaumont is a public park situated in northeastern Paris, in the 19th arrondissement.

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Parc des Princes

The Parc des Princes (literally "Princes’ Park" in English) is an all-seater football stadium in Paris, France.

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Parc Montsouris

Parc Montsouris is a public park in the 14th arrondissement of Paris, at the southern edge of Paris directly south of the center.

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Paris (mythology)

Paris (Πάρις), also known as Alexander (Ἀλέξανδρος, Aléxandros), the son of King Priam and Queen Hecuba of Troy, appears in a number of Greek legends.

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Paris Aéroport

Aéroports de Paris S.A., doing business as Paris Aéroport and formerly as Aéroports de Paris or ADP, is the brand owned by Groupe ADP that applies to all Parisian international airports.

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Paris Basin

The Paris Basin is one of the major geological regions of France having developed since the Triassic on a basement formed by the Variscan orogeny.

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Paris between the Wars (1919–1939)

After the First World War ended in November 1918, to jubilation and profound relief in Paris, unemployment surged, prices soared, and rationing continued.

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Paris Carnival

The Paris Carnival is a carnival in the city of Paris in France.

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Paris Club

The Paris Club (Club de Paris) is a group of officials from major creditor countries whose role is to find coordinated and sustainable solutions to the payment difficulties experienced by debtor countries.

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Paris Commune

The Paris Commune (La Commune de Paris) was a radical socialist and revolutionary government that ruled Paris from 18 March to 28 May 1871.

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Paris Commune (French Revolution)

The Paris Commune during the French Revolution was the government of Paris from 1792 until 1795.

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Paris Dauphine University

Paris Dauphine University (Université Paris-Dauphine), often referred to as Paris Dauphine or Dauphine, is a public research and higher education institution in Paris, France.

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Paris Fashion Week

Paris Fashion Week is a series of designer presentations held semiannually in Paris, France with spring/summer and autumn/winter events held each year.

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Paris FC

Paris Football Club (commonly referred to as PFC) is a French association football club based in Paris.

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Paris Fire Brigade

The Paris Fire Brigade (French: Brigade des sapeurs-pompiers de Paris, BSPP), is a French Army unit which serves as the primary fire and rescue service for Paris and certain sites of national strategic importance.

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Paris Gun

The Paris Gun (Paris-Geschütz / Pariser Kanone) was the name given to a type of German long-range siege gun, several of which were used to bombard Paris during World War I. They were in service from March to August 1918.

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Paris Jazz Festival

In the space of two decades, the Paris Jazz Festival has become the foremost event of its category in terms of attendance in France, with more than spectators every year.

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Paris Masters

The Paris Masters is an annual tennis tournament for male professional players held in Paris, France.

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Paris Métro

The Paris Métro, short for Métropolitain (Métro de Paris), is a rapid transit system in the Paris metropolitan area.

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Paris metropolitan area

The Paris metropolitan area (aire urbaine de Paris) is a statistical area that describes the reach of commuter movement to and from Paris, France and its surrounding suburbs.

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Paris Opera

The Paris Opera (French) is the primary opera company of France.

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Paris Peace Conference, 1919

The Paris Peace Conference, also known as Versailles Peace Conference, was the meeting of the victorious Allied Powers following the end of World War I to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers.

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Paris Police Prefecture

The Paris Police Prefecture (Préfecture de police de Paris) is the unit of the French Ministry of the Interior which provides police, emergency services and various administrative services to the population of the city of Paris and the surrounding three suburban départements of Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis, and Val-de-Marne.

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Paris Saint-Germain F.C.

Paris Saint-Germain Football Club, commonly known as Paris Saint-Germain, Paris SG, or simply PSG, is a French professional football club based in the city of Paris.

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Paris syndrome

Paris syndrome (Syndrome de Paris, パリ症候群, Pari shōkōgun) is a transient mental disorder exhibited by some individuals when visiting or going on vacation to Paris, as a result of extreme shock derived from their discovery that Paris is not what they had expected it to be.

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Paris-Plages

Paris-Plages ("Paris Beaches"; till 2006 Paris-Plage in the singular) is a plan run by the office of the mayor of Paris that creates temporary artificial beaches each summer along the river Seine in the centre of Paris, and, since 2007, along the Bassin de la Villette in the northeast of Paris.

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Paris–Le Bourget Airport

Paris–Le Bourget Airport (Aéroport de Paris-Le Bourget) is an airport located within portions of the communes of Le Bourget, Bonneuil-en-France, Dugny and Gonesse, north-northeast (NNE) of Paris, France.

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Pariscope

Pariscope is a popular weekly magazine available at Parisian newsstands and is published by Hachette Filipacchi Médias.

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Parisii (Gaul)

The Parisii were Celtic Iron Age people who lived on the banks of the river Seine (in Latin, Sequana) in Gaul from the middle of the 3rd century BCE until the Roman era.

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ParisTech

ParisTech (officially Institut des sciences et technologies de Paris (Paris Institute of Technology)) is a collegiate university system located in Paris, France that specialises in science and business.

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Particulates

Atmospheric aerosol particles, also known as atmospheric particulate matter, particulate matter (PM), particulates, or suspended particulate matter (SPM) are microscopic solid or liquid matter suspended in Earth's atmosphere.

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Passy Cemetery

Passy Cemetery (Cimetière de Passy) is a cemetery in Passy, in the 16th arrondissement of Paris, France.

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Patrick Modiano

Jean Patrick Modiano (born 30 July 1945), generally known as Patrick Modiano, is a French novelist and recipient of the 2014 Nobel Prize in Literature.

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Patrick Ollier

Patrick Ollier (born 17 December 1944 in Périgueux, Dordogne) is a French MP for the UMP party and the Mayor of Rueil-Malmaison.

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Patrouille de France

The Patrouille Acrobatique de France (French Acrobatic Patrol), also known as the Patrouille de France or PAF, (Patrouille de France) is the precision aerobatic demonstration unit of the French Air Force created in 1953.

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Paul Cézanne

Paul Cézanne (or;; 19 January 1839 – 22 October 1906) was a French artist and Post-Impressionist painter whose work laid the foundations of the transition from the 19th-century conception of artistic endeavor to a new and radically different world of art in the 20th century.

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Paul Delouvrier

Paul Delouvrier (25 June 1914 – 16 January 1995) was a French politician who was awarded the Erasmus Prize in 1985.

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Paul Gauguin

Eugène Henri Paul Gauguin (7 June 1848 – 8 May 1903) was a French post-Impressionist artist.

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Paul Gavarni

Paul Gavarni was the nom de plume of Sulpice Guillaume Chevalier (13 January 1804, Paris – 24 November 1866), a French illustrator, born in Paris.

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Paul Landowski

Paul Maximilien Landowski (1 June 1875 – 31 March 1961) was a French monument sculptor of Polish descent.

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Paul Verlaine

Paul-Marie Verlaine (30 March 1844 – 8 January 1896) was a French poet associated with the Decadent movement.

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Pavillon Ledoyen

Alléno Paris au Pavillon Ledoyen is one of the oldest restaurants in Paris, situated in the square gardens in the eastern part of the Champs-Élysées in the 8th arrondissement.

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Père Lachaise Cemetery

Cemetery (Cimetière du Père-Lachaise,; formerly,, "Cemetery of the East") is the largest cemetery in the city of Paris, although there are larger cemeteries in the city's suburbs.

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Pelléas et Mélisande (opera)

Pelléas et Mélisande (Pelléas and Mélisande) is an opera in five acts with music by Claude Debussy.

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Pellet fuel

Pellet fuels (or pellets) are biofuels made from compressed organic matter or biomass.

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Penguin Books

Penguin Books is a British publishing house.

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Petit Palais

The Petit Palais (small palace) is an art museum in the 8th arrondissement of Paris, France.

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Peugeot

Peugeot is a French automotive manufacturer, part of Groupe PSA.

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Philharmonie de Paris

The Philharmonie de Paris is a cultural institution in Paris, France which combine spaces all dedicated to music.

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Philip II of France

Philip II, known as Philip Augustus (Philippe Auguste; 21 August 1165 – 14 July 1223), was King of France from 1180 to 1223, a member of the House of Capet.

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Pied-Noir

Pied-Noir ("Black-Foot"), plural Pieds-Noirs, is a term primarily referring to people of European, mostly ethnic French origin, who were born in Algeria during the period of French rule from 1830 to 1962.

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Pierre Beaumarchais

Pierre-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais (24 January 1732 – 18 May 1799) was a French polymath.

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Pierre Bonnard

Pierre Bonnard (3 October 1867 — 23 January 1947) was a French painter and printmaker, as well as a founding member of the Post-Impressionist group of avant-garde painters Les Nabis.

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Pierre Corneille

Pierre Corneille (Rouen, 6 June 1606 – Paris, 1 October 1684) was a French tragedian.

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Pierre de Marivaux

Pierre Carlet de Chamblain de Marivaux (4 February 1688 – 12 February 1763), commonly referred to as Marivaux, was a French novelist and dramatist.

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Pierre Gagnaire

Pierre Gagnaire (born 9 April 1950 in Apinac, Loire) is a French chef, and the head chef and owner of the eponymous Pierre Gagnaire restaurant at 6 rue Balzac in Paris (in the 8th arrondissement).

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Pierre Mignard

Pierre Mignard or Pierre Mignard I (17 November 1612 – 30 May 1695), called "Mignard le Romain" to distinguish him from his brother Nicolas Mignard, was a French painter known for his religious and mythological scenes and portraits.

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Pierre-Auguste Renoir

Pierre-Auguste Renoir, commonly known as Auguste Renoir (25 February 1841 – 3 December 1919), was a French artist who was a leading painter in the development of the Impressionist style.

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Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital

The Hôpital universitaire Pitié-Salpêtrière is a celebrated teaching hospital in the 13th arrondissement of Paris.

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Place Charles de Gaulle

The Place Charles de Gaulle, historically known as the Place de l'Étoile, is a large road junction in Paris, France, the meeting point of twelve straight avenues (hence its historic name, which translates as "Square of the Star") including the Champs-Élysées.

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Place de la Bastille

The Place de la Bastille is a square in Paris where the Bastille prison stood until the storming of the Bastille and its subsequent physical destruction between 14 July 1789 and 14 July 1790 during the French Revolution.

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Place de la Concorde

The Place de la Concorde is one of the major public squares in Paris, France.

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Place Denfert-Rochereau

Place Denfert-Rochereau, previously known as Place d'Enfer, is a public square located in the 14th arrondissement of Paris, France, in the Montparnasse district, at the intersection of the boulevards Raspail, Arago, and Saint-Jacques, and the avenues René Coty, Général Leclerc, and, as well as the streets Froidevaux, Victor-Considérant and de Grancey.

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Place des Victoires

The Place des Victoires is a circular place in Paris, located a short distance northeast from the Palais Royal and straddling the border between the 1st and the 2nd arrondissements.

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Place des Vosges

The Place des Vosges, originally Place Royale, is the oldest planned square in Paris.

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Place Louis Lépine

The place Louis-Lépine is a square in the 4th arrondissement of Paris on the île de la Cité.

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Place Vendôme

Place Vendôme is a square in the 1st arrondissement of Paris, France, located to the north of the Tuileries Gardens and east of the Église de la Madeleine.

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Pointe-à-Pitre International Airport

Pointe-à-Pitre International Airport or Pointe-à-Pitre Le Raizet Airport (Aérodrome de Pointe-à-Pitre Le Raizet or Aéroport Guadeloupe Pôle Caraïbes "Caribbean Hub") is an international airport serving Pointe-à-Pitre on the island of Grande-Terre in Guadeloupe, France.

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Poland

Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.

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Polyphony

In music, polyphony is one type of musical texture, where a texture is, generally speaking, the way that melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic aspects of a musical composition are combined to shape the overall sound and quality of the work.

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Pont Alexandre III

The Pont Alexandre III is a deck arch bridge that spans the Seine in Paris.

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Pont d'Iéna

Pont d'Iéna ("Jena Bridge") is a bridge spanning the River Seine in Paris.

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Pont de Sully

The Pont de Sully (or Pont Sully) is a bridge across the River Seine in Paris, France.

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Pont des Arts

The Pont des Arts or Passerelle des Arts is a pedestrian bridge in Paris which crosses the River Seine.

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Pont Neuf

The Pont Neuf ("New Bridge""Neuf" when used as a NOUN is a number (nine or 9). When describing a noun (adjective) it means new or unused. (http://translate.google.com/translate_t#fr|en|Neuf)-->) is the oldest standing bridge across the river Seine in Paris, France.

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Porte de Vincennes

The Porte de Vincennes is one of the city gates of Paris (France) situated in the Bel Air neighborhood of the 12th arrondissement.

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Porto Alegre

Porto Alegre (local; Joyful Harbor) is the capital and largest city of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul.

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Portugal

Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.

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Post-Impressionism

Post-Impressionism (also spelled Postimpressionism) is a predominantly French art movement that developed roughly between 1886 and 1905, from the last Impressionist exhibition to the birth of Fauvism.

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Poster

A poster is any piece of printed paper designed to be attached to a wall or vertical surface.

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Prague

Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.

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President of France

The President of the French Republic (Président de la République française) is the executive head of state of France in the French Fifth Republic.

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Prime Minister of France

The French Prime Minister (Premier ministre français) in the Fifth Republic is the head of government.

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Promenade des Berges de la Seine

The Promenade des Berges de la Seine is a public park and promenade located along the left bank of the Seine river in the 7th arrondissement of Paris, between the Pont de l'Alma and the Musée d'Orsay.

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Prosper Mérimée

Prosper Mérimée (28 September 1803 – 23 September 1870) was an important French writer in the school of Romanticism, and one of the pioneers of the novella, a short novel or long short story.

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Provinces of France

The Kingdom of France was organized into provinces until March 4, 1790, when the establishment of the department (French: département) system superseded provinces.

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Provins

Provins is a commune in the Seine-et-Marne department in the Île-de-France region in north-central France.

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Quebec City

Quebec City (pronounced or; Québec); Ville de Québec), officially Québec, is the capital city of the Canadian province of Quebec. The city had a population estimate of 531,902 in July 2016, (an increase of 3.0% from 2011) and the metropolitan area had a population of 800,296 in July 2016, (an increase of 4.3% from 2011) making it the second largest city in Quebec, after Montreal, and the seventh-largest metropolitan area in Canada. It is situated north-east of Montreal. The narrowing of the Saint Lawrence River proximate to the city's promontory, Cap-Diamant (Cape Diamond), and Lévis, on the opposite bank, provided the name given to the city, Kébec, an Algonquin word meaning "where the river narrows". Founded in 1608 by Samuel de Champlain, Quebec City is one of the oldest cities in North America. The ramparts surrounding Old Quebec (Vieux-Québec) are the only fortified city walls remaining in the Americas north of Mexico, and were declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1985 as the 'Historic District of Old Québec'. The city's landmarks include the Château Frontenac, a hotel which dominates the skyline, and the Citadelle of Quebec, an intact fortress that forms the centrepiece of the ramparts surrounding the old city and includes a secondary royal residence. The National Assembly of Quebec (provincial legislature), the Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec (National Museum of Fine Arts of Quebec), and the Musée de la civilisation (Museum of Civilization) are found within or near Vieux-Québec.

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Quintette du Hot Club de France

The Quintette du Hot Club de France, often abbreviated to "QdHCdF" or just "QHCF", (“The Quintet of the Hot Club of France”) was a jazz group founded in France in 1934 by guitarist Django Reinhardt and violinist Stéphane Grappelli, and active in one form or another until 1948.

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Rabat

Rabat (الرِّبَاط,; ⴰⵕⴱⴰⵟ) is the capital city of Morocco and its third largest city with an urban population of approximately 580,000 (2014) and a metropolitan population of over 1.2 million.

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Racing 92

Racing 92 is a French rugby union club based in suburban Paris that was formed in 2001 with the collaboration of the Racing Club de France and US Métro.

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Racing Club de France football Colombes 92

Racing Club de France football Colombes 92 (also known as Racing Paris, RCF Paris, Matra Racing, Racing Club, or simply Racing) is a French association football club based in Colombes, a suburb of Paris.

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Radio France

Radio France is a French public service radio broadcaster.

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Radio France Internationale

Radio France Internationale generally referred to by its acronym RFI, is a French public radio service that broadcasts in Paris and all over the world.

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RATP Group

The RATP Group (French: Groupe RATP), also known as the Régie Autonome des Transports Parisiens (English: Autonomous Operator of Parisian Transports), is a state-owned public transport operator and maintainer headquartered in Paris, France.

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Réseau Express Régional

The Réseau Express Régional (Regional Express Network), commonly abbreviated RER, is a hybrid suburban commuter/rapid transit system serving Paris, France and its suburbs.

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Red Star F.C.

Red Star Football Club, also known simply as Red Star, is a French association football club founded in Paris in 1897, and is the second oldest French football club, after Le Havre AC.

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Regions of France

France is divided into 18 administrative regions (région), including 13 metropolitan regions and 5 overseas regions.

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Reign of Terror

The Reign of Terror, or The Terror (la Terreur), is the label given by some historians to a period during the French Revolution after the First French Republic was established.

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Renaissance music

Renaissance music is vocal and instrumental music written and performed in Europe during the Renaissance era.

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Renzo Piano

Renzo Piano, (born 14 September 1937) is an Italian architect and engineer.

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Republican marches

The Republican marches (Marches républicaines) were a series of rallies that took place in cities across France on 10–11 January 2015 to honour the victims of the ''Charlie Hebdo'' shooting, the Montrouge shooting, and the Porte de Vincennes siege, and also to voice support for freedom of speech.

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Reuters

Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.

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Richard Rogers

Richard George Rogers, Baron Rogers of Riverside (born 23 July 1933) is a British architect noted for his modernist and functionalist designs in high-tech architecture.

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Rio de Janeiro

Rio de Janeiro (River of January), or simply Rio, is the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas.

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Rive Droite

La Rive Droite (The Right Bank) is most commonly associated with the river Seine in central Paris.

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Rive Gauche

La Rive Gauche (The Left Bank) is the southern bank of the river Seine in Paris.

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Riyadh

Riyadh (/rɨˈjɑːd/; الرياض ar-Riyāḍ Najdi pronunciation) is the capital and most populous city of Saudi Arabia.

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Road bicycle racing

Road bicycle racing is the cycle sport discipline of road cycling, held on paved roads.

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Robert Doisneau

Robert Doisneau (14 April 1912 – 1 April 1994) was a French photographer.

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Rock en Seine

The Rock en Seine festival is a three-day rock music festival, held at Domaine National de Saint-Cloud, the Château de Saint-Cloud's park, west of Paris, inside the garden designed by André Le Nôtre.

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Rodin Museum

The Rodin Museum is an art museum located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, that contains the largest collection of sculptor Auguste Rodin's works outside Paris.

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Roland Garros Airport

Roland Garros Airport (Aéroport de la Réunion Roland Garros), formerly known as Gillot Airport, is located in Sainte-Marie on Réunion, France.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Romanesque architecture

Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches.

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Romani people in France

Romani people in France, generally known in spoken French as "gitans", "tsiganes" or "manouches", are an ethnic group which originated in Northern India.

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Romantic music

Romantic music is a period of Western classical music that began in the late 18th or early 19th century.

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Romanticism

Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.

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Rome

Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).

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Rouen

Rouen (Frankish: Rodomo; Rotomagus, Rothomagus) is a city on the River Seine in the north of France.

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Rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré

The rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré is a street in Paris, France.

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Rueil-Malmaison

Rueil-Malmaison is a commune in the western suburbs of Paris, in the Hauts-de-Seine department of France.

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Rugby union

Rugby union, commonly known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century.

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Rungis International Market

The Rungis International Market (Marché International de Rungis) is the principal market of Paris, mainly for food and horticultural products, located in the commune of Rungis, in the southern suburbs.

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Russia

Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Russian language

Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.

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Ryanair

Ryanair is an Irish low-cost airline founded in 1984, headquartered in Swords, Dublin, Ireland, with its primary operational bases at Dublin and London Stansted airports.

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Sacré-Cœur, Paris

The Basilica of the Sacred Heart of Paris, commonly known as Sacré-Cœur Basilica and often simply Sacré-Cœur (Basilique du Sacré-Cœur, pronounced), is a Roman Catholic church and minor basilica, dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus, in Paris, France.

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Saint Petersburg

Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).

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Saint-Denis, Seine-Saint-Denis

Saint-Denis is a commune in the northern suburbs of Paris, France.

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Saint-Germain-des-Prés

Saint-Germain-des-Prés is one of the four administrative quarters of the 6th arrondissement of Paris, France, located around the church of the former Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés.

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Saint-Maur-des-Fossés

Saint-Maur-des-Fossés is a commune in the southeastern suburbs of Paris, France.

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Saint-Ouen Cemetery

The Saint-Ouen Cemetery (Le cimetière parisien de Saint-Ouen) is located just north of Montmartre at Saint-Ouen, near Paris.

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Saint-Ouen, Seine-Saint-Denis

Saint-Ouen is a commune in the Seine-Saint-Denis department.

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Saint-Paul-Saint-Louis

Saint-Paul-Saint-Louis is a church on rue Saint-Antoine in the Marais quarter of Paris.

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Sainte-Chapelle

The Sainte-Chapelle (Holy Chapel) is a royal chapel in the Gothic style, within the medieval Palais de la Cité, the residence of the Kings of France until the 14th century, on the Île de la Cité in the River Seine in Paris, France.

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Sainte-Geneviève Library

Sainte-Geneviève Library (Bibliothèque Sainte-Geneviève) is a public and university library in Paris, which inherited the collection of the Abbey of St Genevieve.

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Salvador Dalí

Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, 1st Marquess of Dalí de Púbol (11 May 190423 January 1989), known professionally as Salvador Dalí, was a prominent Spanish surrealist born in Figueres, Catalonia, Spain.

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Samson and Delilah (opera)

Samson and Delilah (Samson et Dalila), Op.

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Samuel Beckett

Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989) was an Irish avant-garde novelist, playwright, theatre director, poet, and literary translator who lived in Paris for most of his adult life.

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San Francisco

San Francisco (initials SF;, Spanish for 'Saint Francis'), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural, commercial, and financial center of Northern California.

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Sana'a

Sana'a (صنعاء, Yemeni Arabic), also spelled Sanaa or Sana, is the largest city in Yemen and the centre of Sana'a Governorate.

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Santiago

Santiago, also known as Santiago de Chile, is the capital and largest city of Chile as well as one of the largest cities in the Americas.

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São Paulo

São Paulo is a municipality in the southeast region of Brazil.

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School of Paris

School of Paris (École de Paris) refers to the French and émigré artists who worked in Paris in the first half of the 20th century.

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Sciences Po

The Paris Institute of Political Studies (Institut d'études politiques de Paris), commonly referred as Sciences Po, is a highly selective French university (legally a grande école).

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Second French Empire

The French Second Empire (Second Empire) was the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France.

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Seine

The Seine (La Seine) is a river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin in the north of France.

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Seine (department)

Seine was a department of France encompassing Paris and its immediate suburbs.

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Seine-Saint-Denis

italic is a French department located in the italic region.

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Senate (France)

The Senate (Sénat; pronunciation) is the upper house of the French Parliament, presided over by a president.

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Senones

The Senones (Σήνωνες) were an ancient Celtic Gallic culture.

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Seoul

Seoul (like soul; 서울), officially the Seoul Special Metropolitan City – is the capital, Constitutional Court of Korea and largest metropolis of South Korea.

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Sidney Bechet

Sidney Bechet (May 14, 1897 – May 14, 1959) was an African American jazz saxophonist, clarinetist, and composer.

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Siege of Paris (845)

The Siege of Paris and the Sack of Paris of 845 was the culmination of a Viking invasion of France.

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Siege of Paris (885–886)

The Siege of Paris of 885–886 was part of a Viking raid on the Seine, in the Kingdom of the West Franks.

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Simone de Beauvoir

Simone Lucie Ernestine Marie Bertrand de Beauvoir (or;; 9 January 1908 – 14 April 1986) was a French writer, intellectual, existentialist philosopher, political activist, feminist and social theorist.

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Sister city

Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.

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Six Nations Championship

The Six Nations Championship (recently known as the NatWest 6 Nations for sponsorship reasons) is an annual international rugby union competition between the teams of England, France, Ireland, Italy, Scotland and Wales.

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SNCF

The Société nationale des chemins de fer français (SNCF, "French National Railway Company") is France's national state-owned railway company.

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Socialist Party (France)

The Socialist Party (Parti socialiste, PS) is a social-democratic political party in France, and the largest party of the French centre-left.

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Société Générale

Société Générale S.A. (often nicknamed "SocGen" (pronounced "so jenn") in the international financial world) is a French multinational banking and financial services company headquartered in Paris.

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Sofia

Sofia (Со́фия, tr.) is the capital and largest city of Bulgaria.

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Sorbonne

The Sorbonne is an edifice of the Latin Quarter, in Paris, France, which was the historical house of the former University of Paris.

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Spain

Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

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St. Bartholomew's Day massacre

The St.

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Stade de France

The Stade de France is the national stadium of France, located just north of Paris in the commune of Saint-Denis.

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Stade Français

Stade Français CASG is a French professional rugby union club based in the 16th arrondissement of Paris.

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Stade Français (association football)

Stade Français Football is a French association football team based in Paris and playing in suburb town of Vaucresson.

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Stade Olympique Yves-du-Manoir

The Stade Olympique Yves-du-Manoir (also known as the Stade Olympique de Colombes, or simply Colombes to the locals) is a rugby, track and association football stadium in Colombes, near Paris, France.

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Stade Pierre de Coubertin (Paris)

The Stade Pierre de Coubertin (French: Pierre de Coubertin Stadium) is an indoor arena in Paris, France.

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Stade Roland Garros

Stade Roland Garros ("Roland Garros Stadium") is a tennis venue located in Paris, France, that hosts the French Open—also known as Roland Garros, particularly within Europe—a Grand Slam championship tournament played annually around the end of May and the beginning of June.

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Statue of Liberty

The Statue of Liberty (Liberty Enlightening the World; La Liberté éclairant le monde) is a colossal neoclassical sculpture on Liberty Island in New York Harbor in New York City, in the United States.

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Stéphane Grappelli

Stéphane Grappelli (26 January 1908 – 1 December 1997) was a French jazz violinist who founded the Quintette du Hot Club de France with guitarist Django Reinhardt in 1934.

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Stéphane Mallarmé

Stéphane Mallarmé (18 March 1842 – 9 September 1898), whose real name was Étienne Mallarmé, was a French poet and critic.

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Storming of the Bastille

The Storming of the Bastille (Prise de la Bastille) occurred in Paris, France, on the afternoon of 14 July 1789.

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Strasbourg

Strasbourg (Alsatian: Strossburi; Straßburg) is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament.

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Street light

A street light, light pole, lamppost, street lamp, light standard, or lamp standard is a raised source of light on the edge of a road or path.

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Sub-Saharan Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.

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Suite bergamasque

The Suite bergamasque is one of the most famous piano suites by Claude Debussy.

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Surrealism

Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and is best known for its visual artworks and writings.

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Switzerland

Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Sydney

Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania.

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Symbolism (arts)

Symbolism was a late nineteenth-century art movement of French, Russian and Belgian origin in poetry and other arts.

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Taxable income

Taxable income refers to the base upon which an income tax system imposes tax.

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Télécom ParisTech

Télécom ParisTech (also known as ENST or Télécom or École nationale supérieure des télécommunications) is one of the top French public institutions of higher education and research (Grandes Écoles) of engineering in France.

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Tbilisi

Tbilisi (თბილისი), in some countries also still named by its pre-1936 international designation Tiflis, is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura River with a population of approximately 1.5 million people.

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Tehran

Tehran (تهران) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.

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Tennis

Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles).

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Tertiary sector of the economy

The tertiary sector or service sector is the third of the three economic sectors of the three-sector theory.

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Texas Instruments

Texas Instruments Inc. (TI) is an American technology company that designs and manufactures semiconductors and various integrated circuits, which it sells to electronics designers and manufacturers globally.

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TF1

TF1 (té effe un) is a private national French TV channel, controlled by TF1 Group, whose major share-holder is Bouygues.

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TFX (TV channel)

TFX (formerly NT1) is a French television network.

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TGV

The TGV (Train à Grande Vitesse, "high-speed train") is France's intercity high-speed rail service, operated by the SNCF, the state-owned national rail operator.

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Thaïs

Thaïs (Θαΐς) was a famous Greek hetaera who accompanied Alexander the Great on his campaigns.

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Théâtre de la Gaîté-Montparnasse

The Théâtre de la Gaîté-Montparnasse is a venue situated at 26, rue de la Gaîté, in the Montparnasse quarter of Paris, in the 14th arrondissement.

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Théâtre de la Ville

(meaning the City Theatre) is one of the two theatres built in the 19th century by Baron Haussmann at Place du Châtelet, Paris, the other being the Théâtre du Châtelet.

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Théâtre des Champs-Élysées

The Théâtre des Champs-Élysées is a theatre at 15 avenue Montaigne in Paris.

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Théâtre Lyrique

The Théâtre Lyrique was one of four opera companies performing in Paris during the middle of the 19th century (the other three being the Opéra, the Opéra-Comique, and the Théâtre-Italien).

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Théodore Géricault

Jean-Louis André Théodore Géricault (26 September 1791 – 26 January 1824) was an influential French painter and lithographer, known for The Raft of the Medusa and other paintings.

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The Art Newspaper

The Art Newspaper is an online and paper publication founded in 1990 and based in London and New York City.

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The Hunchback of Notre-Dame

The Hunchback of Notre-Dame (Notre-Dame de Paris, "Our Lady of Paris") is a French Romantic/Gothic novel by Victor Hugo, published in 1831.

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The Independent

The Independent is a British online newspaper.

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The Lady and the Unicorn

The Lady and the Unicorn (La Dame à la licorne) is the modern title given to a series of six tapestries woven in Flanders from wool and silk, from designs ("cartoons") drawn in Paris around 1500.

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Tino Rossi

Constantin "Tino" Rossi (29 April 1907 – 26 September 1983) was a French singer and film actor.

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Tokyo

, officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and has been the capital since 1869.

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Total S.A.

Total S.A. is a French multinational integrated oil and gas company and one of the seven "Supermajor" oil companies in the world.

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Toulouse–Blagnac Airport

Toulouse Blagnac Airport (French: Aéroport de Toulouse–Blagnac) is an international airport located west northwest of Toulouse, and partially in Blagnac, both communes of the Haute-Garonne department in the Occitanie region of France.

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Tour de France

The Tour de France is an annual male multiple stage bicycle race primarily held in France, while also occasionally making passes through nearby countries.

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Tour First

Tour First (previously known as Tour UAP between 1974–1998, and as Tour AXA between 1998–2007) is an office skyscraper in Courbevoie, in La Défense, the business district of the Paris metropolitan area.

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Tour Montparnasse

Tour Maine-Montparnasse (Maine-Montparnasse Tower), also commonly named Tour Montparnasse, is a office skyscraper located in the Montparnasse area of Paris, France.

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Transilien

The Transilien is the brand name of the suburban railway service of the SNCF-owned railway network operating within the Île-de-France ''région''.

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Troubadour

A troubadour (trobador, archaically: -->) was a composer and performer of Old Occitan lyric poetry during the High Middle Ages (1100–1350).

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Trouvère

Trouvère, sometimes spelled trouveur, is the Northern French (langue d'oïl) form of the langue d'oc (Occitan) word trobador.

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Tuileries Garden

The Tuileries Garden (Jardin des Tuileries) is a public garden located between the Louvre and the Place de la Concorde in the 1st arrondissement of Paris, France.

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Tuileries Palace

The Tuileries Palace (Palais des Tuileries) was a royal and imperial palace in Paris which stood on the right bank of the River Seine.

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Tunis

Tunis (تونس) is the capital and the largest city of Tunisia.

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Tunisia

Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.

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Turkey

Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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UEFA Euro 1984

The 1984 UEFA European Football Championship final tournament was held in France from 12 to 27 June 1984.

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UEFA Euro 2016

The 2016 UEFA European Championship, commonly referred to as UEFA Euro 2016 or simply Euro 2016, was the 15th UEFA European Championship, the quadrennial international men's football championship of Europe organised by UEFA.

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UEFA European Championship

The UEFA European Championship (known informally as the Euros) is the primary association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA), determining the continental champion of Europe.

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Unemployment

Unemployment is the situation of actively looking for employment but not being currently employed.

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UNESCO

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs

The United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA) is part of the United Nations Secretariat and is responsible for the follow-up to major United Nations Summits and Conferences, as well as services to the United Nations Economic and Social Council and the Second and Third Committees of the United Nations General Assembly.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Army

The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.

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University of Paris

The University of Paris (Université de Paris), metonymically known as the Sorbonne (one of its buildings), was a university in Paris, France, from around 1150 to 1793, and from 1806 to 1970.

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Urban area

An urban area is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment.

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Urban sociology

Urban sociology is the sociological study of life and human interaction in metropolitan areas.

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Urban unit

In France, an urban unit (fr: "unité urbaine") is a statistical area defined by INSEE, the French national statistics office, for the measurement of contiguously built-up areas.

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Val de Seine

The Val de Seine is one of the most important business districts of the Paris agglomeration.

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Val-d'Oise

Val-d'Oise is a French department, created in 1968 after the split of the Seine-et-Oise department and located in the Île-de-France region.

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Val-de-Marne

Val-de-Marne is a French department, named after the Marne River, located in the Île-de-France region.

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Valérie Pécresse

Valérie Pécresse (born 14 July 1967) is a French politician.

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Valéry Giscard d'Estaing

Valéry Marie René Georges Giscard d'Estaing (born 2 February 1926), also known as Giscard or VGE, is a French author and elder statesman who served as President of France from 1974 to 1981 and is now a member of the Constitutional Council.

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Vélib'

Vélib' was a large-scale public bicycle sharing system in Paris, France.

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Vel' d'Hiv Roundup

The Vel' d'Hiv Roundup (French: Rafle du Vélodrome d'Hiver, commonly called the Rafle du Vel' d'Hiv: "Vel' d'Hiv Police Roundup / Raid") was a Nazi-directed raid and mass arrest of Jews in Paris by the French police, code named Opération Vent printanier ("Operation Spring Breeze"), on 16 and 17 July 1942.

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Venus de Milo

Aphrodite of Milos (Αφροδίτη της Μήλου, Aphroditi tis Milou), better known as the Venus de Milo, is an ancient Greek statue and one of the most famous works of ancient Greek sculpture.

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Vincent Cronin

Vincent Archibald Patrick Cronin FRSL (24 May 1924 – 25 January 2011) was a British historical, cultural, and biographical writer, best known for his biographies of Louis XIV, Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette, Catherine the Great, and Napoleon, as well as for his books on the Renaissance.

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Vincent van Gogh

Vincent Willem van Gogh (30 March 185329 July 1890) was a Dutch Post-Impressionist painter who is among the most famous and influential figures in the history of Western art.

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Vitry-sur-Seine

Vitry-sur-Seine is a commune in the southeastern suburbs of Paris, France.

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Voltaire

François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on Christianity as a whole, especially the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state.

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W9 (TV channel)

W9 is a French television network which is available through digital terrestrial television TNT, satellite and ADSL.

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Warsaw

Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.

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Washington, D.C.

Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.

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Water Lilies (Monet series)

Water Lilies (or Nymphéas) is a series of approximately 250 oil paintings by French Impressionist Claude Monet (1840–1926).

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Western canon

The Western canon is the body of Western literature, European classical music, philosophy, and works of art that represents the high culture of Europe and North America: "a certain Western intellectual tradition that goes from, say, Socrates to Wittgenstein in philosophy, and from Homer to James Joyce in literature".

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Women's March on Versailles

The Women's March on Versailles, also known as The October March, The October Days, or simply The March on Versailles, was one of the earliest and most significant events of the French Revolution.

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World Heritage site

A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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Yannick Alléno

Yannick Alléno is a French chef.

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Yerevan

Yerevan (Երևան, sometimes spelled Erevan) is the capital and largest city of Armenia as well as one of the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities.

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Yvelines

Yvelines is a French department in the region of Île-de-France.

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Yves Montand

Ivo Livi, better known as Yves Montand (13 October 1921 – 9 November 1991), was an Italian-French actor and singer.

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Zhou Enlai

Zhou Enlai (5 March 1898 – 8 January 1976) was the first Premier of the People's Republic of China, serving from October 1949 until his death in January 1976.

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16th arrondissement of Paris

The 16th arrondissement of Paris (XVIe arrondissement) is one of the 20 arrondissements of the capital city of France.

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17th-century French art

17th-century French art is generally referred to as Baroque, but from the mid to late 17th century, the style of French art shows a classical adherence to certain rules of proportion and sobriety uncharacteristic of the Baroque as it was practiced in Southern and Eastern Europe during the same period.

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18th arrondissement of Paris

The 18th arrondissement of Paris (XVIIIe arrondissement) is one of the 20 arrondissements of the capital city of France.

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1900 Summer Olympics

The 1900 Summer Olympics (Les Jeux olympiques d'été de 1900), today officially known as the Games of the II Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event that took place in Paris, France, in 1900.

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1924 Summer Olympics

The 1924 Summer Olympics (Les Jeux olympiques d'été de 1924), officially known as the Games of the VIII Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event which was celebrated in 1924 in Paris, France.

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1938 FIFA World Cup

The 1938 FIFA World Cup was the third staging of the World Cup, and was held in France from 4 to 19 June 1938.

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1960 European Nations' Cup

The 1960 UEFA European Nations' Cup was the first European Football Championship, held every four years and endorsed by UEFA.

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1998 FIFA World Cup

The 1998 FIFA World Cup was the 16th FIFA World Cup, the world championship for men's national association football teams.

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1st arrondissement of Paris

The 1st arrondissement of Paris (Ie arrondissement) is one of the 20 arrondissements of the capital city of France.

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2000 UEFA Champions League Final

The 2000 UEFA Champions League Final was a football match that took place on 24 May 2000.

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2003 European heat wave

The 2003 European heat wave led to the hottest summer on record in Europe since at least 1540.

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2006 UEFA Champions League Final

The 2006 UEFA Champions League Final was an association football match between Barcelona of Spain and Arsenal of England at the Stade de France in Saint-Denis, Paris, France, on Wednesday, 17 May 2006.

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2007 Rugby World Cup

The 2007 Rugby World Cup was the sixth Rugby World Cup, a quadrennial international rugby union competition inaugurated in 1987.

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2007 Rugby World Cup Final

The 2007 Rugby World Cup Final was a rugby union match, played on Saturday, 20 October 2007 at the Stade de France, Saint-Denis, Paris, to determine the winner of the 2007 Rugby World Cup.

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2017 IIHF World Championship

The 2017 IIHF World Championship, the 2017 edition of the annual Ice Hockey World Championships, was hosted by Paris, France, and Cologne, Germany, from 5 to 21 May 2017.

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2024 Summer Olympics

The 2024 Summer Olympics (Jeux olympiques d'été de 2024), officially known as the Games of the XXXIII Olympiad, and commonly known as Paris 2024, is a forthcoming international multi-sport event that is scheduled to take place from 26 July to 11 August 2024 in Paris, France.

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2nd Armored Division (France)

The French 2nd Armored Division (2e Division Blindée, 2e DB), commanded by General Philippe Leclerc, fought during the final phases of World War II in the Western Front.

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4th Infantry Division (United States)

The 4th Infantry Division is a division of the United States Army based at Fort Carson, Colorado.

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5th arrondissement of Paris

The 5th arrondissement of Paris (Ve arrondissement) is one of the 20 arrondissements of the capital city of France.

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6th arrondissement of Paris

The 6th arrondissement of Paris (VIe arrondissement) is one of the 20 arrondissements of the capital city of France.

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7th arrondissement of Paris

The 7th arrondissement of Paris (VIIe arrondissement) is one of the 20 arrondissements of the capital city of France.

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8th arrondissement of Paris

The 8th arrondissement of Paris (VIIIe arrondissement) is one of the 20 arrondissements of the capital city of France.

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Redirects here:

Capital of France, Cuisine of Paris, Departement de Paris, Département de Paris, FRPAR, France Paris, Leucetia, Name of Paris and its inhabitants, Name of paris and its inhabitants, Paname, Paree, Parijs, Paris (France), Paris (city), Paris (etymology), Paris France, Paris agglomeration, Paris, Banks of the Seine, Paris, Europe, Paris, France, Paris, Ile-De-France, Paris, Île-de-France, Paris, Île-de-France, France, Paris,France, Parisian (person), Parisien, París, Rue de Menilmontant, Rue de Ménilmontant, Sport in Paris, Sports in Paris, Suburbs of Paris, The City of Love (city), UN/LOCODE:FRPAR, Ville Lumiere, Ville Lumière.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paris

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