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Parliamentary system

Index Parliamentary system

A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament. [1]

308 relations: Age of Liberty, Arend Lijphart, Assembly of the Republic of Kosovo, Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia, Assembly of the Union, Australian House of Representatives, Australian Senate, Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany, Basic Laws of Sweden, Belgian Federal Parliament, Bicameralism, Bill of Rights 1689, British Empire, Bruce Ackerman, Bundestag, Cabinet of Antigua and Barbuda, Cabinet of Australia, Cabinet of Bangladesh, Cabinet of Barbados, Cabinet of Belize, Cabinet of Botswana, Cabinet of Cambodia, Cabinet of Canada, Cabinet of Denmark, Cabinet of Dominica, Cabinet of Germany, Cabinet of Greece, Cabinet of Iceland, Cabinet of Israel, Cabinet of Jamaica, Cabinet of Japan, Cabinet of Kuwait, Cabinet of Malaysia, Cabinet of Malta, Cabinet of Mauritius, Cabinet of Moldova, Cabinet of Myanmar, Cabinet of New Zealand, Cabinet of Pakistan, Cabinet of Papua New Guinea, Cabinet of Samoa, Cabinet of Singapore, Cabinet of South Africa, Cabinet of Thailand, Cabinet of the Bahamas, Cabinet of the Netherlands, Cabinet of the United Kingdom, Cabinet of Vanuatu, Caribbean, Chamber of Deputies (Luxembourg), ..., Chamber of Deputies of the Czech Republic, Chancellor of Germany (1949–present), Closed list, Commonwealth of Nations, Congress of Deputies, Constitutional monarchy, Constructive vote of no confidence, Corruption Perceptions Index, Cortes of León of 1188, Council of Government of Luxembourg, Council of Ministers (Albania), Council of Ministers (Belgium), Council of Ministers (Bhutan), Council of Ministers (Ethiopia), Council of Ministers (Iraq), Council of Ministers (Italy), Council of Ministers (Spain), Council of Ministers of Nepal, Council of Representatives of Iraq, Council of State (Norway), Coup d'état, Croatian Parliament, Dáil Éireann, Debate chamber, Decree, Democracy, Dualism (politics), Dutch Revolt, Emperor of Japan, Ethnic group, Executive (government), Federal Council (Switzerland), Federal Parliament of Nepal, Federal Parliament of Somalia, Federal Parliamentary Assembly, Finnish Government, First-past-the-post voting, Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011, Folketing, Frederick Charles Riggs, French Fifth Republic, George I of Great Britain, Gerhard Schröder, Global Competitiveness Report, Global Liveability Ranking, Glorious Revolution, Google Books, Government, Government of Armenia, Government of Bulgaria, Government of Croatia, Government of Estonia, Government of Hungary, Government of Kosovo, Government of Latvia, Government of Montenegro, Government of Serbia, Government of Slovakia, Government of Slovenia, Government of Sweden, Government of the Czech Republic, Governor General of Canada, Governor-General of Antigua and Barbuda, Governor-General of Australia, Governor-General of Barbados, Governor-General of Belize, Governor-General of Grenada, Governor-General of Jamaica, Governor-General of New Zealand, Governor-General of Papua New Guinea, Governor-General of Saint Kitts and Nevis, Governor-General of Saint Lucia, Governor-General of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Governor-General of the Bahamas, Head of government, Head of state, Hellenic Parliament, Henley & Partners Passport Index, House of Assembly of Barbados, House of Assembly of Dominica, House of Assembly of Saint Lucia, House of Assembly of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, House of Commons of Canada, House of Commons of the United Kingdom, House of Lords, House of Representatives (Antigua and Barbuda), House of Representatives (Belize), House of Representatives (Thailand), Human Development Index, Ideology, Industrial Revolution, Instant-runoff voting, Irish Free State, Islam in Lebanon, Italian Parliament, Jatiya Sangsad, Juan José Linz, Kingdom of Great Britain, Knesset, Law reform, Legislative Assembly of Samoa, Legislative chamber, Legislature, List of Cabinets of Lebanon, List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita, List of countries by system of government, List of heads of government of Grenada, List of legislatures by country, List of Prime Ministers of Belize, List of Prime Ministers of Kuwait, List of Prime Ministers of Nepal, List of Prime Ministers of Saint Kitts and Nevis, List of Prime Ministers of Saint Lucia, List of Prime Ministers of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, List of Prime Ministers of Somalia, List of Prime Ministers of Trinidad and Tobago, List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe, Local government, Lok Sabha, Lower house, Member of parliament, Mercer Quality of Living Survey, Mixed-member proportional representation, Modernism, Monarch, Monarchy of Denmark, Monarchy of Norway, Monarchy of Thailand, Monarchy of the United Kingdom, Motion of no confidence, National Assembly (Armenia), National Assembly (Bulgaria), National Assembly (Hungary), National Assembly (Kuwait), National Assembly (Mauritius), National Assembly (Saint Kitts and Nevis), National Assembly (Serbia), National Assembly (Slovenia), National Assembly (Suriname), National Council (Austria), National Council (Slovakia), National Diet, National Legislative Assembly of Thailand (2014), National Parliament of Papua New Guinea, New Zealand Parliament, Open list, Oslo, Oxford Parliament (1258), Parliament, Parliament in the Making, Parliament of Albania, Parliament of Bhutan, Parliament of Botswana, Parliament of Cambodia, Parliament of England, Parliament of Finland, Parliament of Grenada, Parliament of Jamaica, Parliament of Lebanon, Parliament of Malaysia, Parliament of Malta, Parliament of Montenegro, Parliament of Pakistan, Parliament of Singapore, Parliament of South Africa, Parliament of the Bahamas, Parliament of the Republic of Moldova, Parliament of Trinidad and Tobago, Parliament of Vanuatu, Parliamentary leader, Parliamentary republic, Parliamentary system, Pashtuns, Philip II of Spain, Plenary session, Plurality voting, Political party, Politics of Grenada, Politics of Saint Kitts and Nevis, Politics of Saint Lucia, Politics of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Politics of Suriname, Politics of the Republic of Macedonia, Pouvoirs, President of Botswana, President of Estonia, President of Germany, President of Iceland, President of India, President of Ireland, President of Israel, President of Italy, President of Myanmar, President of Somalia, President of South Africa, President of Suriname, President of the Czech Republic, Presidential Electoral College, Presidential system, Prime minister, Prime Minister of Antigua and Barbuda, Prime Minister of Australia, Prime Minister of Barbados, Prime Minister of Canada, Prime Minister of Croatia, Prime Minister of Estonia, Prime Minister of India, Prime Minister of Israel, Prime Minister of Jamaica, Prime Minister of Japan, Prime Minister of Kyrgyzstan, Prime Minister of New Zealand, Prime Minister of Norway, Prime Minister of Papua New Guinea, Prime Minister of Spain, Prime Minister of Sweden, Prime Minister of Thailand, Prime Minister of the Bahamas, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Proportional representation, Race (human categorization), Reform Act 1832, Representative democracy, Riigikogu, Riksdag, Robert A. Dahl, Robert Walpole, Rule according to higher law, Rule of law, Saeima, Semi-parliamentary system, Semi-presidential system, Shia Islam, Simon de Montfort's Parliament, Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, Single transferable vote, Sovereign state, States General of the Netherlands, Storting, Supreme Council (Kyrgyzstan), Swedish general election, 1958, Taif Agreement, Taoiseach, The English Constitution, Third World, Unicameralism, Union Council of Ministers, Union of South Africa, United States Senate, Upper house, Urbanization, Walter Bagehot, Weimar Republic, Westminster system, World Bank, World War I, World War II, 2014 Thai coup d'état. Expand index (258 more) »

Age of Liberty

In Swedish and Finnish history, the Age of Liberty (Age of Freedom) (Frihetstiden) is a half-century-long period of parliamentary governance and increasing civil rights, beginning with Charles XII's death in 1718 and ending with Gustav III's self-coup in 1772.

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Arend Lijphart

Arend d'Angremond Lijphart (born 17 August 1936, Apeldoorn, Netherlands) is a political scientist specializing in comparative politics, elections and voting systems, democratic institutions, and ethnicity and politics.

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Assembly of the Republic of Kosovo

The Assembly of the Republic of Kosovo (Kuvendi i Republikës së Kosovës; Скупштина Републике Косово) was originally established by the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo in 2001"" to provide 'provisional, democratic self-government'.

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Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia

The Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia (Собрание на Република Македонија) or the Sobranie is the unicameral representative body of the citizens of the Republic of Macedonia; it is Macedonia's sole legislature.

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Assembly of the Union

The Assembly of the Union (ပြည်ထောင်စု လွှတ်တော် Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) is the national-level bicameral legislature of Myanmar (officially known as the Republic of the Union of Myanmar) established by the 2008 National Constitution.

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Australian House of Representatives

The Australian House of Representatives is one of the two Houses (chambers) of the Parliament of Australia.

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Australian Senate

The Australian Senate is the upper house of the bicameral Parliament of Australia, the lower house being the House of Representatives.

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Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany

The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution of the Federal Republic of Germany.

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Basic Laws of Sweden

The Basic Laws of Sweden (Sveriges grundlagar) are the four fundamental laws of the Kingdom of Sweden that regulate the Swedish political system, acting in a similar manner to the constitutions of most countries.

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Belgian Federal Parliament

The Belgian Federal Parliament is the bicameral parliament of Belgium.

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Bicameralism

A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.

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Bill of Rights 1689

The Bill of Rights, also known as the English Bill of Rights, is an Act of the Parliament of England that deals with constitutional matters and sets out certain basic civil rights.

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British Empire

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.

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Bruce Ackerman

Bruce Arnold Ackerman (born August 19, 1943) is an American constitutional law scholar.

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Bundestag

The Bundestag ("Federal Diet") is the German federal parliament.

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Cabinet of Antigua and Barbuda

The Cabinet of Antigua and Barbuda is the executive branch of the government of Antigua and Barbuda.

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Cabinet of Australia

The Cabinet of Australia is the Australian Government's council of senior Ministers of the Crown, responsible to Parliament.

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Cabinet of Bangladesh

The Cabinet of Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশের মন্ত্রিসভা –) or Council of Ministers (বাংলাদেশের মন্ত্রিপরিষদ –) is the chief executive body of the People's Republic of Bangladesh.

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Cabinet of Barbados

The Cabinet, formally Her Majesty’s Barbados Ministers, are individuals of Barbados which execute the duties of the Government of Barbados.

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Cabinet of Belize

The Cabinet of Belize is the executive body of the government of Belize.

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Cabinet of Botswana

The Cabinet of Botswana consists of the President, Vice President and all the Ministers.

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Cabinet of Cambodia

The Cabinet of Cambodia, formally known as the Council of Ministers (គណៈរដ្ឋមន្ត្រី, Conseil des ministres), is the executive body of the Kingdom of Cambodia led by the Prime Minister, assisted by Deputy Prime Ministers, Senior Ministers, Ministers, and Secretaries of State.

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Cabinet of Canada

The Cabinet of Canada (Cabinet du Canada) is a body of ministers of the Crown that, along with the Canadian monarch, and within the tenets of the Westminster system, forms the government of Canada.

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Cabinet of Denmark

The Cabinet of Denmark (regering) has been the chief executive body and the government of the Kingdom of Denmark since 1848.

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Cabinet of Dominica

The Cabinet of Dominica is appointed by the President of Dominica acting in accordance with the advice of the Prime Minister of Dominica.

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Cabinet of Germany

The Cabinet of Germany (Bundeskabinett or Bundesregierung) is the chief executive body of the Federal Republic of Germany.

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Cabinet of Greece

The cabinet of Greece, officially called the Ministerial Council, constitutes the Government of Greece (Κυβέρνηση της Ελλάδας).

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Cabinet of Iceland

The Cabinet of Iceland (Stjórnarráð Íslands) is the collective decision-making body of the government of Iceland, composed of the Prime Minister and the cabinet ministers.

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Cabinet of Israel

The Government of Israel (officially: ממשלת ישראל Memshelet Yisrael) exercises executive authority in the State of Israel.

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Cabinet of Jamaica

The Cabinet of the Government of Jamaica is the ultimate decision-making body of the executive within the Westminster system of government in traditional constitutional theory.

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Cabinet of Japan

The is the executive branch of the government of Japan.

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Cabinet of Kuwait

The Cabinet of Kuwait is the chief executive body of the State of Kuwait.

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Cabinet of Malaysia

The Cabinet of Malaysia is the executive branch of Malaysia's government.

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Cabinet of Malta

The Cabinet of Malta is the collective decision-making body of the Government of Malta, composed of the Prime Minister and a number of Ministers who are selected by the Prime Minister from the elected members of House of Representatives to head government departments.

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Cabinet of Mauritius

The Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Mauritius is the official council which advises the President of the Republic in the making of major decisions.

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Cabinet of Moldova

The Cabinet of Moldova is the chief executive body of the government of Moldova.

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Cabinet of Myanmar

The Cabinet of Myanmar is the executive body of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar led by the President of Myanmar.

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Cabinet of New Zealand

The Cabinet of New Zealand (Te Rūnanga o te Kāwanatanga o Aotearoa) is the New Zealand Government's body of senior ministers, responsible to the New Zealand Parliament.

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Cabinet of Pakistan

The Cabinet of Pakistan (کابینہ پاکستان, Kabina-e-Pakistan) is a formal body composed of senior government officials chosen and led by the Prime Minister.

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Cabinet of Papua New Guinea

The Cabinet of Papua New Guinea functions as the policy and decision-making body of the executive branch within the government system of Papua New Guinea.

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Cabinet of Samoa

The Cabinet is the executive branch of the government of the Independent State of Samoa.

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Cabinet of Singapore

The Cabinet of Singapore forms the Government (executive branch) of Singapore together with the President of Singapore.

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Cabinet of South Africa

The Cabinet of South Africa is the most senior level of the executive branch of the Government of South Africa.

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Cabinet of Thailand

The cabinet of Thailand or, formally, the Council of Ministers of Thailand (คณะรัฐมนตรี; is a body composed of thirty-five of the most senior members of the government of the Kingdom of Thailand.

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Cabinet of the Bahamas

The Cabinet constitutes the executive branch and has general direction and control of the Government of The Bahamas.

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Cabinet of the Netherlands

The cabinet of the Netherlands (Nederlandse kabinet) is the main executive body of the Netherlands.

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Cabinet of the United Kingdom

The Cabinet of the United Kingdom is the collective decision-making body of Her Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom, composed of the Prime Minister and 21 cabinet ministers, the most senior of the government ministers.

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Cabinet of Vanuatu

The Cabinet of Vanuatu (formally the Council of Ministers of Vanuatu) is the cabinet (executive branch) of the government of the Republic of Vanuatu.

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Caribbean

The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.

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Chamber of Deputies (Luxembourg)

The Chamber of Deputies (D'Chamber, Chambre des Députés, Abgeordnetenkammer), abbreviated to the Chamber, is the unicameral national legislature of Luxembourg.

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Chamber of Deputies of the Czech Republic

The Chamber of Deputies (Poslanecká sněmovna) is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of the Czech Republic.

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Chancellor of Germany (1949–present)

The Federal Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (in German called Bundeskanzler(in), meaning "Federal Chancellor", or in) for short) is, under the German 1949 Constitution, the head of government of Germany.

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Closed list

Closed list describes the variant of party-list proportional representation where voters can (effectively) only vote for political parties as a whole and thus have no influence on the party-supplied order in which party candidates are elected.

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Commonwealth of Nations

The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.

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Congress of Deputies

The Congress of Deputies (Congreso de los Diputados; Diputatuen Kongresua; Congrés dels Diputats; Congreso dos Deputados) is the lower house of the Cortes Generales, Spain's legislative branch.

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Constitutional monarchy

A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.

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Constructive vote of no confidence

The constructive vote of no confidence (in German: konstruktives Misstrauensvotum, in Spanish: moción de censura constructiva) is a variation on the motion of no confidence that allows a parliament to withdraw confidence from a head of government only if there is a positive majority for a prospective successor.

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Corruption Perceptions Index

Transparency International (TI) has published the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) since 1995, annually ranking countries "by their perceived levels of corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys." The CPI generally defines corruption as "the misuse of public power for private benefit".

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Cortes of León of 1188

The Cortes of León from year 1188 was a parliamentary body in the medieval Kingdom of León.

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Council of Government of Luxembourg

The Council of Government of Luxembourg consists of the Prime Minister and a number of ministers.

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Council of Ministers (Albania)

The Council of Ministers is the executive branch that constitutes the Government of Albania.

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Council of Ministers (Belgium)

The Council of Ministers (Conseil des ministres, Ministerraad) is the supreme executive organ of the Federal Government of the Kingdom of Belgium.

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Council of Ministers (Bhutan)

The Council of Ministers (Dzongkha: ལྷན་རྒྱས་གཞུང་ཚོགས་; Wylie: lhan-rgyas gzhung-tshogs) is the highest executive body in Bhutan.

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Council of Ministers (Ethiopia)

The Council of Ministers is the cabinet of the Government of Ethiopia.

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Council of Ministers (Iraq)

The Council of Ministers is the executive branch of the government of Iraq.

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Council of Ministers (Italy)

The Council of Ministers (Consiglio dei Ministri, CdM) is the principal executive organ of the Government of Italy.

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Council of Ministers (Spain)

The Council of Ministers (Consejo de Ministros) is a collegiate body composed of the President of the Government (Prime Minister), Vice presidents when existing and the Ministers, and any other member required by law, and in some cases Secretaries of State (Junior Ministers).

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Council of Ministers of Nepal

The Council of Ministers (नेपालको मन्त्रीमण्डल; Nēpālakō mantrīmaṇḍala) or Federal Executive (संघीय कार्यकारी; Saṅghīya kāryakārī) exercises authority over the Federal Government of Nepal.

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Council of Representatives of Iraq

The Council of Representatives (Majlis an-Nuwwāb al-ʿIrāqiyy; ئه‌نجومه‌نی نوێنه‌رانی) is the unicameral legislature of the Republic of Iraq.

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Council of State (Norway)

The Council of State (Norwegian: Statsrådet), is a formal body composed of the most senior government ministers chosen by the Prime Minister, and functions as the collective decision-making organ constituting the executive branch of the Kingdom.

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Coup d'état

A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.

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Croatian Parliament

The Croatian Parliament (Hrvatski sabor) or the Sabor is the unicameral representative body of the citizens of the Republic of Croatia; it is Croatia's legislature.

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Dáil Éireann

Dáil Éireann (lit. Assembly of Ireland) is the lower house, and principal chamber, of the Oireachtas (Irish legislature), which also includes the President of Ireland and Seanad Éireann (the upper house).

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Debate chamber

A debate chamber is a room for people to discuss and debate.

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Decree

A decree is a rule of law usually issued by a head of state (such as the president of a republic or a monarch), according to certain procedures (usually established in a constitution).

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Democracy

Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.

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Dualism (politics)

In Dutch politics the term dualism is used to refer to the separation of powers between the cabinet and parliament.

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Dutch Revolt

The Dutch Revolt (1568–1648)This article adopts 1568 as the starting date of the war, as this was the year of the first battles between armies.

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Emperor of Japan

The Emperor of Japan is the head of the Imperial Family and the head of state of Japan.

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Ethnic group

An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.

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Executive (government)

The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.

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Federal Council (Switzerland)

The Federal Council is the seven-member executive council which constitutes the federal government of the Swiss Confederation and serves as the collective executive head of government and state of Switzerland.

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Federal Parliament of Nepal

The Federal Parliament of Nepal (संघीय संसद नेपाल, saṅghīya sansada Nēpāl) is the federal and supreme legislative body of Nepal.

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Federal Parliament of Somalia

The Federal Parliament of Somalia (Golaha Shacabka Soomaaliya; often Baarlamaanka Federaalka Soomaaliya; البرلمان الاتحادي في الصومال; Il parlamento federale della Somalia) is the national parliament of Somalia.

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Federal Parliamentary Assembly

The Parliament of Ethiopia consists of two chambers.

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Finnish Government

The Finnish government is the executive branch and cabinet of Finland, which directs the politics of Finland and is the main source of legislation proposed to the Parliament.

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First-past-the-post voting

A first-past-the-post (FPTP) voting method is one in which voters indicate on a ballot the candidate of their choice, and the candidate who receives the most votes wins.

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Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011

The Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011 (c. 14) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that received Royal Assent on 15 September 2011, introducing fixed-term elections to the Westminster parliament for the first time.

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Folketing

The Folketing (Folketinget,; lit. the people's thing), also known as the Danish Parliament in English, is the unicameral national parliament (legislature) of the Kingdom of Denmark.

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Frederick Charles Riggs

Frederick Charles Riggs (28 July 1888 – 1 October 1918) was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

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French Fifth Republic

The Fifth Republic, France's current republican system of government, was established by Charles de Gaulle under the Constitution of the Fifth Republic on 4 October 1958.

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George I of Great Britain

George I (George Louis; Georg Ludwig; 28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1 August 1714 and ruler of the Duchy and Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) in the Holy Roman Empire from 1698 until his death.

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Gerhard Schröder

Gerhard Fritz Kurt Schröder (born 7 April 1944) is a German politician, and served as Chancellor of Germany from 1998 to 2005, during which his most important political project was the Agenda 2010.

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Global Competitiveness Report

The Global Competitiveness Report (GCR) is a yearly report published by the World Economic Forum.

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Global Liveability Ranking

The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) publishes an annual Global Liveability Ranking, which ranks 140 cities for their urban quality of life based on assessments of stability, healthcare, culture and environment, education and infrastructure.

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Glorious Revolution

The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange, who was James's nephew and son-in-law.

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Google Books

Google Books (previously known as Google Book Search and Google Print and by its codename Project Ocean) is a service from Google Inc. that searches the full text of books and magazines that Google has scanned, converted to text using optical character recognition (OCR), and stored in its digital database.

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Government

A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.

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Government of Armenia

The Government of the Republic of Armenia (Հայաստանի Հանրապետության Կառավարություն) or the executive branch of the Armenian government is an executive council of government ministers in Armenia.

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Government of Bulgaria

The Council of Ministers (Министерски съвет, Ministerski savet) is the main authority of the executive power in the Republic of Bulgaria.

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Government of Croatia

The Government of Croatia (Vlada Hrvatske), formally the Government of the Republic of Croatia (Vlada Republike Hrvatske), commonly abbreviated to Croatian Government (Hrvatska Vlada), is the main executive branch of government in Croatia.

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Government of Estonia

The Government of the Republic of Estonia (Estonian: Vabariigi Valitsus) is the cabinet of Estonia.

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Government of Hungary

The Government of Hungary (Magyarország Kormánya) exercises executive power in Hungary.

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Government of Kosovo

The Government of Kosovo (Qeveria e Kosovës; Vlada Kosova) exercises executive authority in the Republic of Kosovo.

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Government of Latvia

Palace of Justice The Government of Latvia is the central government of the Republic of Latvia.

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Government of Montenegro

The government of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Влада Црне Горе, Vlada Republike Crne Gore) is the executive branch of state authority in Montenegro.

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Government of Serbia

The Government of Serbia (Влада Србије / Vlada Srbije), formally the Government of the Republic of Serbia (Влада Републике Србије / Vlada Republike Srbije), commonly abbreviated to Serbian Government (Српска Влада / Srpska Vlada), is the executive branch of government in Serbia.

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Government of Slovakia

The Government of the Slovak Republic (Vláda Slovenskej republiky) is the head of the executive branch of state in Slovakia.

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Government of Slovenia

The Government of the Republic of Slovenia (Vlada Republike Slovenije) exercises executive authority in Slovenia pursuant to the Constitution and the laws of Slovenia.

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Government of Sweden

The Government of the Kingdom of Sweden (Konungariket Sveriges regering) is the national cabinet and the supreme executive authority in Sweden.

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Government of the Czech Republic

The Government of the Czech Republic (Vláda České republiky) exercises executive power in the Czech Republic.

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Governor General of Canada

The Governor General of Canada (Gouverneure générale du Canada) is the federal viceregal representative of the.

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Governor-General of Antigua and Barbuda

The Governor-General of Antigua and Barbuda is the viceregal representative of the Monarch of Antigua and Barbuda, currently being Queen Elizabeth II.

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Governor-General of Australia

The Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia is the representative of the Australian monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II.

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Governor-General of Barbados

The Governor-General of Barbados is a vice-regal representative of the Barbadian monarch (presently Queen Elizabeth II).

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Governor-General of Belize

The Governor-General of Belize is the representative of the monarch of Belize, currently Queen Elizabeth II, in all matters pertaining to the country.

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Governor-General of Grenada

The Governor-General of Grenada has been the representative of the Queen of Grenada since the country's independence from the United Kingdom in 1974.

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Governor-General of Jamaica

The Governor-General of Jamaica represents the Jamaican monarch and head of state, currently Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II.

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Governor-General of New Zealand

The Governor-General of New Zealand (Te Kāwana Tianara o Aotearoa) is the viceregal representative of the monarch of New Zealand, currently Queen Elizabeth II.

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Governor-General of Papua New Guinea

The Governor-General of Papua New Guinea is the viceregal representative of Queen Elizabeth II, known in Tok Pisin as 'Missis Kwin', Papua New Guinea's head of state, performing the duties of the Queen in her absence.

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Governor-General of Saint Kitts and Nevis

The Governor-General of Saint Kitts and Nevis is the viceregal representative of the monarch of Saint Kitts and Nevis, currently Queen Elizabeth II.

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Governor-General of Saint Lucia

The Governor-General of Saint Lucia is the viceregal representative of the monarch of Saint Lucia, currently Queen Elizabeth II.

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Governor-General of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

The office of Governor-General of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines was created in 1979 when the islands gained independence as a Commonwealth realm.

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Governor-General of the Bahamas

The Governor-General of the Commonwealth of the Bahamas is the viceregal representative of the Bahamian monarch (currently Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II).

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Head of government

A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.

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Head of state

A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.

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Hellenic Parliament

The Hellenic Parliament (Βουλή των Ελλήνων, "Parliament of the Hellenes", transliterated Voulí ton Ellínon) is the parliament of Greece, located in the Old Royal Palace, overlooking Syntagma Square in Athens.

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Henley & Partners Passport Index

The Henley & Partners Visa Restrictions Index (HVRI) is a global ranking of countries according to the travel freedom that their citizens enjoy.

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House of Assembly of Barbados

The House of Assembly is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of Barbados.

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House of Assembly of Dominica

The House of Assembly is the legislature of Dominica.

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House of Assembly of Saint Lucia

The Parliament of Saint Lucia has two chambers.

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House of Assembly of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

The House of Assembly of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is the unicameral legislature of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.

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House of Commons of Canada

The House of Commons of Canada (Chambre des communes du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the Senate.

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House of Commons of the United Kingdom

The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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House of Lords

The House of Lords of the United Kingdom, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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House of Representatives (Antigua and Barbuda)

The House of Representatives of Antigua and Barbuda is the lower chamber of the country's bicameral parliament.

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House of Representatives (Belize)

The House of Representatives of Belize is one of two chambers of the National Assembly, the other being the Senate.

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House of Representatives (Thailand)

The House of Representatives (สภาผู้แทนราษฎร) was the lower house of the National Assembly of Thailand, the legislative branch of the Thai government.

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Human Development Index

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.

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Ideology

An Ideology is a collection of normative beliefs and values that an individual or group holds for other than purely epistemic reasons.

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Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

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Instant-runoff voting

Instant-runoff voting (IRV) is a voting method used in single-seat elections with more than two candidates.

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Irish Free State

The Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann; 6 December 192229 December 1937) was a state established in 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 1921.

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Islam in Lebanon

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Italian Parliament

The Italian Parliament (Parlamento Italiano) is the national parliament of the Italian Republic.

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Jatiya Sangsad

The Jatiya Sangsad ("National Parliament"; জাতীয় সংসদ Jatiyô Sôngsôd), often referred to simply as the Sangsad or JS and also known as the House of the Nation, is the supreme legislative body of Bangladesh.

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Juan José Linz

Juan José Linz (24 December 1926 – 1 October 2013) was a Spanish sociologist and political scientist.

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Kingdom of Great Britain

The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.

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Knesset

The Knesset (הַכְּנֶסֶת; lit. "the gathering" or "assembly"; الكنيست) is the unicameral national legislature of Israel.

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Law reform

Law reform or legal reform is the process of examining existing laws, and advocating and implementing changes in a legal system, usually with the aim of enhancing justice or efficiency.

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Legislative Assembly of Samoa

The Legislative Assembly is the Parliament of Samoa based in the capital, Apia, where the country's central administration is situated.

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Legislative chamber

A legislative chamber or house is a deliberative assembly within a legislature which generally meets and votes separately from the legislature's other chambers.

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Legislature

A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.

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List of Cabinets of Lebanon

The Council of Ministers of Lebanon, known informally as the Cabinet of Lebanon, is the chief executive body of the Republic of Lebanon.

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List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita

The world sorted by their gross domestic product per capita at nominal values.

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List of countries by system of government

This is a list of countries by system of government.

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List of heads of government of Grenada

The following article contains a list of heads of government of Grenada, from the establishment of the office of Chief Minister in 1960 to the present day.

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List of legislatures by country

This is a list of legislatures by country.

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List of Prime Ministers of Belize

The following article contains a list of Prime Ministers of Belize, from the establishment of the position of First Minister of British Honduras in 1961 to the present day.

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List of Prime Ministers of Kuwait

The Prime Minister of Kuwait is the head of government of Kuwait.

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List of Prime Ministers of Nepal

The position of Prime Minister of Nepal (नेपालको प्रधानमन्त्री; Nēpālakō pradhānamantrī) in modern form was called by different names at different times of Nepalese history.

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List of Prime Ministers of Saint Kitts and Nevis

This page contains a list of Prime Ministers of Saint Kitts and Nevis.

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List of Prime Ministers of Saint Lucia

This page contains a list of Prime Ministers of Saint Lucia.

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List of Prime Ministers of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

This page contains a list of Prime Ministers of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.

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List of Prime Ministers of Somalia

This is a list of Prime Ministers of Somalia.

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List of Prime Ministers of Trinidad and Tobago

This is a list of the Prime Ministers of Trinidad and Tobago, from the establishment of the office of Chief Minister in 1950 to the present day.

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List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe

The list below includes all entities falling even partially under any of the various common definitions of Europe, geographical or political.

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Local government

A local government is a form of public administration which, in a majority of contexts, exists as the lowest tier of administration within a given state.

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Lok Sabha

The Lok Sabha (House of the People) is the lower house of India's bicameral Parliament, with the upper house being the Rajya Sabha.

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Lower house

A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house.

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Member of parliament

A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament.

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Mercer Quality of Living Survey

The Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranks 231 cities from Vienna to Baghdad on quality of life.

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Mixed-member proportional representation

Mixed-member proportional (MMP) representation is a mixed electoral system in which voters get two votes: one to decide the representative for their single-seat constituency, and one for a political party.

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Modernism

Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

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Monarch

A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy.

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Monarchy of Denmark

The Monarchy of Denmark, colloquially known as the Danish Monarchy, is a constitutional institution and a historic office of the Kingdom of Denmark.

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Monarchy of Norway

The Norwegian monarch is the monarchical head of state of Norway, which is a constitutional and hereditary monarchy with a parliamentary system.

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Monarchy of Thailand

The monarchy of Thailand (whose monarch is referred to as the King of Thailand or historically as the King of Siam; พระมหากษัตริย์ไทย) refers to the constitutional monarchy and monarch of the Kingdom of Thailand (formerly Siam). The King of Thailand is the head of state and head of the ruling Royal House of Chakri. Although the current Chakri Dynasty was created in 1782, the existence of the institution of monarchy in Thailand is traditionally considered to have its roots from the founding of the Sukhothai Kingdom in 1238, with a brief interregnum from the death of Ekkathat to the accession of Taksin in the 18th century. The institution was transformed into a constitutional monarchy in 1932 after the bloodless Siamese Revolution of 1932. The monarchy's official ceremonial residence is the Grand Palace in Bangkok, while the private residence has been at the Dusit Palace. The King of Thailand's titles include Head of State, Head of the Royal Thai Armed Forces, Adherent of Buddhism and Upholder of religions.

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Monarchy of the United Kingdom

The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories.

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Motion of no confidence

A motion of no confidence (alternatively vote of no confidence, no-confidence motion, or (unsuccessful) confidence motion) is a statement or vote which states that a person(s) in a position of responsibility (government, managerial, etc.) is no longer deemed fit to hold that position, perhaps because they are inadequate in some respect, are failing to carry out obligations, or are making decisions that other members feel are detrimental.

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National Assembly (Armenia)

The National Assembly of the Republic of Armenia (Հայաստանի Հանրապետության Ազգային ժողով, Hayastani Hanrapetyut'yan Azgayin zhoghov or simply Ազգային ժողով, ԱԺ Azgayin Zhoghov, AZh), also informally referred to as the Parliament of Armenia (խորհրդարան, khorhrdaran) is the legislative branch of the government of Armenia.

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National Assembly (Bulgaria)

The National Assembly (Народно събрание, Narodno sabranie) is the unicameral parliament and body of the legislative of Bulgaria.

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National Assembly (Hungary)

The National Assembly (Országgyűlés; "Country Assembly") is the parliament of Hungary.

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National Assembly (Kuwait)

The National Assembly (مجلس الأمة), is the unicameral legislature of Kuwait.

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National Assembly (Mauritius)

The National Assembly (Assemblée nationale) is Mauritius's unicameral legislature, which was called the Legislative Assembly until 1992, when the country became a republic.

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National Assembly (Saint Kitts and Nevis)

The National Assembly is the parliament of Saint Kitts and Nevis.

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National Assembly (Serbia)

The National Assembly (Народна скупштина/Narodna skupština) is the unicameral legislature of Serbia.

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National Assembly (Slovenia)

The National Assembly (Državni zbor Republike Slovenije, or; Slovene abbreviation DZ), is the general representative body of Slovenia.

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National Assembly (Suriname)

The National Assembly (De Nationale Assemblée, The Assembly, commonly abbreviated "DNA") is the Parliament, representing the legislative branch of government in Suriname.

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National Council (Austria)

The National Council (Nationalrat) is one of the two houses of the Austrian Parliament and is frequently referred to as the lower house.

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National Council (Slovakia)

The National Council (Národná rada), abbreviated to NR SR, is the national parliament of Slovakia.

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National Diet

The is Japan's bicameral legislature.

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National Legislative Assembly of Thailand (2014)

The National Legislative Assembly of Thailand (สภานิติบัญญัติแห่งชาติ;; abrv: NLA) was the unicameral legislative branch of the government of Thailand.

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National Parliament of Papua New Guinea

The National Parliament of Papua New Guinea is the unicameral national legislature in Papua New Guinea.

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New Zealand Parliament

The New Zealand Parliament (Pāremata Aotearoa) is the legislature of New Zealand, consisting of the Queen of New Zealand (Queen-in-Parliament) and the New Zealand House of Representatives.

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Open list

Open list describes any variant of party-list proportional representation where voters have at least some influence on the order in which a party's candidates are elected.

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Oslo

Oslo (rarely) is the capital and most populous city of Norway.

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Oxford Parliament (1258)

The Oxford Parliament (1258), also known as the "Mad Parliament" and the "First English Parliament", assembled during the reign of Henry III of England.

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Parliament

In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government.

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Parliament in the Making

Parliament in the Making was a programme of events organised by the Parliament of the United Kingdom to commemorate a series of anniversaries in 2015 including.

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Parliament of Albania

The Parliament of Albania (Kuvendi i Shqipërisë) or Kuvendi is the unicameral representative body of the citizens of the Republic of Albania; it is Albania's legislature.

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Parliament of Bhutan

The Parliament of Bhutan (རྒྱལ་ཡོངས་ཚོགས་ཁང་ gyelyong tshokhang) consists of the King of Bhutan together with a bicameral parliament.

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Parliament of Botswana

The Parliament of Botswana consists of the President and the National Assembly.

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Parliament of Cambodia

The Parliament of the Kingdom of Cambodia (សភាតំណាងរាស្ត្រ ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា; Saphea Damnang Reastr ney Preăh Réachéanachâk Kâmpŭchéa, Parlement du Royaume du Cambodge) is the bicameral legislature of the Government of Cambodia, consisting of the Senate and the National Assembly.

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Parliament of England

The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England, existing from the early 13th century until 1707, when it became the Parliament of Great Britain after the political union of England and Scotland created the Kingdom of Great Britain.

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Parliament of Finland

The Parliament of Finland, is the unicameral supreme legislature of Finland, founded on 9 May 1906.

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Parliament of Grenada

The Parliament of Grenada is composed of the monarch and two chambers: Senate and the House of Representatives.

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Parliament of Jamaica

The Parliament of Jamaica is the legislative branch of the government of Jamaica.

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Parliament of Lebanon

The Parliament of Lebanon (مجلس النواب Majlis an-Nuwwab; Chambre des députés) is the national parliament of Lebanon.

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Parliament of Malaysia

The Parliament of Malaysia (Parlimen Malaysia) is the national legislature of Malaysia, based on the Westminster system.

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Parliament of Malta

The Parliament of Malta (Parlament ta' Malta) is the constitutional legislative body in Malta, located in Valletta.

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Parliament of Montenegro

The Parliament of Montenegro (Skupština Crne Gore, Скупштина Црне Горе) is the unicameral legislature of Montenegro.

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Parliament of Pakistan

The Parliament of Pakistan (مجلس شوریٰ پاکستان —) is the federal and supreme legislative body of Pakistan.

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Parliament of Singapore

The Parliament of the Republic of Singapore and the President jointly make up the legislature of Singapore, which is based on the Westminster system.

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Parliament of South Africa

The Parliament of South Africa is South Africa's legislature and under the country's current Constitution is composed of the National Assembly and the National Council of Provinces.

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Parliament of the Bahamas

The Parliament of The Bahamas is the bicameral national parliament of Commonwealth of The Bahamas.

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Parliament of the Republic of Moldova

The Parliament of the Republic of Moldova (Parlamentul Republicii Moldova) is the unicameral assembly of the Republic of Moldova.

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Parliament of Trinidad and Tobago

The Parliament of Trinidad and Tobago is the legislative branch of the Government of Trinidad and Tobago.

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Parliament of Vanuatu

The Parliament (or Parlement in French) is the unicameral legislative body of the Republic of Vanuatu.

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Parliamentary leader

A parliamentary leader is a political title or a descriptive term used in various countries to the person leading a caucus (or parliamentary group) in a legislative body, whether it be a national or sub-national legislature.

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Parliamentary republic

A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament).

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Parliamentary system

A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.

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Pashtuns

The Pashtuns (or; پښتانه Pax̌tānə; singular masculine: پښتون Pax̌tūn, feminine: پښتنه Pax̌tana; also Pukhtuns), historically known as ethnic Afghans (افغان, Afğān) and Pathans (Hindustani: پٹھان, पठान, Paṭhān), are an Iranic ethnic group who mainly live in Pakistan and Afghanistan.

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Philip II of Spain

Philip II (Felipe II; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598), called "the Prudent" (el Prudente), was King of Spain (1556–98), King of Portugal (1581–98, as Philip I, Filipe I), King of Naples and Sicily (both from 1554), and jure uxoris King of England and Ireland (during his marriage to Queen Mary I from 1554–58).

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Plenary session

A plenary session is a session of a conference which all members of all parties are to attend.

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Plurality voting

Plurality voting is an electoral system in which each voter is allowed to vote for only one candidate, and the candidate who polls the most among their counterparts (a plurality) is elected.

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Political party

A political party is an organised group of people, often with common views, who come together to contest elections and hold power in government.

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Politics of Grenada

The politics of Grenada takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democracy, whereby the Prime Minister is the head of government.

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Politics of Saint Kitts and Nevis

The politics of Saint Kitts and Nevis takes place in the framework of a federal parliamentary democracy.

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Politics of Saint Lucia

Politics of Saint Lucia takes place in the framework of an independent parliamentary democratic constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state, represented by a Governor General, who acts on the advice of the prime minister and the cabinet.

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Politics of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Politics of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines takes place in the framework of a parliamentary democracy.

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Politics of Suriname

Politics of Suriname take place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the president of Suriname is the head of state and head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system.

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Politics of the Republic of Macedonia

Politics in the Republic of Macedonia occur within the framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister is the head of government, and of a multi-party system.

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Pouvoirs

Pouvoirs (full title: Pouvoirs, revue d'études constitutionnelles et politiques) is a French political science journal that publishes academic articles relating to constitutional affairs.

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President of Botswana

The President of the Republic of Botswana is the head of state and the head of government of Botswana, as well as the commander-in-chief of the armed forces, according to the Constitution of Botswana.

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President of Estonia

The President of the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariigi President) is the head of state of the Republic of Estonia.

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President of Germany

The President of Germany, officially the Federal President of the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundespräsident der Bundesrepublik Deutschland),The official title within Germany is Bundespräsident, with der Bundesrepublik Deutschland being added in international correspondence; the official English title is President of the Federal Republic of Germany is the head of state of Germany.

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President of Iceland

The President of Iceland (Forseti Íslands) is Iceland's elected head of state.

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President of India

The President of the Republic of India is the head of state of India and the commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces.

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President of Ireland

The President of Ireland (Uachtarán na hÉireann) is the head of state of the Republic of Ireland and the Supreme Commander of the Irish Defence Forces.

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President of Israel

The President of the State of Israel (נְשִׂיא מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, Nesi Medinat Yisra'el, or נְשִׂיא הַמְדִינָה, Nesi HaMedina, literally President of the State) is the head of state of Israel.

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President of Italy

The President of the Italian Republic (Presidente della Repubblica Italiana) is the head of state of Italy and in that role represents national unity and guarantees that Italian politics comply with the Constitution.

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President of Myanmar

The President of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar is the head of state and the head of government of Myanmar and leads the executive branch of the Burmese government, and heads the Cabinet of Myanmar.

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President of Somalia

The President of Somalia (Madaxaweynaha Soomaaliya) is the head of state of Somalia.

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President of South Africa

The President of the Republic of South Africa is the head of state and head of government under the Constitution of South Africa.

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President of Suriname

The President of the Republic of Suriname (President van de Republiek Suriname) is, in accordance with the Constitution of 1987, the head of state and head of government of Suriname, and commander-in-chief of Suriname National Army.

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President of the Czech Republic

The President of the Czech Republic is the elected formal head of state of the Czech Republic and the commander-in-chief of the Military of the Czech Republic.

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Presidential Electoral College

The Presidential Electoral College (သမ္မတရွေးချယ်တင်မြှောက်ရေးအဖွဲ့) is an electoral college made up of MPs that elects the President of Myanmar.

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Presidential system

A presidential system is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.

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Prime minister

A prime minister is the head of a cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system.

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Prime Minister of Antigua and Barbuda

The Prime Minister of Antigua and Barbuda is the head of government of that country.

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Prime Minister of Australia

The Prime Minister of Australia (sometimes informally abbreviated to PM) is the head of government of Australia.

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Prime Minister of Barbados

The Prime Minister of Barbados is the head of government of Barbados.

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Prime Minister of Canada

The Prime Minister of Canada (Premier ministre du Canada) is the primary minister of the Crown, chairman of the Cabinet, and thus Canada's head of government, charged with advising the Canadian monarch or Governor General of Canada on the exercise of the executive powers vested in them by the constitution.

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Prime Minister of Croatia

The Prime Minister of Croatia (Premijer/ Premijerka Hrvatske), officially the President of the Government of the Republic of Croatia (Predsjednik/ Predsjednica Vlade Republike Hrvatske), is Croatia's head of government, and is the de facto the most powerful and influential state officeholder in the Croatian system of government.

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Prime Minister of Estonia

The Prime Minister of Estonia (Estonian: Eesti Vabariigi peaminister, literally translated as Head Minister of Estonia) is the head of government of the Republic of Estonia.

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Prime Minister of India

The Prime Minister of India is the leader of the executive of the Government of India.

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Prime Minister of Israel

The Prime Minister of Israel (רֹאשׁ הַמֶּמְשָׁלָה, Rosh HaMemshala, lit. Head of the Government, Hebrew acronym: רה״מ; رئيس الحكومة, Ra'īs al-Ḥukūma) is the head of government of Israel and the most powerful figure in Israeli politics.

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Prime Minister of Jamaica

The Prime Minister of Jamaica is Jamaica's head of government, currently Andrew Holness.

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Prime Minister of Japan

The is the head of government of Japan.

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Prime Minister of Kyrgyzstan

The Prime Minister of Kyrgyzstan is the head of government of Kyrgyzstan.

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Prime Minister of New Zealand

The Prime Minister of New Zealand (Te Pirimia o Aotearoa) is the head of government of New Zealand.

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Prime Minister of Norway

The Prime Minister of Norway (statsminister, literally the "minister of the state") is the head of government of Norway and the most powerful person in Norwegian politics.

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Prime Minister of Papua New Guinea

The Prime Minister of Papua New Guinea, is Papua New Guinea's head of government, consequent on being the leader of the party or coalition with majority support in the National Parliament.

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Prime Minister of Spain

The Prime Minister of Spain, officially the President of the Government of Spain (Presidente del Gobierno de España), is the head of the government of Spain.

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Prime Minister of Sweden

The Prime Minister (statsminister, literally "Minister of the State") is the head of government in Sweden.

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Prime Minister of Thailand

The Prime Minister (นายกรัฐมนตรี) of Thailand is the head of government of Thailand.

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Prime Minister of the Bahamas

The Prime Minister of The Bahamas is the head of government of the Bahamas, currently Hubert Minnis.

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Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.

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Proportional representation

Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems by which divisions into an electorate are reflected proportionately into the elected body.

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Race (human categorization)

A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories generally viewed as distinct by society.

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Reform Act 1832

The Representation of the People Act 1832 (known informally as the 1832 Reform Act, Great Reform Act or First Reform Act to distinguish it from subsequent Reform Acts) was an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom (indexed as 2 & 3 Will. IV c. 45) that introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system of England and Wales.

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Representative democracy

Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.

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Riigikogu

The Riigikogu (from riigi-, of the state, and kogu, assembly) is the unicameral parliament of Estonia.

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Riksdag

The Riksdag (riksdagen or Sveriges riksdag) is the national legislature and the supreme decision-making body of Sweden.

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Robert A. Dahl

Robert Alan Dahl (December 17, 1915 Inwood, Iowa, U.S. – February 5, 2014 Hamden, Connecticut, U.S.) was a political theorist and Sterling Professor of Political Science at Yale University.

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Robert Walpole

Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford, (26 August 1676 – 18 March 1745), known before 1742 as Sir Robert Walpole, was a British statesman who is generally regarded as the de facto first Prime Minister of Great Britain.

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Rule according to higher law

The rule according to a higher law means that no law may be enforced by the government unless it conforms with certain universal principles (written or unwritten) of fairness, morality, and justice.

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Rule of law

The rule of law is the "authority and influence of law in society, especially when viewed as a constraint on individual and institutional behavior; (hence) the principle whereby all members of a society (including those in government) are considered equally subject to publicly disclosed legal codes and processes".

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Saeima

The Saeima is the parliament of the Republic of Latvia.

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Semi-parliamentary system

A semi-parliamentary system (also described as a neo-parliamentary or prime-ministerial system) is a classification of systems of government proposed by Maurice Duverger, in which citizens directly elect at the same time the legislature and the prime minister, possibly with an electoral law ensuring the existence of a parliamentary majority for the prime minister-elect.

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Semi-presidential system

A semi-presidential system or dual executive system is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter two being responsible for the legislature of a state.

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Shia Islam

Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.

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Simon de Montfort's Parliament

Simon de Montfort's Parliament was an English parliament held from 20 January 1265 until mid-March the same year, instigated by Simon de Montfort, a baronial rebel leader.

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Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester

Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester (– 4 August 1265), also called Simon de Munford and sometimes referred to as Simon V de Montfort to distinguish him from other Simons de Montfort, was a French-English nobleman who inherited the title and estates of the earldom of Leicester in England.

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Single transferable vote

The single transferable vote (STV) is a voting system designed to achieve proportional representation through ranked voting in multi-seat organizations or constituencies (voting districts).

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Sovereign state

A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.

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States General of the Netherlands

The States General of the Netherlands (Staten-Generaal) is the bicameral legislature of the Netherlands consisting of the Senate (Eerste Kamer) and the House of Representatives (Tweede Kamer).

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Storting

The Storting (Stortinget, "the great thing" or "the great assembly") is the supreme legislature of Norway, established in 1814 by the Constitution of Norway.

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Supreme Council (Kyrgyzstan)

The Supreme Council (Жогорку Кеңеш, Joğorqu Keñeş, جوعورقۇ كەڭەش) is the unicameral Parliament of the Kyrgyz Republic.

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Swedish general election, 1958

Early general elections were held in Sweden on 1 June 1958,Nohlen, D & Stöver, P (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p1858 after the defeat of the Social Democratic government's proposals for a new pensions system in a parliamentary vote.

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Taif Agreement

The Taif Agreement (اتفاقية الطائف / ittifāqiyat al-Ṭā’if) (also the or) was an agreement reached to provide "the basis for the ending of the civil war and the return to political normalcy in Lebanon".

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Taoiseach

The Taoiseach (pl. Taoisigh) is the prime minister, chief executive and head of government of Ireland.

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The English Constitution

The English Constitution is a book by Walter Bagehot.

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Third World

The term "Third World" arose during the Cold War to define countries that remained non-aligned with either NATO or the Communist Bloc.

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Unicameralism

In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.

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Union Council of Ministers

The Union Council of Ministers exercises executive authority in the Republic of India.

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Union of South Africa

The Union of South Africa (Unie van Zuid-Afrika, Unie van Suid-Afrika) is the historic predecessor to the present-day Republic of South Africa.

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United States Senate

The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprise the legislature of the United States.

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Upper house

An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature (or one of three chambers of a tricameral legislature), the other chamber being the lower house.

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Urbanization

Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.

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Walter Bagehot

Walter Bagehot (3 February 1826 – 24 March 1877) was a British journalist, businessman, and essayist, who wrote extensively about government, economics, and literature.

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Weimar Republic

The Weimar Republic (Weimarer Republik) is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state during the years 1919 to 1933.

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Westminster system

The Westminster system is a parliamentary system of government developed in the United Kingdom.

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World Bank

The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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2014 Thai coup d'état

On 22 May 2014, the Royal Thai Armed Forces, led by General Prayut Chan-o-cha, Commander of the Royal Thai Army (RTA), launched a coup d'état, the 12th since the country's first coup in 1932, against the caretaker government of Thailand, following six months of political crisis.

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Anti defection law, Anti-parliamentarianism, Anti-parliamentarism, Anti-parliamentarist, Antiparliamentarism, Antiparliamentarist, Parliamenary, Parliamental, Parliamentarian democracy, Parliamentarianism, Parliamentarism, Parliamentary, Parliamentary System, Parliamentary democracies, Parliamentary democratic, Parliamentary form of government, Parliamentary politics, Parliamentary system of government, Parliamentary systems, Parlimentary democracy, Parlimentary system.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parliamentary_system

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