159 relations: Abstract algebra, Abstraction (mathematics), Addition, Additive identity, Additive inverse, Adrien-Marie Legendre, Algebraic structure, Algorithm, All Things Considered, Alternating group, Arithmetic, Arthur Cayley, Associative property, École normale supérieure (Paris), Binary number, Binary relation, Bipartite graph, Bit-reversal permutation, Calendar date, Casino, Charleston Gazette-Mail, Christian Goldbach, Closure (mathematics), Complex question, Computational geometry, Computer, Computer monitor, Concept image and concept definition, Connectivity (graph theory), Convention (norm), Cooley–Tukey FFT algorithm, Coset, Counterexample, Counting, Cycle (graph theory), Cyclic permutation, Deborah Loewenberg Ball, Definition, Degeneracy (mathematics), Degree (graph theory), Deseret News, Distance (graph theory), Divisor, Education in England, Empty product, Empty set, Equivalence class, Equivalence relation, Even and odd ordinals, Existential quantification, ..., Fast Fourier transform, Fourth grade, Fundamental theorem of arithmetic, Gasoline, Graduate Management Admission Test, Graduate Record Examinations, Graph (discrete mathematics), Graph coloring, Graph theory, Group (mathematics), Handshaking lemma, Heute, Ideal (ring theory), Identity element, Identity function, Index of a subgroup, Infinity, Integer, Integer (computer science), Integer factorization, Internet, Isabelle (proof assistant), Jewish World Review, Johann Heinrich Lambert, Lemma (mathematics), Leopold Kronecker, Limit of a sequence, Limit ordinal, Line (geometry), Logical framework, Major (academic), Maryland, Mathematical induction, Mathematical proof, Mathematics education, Möbius function, Möbius inversion formula, Mental chronometry, Millisecond, Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, Modular arithmetic, Multiple (mathematics), Multiplication, Multiplication table, Multiplicative function, Natural number, New South Wales, NPR, Null graph, Number, Number line, Number theory, Numeral (linguistics), Numeral system, Numerical cognition, Odd–even rationing, Odds and evens, Ordinal number, Orientation (vector space), Oxford University Press, P-adic number, Parity (mathematics), Parity of a permutation, Partition of a set, Peano axioms, Point in polygon, Polygon, Polynomial, Port and starboard, Power of two, Primary education, Prime number, Proof by contradiction, Proposition bet, Recursive definition, Reflexive relation, Reform mathematics, Ring (mathematics), Roulette, Second grade, Sequence, Simplex, Singly and doubly even, Sperner's lemma, Standardized test, Stanislas Dehaene, Subgroup, Subtraction, Successor function, Successor ordinal, Symmetric group, The Guardian, Third grade, Traditional mathematics, Triangulation (geometry), Triviality (mathematics), Undergraduate education, United States, University of Michigan, University of Nottingham, University of South Florida, Valuation (algebra), Vehicle registration plate, Vertex (graph theory), Year One (education), Year Six, Zero of a function, 0, 2. Expand index (109 more) » « Shrink index
In algebra, which is a broad division of mathematics, abstract algebra (occasionally called modern algebra) is the study of algebraic structures.
Abstraction in mathematics is the process of extracting the underlying essence of a mathematical concept, removing any dependence on real world objects with which it might originally have been connected, and generalizing it so that it has wider applications or matching among other abstract descriptions of equivalent phenomena.
Addition (often signified by the plus symbol "+") is one of the four basic operations of arithmetic; the others are subtraction, multiplication and division.
In mathematics the additive identity of a set which is equipped with the operation of addition is an element which, when added to any element x in the set, yields x. One of the most familiar additive identities is the number 0 from elementary mathematics, but additive identities occur in other mathematical structures where addition is defined, such as in groups and rings.
In mathematics, the additive inverse of a number is the number that, when added to, yields zero.
Adrien-Marie Legendre (18 September 1752 – 10 January 1833) was a French mathematician.
In mathematics, and more specifically in abstract algebra, an algebraic structure on a set A (called carrier set or underlying set) is a collection of finitary operations on A; the set A with this structure is also called an algebra.
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.
All Things Considered (ATC) is the flagship news program on the American network National Public Radio (NPR).
In mathematics, an alternating group is the group of even permutations of a finite set.
Arithmetic (from the Greek ἀριθμός arithmos, "number") is a branch of mathematics that consists of the study of numbers, especially the properties of the traditional operations on them—addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.
Arthur Cayley F.R.S. (16 August 1821 – 26 January 1895) was a British mathematician.
In mathematics, the associative property is a property of some binary operations.
The École normale supérieure (also known as Normale sup', Ulm, ENS Paris, l'École and most often just as ENS) is one of the most selective and prestigious French grandes écoles (higher education establishment outside the framework of the public university system) and a constituent college of Université PSL.
In mathematics and digital electronics, a binary number is a number expressed in the base-2 numeral system or binary numeral system, which uses only two symbols: typically 0 (zero) and 1 (one).
In mathematics, a binary relation on a set A is a set of ordered pairs of elements of A. In other words, it is a subset of the Cartesian product A2.
In the mathematical field of graph theory, a bipartite graph (or bigraph) is a graph whose vertices can be divided into two disjoint and independent sets U and V such that every edge connects a vertex in U to one in V. Vertex sets U and V are usually called the parts of the graph.
In applied mathematics, a bit-reversal permutation is a permutation of a sequence of n items, where n.
A calendar date is a reference to a particular day represented within a calendar system.
A casino is a facility which houses and accommodates certain types of gambling activities.
The Charleston Gazette-Mail is the only daily morning newspaper in Charleston, West Virginia.
Christian Goldbach (March 18, 1690 – November 20, 1764) was a German mathematician who also studied law.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
A set has closure under an operation if performance of that operation on members of the set always produces a member of the same set; in this case we also say that the set is closed under the operation.
A complex question, trick question, multiple question or plurium interrogationum (Latin, "of many questions") is a question that has a presupposition that is complex.
Computational geometry is a branch of computer science devoted to the study of algorithms which can be stated in terms of geometry.
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.
A computer monitor is an output device which displays information in pictorial form.
In mathematics education, concept image and concept definition are two ways of understanding a mathematical concept.
In mathematics and computer science, connectivity is one of the basic concepts of graph theory: it asks for the minimum number of elements (nodes or edges) that need to be removed to disconnect the remaining nodes from each other.
A convention is a set of agreed, stipulated, or generally accepted standards, norms, social norms, or criteria, often taking the form of a custom.
The Cooley–Tukey algorithm, named after J. W. Cooley and John Tukey, is the most common fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm.
In mathematics, if G is a group, and H is a subgroup of G, and g is an element of G, then Only when H is normal will the set of right cosets and the set of left cosets of H coincide, which is one definition of normality of a subgroup.
In logic, and especially in its applications to mathematics and philosophy, a counterexample is an exception to a proposed general rule or law.
Counting is the action of finding the number of elements of a finite set of objects.
In graph theory, a cycle is a path of edges and vertices wherein a vertex is reachable from itself.
In mathematics, and in particular in group theory, a cyclic permutation (or cycle) is a permutation of the elements of some set X which maps the elements of some subset S of X to each other in a cyclic fashion, while fixing (that is, mapping to themselves) all other elements of X. If S has k elements, the cycle is called a k-cycle.
Deborah Loewenberg Ball is an educational researcher noted for her work in mathematics instruction and the mathematical preparation of teachers.
A definition is a statement of the meaning of a term (a word, phrase, or other set of symbols).
In mathematics, a degenerate case is a limiting case in which an element of a class of objects is qualitatively different from the rest of the class and hence belongs to another, usually simpler, class.
In graph theory, the degree (or valency) of a vertex of a graph is the number of edges incident to the vertex, with loops counted twice.
The Deseret News is a newspaper published in Salt Lake City, Utah, United States.
In the mathematical field of graph theory, the distance between two vertices in a graph is the number of edges in a shortest path (also called a graph geodesic) connecting them.
In mathematics, a divisor of an integer n, also called a factor of n, is an integer m that may be multiplied by some integer to produce n. In this case, one also says that n is a multiple of m. An integer n is divisible by another integer m if m is a divisor of n; this implies dividing n by m leaves no remainder.
Education in England is overseen by the United Kingdom's Department for Education.
In mathematics, an empty product, or nullary product, is the result of multiplying no factors.
In mathematics, and more specifically set theory, the empty set or null set is the unique set having no elements; its size or cardinality (count of elements in a set) is zero.
In mathematics, when the elements of some set S have a notion of equivalence (formalized as an equivalence relation) defined on them, then one may naturally split the set S into equivalence classes.
In mathematics, an equivalence relation is a binary relation that is reflexive, symmetric and transitive.
In mathematics, even and odd ordinals extend the concept of parity from the natural numbers to the ordinal numbers.
In predicate logic, an existential quantification is a type of quantifier, a logical constant which is interpreted as "there exists", "there is at least one", or "for some".
A fast Fourier transform (FFT) is an algorithm that samples a signal over a period of time (or space) and divides it into its frequency components.
Fourth Grade (also called Grade Four, equivalent to Year Five in Britain) is a year of elementary education in some countries.
In number theory, the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, also called the unique factorization theorem or the unique-prime-factorization theorem, states that every integer greater than 1 either is a prime number itself or can be represented as the product of prime numbers and that, moreover, this representation is unique, up to (except for) the order of the factors.
Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.
The Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT ()) is a computer adaptive test (CAT) intended to assess certain analytical, writing, quantitative, verbal, and reading skills in written English for use in admission to a graduate management program, such as an MBA.
The Graduate Record Examinations (GRE) is a standardized test that is an admissions requirement for most graduate schools in the United States.
In mathematics, and more specifically in graph theory, a graph is a structure amounting to a set of objects in which some pairs of the objects are in some sense "related".
In graph theory, graph coloring is a special case of graph labeling; it is an assignment of labels traditionally called "colors" to elements of a graph subject to certain constraints.
In mathematics, graph theory is the study of graphs, which are mathematical structures used to model pairwise relations between objects.
In mathematics, a group is an algebraic structure consisting of a set of elements equipped with an operation that combines any two elements to form a third element and that satisfies four conditions called the group axioms, namely closure, associativity, identity and invertibility.
In graph theory, a branch of mathematics, the handshaking lemma is the statement that every finite undirected graph has an even number of vertices with odd degree (the number of edges touching the vertex).
heute (German for 'today') is a television news program on the German channel ZDF.
In ring theory, a branch of abstract algebra, an ideal is a special subset of a ring.
In mathematics, an identity element or neutral element is a special type of element of a set with respect to a binary operation on that set, which leaves other elements unchanged when combined with them.
Graph of the identity function on the real numbers In mathematics, an identity function, also called an identity relation or identity map or identity transformation, is a function that always returns the same value that was used as its argument.
In mathematics, specifically group theory, the index of a subgroup H in a group G is the "relative size" of H in G: equivalently, the number of "copies" (cosets) of H that fill up G. For example, if H has index 2 in G, then intuitively half of the elements of G lie in H. The index of H in G is usually denoted |G: H| or or (G:H).
Infinity (symbol) is a concept describing something without any bound or larger than any natural number.
An integer (from the Latin ''integer'' meaning "whole")Integer 's first literal meaning in Latin is "untouched", from in ("not") plus tangere ("to touch").
In computer science, an integer is a datum of integral data type, a data type that represents some range of mathematical integers.
In number theory, integer factorization is the decomposition of a composite number into a product of smaller integers.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
The Isabelle theorem prover is an interactive theorem prover, a Higher Order Logic (HOL) theorem prover.
Jewish World Review is a free, online magazine updated Monday through Friday (except for legal holidays and holy days), which seeks to appeal to "people of faith and those interested in learning more about contemporary Judaism from Jews who take their religion seriously." It carries informational articles related to Judaism, dozens of syndicated columns written mostly by politically conservative writers, both Jewish and Gentile, advice columns on a number of issues, and cartoons.
Johann Heinrich Lambert (Jean-Henri Lambert in French; 26 August 1728 – 25 September 1777) was a Swiss polymath who made important contributions to the subjects of mathematics, physics (particularly optics), philosophy, astronomy and map projections.
In mathematics, a "helping theorem" or lemma (plural lemmas or lemmata) is a proven proposition which is used as a stepping stone to a larger result rather than as a statement of interest by itself.
Leopold Kronecker (7 December 1823 – 29 December 1891) was a German mathematician who worked on number theory, algebra and logic.
As the positive integer n becomes larger and larger, the value n\cdot \sin\bigg(\frac1\bigg) becomes arbitrarily close to 1.
In set theory, a limit ordinal is an ordinal number that is neither zero nor a successor ordinal.
The notion of line or straight line was introduced by ancient mathematicians to represent straight objects (i.e., having no curvature) with negligible width and depth.
In logic, a logical framework provides a means to define (or present) a logic as a signature in a higher-order type theory in such a way that provability of a formula in the original logic reduces to a type inhabitation problem in the framework type theory.
An academic major is the academic discipline to which an undergraduate student formally commits.
Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and Washington, D.C. to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware to its east.
Mathematical induction is a mathematical proof technique.
In mathematics, a proof is an inferential argument for a mathematical statement.
In contemporary education, mathematics education is the practice of teaching and learning mathematics, along with the associated scholarly research.
The classical Möbius function is an important multiplicative function in number theory and combinatorics.
In mathematics, the classic Möbius inversion formula was introduced into number theory during the 19th century by August Ferdinand Möbius.
Mental chronometry is the use of response time in perceptual-motor tasks to infer the content, duration, and temporal sequencing of cognitive operations.
A millisecond (from milli- and second; symbol: ms) is a thousandth (0.001 or 10−3 or 1/1000) of a second.
The Milwaukee Journal Sentinel is a daily morning broadsheet printed in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
In mathematics, modular arithmetic is a system of arithmetic for integers, where numbers "wrap around" upon reaching a certain value—the modulus (plural moduli).
In science, a multiple is the product of any quantity and an integer.
Multiplication (often denoted by the cross symbol "×", by a point "⋅", by juxtaposition, or, on computers, by an asterisk "∗") is one of the four elementary mathematical operations of arithmetic; with the others being addition, subtraction and division.
In mathematics, a multiplication table (sometimes, less formally, a times table) is a mathematical table used to define a multiplication operation for an algebraic system.
In number theory, a multiplicative function is an arithmetic function f(n) of a positive integer n with the property that f(1).
In mathematics, the natural numbers are those used for counting (as in "there are six coins on the table") and ordering (as in "this is the third largest city in the country").
New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state on the east coast of:Australia.
National Public Radio (usually shortened to NPR, stylized as npr) is an American privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization based in Washington, D.C. It serves as a national syndicator to a network of over 1,000 public radio stations in the United States.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
In the mathematical field of graph theory, the term "null graph" may refer either to the order-zero graph, or alternatively, to any edgeless graph (the latter is sometimes called an "empty graph").
A number is a mathematical object used to count, measure and also label.
In basic mathematics, a number line is a picture of a graduated straight line that serves as abstraction for real numbers, denoted by \mathbb.
Number theory, or in older usage arithmetic, is a branch of pure mathematics devoted primarily to the study of the integers.
In linguistics, a numeral is a member of a part of speech characterized by the designation of numbers; some examples are the English word 'two' and the compound 'seventy-seventh'.
A numeral system (or system of numeration) is a writing system for expressing numbers; that is, a mathematical notation for representing numbers of a given set, using digits or other symbols in a consistent manner.
Numerical cognition is a subdiscipline of cognitive science that studies the cognitive, developmental and neural bases of numbers and mathematics.
Odd–even rationing is a method of rationing in which access to some resource is restricted to half the population on any given day.
Odds and evens, also known as swords, choosies, pick, odds-on poke, or bucking up, is a hand game played between two people, used to decide an issue.
In set theory, an ordinal number, or ordinal, is one generalization of the concept of a natural number that is used to describe a way to arrange a collection of objects in order, one after another.
In mathematics, orientation is a geometric notion that in two dimensions allows one to say when a cycle goes around clockwise or counterclockwise, and in three dimensions when a figure is left-handed or right-handed.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
In mathematics, the -adic number system for any prime number extends the ordinary arithmetic of the rational numbers in a different way from the extension of the rational number system to the real and complex number systems.
In mathematics, parity is the property of an integer's inclusion in one of two categories: even or odd.
In mathematics, when X is a finite set of at least two elements, the permutations of X (i.e. the bijective functions from X to X) fall into two classes of equal size: the even permutations and the odd permutations.
In mathematics, a partition of a set is a grouping of the set's elements into non-empty subsets, in such a way that every element is included in one and only one of the subsets.
In mathematical logic, the Peano axioms, also known as the Dedekind–Peano axioms or the Peano postulates, are axioms for the natural numbers presented by the 19th century Italian mathematician Giuseppe Peano.
In computational geometry, the point-in-polygon (PIP) problem asks whether a given point in the plane lies inside, outside, or on the boundary of a polygon.
In elementary geometry, a polygon is a plane figure that is bounded by a finite chain of straight line segments closing in a loop to form a closed polygonal chain or circuit.
In mathematics, a polynomial is an expression consisting of variables (also called indeterminates) and coefficients, that involves only the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and non-negative integer exponents of variables.
Port and starboard are nautical and aeronautical terms for left and right, respectively.
In mathematics, a power of two is a number of the form where is an integer, i.e. the result of exponentiation with number two as the base and integer as the exponent.
Primary education and elementary education is typically the first stage of formal education, coming after preschool and before secondary education (The first two grades of primary school, Grades 1 and 2, are also part of early childhood education).
A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that cannot be formed by multiplying two smaller natural numbers.
In logic, proof by contradiction is a form of proof, and more specifically a form of indirect proof, that establishes the truth or validity of a proposition.
In gambling, a "proposition bet" (prop bet, prop, novelty, or a side bet) is a bet made regarding the occurrence or non-occurrence during a game (usually a gambling game) of an event not directly affecting the game's final outcome.
A recursive definition (or inductive definition) in mathematical logic and computer science is used to define the elements in a set in terms of other elements in the set (Aczel 1978:740ff).
In mathematics, a binary relation R over a set X is reflexive if every element of X is related to itself.
Reform mathematics is an approach to mathematics education, particularly in North America.
In mathematics, a ring is one of the fundamental algebraic structures used in abstract algebra.
Roulette is a casino game named after the French word meaning little wheel.
Second grade (corresponding to Year 3 in the UK) is a year of primary education in Canada and the US.
In mathematics, a sequence is an enumerated collection of objects in which repetitions are allowed.
In geometry, a simplex (plural: simplexes or simplices) is a generalization of the notion of a triangle or tetrahedron to arbitrary dimensions.
In mathematics an even integer, that is, a number that is divisible by 2, is called evenly even or doubly even if it is a multiple of 4, and oddly even or singly even if it is not.
In mathematics, Sperner's lemma is a combinatorial analog of the Brouwer fixed point theorem, which is equivalent to it.
A standardized test is a test that is administered and scored in a consistent, or "standard", manner.
Stanislas Dehaene (born May 12, 1965) is a French author and cognitive neuroscientist whose research centers on a number of topics, including numerical cognition, the neural basis of reading and the neural correlates of consciousness.
In group theory, a branch of mathematics, given a group G under a binary operation ∗, a subset H of G is called a subgroup of G if H also forms a group under the operation ∗.
Subtraction is an arithmetic operation that represents the operation of removing objects from a collection.
In mathematics, the successor function or successor operation is a primitive recursive function S such that S(n).
In set theory, the successor of an ordinal number α is the smallest ordinal number greater than α.
In abstract algebra, the symmetric group defined over any set is the group whose elements are all the bijections from the set to itself, and whose group operation is the composition of functions.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
Third grade (equivalent to Primary 4 in the UK) is a year of primary education in many countries.
Traditional mathematics (sometimes classical math education) was the predominant method of mathematics education in the United States in the early-to-mid 20th century.
In geometry, a triangulation is a subdivision of a planar object into triangles, and by extension the subdivision of a higher-dimension geometric object into simplices.
In mathematics, the adjective trivial is frequently used for objects (for example, groups or topological spaces) that have a very simple structure.
Undergraduate education is the post-secondary education previous to the postgraduate education.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, or UMich), often simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
The University of Nottingham is a public research university in Nottingham, United Kingdom.
The University of South Florida, also known as USF, is an American metropolitan public research university in Tampa, Florida, United States.
In algebra (in particular in algebraic geometry or algebraic number theory), a valuation is a function on a field that provides a measure of size or multiplicity of elements of the field.
A vehicle registration plate, also known as a number plate (British English) or a license plate (American English), is a metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes.
In mathematics, and more specifically in graph theory, a vertex (plural vertices) or node is the fundamental unit of which graphs are formed: an undirected graph consists of a set of vertices and a set of edges (unordered pairs of vertices), while a directed graph consists of a set of vertices and a set of arcs (ordered pairs of vertices).
Year One is an educational year group in schools in many countries including England, Wales, Australia and New Zealand.
Year 6 is an educational year group in schools in many countries including England, Wales, Australia and New Zealand.
In mathematics, a zero, also sometimes called a root, of a real-, complex- or generally vector-valued function f is a member x of the domain of f such that f(x) vanishes at x; that is, x is a solution of the equation f(x).
0 (zero) is both a number and the numerical digit used to represent that number in numerals.
2 (two) is a number, numeral, and glyph.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
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