417 relations: Abbot, Absolute monarchy, Act of Parliament, Acts of Supremacy, Acts of Union 1707, Acts of Union 1800, Age of Liberty, Alberta Legislature, Alfonso IX of León, Althing, Anglo-Norman language, Anglo-Saxons, Appeal, Aragon, Archbishop, Assembly of the Republic (Portugal), Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia, Athenian democracy, Australia, Australian Capital Territory Legislative Assembly, Australian House of Representatives, Australian Senate, Austrian Parliament, Balearic Islands, Bangladesh, Baron, Batasang Pambansa, Belgian Federal Parliament, Bell, Bicameralism, Bishop, Bordeaux, Borough, Brussels, Bundesrat of Germany, Bundestag, Burgess (title), Burgh, Casimir IV Jagiellon, Catalonia, Catholic Church, Catholic Monarchs, Cádiz, Central American Parliament, Chamber of Deputies (Italy), Chamber of Deputies (Luxembourg), Chamber of Deputies (Romania), Chamber of Deputies of the Czech Republic, Chamber of Representatives (Belgium), Charles I of England, ..., Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles VII of France, Charles XII of Sweden, Chronicle, Citizenship, Civil and political rights, Clergy, Commons, Commonwealth of England, Commonwealth of Nations, Conciliarism, Congress, Congress of Deputies, Convention of the Estates of Scotland, Cortes Generales, Cortes of León of 1188, Cossack Rada, Council of Representatives of Iraq, Courts of England and Wales, Croatian Parliament, Crown of Aragon, Crown of Castile, Curia regis, Cyprus, Danelaw, Dáil Éireann, Democracy, Democratic globalization, Denmark, Dutch language, Earl, Eastern Orthodox Church, Ecclesia (ancient Athens), Ecclesiology, Ecumenical council, Edinburgh, Edward I of England, Edward III of England, Elizabeth I of England, English Civil War, English language, Eric W. 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Abbot, meaning father, is an ecclesiastical title given to the male head of a monastery in various traditions, including Christianity.
Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.
Acts of Parliament, also called primary legislation, are statutes passed by a parliament (legislature).
The Acts of Supremacy are two acts of the Parliament of England passed in 1534 and 1559 which established King Henry VIII of England and subsequent monarchs as the supreme head of the Church of England.
The Acts of Union were two Acts of Parliament: the Union with Scotland Act 1706 passed by the Parliament of England, and the Union with England Act passed in 1707 by the Parliament of Scotland.
The Acts of Union 1800 (sometimes erroneously referred to as a single Act of Union 1801) were parallel acts of the Parliament of Great Britain and the Parliament of Ireland which united the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland (previously in personal union) to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In Swedish and Finnish history, the Age of Liberty (Age of Freedom) (Frihetstiden) is a half-century-long period of parliamentary governance and increasing civil rights, beginning with Charles XII's death in 1718 and ending with Gustav III's self-coup in 1772.
The Legislature of Alberta is the legislature of the province of Alberta, Canada.
Alfonso IX (15 August 117123 or 24 September 1230) was king of León and Galicia from the death of his father Ferdinand II in 1188 until his own death.
The Alþingi (parliament (Icelandic) and anglicised as Althingi or Althing) is the national parliament of Iceland.
Anglo-Norman, also known as Anglo-Norman French, is a variety of the Norman language that was used in England and, to a lesser extent, elsewhere in the British Isles during the Anglo-Norman period.
The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.
In law, an appeal is the process in which cases are reviewed, where parties request a formal change to an official decision.
Aragon (or, Spanish and Aragón, Aragó or) is an autonomous community in Spain, coextensive with the medieval Kingdom of Aragon.
In Christianity, an archbishop (via Latin archiepiscopus, from Greek αρχιεπίσκοπος, from αρχι-, 'chief', and επίσκοπος, 'bishop') is a bishop of higher rank or office.
The Assembly of the Republic (Portuguese: Assembleia da República) is the parliament of the Portuguese Republic.
The Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia (Собрание на Република Македонија) or the Sobranie is the unicameral representative body of the citizens of the Republic of Macedonia; it is Macedonia's sole legislature.
Athenian democracy developed around the fifth century BC in the Greek city-state (known as a polis) of Athens, comprising the city of Athens and the surrounding territory of Attica, and is often described as the first known democracy in the world.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The Australian Capital Territory Legislative Assembly (formally the Legislative Assembly for the Australian Capital Territory) is the unicameral legislature of the Australian Capital Territory (ACT).
The Australian House of Representatives is one of the two Houses (chambers) of the Parliament of Australia.
The Australian Senate is the upper house of the bicameral Parliament of Australia, the lower house being the House of Representatives.
The Austrian Parliament (Österreichisches Parlament) is the bicameral legislature of Austria.
The Balearic Islands (Illes Balears,; Islas Baleares) are an archipelago of Spain in the western Mediterranean Sea, near the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
Baron is a rank of nobility or title of honour, often hereditary.
The Batasang Pambansa (National Assembly;; often referred to simply as the Batasan) was the former parliament of the Philippines, established as an interim assembly in 1978 and later as an official body in 1984.
The Belgian Federal Parliament is the bicameral parliament of Belgium.
A bell is a directly struck idiophone percussion instrument.
A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.
A bishop (English derivation from the New Testament of the Christian Bible Greek επίσκοπος, epískopos, "overseer", "guardian") is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight.
Bordeaux (Gascon Occitan: Bordèu) is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France.
A borough is an administrative division in various English-speaking countries.
Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.
The German Bundesrat (literally "Federal Council") is a legislative body that represents the sixteen Länder (federated states) of Germany at the national level.
The Bundestag ("Federal Diet") is the German federal parliament.
Burgess originally meant a freeman of a borough (England, Wales, Ireland) or burgh (Scotland).
A burgh was an autonomous municipal corporation in Scotland and Northern England, usually a town, or toun in Scots.
Casimir IV KG (Kazimierz IV Andrzej Jagiellończyk; Kazimieras Jogailaitis; 30 November 1427 – 7 June 1492) of the Jagiellonian dynasty was Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1440 and King of Poland from 1447, until his death.
Catalonia (Catalunya, Catalonha, Cataluña) is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern extremity of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Catholic Monarchs is the joint title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon.
Cádiz (see other pronunciations below) is a city and port in southwestern Spain.
The Central American Parliament (Parlamento Centroamericano), also known as PARLACEN, is the political institution and parliamentary body of the Central American Integration System (SICA).
The Chamber of Deputies (Camera dei deputati) is a house of the bicameral Parliament of Italy (the other being the Senate of the Republic).
The Chamber of Deputies (D'Chamber, Chambre des Députés, Abgeordnetenkammer), abbreviated to the Chamber, is the unicameral national legislature of Luxembourg.
The Chamber of Deputies (Camera Deputaților) is the lower house in Romania's bicameral parliament.
The Chamber of Deputies (Poslanecká sněmovna) is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of the Czech Republic.
The Chamber of Representatives (Dutch:, Chambre des représentants, Abgeordnetenkammer) is one of the two chambers in the bicameral Federal Parliament of Belgium, the other being the Senate.
Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.
Charles V (Carlos; Karl; Carlo; Karel; Carolus; 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of both the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and the Spanish Empire (as Charles I of Spain) from 1516, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy from 1506.
Charles VII (22 February 1403 – 22 July 1461), called the Victorious (le Victorieux)Charles VII, King of France, Encyclopedia of the Hundred Years War, ed.
Charles XII, also Carl (Karl XII; 17 June 1682 – 30 November 1718 O.S.), Latinized to Carolus Rex, was the King of Sweden from 1697 to 1718.
A chronicle (chronica, from Greek χρονικά, from χρόνος, chronos, "time") is a historical account of facts and events ranged in chronological order, as in a time line.
Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or belonging to a nation.
Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals.
Clergy are some of the main and important formal leaders within certain religions.
The commons is the cultural and natural resources accessible to all members of a society, including natural materials such as air, water, and a habitable earth.
The Commonwealth was the period from 1649 to 1660 when England and Wales, later along with Ireland and Scotland, was ruled as a republic following the end of the Second English Civil War and the trial and execution of Charles I. The republic's existence was declared through "An Act declaring England to be a Commonwealth", adopted by the Rump Parliament on 19 May 1649.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
Conciliarism was a reform movement in the 14th-, 15th- and 16th-century Catholic Church which held that supreme authority in the Church resided with an Ecumenical council, apart from, or even against, the pope.
A congress is a formal meeting of the representatives of different nations, constituent states, organizations (such as trade unions, and political parties), or groups.
The Congress of Deputies (Congreso de los Diputados; Diputatuen Kongresua; Congrés dels Diputats; Congreso dos Deputados) is the lower house of the Cortes Generales, Spain's legislative branch.
The Convention of Estates of Scotland was a sister institution to the Scottish Parliament which sat from the early sixteenth century.
The Cortes Generales (General Courts) are the bicameral legislature of the Kingdom of Spain, consisting of two chambers: the Congress of Deputies (the lower house) and the Senate (the upper house).
The Cortes of León from year 1188 was a parliamentary body in the medieval Kingdom of León.
Cossack Rada (Kozats'ka Rada) or General Military Council was a general Cossack assembly (council) often military in nature.
The Council of Representatives (Majlis an-Nuwwāb al-ʿIrāqiyy; ئهنجومهنی نوێنهرانی) is the unicameral legislature of the Republic of Iraq.
The Courts of England and Wales, supported administratively by Her Majesty's Courts and Tribunals Service, are the civil and criminal courts responsible for the administration of justice in England and Wales.
The Croatian Parliament (Hrvatski sabor) or the Sabor is the unicameral representative body of the citizens of the Republic of Croatia; it is Croatia's legislature.
The Crown of Aragon (Corona d'Aragón, Corona d'Aragó, Corona de Aragón),Corona d'AragónCorona AragonumCorona de Aragón) also referred by some modern historians as Catalanoaragonese Crown (Corona catalanoaragonesa) or Catalan-Aragonese Confederation (Confederació catalanoaragonesa) was a composite monarchy, also nowadays referred to as a confederation of individual polities or kingdoms ruled by one king, with a personal and dynastic union of the Kingdom of Aragon and the County of Barcelona. At the height of its power in the 14th and 15th centuries, the Crown of Aragon was a thalassocracy (a state with primarily maritime realms) controlling a large portion of present-day eastern Spain, parts of what is now southern France, and a Mediterranean "empire" which included the Balearic Islands, Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia, Malta, Southern Italy (from 1442) and parts of Greece (until 1388). The component realms of the Crown were not united politically except at the level of the king, who ruled over each autonomous polity according to its own laws, raising funds under each tax structure, dealing separately with each Corts or Cortes. Put in contemporary terms, it has sometimes been considered that the different lands of the Crown of Aragon (mainly the Kingdom of Aragon, the Principality of Catalonia and the Kingdom of Valencia) functioned more as a confederation than as a single kingdom. In this sense, the larger Crown of Aragon must not be confused with one of its constituent parts, the Kingdom of Aragon, from which it takes its name. In 1469, a new dynastic familial union of the Crown of Aragon with the Crown of Castile by the Catholic Monarchs, joining what contemporaries referred to as "the Spains" led to what would become the Kingdom of Spain under King Philip II. The Crown existed until it was abolished by the Nueva Planta decrees issued by King Philip V in 1716 as a consequence of the defeat of Archduke Charles (as Charles III of Aragon) in the War of the Spanish Succession.
The Crown of Castile was a medieval state in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and, some decades later, the parliaments of the kingdoms of Castile and León upon the accession of the then Castilian king, Ferdinand III, to the vacant Leonese throne. It continued to exist as a separate entity after the personal union in 1469 of the crowns of Castile and Aragon with the marriage of the Catholic Monarchs up to the promulgation of the Nueva Planta decrees by Philip V in 1715. The Indies, Islands and Mainland of the Ocean Sea were also a part of the Crown of Castile when transformed from lordships to kingdoms of the heirs of Castile in 1506, with the Treaty of Villafáfila, and upon the death of Ferdinand the Catholic. The title of "King of Castile" remained in use by the Habsburg rulers during the 16th and 17th centuries. Charles I was King of Aragon, Majorca, Valencia, and Sicily, and Count of Barcelona, Roussillon and Cerdagne, as well as King of Castile and León, 1516–1556. In the early 18th century, Philip of Bourbon won the War of the Spanish Succession and imposed unification policies over the Crown of Aragon, supporters of their enemies. This unified the Crown of Aragon and the Crown of Castile into the kingdom of Spain. Even though the Nueva Planta decrees did not formally abolish the Crown of Castile, the country of (Castile and Aragon) was called "Spain" by both contemporaries and historians. "King of Castile" also remains part of the full title of Felipe VI of Spain, the current King of Spain according to the Spanish constitution of 1978, in the sense of titles, not of states.
Curia regis is a Latin term meaning "royal council" or "king's court." It was the name given to councils of advisors and administrators who served early French kings as well as to those serving Norman and later kings of England.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
The Danelaw (also known as the Danelagh; Dena lagu; Danelagen), as recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, is a historical name given to the part of England in which the laws of the Danes held sway and dominated those of the Anglo-Saxons.
Dáil Éireann (lit. Assembly of Ireland) is the lower house, and principal chamber, of the Oireachtas (Irish legislature), which also includes the President of Ireland and Seanad Éireann (the upper house).
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
Democratic globalisation is a social movement towards an institutional system of global democracy.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
An earl is a member of the nobility.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
The ecclesia or ekklesia (ἐκκλησία) was the principal assembly of the democracy of ancient Athens.
In Christian theology, ecclesiology is the study of the Christian Church, the origins of Christianity, its relationship to Jesus, its role in salvation, its polity, its discipline, its destiny, and its leadership.
An ecumenical council (or oecumenical council; also general council) is a conference of ecclesiastical dignitaries and theological experts convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice in which those entitled to vote are convoked from the whole world (oikoumene) and which secures the approbation of the whole Church.
Edinburgh (Dùn Èideann; Edinburgh) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas.
Edward I (17/18 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots (Malleus Scotorum), was King of England from 1272 to 1307.
Edward III (13 November 1312 – 21 June 1377) was King of England and Lord of Ireland from January 1327 until his death; he is noted for his military success and for restoring royal authority after the disastrous and unorthodox reign of his father, Edward II.
Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603.
The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's governance.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Eric W. Robinson is an American historian of Ancient Greece, specializing in early democracy.
In France under the Old Regime, the Estates General (French: États généraux) or States-General was a legislative and consultative assembly (see The Estates) of the different classes (or estates) of French subjects.
The estates of the realm, or three estates, were the broad orders of social hierarchy used in Christendom (Christian Europe) from the medieval period to early modern Europe.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
The Faroe Islands (Føroyar; Færøerne), sometimes called the Faeroe Islands, is an archipelago between the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic, about halfway between Norway and Iceland, north-northwest of Scotland.
The Federal Assembly (p) is the national legislature of the Russian Federation, according to the Constitution of Russian Federation (1993).
The Federal Council (German: Bundesrat is the second chamber of the Austrian Parliament, representing the nine States of Austria (Bundesländer) on federal level. As part of a bicameral legislature alongside of the National Council (Nationalrat), it can be compared with an upper house or a senate. In fact, however, it is far less powerful than the National Council: although it has to approve every new law decided for by this "lower" chamber, the latter can—in most cases—overrule the Federal Council's refusal to approve. The Bundesrat has its seat at the Austrian Parliament Building in Vienna, in a conclave of the former Herrenhaus chamber of the Imperial Council (Reichsrat). During a major renovation of the Parliament Building the Federal Council meets in the Hofburg.
The Federal Parliament of Nepal (संघीय संसद नेपाल, saṅghīya sansada Nēpāl) is the federal and supreme legislative body of Nepal.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
Finance is a field that is concerned with the allocation (investment) of assets and liabilities (known as elements of the balance statement) over space and time, often under conditions of risk or uncertainty.
Flanders (Vlaanderen, Flandre, Flandern) is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium, although there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language, politics and history.
The Vlaamse Gemeenschapscommissie (or VGC, or, in English, the Flemish Community Commission) is the local representative of the Flemish authorities in the Brussels-Capital Region, one of the three regions of Belgium.
The Flemish Parliament (Dutch:, and formerly called Flemish Council or Vlaamse Raad) constitutes the legislative power in Flanders, for matters which fall within the competence of Flanders, both as a geographic region and a cultural community of Belgium (unlike the French-speaking community and Wallonia, which each have separate legislatures - the Parliament of the French Community and the Walloon Parliament).
The Folketing (Folketinget,; lit. the people's thing), also known as the Danish Parliament in English, is the unicameral national parliament (legislature) of the Kingdom of Denmark.
A country's foreign policy, also called foreign relations or foreign affairs policy, consists of self-interest strategies chosen by the state to safeguard its national interests and to achieve goals within its international relations milieu.
In common law jurisdictions (e.g. England and Wales, United States, Australia, Canada and Ireland), a freehold is the common ownership of real property, or land, and all immovable structures attached to such land, as opposed to a leasehold, in which the property reverts to the owner of the land after the lease period has expired.
The Commission communautaire française (COCOF) or the French Community Commission is the local representative of the French-speaking authorities in the Brussels-Capital Region, one of the three regions of Belgium.
The French Parliament (Parlement français) is the bicameral legislature of the French Republic, consisting of the Senate (Sénat) and the National Assembly (Assemblée nationale).
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Gallus Anonymus (Polonized variant: Gall Anonim) is the name traditionally given to the anonymous author of Gesta principum Polonorum (Deeds of the Princes of the Poles), composed in Latin about 1115.
The General Assembly of Newfoundland and Labrador (known as the General Assembly of Newfoundland until 6 December 2001) is the legislature of the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.
Each General Assembly of the legislature of the province of Nova Scotia, Canada, consists of one or more sessions and comes to an end upon dissolution (or constitutionally by the effluxion of time — approximately five years) and an ensuing general election.
The General Assembly of Prince Edward Island is the legislature of the province of Prince Edward Island, Canada.
General Council in medieval Scotland was a sister institution to parliament that existed between the late fourteenth century and the early sixteenth century.
Germanic kingship is a thesis regarding the role of kings among the pre-Christianized Germanic tribes of the Migration period (c. 300–700 AD) and Early Middle Ages (c. 700–1,000 AD).
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange, who was James's nephew and son-in-law.
Golden Liberty (Aurea Libertas; Złota Wolność, Auksinė laisvė), sometimes referred to as Golden Freedoms, Nobles' Democracy or Nobles' Commonwealth (Szlachecka or Złota wolność szlachecka, aureă lībertās) was a political system in the Kingdom of Poland and, after the Union of Lublin (1569), in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The Governing Senate (Правительствующий сенат) was a legislative, judicial, and executive body of the Russian Emperors, instituted by Peter the Great to replace the Boyar Duma and lasted until the very end of the Russian Empire.
A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.
The Grand Duchy or Grand Principality of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское, Velikoye Knyazhestvo Moskovskoye), also known in English simply as Muscovy from the Moscovia, was a late medieval Russian principality centered on Moscow and the predecessor state of the early modern Tsardom of Russia.
The Grand National Assembly of Turkey (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi), usually referred to simply as the TBMM or Parliament (Meclis or Parlamento), is the unicameral Turkish legislature.
The title grand prince or great prince (magnus princeps, Greek: megas archon) ranked in honour below king and emperor and above a sovereign prince.
Grenoble is a city in southeastern France, at the foot of the French Alps where the river Drac joins the Isère.
Gulating (Gulaþing) is the name of both one of the first Norwegian legislative assemblies or things and one of the present-day law courts of western Norway.
Gustav III (– 29 March 1792) was King of Sweden from 1771 until his assassination in 1792.
Habsburg Spain refers to the history of Spain over the 16th and 17th centuries (1516–1700), when it was ruled by kings from the House of Habsburg (also associated with its role in the history of Central Europe).
A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
The Hellenic Parliament (Βουλή των Ελλήνων, "Parliament of the Hellenes", transliterated Voulí ton Ellínon) is the parliament of Greece, located in the Old Royal Palace, overlooking Syntagma Square in Athens.
Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272), also known as Henry of Winchester, was King of England, Lord of Ireland, and Duke of Aquitaine from 1216 until his death.
Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 1509 until his death.
A high king is a king who holds a position of seniority over a group of other kings, without the title of Emperor.
Athens is one of the oldest named cities in the world, having been continuously inhabited for at least 5000 years.
A democracy is a political system, or a system of decision-making within an institution or organization or a country, in which all members have an equal share of power.
The Palace of Holyroodhouse, commonly referred to as Holyrood Palace, is the official residence of the British monarch in Scotland, Queen Elizabeth II.
The House of Bourbon is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty.
The House of Commons of Canada (Chambre des communes du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the Senate.
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The is the upper house of the National Diet of Japan.
The House of Elders or Mesherano Jirga (مشرانو جرگه), is the upper house of the bicameral National Assembly of Afghanistan, alongside the lower House of the People (Wolesi Jirga).
The House of Lords of the United Kingdom, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The House of Nobility (Riddarhuset) in Stockholm, Sweden is a corporation and a building, that maintains records and acts as an interest group on behalf of the Swedish nobility.
The House of Representatives (Βουλή των Αντιπροσώπων; Temsilciler Meclisi) is the parliament of the Republic of Cyprus.
The is the lower house of the National Diet of Japan.
The House of Representatives (pronounced; commonly referred to as the, literally Second Chamber) is the lower house of the bicameral parliament of the Netherlands, the States General, the other one being the Senate.
The House of the People or Wolesi Jirga (مجلس نمایندگان افغانستان, د افغانستان ولسي جرگه) abbreviated WJ, is the lower house of the bicameral National Assembly of Afghanistan, alongside the upper House of Elders.
A hundred is an administrative division that is geographically part of a larger region.
The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the House of Valois, over the right to rule the Kingdom of France.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
The Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU; Union Interparlementaire) is a global inter-parliamentary institution established in 1889 by Frédéric Passy (France) and William Randal Cremer (United Kingdom).
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
The Italian Parliament (Parlamento Italiano) is the national parliament of the Italian Republic.
The Jatiya Sangsad ("National Parliament"; জাতীয় সংসদ Jatiyô Sôngsôd), often referred to simply as the Sangsad or JS and also known as the House of the Nation, is the supreme legislative body of Bangladesh.
John Bright (16 November 1811 – 27 March 1889) was a British Radical and Liberal statesman, one of the greatest orators of his generation and a promoter of free trade policies.
John I Albert (Jan I Olbracht) (27 December 1459 – 17 June 1501) was King of Poland (1492–1501) and Duke of Głogów (1491–1498).
John (24 December 1166 – 19 October 1216), also known as John Lackland (Norman French: Johan sanz Terre), was King of England from 1199 until his death in 1216.
Justice is the legal or philosophical theory by which fairness is administered.
The Kingdom of Alba refers to the Kingdom of Scotland between the deaths of Donald II (Domnall mac Causantin) in 900 and of Alexander III in 1286, which then led indirectly to the Scottish Wars of Independence.
The Kingdom of Aragon (Reino d'Aragón, Regne d'Aragó, Regnum Aragonum, Reino de Aragón) was a medieval and early modern kingdom on the Iberian Peninsula, corresponding to the modern-day autonomous community of Aragon, in Spain.
The Kingdom of Castile (Reino de Castilla, Regnum Castellae) was a large and powerful state on the Iberian Peninsula during the Middle Ages.
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.
The Kingdom of León (Astur-Leonese: Reinu de Llïón, Reino de León, Reino de León, Reino de Leão, Regnum Legionense) was an independent kingdom situated in the northwest region of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Kingdom of Navarre (Nafarroako Erresuma, Reino de Navarra, Royaume de Navarre, Regnum Navarrae), originally the Kingdom of Pamplona (Iruñeko Erresuma), was a Basque-based kingdom that occupied lands on either side of the western Pyrenees, alongside the Atlantic Ocean between present-day Spain and France.
The Kingdom of Sicily (Regnum Siciliae, Regno di Sicilia, Regnu di Sicilia, Regne de Sicília, Reino de Sicilia) was a state that existed in the south of the Italian peninsula and for a time Africa from its founding by Roger II in 1130 until 1816.
The Kingdom of Valencia (Regne de València,; Reino de Valencia; Regnum Valentiae), located in the eastern shore of the Iberian Peninsula, was one of the component realms of the Crown of Aragon.
Kirkliston is a small town and parish to the west of Edinburgh, Scotland, historically within the county of West Lothian.
A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch, bishop or other political leader for service to the monarch or a Christian Church, especially in a military capacity.
Languedoc (Lengadòc) is a former province of France.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Latin American Parliament (Parlatino) is a regional, permanent organization composed by the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean.
Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
A lawspeaker or lawman (Swedish: lagman, Old Swedish: laghmaþer or laghman, Danish: lovsigemand, Norwegian: lagmann, Icelandic: lög(sögu)maður, Faroese: løgmaður, Finnish: laamanni) is a unique Scandinavian legal office.
Løgting (pronounced (Faroese: Føroya Løgting or just Løgtingið, Danish: Færøernes Lagting/Lagtinget, both meaning The løgting of the Faroes) is the unicameral parliament of the Faroe Islands, an autonomous country within the Danish Realm. The name literally means "Law Thing"—that is, a law assembly—and derives from Old Norse lǫgþing, which was a name given to ancient assemblies. A ting or þing has existed on the Faroe Islands for over a millennium and the Løgting was the highest authority on the islands in the Viking era. From 1274 to 1816 it functioned primarily as a judicial body, whereas the modern Løgting established in 1852 is a parliamentary assembly, which gained legislative power when home rule was introduced in 1948. The Manx Tynwald and the Icelandic Alþing are the two other modern parliaments with ties back to the old Norse assemblies of Europe. Today, the Faroe Islands compromise one constituency, and the number of MPs is fixed at 33. The first election with this new system was held on 19 January 2008, after the Election law was changed in late 2007, prior to which the membership of the Løgting varied from 27 to 32. The 7 constituencies had 27 seats and up to 5 supplementary seats. That Election Act came into force in 1978, and the eight general elections between 1978 and 2004 all resulted in 32 members. The Løgting is elected for a period of four years. Election of the Løgting can take place before the end of an election period if the Løgting agrees on dissolving itself. The Løgmaður (Prime Minister) issues a proclamation of the forthcoming election and appoints the day of election, which must take place, at the earliest, six weeks after the proclamation.
León is the capital of the province of León, located in the northwest of Spain.
Legislation (or "statutory law") is law which has been promulgated (or "enacted") by a legislature or other governing body or the process of making it.
The legislative assemblies of the Roman Republic were political institutions in the ancient Roman Republic.
The Legislative Assembly of Nunavut, Canada, is located in Iqaluit, and is the territory's parliament.
The Legislative Assembly of Ontario is one of two components of the Legislature of Ontario (also known as the Parliament of Ontario), the other being the Lieutenant Governor of Ontario.
The Legislative Assembly of the Northwest Territories, or Legislative Council of the Northwest Territories, is the legislature and the seat of government of Northwest Territories in Canada.
A legislative chamber or house is a deliberative assembly within a legislature which generally meets and votes separately from the legislature's other chambers.
The Legislative Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (LegCo) is the unicameral parliamentary legislature of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China.
A legislative session is the period of time in which a legislature, in both parliamentary and presidential systems, is convened for purpose of lawmaking, usually being one of two or more smaller divisions of the entire time between two elections.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
This is a list of current presiding officers of the legislative assemblies of sovereign states.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
Liverpool University Press, founded in 1899, is the third oldest university press in England after Oxford University Press and Cambridge University Press.
The Lok Sabha (House of the People) is the lower house of India's bicameral Parliament, with the upper house being the Rajya Sabha.
The Lords Spiritual of the United Kingdom are the 26 bishops of the established Church of England who serve in the House of Lords along with the Lords Temporal.
In the Parliament of the United Kingdom, the Lords Temporal are secular members of the House of Lords.
In the Pashtunwali, a code of laws of the Pashtun peoples living in areas of Afghanistan and Pakistan and neighboring countries, loya jirga (لويه جرګه, "grand assembly") is a special type of jirga that is mainly organized for choosing a new head of state in case of sudden death, adopting a new constitution, or to settle national or regional issue such as war.
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.
Magna Carta Libertatum (Medieval Latin for "the Great Charter of the Liberties"), commonly called Magna Carta (also Magna Charta; "Great Charter"), is a charter agreed to by King John of England at Runnymede, near Windsor, on 15 June 1215.
(or Mejlis; مجلس, pl. مجالس) is an Arabic term meaning "a place of sitting", used in the context of "council", to describe various types of special gatherings among common interest groups be it administrative, social or religious in countries with linguistic or cultural connections to Islamic countries.
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
The Legislature of Manitoba is the legislature of the province of Manitoba, Canada.
Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558) was the Queen of England and Ireland from July 1553 until her death.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Model Parliament is the term, attributed to Frederic William Maitland, used for the 1295 Parliament of England of King Edward I. This assembly included members of the clergy and the aristocracy, as well as representatives from the various counties and boroughs.
A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy.
A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty.
The monarchy of Australia is a form of government in which a hereditary king or queen serves as the nation's sovereign.
The monarchy of Canada is at the core of both Canada's federal structure and Westminster-style of parliamentary and constitutional democracy.
The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories.
In the Westminster system (and, colloquially, in the United States), a money bill or supply bill is a bill that solely concerns taxation or government spending (also known as appropriation of money), as opposed to changes in public law.
In early medieval Scotland, a mormaer was the Gaelic name for a regional or provincial ruler, theoretically second only to the King of Scots, and the senior of a Taoiseach (chieftain).
A motion of no confidence (alternatively vote of no confidence, no-confidence motion, or (unsuccessful) confidence motion) is a statement or vote which states that a person(s) in a position of responsibility (government, managerial, etc.) is no longer deemed fit to hold that position, perhaps because they are inadequate in some respect, are failing to carry out obligations, or are making decisions that other members feel are detrimental.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The National Assembly (Народно събрание, Narodno sabranie) is the unicameral parliament and body of the legislative of Bulgaria.
The National Assembly (Assemblée nationale) is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic, the upper house being the Senate (Sénat).
The National Assembly (Országgyűlés; "Country Assembly") is the parliament of Hungary.
The National Assembly refers to several national parliamentary government organizations of the Republic of China.
The National Assembly (Народна скупштина/Narodna skupština) is the unicameral legislature of Serbia.
The National Assembly (Državni zbor Republike Slovenije, or; Slovene abbreviation DZ), is the general representative body of Slovenia.
The National Assembly for Wales (Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru; commonly known as the Welsh Assembly) is a devolved parliament with power to make legislation in Wales.
The National Assembly of Thailand (รัฐสภา;; abrv: NAT) is the bicameral legislative branch of the government of Thailand.
The National Council (Nationalrat) is one of the two houses of the Austrian Parliament and is frequently referred to as the lower house.
The National Council (Národná rada), abbreviated to NR SR, is the national parliament of Slovakia.
The National Council (Državni svet) is according to the Constitution of Slovenia the representative of social, economic, professional and local interest groups in Slovenia and has a legislative function working as a corrective mechanism of the National Assembly, although it does not itself pass acts.
The is Japan's bicameral legislature.
The National People's Congress (usually abbreviated NPC) is the national legislature of the People's Republic of China. With 2,980 members in 2018, it is the largest parliamentary body in the world. Under China's Constitution, the NPC is structured as a unicameral legislature, with the power to legislate, the power to oversee the operations of the government, and the power to elect the major officers of state. However, the NPC has been described as a "rubber stamp," having "never rejected a government proposal" in its history. The NPC is elected for a term of five years. It holds annual sessions every spring, usually lasting from 10 to 14 days, in the Great Hall of the People on the west side of Tiananmen Square in Beijing. The NPC's sessions are usually timed to occur with the meetings of the National Committee of the People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), a consultative body whose members represent various social groups. As the NPC and the CPPCC are the main deliberative bodies of China, they are often referred to as the Lianghui (Two Assemblies). According to the NPC, its annual meetings provide an opportunity for the officers of state to review past policies and present future plans to the nation.
The New Brunswick Legislature is the legislature of the province of New Brunswick, Canada.
The New Zealand Parliament (Pāremata Aotearoa) is the legislature of New Zealand, consisting of the Queen of New Zealand (Queen-in-Parliament) and the New Zealand House of Representatives.
The Norman conquest of England (in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.
Normandy (Normandie,, Norman: Normaundie, from Old French Normanz, plural of Normant, originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is one of the 18 regions of France, roughly referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy.
The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages.
The Northern Ireland Assembly (Tionól Thuaisceart Éireann, Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlan Assemblie) is the devolved legislature of Northern Ireland.
The Novgorod Republic (p; Новгородскаѧ землѧ / Novgorodskaję zemlę) was a medieval East Slavic state from the 12th to 15th centuries, stretching from the Baltic Sea to the northern Ural Mountains, including the city of Novgorod and the Lake Ladoga regions of modern Russia.
The Oireachtas, sometimes referred to as Oireachtas Éireann, is the legislature of Ireland.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.
Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.
Oligarchy is a form of power structure in which power rests with a small number of people.
Oliver Cromwell (25 April 15993 September 1658) was an English military and political leader.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Palais de Justice ('"Palace of Justice"), formerly the Palais de la Cité ("Palace of the City"), is located on the Boulevard du Palais in the Île de la Cité in central Paris, France.
The Pan-African Parliament (PAP), also known as the African Parliament, is the legislative body of the African Union and held its inaugural session in March 2004.
A parlement, in the Ancien Régime of France, was a provincial appellate court.
The Parliament Acts 1911 and 1949 are two Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which form part of the constitution of the United Kingdom.
The Parliament of Albania (Kuvendi i Shqipërisë) or Kuvendi is the unicameral representative body of the citizens of the Republic of Albania; it is Albania's legislature.
The Parliament of Australia (officially the Federal Parliament; also known as the Commonwealth Parliament or just Parliament) is the legislative branch of the government of Australia.
The Lagting, or Lagtinget, is the parliament of Åland, an autonomous, demilitarised and unilingually Swedish-speaking territory of Finland.
The Parliament of Barbados is the national legislature of Barbados.
The Parliament of British Columbia is made of two elements: the Queen of Canada in Right of British Columbia, represented by the Lieutenant Governor, and the Legislative Assembly of British Columbia (which meets at the British Columbia Parliament Buildings).
The Parliament of Canada (Parlement du Canada) is the federal legislature of Canada, seated at Parliament Hill in Ottawa, the national capital.
The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England, existing from the early 13th century until 1707, when it became the Parliament of Great Britain after the political union of England and Scotland created the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Parliament of Fiji is the unicameral legislature of the Republic of the Fiji.
The Parliament of Finland, is the unicameral supreme legislature of Finland, founded on 9 May 1906.
The Parliament of Ghana is the legislative body of the Government of Ghana.
The Parliament of Great Britain was formed in 1707 following the ratification of the Acts of Union by both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland.
The Inatsisartut (Inatsisartut; thing of Greenland), also known as the Parliament of Greenland in English, is the unicameral parliament (legislative branch) of Greenland, the autonomous country of the Kingdom of Denmark.
The Parliament of India is the supreme legislative body of the Republic of India.
The Parliament of Ireland was the legislature of the Lordship of Ireland, and later the Kingdom of Ireland, from 1297 until 1800.
The Parliament of Lebanon (مجلس النواب Majlis an-Nuwwab; Chambre des députés) is the national parliament of Lebanon.
The Parliament of Malaysia (Parlimen Malaysia) is the national legislature of Malaysia, based on the Westminster system.
The Parliament of Malta (Parlament ta' Malta) is the constitutional legislative body in Malta, located in Valletta.
The Parliament of Montenegro (Skupština Crne Gore, Скупштина Црне Горе) is the unicameral legislature of Montenegro.
The Parliament of Morocco is the bicameral legislature located in Rabat, the capital of Morocco.
The Parliament of Nauru has 19 members, elected for a three-year term in multi-seat constituencies.
The Parliament of New South Wales, located in Parliament House on Macquarie Street, Sydney, is the main legislative body in the Australian state of New South Wales (NSW).
The Parliament of Northern Ireland was the Home Rule legislature of Northern Ireland, created under the Government of Ireland Act 1920, which sat from 7 June 1921 to 30 March 1972, when it was suspended with the introduction of Direct Rule.
The Parliament of Pakistan (مجلس شوریٰ پاکستان —) is the federal and supreme legislative body of Pakistan.
The parliament of Poland has an upper house, the Senate, and a lower house, the Sejm.
The Parliament of Queensland is the legislature of Queensland, Australia.
The Parliament of Romania (Parlamentul României) is the national legislature of Romania, consisting of the Chamber of Deputies (Camera Deputaților), and the Senate (Senat).
The Parliament of Scotland was the legislature of the Kingdom of Scotland.
The Parliament of the Republic of Singapore and the President jointly make up the legislature of Singapore, which is based on the Westminster system.
The Parliament of South Africa is South Africa's legislature and under the country's current Constitution is composed of the National Assembly and the National Council of Provinces.
The Parliament of South Australia at Parliament House, Adelaide is the bicameral legislature of the Australian state of South Australia.
The Parliament of Southern Ireland was a Home Rule legislature set up by the British Government during the Irish War of Independence under the Fourth Home Rule Bill.
The Parliament of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා පාර්ලිමේන්තුව Shri Lanka Parlimenthuwa, Tamil: இலங்கை நாடாளுமன்றம்) is the supreme legislative body of Sri Lanka.
The Parliament of Tasmania is the bicameral legislature of the Australian state of Tasmania.
The Parliament of The Bahamas is the bicameral national parliament of Commonwealth of The Bahamas.
The Parliament of the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (French: Parlement de la Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Dutch: Parlement van het Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is the governing body of the Brussels-Capital Region, one of the three regions of Belgium.
The Tibetan Parliament in Exile (TPiE), officially the Parliament of the Central Tibetan Administration, is the unicameral and highest legislative organ of the Central Tibetan Administration.
The Parliament of the Czech Republic (Parlament České republiky) or just Parliament (Parlament) is the legislative body of the Czech Republic, seated in Malá Strana, Prague.
The Parliament of the French Community (Parlement de la Communauté française or PCF) is the legislative assembly of the French Community of Belgium based in the Quartier Royal.
The Parliament of the German-speaking Community (Parlament der Deutschsprachigen Gemeinschaft or PDG) is the legislative assembly of the German-speaking Community of Belgium based in Eupen.
The Parliament of the Northern Territory is a unicameral legislature in the Northern Territory, Australia, consisting of the Northern Territory Legislative Assembly and the Administrator of the Northern Territory, who represents the Monarch.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.
There have been several meetings referred to as a Parliament of the World's Religions, the first being the World's Parliament of Religions of 1893, which was an attempt to create a global dialogue of faiths.
The Parliament of Trinidad and Tobago is the legislative branch of the Government of Trinidad and Tobago.
The Parliament of Victoria is the bicameral legislature of the Australian state of Victoria.
The Parliament of Wallonia (Parlement de Wallonie), formerly the Walloon Parliament (Parlement wallon) and previously the Walloon Regional Council (Conseil régional wallon), is one of the three self-governing regions of Belgium (the other two being Flanders and the Brussels-Capital Region).
The Parliament of Western Australia is the bicameral legislature of the Australian state of Western Australia, forming the legislative branch of the Government of Western Australia.
The Parliament of Zimbabwe consists of two chambers.
Parliamentary procedure is the body of rules, ethics and customs governing meetings and other operations of clubs, organizations, legislative bodies and other deliberative assemblies.
The oldest recorded parliament still in existence is the Althing, the ruling legislative body of Iceland.
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
The People's Consultative Assembly of the Republic of Indonesia (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat Republik Indonesia, MPR-RI) is the legislative branch in Indonesia's political system.
The term People's Parliaments or People's Assemblies (Tautas Saeima, Liaudies Seimas) was used in 1940 for puppet legislatures put together after show elections in Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania to legitimize the occupation by the Soviet Union.
The People's Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat, DPR), alternatively translatable as the House of Representatives or as the House of People's Representatives, is one of two elected national legislative assemblies in Indonesia.
Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.
The petty kingdoms of Norway were the entities from which the later Kingdom of Norway was founded.
Philip II (Felipe II; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598), called "the Prudent" (el Prudente), was King of Spain (1556–98), King of Portugal (1581–98, as Philip I, Filipe I), King of Naples and Sicily (both from 1554), and jure uxoris King of England and Ireland (during his marriage to Queen Mary I from 1554–58).
Philip V (Felipe V, Philippe, Filippo; 19 December 1683 – 9 July 1746) was King of Spain from 1 November 1700 to his abdication in favour of his son Louis on 15 January 1724, and from his reascendancy of the throne upon his son's death on 6 September 1724 to his own death on 9 July 1746.
The Piast dynasty was the first historical ruling dynasty of Poland.
Piotrków Trybunalski (also known by alternative names) is a city in central Poland with 74,694 inhabitants (2016).
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
The President of Ireland (Uachtarán na hÉireann) is the head of state of the Republic of Ireland and the Supreme Commander of the Irish Defence Forces.
A presidential system is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.
In parliamentary systems and presidential systems of government, primary legislation and secondary legislation, the latter also called delegated legislation or subordinate legislation, are two forms of law, created respectively by the legislative and executive branches of government.
A prime minister is the head of a cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system.
The Prime Minister of the Netherlands (Minister-president van Nederland) is the head of the executive branch of the Government of the Netherlands in his quality of chair of the Council of Ministers.
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.
The Principality of Catalonia (Principat de Catalunya, Principatus Cathaloniæ, Principautat de Catalonha, Principado de Cataluña) was a medieval and early modern political entity or state in the northeastern Iberian Peninsula.
Private property is a legal designation for the ownership of property by non-governmental legal entities.
A privy council is a body that advises the head of state of a nation, typically, but not always, in the context of a monarchic government.
The provinces and territories of Canada are the sub-national governments within the geographical areas of Canada under the authority of the Canadian Constitution.
Pskov, known at various times as the Principality of Pskov (Псковское княжество, Pskovskoye knyazhestvo) or the Pskov Republic (Псковская Республика, Pskovskaya Respublika), was a medieval state on the south shore of Lake Pskov.
The Quebec Legislature (officially Parliament of Quebec, Assemblée National du Québec) is the legislature of the province of Quebec, Canada, since Confederation in 1867.
Queensland (abbreviated as Qld) is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia.
The Rajya Sabha or Council of States is the upper house of the Parliament of India.
A reading of a bill is a debate on the bill held before the general body of a legislature, as opposed to before a committee or an other group.
The Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, DPD), alternatively translatable as the House of Regions or as the House of Regional Representatives, is one of two parliamentary chambers in Indonesia.
Reichstag is a German word generally meaning parliament, more directly translated as Diet of the Realm or National diet, or more loosely as Imperial Diet.
In the common view, political representation is assumed to refer only to the political activities undertaken, in representative democracies, by citizens elected to political office on behalf of their fellow citizens who do not hold political office.
The Restoration was both a series of events in April–May 1660 and the period that followed it in British history.
The Revolt of the Comuneros (Guerra de las Comunidades de Castilla, "War of the Communities of Castile") was an uprising by citizens of Castile against the rule of Charles V and his administration between 1520 and 1521.
The Riigikogu (from riigi-, of the state, and kogu, assembly) is the unicameral parliament of Estonia.
The Riksdag (riksdagen or Sveriges riksdag) is the national legislature and the supreme decision-making body of Sweden.
Riksdag of the Estates (formally Riksens ständer; informally Ståndsriksdagen) was the name used for the Estates of Sweden when they were assembled.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
The Roman Senate (Senatus Romanus; Senato Romano) was a political institution in ancient Rome.
Royal assent or sanction is the method by which a country's monarch (possibly through a delegated official) formally approves an act of that nation's parliament.
The Royal Mile (Ryal Mile) is the name given to a succession of streets forming the main thoroughfare of the Old Town of the city of Edinburgh in Scotland.
The Saeima is the parliament of the Republic of Latvia.
The Legislature of Saskatchewan is the legislature of the province of Saskatchewan, Canada.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
The Scotland Act 1998 (c. 46) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which established the devolved Scottish Parliament with tax varying powers and the Scottish Government (then Scottish Executive).
The Scottish devolution referendum of 1997 was a pre-legislative referendum held in Scotland on 11 September 1997 over whether there was support for the creation of a Scottish Parliament with devolved powers, and whether the Parliament should have tax-varying powers.
The Scottish Parliament (Pàrlamaid na h-Alba; Scots: The Scots Pairlament) is the devolved national, unicameral legislature of Scotland.
The Scottish Parliament Building (Pàrlamaid na h-Alba, Scots Pairlament Biggin) is the home of the Scottish Parliament at Holyrood, within the UNESCO World Heritage Site in central Edinburgh.
Seanad Éireann (Senate of Ireland) is the government upper house of the Oireachtas (the Irish legislature), which also comprises the President of Ireland and Dáil Éireann (the lower house).
The Seimas of the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublikos Seimas), or simply the Seimas, is the unicameral parliament of Lithuania.
The Sejm of the Republic of Poland (Sejm Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej) is the lower house of the Polish parliament.
A sejmik (diminutive of sejm, occasionally translated as a dietine; seimelis) was one of various local parliaments in the history of Poland.
A self-coup (or autocoup, from the Spanish autogolpe) is a form of putsch or coup d'état in which a nation's leader, despite having come to power through legal means, dissolves or renders powerless the national legislature and unlawfully assumes extraordinary powers not granted under normal circumstances.
A semi-presidential system or dual executive system is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter two being responsible for the legislature of a state.
A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or chamber of a bicameral legislature or parliament.
The Senate (Dutch:, le Sénat, der Senat) is one of the two chambers of the bicameral Federal Parliament of Belgium, the other being the Chamber of Representatives.
The Senate (Sénat; pronunciation) is the upper house of the French Parliament, presided over by a president.
The Senate (or simply, literally "First Chamber", or sometimes) is the upper house of the States General, the legislature of the Netherlands.
The Senate of Canada (Sénat du Canada) is the upper house of the Parliament of Canada, along with the House of Commons and the Monarch (represented by the Governor General).
The Senate (Senat) is the upper house of the Polish parliament, the lower house being the 'Sejm'.
The Senate (Senat) is the upper house in the bicameral Parliament of Romania.
The Senate (Senado) is the upper house of Spain's parliament, the Cortes Generales.
The Senate of the Parliament of the Czech Republic (Senát Parlamentu České republiky), usually referred to as Senate, is the upper chamber of the Parliament of the Czech Republic.
The Senate of the Republic (Senato della Repubblica) or Senate (Senato) is a house of the bicameral Italian Parliament (the other being the Chamber of Deputies).
The separation of powers is a model for the governance of a state.
A sheriff is a government official, with varying duties, existing in some countries with historical ties to England, where the office originated.
Shura (شورى shūrā) is an Arabic word for "consultation".
The Sich Rada (Sichova Rada) was the highest branch of government of the Zaporozhian Cossacks, and based at their center, the Zaporizhian Sich.
The Sicilian Parliament was the legislature of the Kingdom of Sicily.
Siemowit (Polish pronunciation:, also Ziemowit) was, according to the chronicles of Gallus Anonymus, the son of Piast the Wheelwright and Rzepicha.
Silesian Parliament or Silesian Sejm (Sejm Śląski, Schlesisches Parlament, Slezský parlament) was the governing body of the Silesian Voivodeship (1920–1939), an autonomous voivodeship of the Second Polish Republic between 1920 and 1945.
Simon de Montfort's Parliament was an English parliament held from 20 January 1265 until mid-March the same year, instigated by Simon de Montfort, a baronial rebel leader.
Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester (– 4 August 1265), also called Simon de Munford and sometimes referred to as Simon V de Montfort to distinguish him from other Simons de Montfort, was a French-English nobleman who inherited the title and estates of the earldom of Leicester in England.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
The Slovenian Parliament (Slovenski parlament) is the informal designation of the general representative body of the Slovenian nation and the legislative body of the Republic of Slovenia.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
The Speaker of the House of Commons is the presiding officer of the House of Commons, the United Kingdom's lower chamber of Parliament.
The State Duma (r), commonly abbreviated in Russian as Госду́ма (Gosduma), is the lower house of the Federal Assembly of Russia, while the upper house is the Council of the Federation.
Australia (officially known as the Commonwealth of Australia) is a federation of six states, together with ten federal territories.
The States General of the Netherlands (Staten-Generaal) is the bicameral legislature of the Netherlands consisting of the Senate (Eerste Kamer) and the House of Representatives (Tweede Kamer).
The States-Provincial (in Dutch: Provinciale Staten, abbreviated PS – commonly known as simply the Staten) is the provincial parliament and legislative assembly in each of the provinces of the Netherlands.
A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislative authority that governs a city, state, or country.
The Nieszawa Statutes were a set of laws enacted in the Kingdom of Poland in 1454, in the town of Nieszawa located in north-central Poland.
The Storting (Stortinget, "the great thing" or "the great assembly") is the supreme legislature of Norway, established in 1814 by the Constitution of Norway.
Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote).
The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom is the supreme court in all matters under English and Welsh law, Northern Irish law and Scottish civil law.
Suzerainty (and) is a back-formation from the late 18th-century word suzerain, meaning upper-sovereign, derived from the French sus (meaning above) + -erain (from souverain, meaning sovereign).
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
A synod is a council of a church, usually convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application.
The szlachta (exonym: Nobility) was a legally privileged noble class in the Kingdom of Poland, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Ruthenia, Samogitia (both after Union of Lublin became a single state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth) and the Zaporozhian Host.
The Federal Diet of Switzerland (Eidgenössische Tagsatzung,; Diète fédérale; Dieta federale) was the legislative and executive council of the Swiss Confederacy which existed in various forms since the beginnings of Swiss independence until the formation of the Swiss federal state in 1848.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Tanistry is a Gaelic system for passing on titles and lands.
The Taoiseach (pl. Taoisigh) is the prime minister, chief executive and head of government of Ireland.
A tax (from the Latin taxo) is a mandatory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed upon a taxpayer (an individual or other legal entity) by a governmental organization in order to fund various public expenditures.
In medieval and early modern Europe the term tenant-in-chief (or vassal-in-chief), denoted a person who held his lands under various forms of feudal land tenure directly from the king or territorial prince to whom he did homage, as opposed to holding them from another nobleman or senior member of the clergy.
"The mother of parliaments" is an expression coined by the British politician and reformer John Bright in a speech at Birmingham on 18 January 1865.
A thing, also known as Alþing, was the governing assembly of a northern Germanic society, made up of the free people of the community presided over by lawspeakers.
Thomas Cromwell, 1st Earl of Essex (1485 – 28 July 1540) was an English lawyer and statesman who served as chief minister to King Henry VIII of England from 1532 to 1540.
Thomas Wolsey (c. March 1473 – 29 November 1530; sometimes spelled Woolsey or Wulcy) was an English churchman, statesman and a cardinal of the Catholic Church.
Toulouse (Tolosa, Tolosa) is the capital of the French department of Haute-Garonne and of the region of Occitanie.
Tribalism is the state of being organized by, or advocating for, tribes or tribal lifestyles.
Tricameralism is the practice of having three legislative or parliamentary chambers.
Tsar (Old Bulgarian / Old Church Slavonic: ц︢рь or цар, цaрь), also spelled csar, or czar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe.
Tynwald (Tinvaal), or more formally, the High Court of Tynwald (Ard-whaiyl Tinvaal) or Tynwald Court is the legislature of the Isle of Man.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
Valencia, officially València, on the east coast of Spain, is the capital of the autonomous community of Valencia and the third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, with around 800,000 inhabitants in the administrative centre.
Veche (вече, wiec, віче, веча, вѣштє) was a popular assembly in medieval Slavic countries.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
The Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine (Верхо́вна Ра́да Украї́ни, Ukrainian abbreviation ВРУ; literally Supreme Council of Ukraine), often simply Verkhovna Rada or just Rada, is the unicameral parliament of Ukraine.
Viking expansion is the process by which the Vikings sailed most of the North Atlantic, reaching south to North Africa and east to Russia, Constantinople and the Middle East as looters, traders, colonists and mercenaries.
Wallonia (Wallonie, Wallonie(n), Wallonië, Walonreye, Wallounien) is a region of Belgium.
The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was a European conflict of the early 18th century, triggered by the death of the childless Charles II of Spain in November 1700.
William I (c. 1028Bates William the Conqueror p. 33 – 9 September 1087), usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard, was the first Norman King of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087.
The Witenaġemot (Old English witena ġemōt,, modern English "meeting of wise men"), also known as the Witan (more properly the title of its members) was a political institution in Anglo-Saxon England which operated from before the 7th century until the 11th century.
Yaroslav's Court (Ярославово Дворище, Yaroslavovo Dvorishche) was the princely compound in the city of Novgorod the Great.
Yorkshire (abbreviated Yorks), formally known as the County of York, is a historic county of Northern England and the largest in the United Kingdom.
The Yukon Legislative Assembly is the legislative assembly for Yukon, Canada.
The Zaporozhian Sich or Zaporozhian Sich (Запорозька Січ, Запорізька Січ, Zaporoz'ka Sich, Zaporiz'ka Sich; Sicz Zaporoska; Запорожская Сечь) was a semi-autonomous polity of Cossacks in the 16th to 18th centuries, centred in the region around today's Kakhovka Reservoir spanning the lower Dnieper river in Ukraine.
The Zaporozhian Cossacks, Zaporozhian Cossack Army, Zaporozhian Host (Військо Запорізьке, Войско Запорожское) or simply Zaporozhians (translit) were Cossacks who lived beyond the rapids of the Dnieper River, the land also known under the historical term Wild Fields in today's Central Ukraine.
Cabinet-parliamentary, National Parliament, National Parliaments, National parliament, Parlaiment, Parlament, Parliamentary government, Parliaments, Parliaments of Europe, Parliamnet, Parliarment, Parliment.