308 relations: Age of Liberty, Arend Lijphart, Assembly of the Republic of Kosovo, Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia, Assembly of the Union, Australian House of Representatives, Australian Senate, Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany, Basic Laws of Sweden, Belgian Federal Parliament, Bicameralism, Bill of Rights 1689, British Empire, Bruce Ackerman, Bundestag, Cabinet of Antigua and Barbuda, Cabinet of Australia, Cabinet of Bangladesh, Cabinet of Barbados, Cabinet of Belize, Cabinet of Botswana, Cabinet of Cambodia, Cabinet of Canada, Cabinet of Denmark, Cabinet of Dominica, Cabinet of Germany, Cabinet of Greece, Cabinet of Iceland, Cabinet of Israel, Cabinet of Jamaica, Cabinet of Japan, Cabinet of Kuwait, Cabinet of Malaysia, Cabinet of Malta, Cabinet of Mauritius, Cabinet of Moldova, Cabinet of Myanmar, Cabinet of New Zealand, Cabinet of Pakistan, Cabinet of Papua New Guinea, Cabinet of Samoa, Cabinet of Singapore, Cabinet of South Africa, Cabinet of Thailand, Cabinet of the Bahamas, Cabinet of the Netherlands, Cabinet of the United Kingdom, Cabinet of Vanuatu, Caribbean, Chamber of Deputies (Luxembourg), ..., Chamber of Deputies of the Czech Republic, Chancellor of Germany (1949–present), Closed list, Commonwealth of Nations, Congress of Deputies, Constitutional monarchy, Constructive vote of no confidence, Corruption Perceptions Index, Cortes of León of 1188, Council of Government of Luxembourg, Council of Ministers (Albania), Council of Ministers (Belgium), Council of Ministers (Bhutan), Council of Ministers (Ethiopia), Council of Ministers (Iraq), Council of Ministers (Italy), Council of Ministers (Spain), Council of Ministers of Nepal, Council of Representatives of Iraq, Council of State (Norway), Coup d'état, Croatian Parliament, Dáil Éireann, Debate chamber, Decree, Democracy, Dualism (politics), Dutch Revolt, Emperor of Japan, Ethnic group, Executive (government), Federal Council (Switzerland), Federal Parliament of Nepal, Federal Parliament of Somalia, Federal Parliamentary Assembly, Finnish Government, First-past-the-post voting, Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011, Folketing, Frederick Charles Riggs, French Fifth Republic, George I of Great Britain, Gerhard Schröder, Global Competitiveness Report, Global Liveability Ranking, Glorious Revolution, Google Books, Government, Government of Armenia, Government of Bulgaria, Government of Croatia, Government of Estonia, Government of Hungary, Government of Kosovo, Government of Latvia, Government of Montenegro, Government of Serbia, Government of Slovakia, Government of Slovenia, Government of Sweden, Government of the Czech Republic, Governor General of Canada, Governor-General of Antigua and Barbuda, Governor-General of Australia, Governor-General of Barbados, Governor-General of Belize, Governor-General of Grenada, Governor-General of Jamaica, Governor-General of New Zealand, Governor-General of Papua New Guinea, Governor-General of Saint Kitts and Nevis, Governor-General of Saint Lucia, Governor-General of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Governor-General of the Bahamas, Head of government, Head of state, Hellenic Parliament, Henley & Partners Passport Index, House of Assembly of Barbados, House of Assembly of Dominica, House of Assembly of Saint Lucia, House of Assembly of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, House of Commons of Canada, House of Commons of the United Kingdom, House of Lords, House of Representatives (Antigua and Barbuda), House of Representatives (Belize), House of Representatives (Thailand), Human Development Index, Ideology, Industrial Revolution, Instant-runoff voting, Irish Free State, Islam in Lebanon, Italian Parliament, Jatiya Sangsad, Juan José Linz, Kingdom of Great Britain, Knesset, Law reform, Legislative Assembly of Samoa, Legislative chamber, Legislature, List of Cabinets of Lebanon, List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita, List of countries by system of government, List of heads of government of Grenada, List of legislatures by country, List of Prime Ministers of Belize, List of Prime Ministers of Kuwait, List of Prime Ministers of Nepal, List of Prime Ministers of Saint Kitts and Nevis, List of Prime Ministers of Saint Lucia, List of Prime Ministers of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, List of Prime Ministers of Somalia, List of Prime Ministers of Trinidad and Tobago, List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe, Local government, Lok Sabha, Lower house, Member of parliament, Mercer Quality of Living Survey, Mixed-member proportional representation, Modernism, Monarch, Monarchy of Denmark, Monarchy of Norway, Monarchy of Thailand, Monarchy of the United Kingdom, Motion of no confidence, National Assembly (Armenia), National Assembly (Bulgaria), National Assembly (Hungary), National Assembly (Kuwait), National Assembly (Mauritius), National Assembly (Saint Kitts and Nevis), National Assembly (Serbia), National Assembly (Slovenia), National Assembly (Suriname), National Council 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Grenadines, Politics of Suriname, Politics of the Republic of Macedonia, Pouvoirs, President of Botswana, President of Estonia, President of Germany, President of Iceland, President of India, President of Ireland, President of Israel, President of Italy, President of Myanmar, President of Somalia, President of South Africa, President of Suriname, President of the Czech Republic, Presidential Electoral College, Presidential system, Prime minister, Prime Minister of Antigua and Barbuda, Prime Minister of Australia, Prime Minister of Barbados, Prime Minister of Canada, Prime Minister of Croatia, Prime Minister of Estonia, Prime Minister of India, Prime Minister of Israel, Prime Minister of Jamaica, Prime Minister of Japan, Prime Minister of Kyrgyzstan, Prime Minister of New Zealand, Prime Minister of Norway, Prime Minister of Papua New Guinea, Prime Minister of Spain, Prime Minister of Sweden, Prime Minister of Thailand, Prime Minister of the Bahamas, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Proportional representation, Race (human categorization), Reform Act 1832, Representative democracy, Riigikogu, Riksdag, Robert A. Dahl, Robert Walpole, Rule according to higher law, Rule of law, Saeima, Semi-parliamentary system, Semi-presidential system, Shia Islam, Simon de Montfort's Parliament, Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, Single transferable vote, Sovereign state, States General of the Netherlands, Storting, Supreme Council (Kyrgyzstan), Swedish general election, 1958, Taif Agreement, Taoiseach, The English Constitution, Third World, Unicameralism, Union Council of Ministers, Union of South Africa, United States Senate, Upper house, Urbanization, Walter Bagehot, Weimar Republic, Westminster system, World Bank, World War I, World War II, 2014 Thai coup d'état. Expand index (258 more) » « Shrink index
In Swedish and Finnish history, the Age of Liberty (Age of Freedom) (Frihetstiden) is a half-century-long period of parliamentary governance and increasing civil rights, beginning with Charles XII's death in 1718 and ending with Gustav III's self-coup in 1772.
Arend d'Angremond Lijphart (born 17 August 1936, Apeldoorn, Netherlands) is a political scientist specializing in comparative politics, elections and voting systems, democratic institutions, and ethnicity and politics.
The Assembly of the Republic of Kosovo (Kuvendi i Republikës së Kosovës; Скупштина Републике Косово) was originally established by the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo in 2001"" to provide 'provisional, democratic self-government'.
The Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia (Собрание на Република Македонија) or the Sobranie is the unicameral representative body of the citizens of the Republic of Macedonia; it is Macedonia's sole legislature.
The Assembly of the Union (ပြည်ထောင်စု လွှတ်တော် Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) is the national-level bicameral legislature of Myanmar (officially known as the Republic of the Union of Myanmar) established by the 2008 National Constitution.
The Australian House of Representatives is one of the two Houses (chambers) of the Parliament of Australia.
The Australian Senate is the upper house of the bicameral Parliament of Australia, the lower house being the House of Representatives.
The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution of the Federal Republic of Germany.
The Basic Laws of Sweden (Sveriges grundlagar) are the four fundamental laws of the Kingdom of Sweden that regulate the Swedish political system, acting in a similar manner to the constitutions of most countries.
The Belgian Federal Parliament is the bicameral parliament of Belgium.
A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.
The Bill of Rights, also known as the English Bill of Rights, is an Act of the Parliament of England that deals with constitutional matters and sets out certain basic civil rights.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
Bruce Arnold Ackerman (born August 19, 1943) is an American constitutional law scholar.
The Bundestag ("Federal Diet") is the German federal parliament.
The Cabinet of Antigua and Barbuda is the executive branch of the government of Antigua and Barbuda.
The Cabinet of Australia is the Australian Government's council of senior Ministers of the Crown, responsible to Parliament.
The Cabinet of Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশের মন্ত্রিসভা –) or Council of Ministers (বাংলাদেশের মন্ত্রিপরিষদ –) is the chief executive body of the People's Republic of Bangladesh.
The Cabinet, formally Her Majesty’s Barbados Ministers, are individuals of Barbados which execute the duties of the Government of Barbados.
The Cabinet of Belize is the executive body of the government of Belize.
The Cabinet of Botswana consists of the President, Vice President and all the Ministers.
The Cabinet of Cambodia, formally known as the Council of Ministers (គណៈរដ្ឋមន្ត្រី, Conseil des ministres), is the executive body of the Kingdom of Cambodia led by the Prime Minister, assisted by Deputy Prime Ministers, Senior Ministers, Ministers, and Secretaries of State.
The Cabinet of Canada (Cabinet du Canada) is a body of ministers of the Crown that, along with the Canadian monarch, and within the tenets of the Westminster system, forms the government of Canada.
The Cabinet of Denmark (regering) has been the chief executive body and the government of the Kingdom of Denmark since 1848.
The Cabinet of Dominica is appointed by the President of Dominica acting in accordance with the advice of the Prime Minister of Dominica.
The Cabinet of Germany (Bundeskabinett or Bundesregierung) is the chief executive body of the Federal Republic of Germany.
The cabinet of Greece, officially called the Ministerial Council, constitutes the Government of Greece (Κυβέρνηση της Ελλάδας).
The Cabinet of Iceland (Stjórnarráð Íslands) is the collective decision-making body of the government of Iceland, composed of the Prime Minister and the cabinet ministers.
The Government of Israel (officially: ממשלת ישראל Memshelet Yisrael) exercises executive authority in the State of Israel.
The Cabinet of the Government of Jamaica is the ultimate decision-making body of the executive within the Westminster system of government in traditional constitutional theory.
The is the executive branch of the government of Japan.
The Cabinet of Kuwait is the chief executive body of the State of Kuwait.
The Cabinet of Malaysia is the executive branch of Malaysia's government.
The Cabinet of Malta is the collective decision-making body of the Government of Malta, composed of the Prime Minister and a number of Ministers who are selected by the Prime Minister from the elected members of House of Representatives to head government departments.
The Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Mauritius is the official council which advises the President of the Republic in the making of major decisions.
The Cabinet of Moldova is the chief executive body of the government of Moldova.
The Cabinet of Myanmar is the executive body of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar led by the President of Myanmar.
The Cabinet of New Zealand (Te Rūnanga o te Kāwanatanga o Aotearoa) is the New Zealand Government's body of senior ministers, responsible to the New Zealand Parliament.
The Cabinet of Pakistan (کابینہ پاکستان, Kabina-e-Pakistan) is a formal body composed of senior government officials chosen and led by the Prime Minister.
The Cabinet of Papua New Guinea functions as the policy and decision-making body of the executive branch within the government system of Papua New Guinea.
The Cabinet is the executive branch of the government of the Independent State of Samoa.
The Cabinet of Singapore forms the Government (executive branch) of Singapore together with the President of Singapore.
The Cabinet of South Africa is the most senior level of the executive branch of the Government of South Africa.
The cabinet of Thailand or, formally, the Council of Ministers of Thailand (คณะรัฐมนตรี; is a body composed of thirty-five of the most senior members of the government of the Kingdom of Thailand.
The Cabinet constitutes the executive branch and has general direction and control of the Government of The Bahamas.
The cabinet of the Netherlands (Nederlandse kabinet) is the main executive body of the Netherlands.
The Cabinet of the United Kingdom is the collective decision-making body of Her Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom, composed of the Prime Minister and 21 cabinet ministers, the most senior of the government ministers.
The Cabinet of Vanuatu (formally the Council of Ministers of Vanuatu) is the cabinet (executive branch) of the government of the Republic of Vanuatu.
The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.
The Chamber of Deputies (D'Chamber, Chambre des Députés, Abgeordnetenkammer), abbreviated to the Chamber, is the unicameral national legislature of Luxembourg.
The Chamber of Deputies (Poslanecká sněmovna) is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of the Czech Republic.
The Federal Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (in German called Bundeskanzler(in), meaning "Federal Chancellor", or in) for short) is, under the German 1949 Constitution, the head of government of Germany.
Closed list describes the variant of party-list proportional representation where voters can (effectively) only vote for political parties as a whole and thus have no influence on the party-supplied order in which party candidates are elected.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
The Congress of Deputies (Congreso de los Diputados; Diputatuen Kongresua; Congrés dels Diputats; Congreso dos Deputados) is the lower house of the Cortes Generales, Spain's legislative branch.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
The constructive vote of no confidence (in German: konstruktives Misstrauensvotum, in Spanish: moción de censura constructiva) is a variation on the motion of no confidence that allows a parliament to withdraw confidence from a head of government only if there is a positive majority for a prospective successor.
Transparency International (TI) has published the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) since 1995, annually ranking countries "by their perceived levels of corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys." The CPI generally defines corruption as "the misuse of public power for private benefit".
The Cortes of León from year 1188 was a parliamentary body in the medieval Kingdom of León.
The Council of Government of Luxembourg consists of the Prime Minister and a number of ministers.
The Council of Ministers is the executive branch that constitutes the Government of Albania.
The Council of Ministers (Conseil des ministres, Ministerraad) is the supreme executive organ of the Federal Government of the Kingdom of Belgium.
The Council of Ministers (Dzongkha: ལྷན་རྒྱས་གཞུང་ཚོགས་; Wylie: lhan-rgyas gzhung-tshogs) is the highest executive body in Bhutan.
The Council of Ministers is the cabinet of the Government of Ethiopia.
The Council of Ministers is the executive branch of the government of Iraq.
The Council of Ministers (Consiglio dei Ministri, CdM) is the principal executive organ of the Government of Italy.
The Council of Ministers (Consejo de Ministros) is a collegiate body composed of the President of the Government (Prime Minister), Vice presidents when existing and the Ministers, and any other member required by law, and in some cases Secretaries of State (Junior Ministers).
The Council of Ministers (नेपालको मन्त्रीमण्डल; Nēpālakō mantrīmaṇḍala) or Federal Executive (संघीय कार्यकारी; Saṅghīya kāryakārī) exercises authority over the Federal Government of Nepal.
The Council of Representatives (Majlis an-Nuwwāb al-ʿIrāqiyy; ئهنجومهنی نوێنهرانی) is the unicameral legislature of the Republic of Iraq.
The Council of State (Norwegian: Statsrådet), is a formal body composed of the most senior government ministers chosen by the Prime Minister, and functions as the collective decision-making organ constituting the executive branch of the Kingdom.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
The Croatian Parliament (Hrvatski sabor) or the Sabor is the unicameral representative body of the citizens of the Republic of Croatia; it is Croatia's legislature.
Dáil Éireann (lit. Assembly of Ireland) is the lower house, and principal chamber, of the Oireachtas (Irish legislature), which also includes the President of Ireland and Seanad Éireann (the upper house).
A debate chamber is a room for people to discuss and debate.
A decree is a rule of law usually issued by a head of state (such as the president of a republic or a monarch), according to certain procedures (usually established in a constitution).
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
In Dutch politics the term dualism is used to refer to the separation of powers between the cabinet and parliament.
The Dutch Revolt (1568–1648)This article adopts 1568 as the starting date of the war, as this was the year of the first battles between armies.
The Emperor of Japan is the head of the Imperial Family and the head of state of Japan.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
The Federal Council is the seven-member executive council which constitutes the federal government of the Swiss Confederation and serves as the collective executive head of government and state of Switzerland.
The Federal Parliament of Nepal (संघीय संसद नेपाल, saṅghīya sansada Nēpāl) is the federal and supreme legislative body of Nepal.
The Federal Parliament of Somalia (Golaha Shacabka Soomaaliya; often Baarlamaanka Federaalka Soomaaliya; البرلمان الاتحادي في الصومال; Il parlamento federale della Somalia) is the national parliament of Somalia.
The Parliament of Ethiopia consists of two chambers.
The Finnish government is the executive branch and cabinet of Finland, which directs the politics of Finland and is the main source of legislation proposed to the Parliament.
A first-past-the-post (FPTP) voting method is one in which voters indicate on a ballot the candidate of their choice, and the candidate who receives the most votes wins.
The Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011 (c. 14) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that received Royal Assent on 15 September 2011, introducing fixed-term elections to the Westminster parliament for the first time.
The Folketing (Folketinget,; lit. the people's thing), also known as the Danish Parliament in English, is the unicameral national parliament (legislature) of the Kingdom of Denmark.
Frederick Charles Riggs (28 July 1888 – 1 October 1918) was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
The Fifth Republic, France's current republican system of government, was established by Charles de Gaulle under the Constitution of the Fifth Republic on 4 October 1958.
George I (George Louis; Georg Ludwig; 28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1 August 1714 and ruler of the Duchy and Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) in the Holy Roman Empire from 1698 until his death.
Gerhard Fritz Kurt Schröder (born 7 April 1944) is a German politician, and served as Chancellor of Germany from 1998 to 2005, during which his most important political project was the Agenda 2010.
The Global Competitiveness Report (GCR) is a yearly report published by the World Economic Forum.
The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) publishes an annual Global Liveability Ranking, which ranks 140 cities for their urban quality of life based on assessments of stability, healthcare, culture and environment, education and infrastructure.
The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange, who was James's nephew and son-in-law.
Google Books (previously known as Google Book Search and Google Print and by its codename Project Ocean) is a service from Google Inc. that searches the full text of books and magazines that Google has scanned, converted to text using optical character recognition (OCR), and stored in its digital database.
A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.
The Government of the Republic of Armenia (Հայաստանի Հանրապետության Կառավարություն) or the executive branch of the Armenian government is an executive council of government ministers in Armenia.
The Council of Ministers (Министерски съвет, Ministerski savet) is the main authority of the executive power in the Republic of Bulgaria.
The Government of Croatia (Vlada Hrvatske), formally the Government of the Republic of Croatia (Vlada Republike Hrvatske), commonly abbreviated to Croatian Government (Hrvatska Vlada), is the main executive branch of government in Croatia.
The Government of the Republic of Estonia (Estonian: Vabariigi Valitsus) is the cabinet of Estonia.
The Government of Hungary (Magyarország Kormánya) exercises executive power in Hungary.
The Government of Kosovo (Qeveria e Kosovës; Vlada Kosova) exercises executive authority in the Republic of Kosovo.
Palace of Justice The Government of Latvia is the central government of the Republic of Latvia.
The government of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Влада Црне Горе, Vlada Republike Crne Gore) is the executive branch of state authority in Montenegro.
The Government of Serbia (Влада Србије / Vlada Srbije), formally the Government of the Republic of Serbia (Влада Републике Србије / Vlada Republike Srbije), commonly abbreviated to Serbian Government (Српска Влада / Srpska Vlada), is the executive branch of government in Serbia.
The Government of the Slovak Republic (Vláda Slovenskej republiky) is the head of the executive branch of state in Slovakia.
The Government of the Republic of Slovenia (Vlada Republike Slovenije) exercises executive authority in Slovenia pursuant to the Constitution and the laws of Slovenia.
The Government of the Kingdom of Sweden (Konungariket Sveriges regering) is the national cabinet and the supreme executive authority in Sweden.
The Government of the Czech Republic (Vláda České republiky) exercises executive power in the Czech Republic.
The Governor General of Canada (Gouverneure générale du Canada) is the federal viceregal representative of the.
The Governor-General of Antigua and Barbuda is the viceregal representative of the Monarch of Antigua and Barbuda, currently being Queen Elizabeth II.
The Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia is the representative of the Australian monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II.
The Governor-General of Barbados is a vice-regal representative of the Barbadian monarch (presently Queen Elizabeth II).
The Governor-General of Belize is the representative of the monarch of Belize, currently Queen Elizabeth II, in all matters pertaining to the country.
The Governor-General of Grenada has been the representative of the Queen of Grenada since the country's independence from the United Kingdom in 1974.
The Governor-General of Jamaica represents the Jamaican monarch and head of state, currently Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II.
The Governor-General of New Zealand (Te Kāwana Tianara o Aotearoa) is the viceregal representative of the monarch of New Zealand, currently Queen Elizabeth II.
The Governor-General of Papua New Guinea is the viceregal representative of Queen Elizabeth II, known in Tok Pisin as 'Missis Kwin', Papua New Guinea's head of state, performing the duties of the Queen in her absence.
The Governor-General of Saint Kitts and Nevis is the viceregal representative of the monarch of Saint Kitts and Nevis, currently Queen Elizabeth II.
The Governor-General of Saint Lucia is the viceregal representative of the monarch of Saint Lucia, currently Queen Elizabeth II.
The office of Governor-General of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines was created in 1979 when the islands gained independence as a Commonwealth realm.
The Governor-General of the Commonwealth of the Bahamas is the viceregal representative of the Bahamian monarch (currently Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II).
A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
The Hellenic Parliament (Βουλή των Ελλήνων, "Parliament of the Hellenes", transliterated Voulí ton Ellínon) is the parliament of Greece, located in the Old Royal Palace, overlooking Syntagma Square in Athens.
The Henley & Partners Visa Restrictions Index (HVRI) is a global ranking of countries according to the travel freedom that their citizens enjoy.
The House of Assembly is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of Barbados.
The House of Assembly is the legislature of Dominica.
The Parliament of Saint Lucia has two chambers.
The House of Assembly of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is the unicameral legislature of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.
The House of Commons of Canada (Chambre des communes du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the Senate.
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The House of Lords of the United Kingdom, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The House of Representatives of Antigua and Barbuda is the lower chamber of the country's bicameral parliament.
The House of Representatives of Belize is one of two chambers of the National Assembly, the other being the Senate.
The House of Representatives (สภาผู้แทนราษฎร) was the lower house of the National Assembly of Thailand, the legislative branch of the Thai government.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
An Ideology is a collection of normative beliefs and values that an individual or group holds for other than purely epistemic reasons.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
Instant-runoff voting (IRV) is a voting method used in single-seat elections with more than two candidates.
The Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann; 6 December 192229 December 1937) was a state established in 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 1921.
The Italian Parliament (Parlamento Italiano) is the national parliament of the Italian Republic.
The Jatiya Sangsad ("National Parliament"; জাতীয় সংসদ Jatiyô Sôngsôd), often referred to simply as the Sangsad or JS and also known as the House of the Nation, is the supreme legislative body of Bangladesh.
Juan José Linz (24 December 1926 – 1 October 2013) was a Spanish sociologist and political scientist.
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.
The Knesset (הַכְּנֶסֶת; lit. "the gathering" or "assembly"; الكنيست) is the unicameral national legislature of Israel.
Law reform or legal reform is the process of examining existing laws, and advocating and implementing changes in a legal system, usually with the aim of enhancing justice or efficiency.
The Legislative Assembly is the Parliament of Samoa based in the capital, Apia, where the country's central administration is situated.
A legislative chamber or house is a deliberative assembly within a legislature which generally meets and votes separately from the legislature's other chambers.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
The Council of Ministers of Lebanon, known informally as the Cabinet of Lebanon, is the chief executive body of the Republic of Lebanon.
The world sorted by their gross domestic product per capita at nominal values.
This is a list of countries by system of government.
The following article contains a list of heads of government of Grenada, from the establishment of the office of Chief Minister in 1960 to the present day.
This is a list of legislatures by country.
The following article contains a list of Prime Ministers of Belize, from the establishment of the position of First Minister of British Honduras in 1961 to the present day.
The Prime Minister of Kuwait is the head of government of Kuwait.
The position of Prime Minister of Nepal (नेपालको प्रधानमन्त्री; Nēpālakō pradhānamantrī) in modern form was called by different names at different times of Nepalese history.
This page contains a list of Prime Ministers of Saint Kitts and Nevis.
This page contains a list of Prime Ministers of Saint Lucia.
This page contains a list of Prime Ministers of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.
This is a list of Prime Ministers of Somalia.
This is a list of the Prime Ministers of Trinidad and Tobago, from the establishment of the office of Chief Minister in 1950 to the present day.
The list below includes all entities falling even partially under any of the various common definitions of Europe, geographical or political.
A local government is a form of public administration which, in a majority of contexts, exists as the lowest tier of administration within a given state.
The Lok Sabha (House of the People) is the lower house of India's bicameral Parliament, with the upper house being the Rajya Sabha.
A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house.
A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament.
The Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranks 231 cities from Vienna to Baghdad on quality of life.
Mixed-member proportional (MMP) representation is a mixed electoral system in which voters get two votes: one to decide the representative for their single-seat constituency, and one for a political party.
Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy.
The Monarchy of Denmark, colloquially known as the Danish Monarchy, is a constitutional institution and a historic office of the Kingdom of Denmark.
The Norwegian monarch is the monarchical head of state of Norway, which is a constitutional and hereditary monarchy with a parliamentary system.
The monarchy of Thailand (whose monarch is referred to as the King of Thailand or historically as the King of Siam; พระมหากษัตริย์ไทย) refers to the constitutional monarchy and monarch of the Kingdom of Thailand (formerly Siam). The King of Thailand is the head of state and head of the ruling Royal House of Chakri. Although the current Chakri Dynasty was created in 1782, the existence of the institution of monarchy in Thailand is traditionally considered to have its roots from the founding of the Sukhothai Kingdom in 1238, with a brief interregnum from the death of Ekkathat to the accession of Taksin in the 18th century. The institution was transformed into a constitutional monarchy in 1932 after the bloodless Siamese Revolution of 1932. The monarchy's official ceremonial residence is the Grand Palace in Bangkok, while the private residence has been at the Dusit Palace. The King of Thailand's titles include Head of State, Head of the Royal Thai Armed Forces, Adherent of Buddhism and Upholder of religions.
The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories.
A motion of no confidence (alternatively vote of no confidence, no-confidence motion, or (unsuccessful) confidence motion) is a statement or vote which states that a person(s) in a position of responsibility (government, managerial, etc.) is no longer deemed fit to hold that position, perhaps because they are inadequate in some respect, are failing to carry out obligations, or are making decisions that other members feel are detrimental.
The National Assembly of the Republic of Armenia (Հայաստանի Հանրապետության Ազգային ժողով, Hayastani Hanrapetyut'yan Azgayin zhoghov or simply Ազգային ժողով, ԱԺ Azgayin Zhoghov, AZh), also informally referred to as the Parliament of Armenia (խորհրդարան, khorhrdaran) is the legislative branch of the government of Armenia.
The National Assembly (Народно събрание, Narodno sabranie) is the unicameral parliament and body of the legislative of Bulgaria.
The National Assembly (Országgyűlés; "Country Assembly") is the parliament of Hungary.
The National Assembly (مجلس الأمة), is the unicameral legislature of Kuwait.
The National Assembly (Assemblée nationale) is Mauritius's unicameral legislature, which was called the Legislative Assembly until 1992, when the country became a republic.
The National Assembly is the parliament of Saint Kitts and Nevis.
The National Assembly (Народна скупштина/Narodna skupština) is the unicameral legislature of Serbia.
The National Assembly (Državni zbor Republike Slovenije, or; Slovene abbreviation DZ), is the general representative body of Slovenia.
The National Assembly (De Nationale Assemblée, The Assembly, commonly abbreviated "DNA") is the Parliament, representing the legislative branch of government in Suriname.
The National Council (Nationalrat) is one of the two houses of the Austrian Parliament and is frequently referred to as the lower house.
The National Council (Národná rada), abbreviated to NR SR, is the national parliament of Slovakia.
The is Japan's bicameral legislature.
The National Legislative Assembly of Thailand (สภานิติบัญญัติแห่งชาติ;; abrv: NLA) was the unicameral legislative branch of the government of Thailand.
The National Parliament of Papua New Guinea is the unicameral national legislature in Papua New Guinea.
The New Zealand Parliament (Pāremata Aotearoa) is the legislature of New Zealand, consisting of the Queen of New Zealand (Queen-in-Parliament) and the New Zealand House of Representatives.
Open list describes any variant of party-list proportional representation where voters have at least some influence on the order in which a party's candidates are elected.
Oslo (rarely) is the capital and most populous city of Norway.
The Oxford Parliament (1258), also known as the "Mad Parliament" and the "First English Parliament", assembled during the reign of Henry III of England.
In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government.
Parliament in the Making was a programme of events organised by the Parliament of the United Kingdom to commemorate a series of anniversaries in 2015 including.
The Parliament of Albania (Kuvendi i Shqipërisë) or Kuvendi is the unicameral representative body of the citizens of the Republic of Albania; it is Albania's legislature.
The Parliament of Bhutan (རྒྱལ་ཡོངས་ཚོགས་ཁང་ gyelyong tshokhang) consists of the King of Bhutan together with a bicameral parliament.
The Parliament of Botswana consists of the President and the National Assembly.
The Parliament of the Kingdom of Cambodia (សភាតំណាងរាស្ត្រ ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា; Saphea Damnang Reastr ney Preăh Réachéanachâk Kâmpŭchéa, Parlement du Royaume du Cambodge) is the bicameral legislature of the Government of Cambodia, consisting of the Senate and the National Assembly.
The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England, existing from the early 13th century until 1707, when it became the Parliament of Great Britain after the political union of England and Scotland created the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Parliament of Finland, is the unicameral supreme legislature of Finland, founded on 9 May 1906.
The Parliament of Grenada is composed of the monarch and two chambers: Senate and the House of Representatives.
The Parliament of Jamaica is the legislative branch of the government of Jamaica.
The Parliament of Lebanon (مجلس النواب Majlis an-Nuwwab; Chambre des députés) is the national parliament of Lebanon.
The Parliament of Malaysia (Parlimen Malaysia) is the national legislature of Malaysia, based on the Westminster system.
The Parliament of Malta (Parlament ta' Malta) is the constitutional legislative body in Malta, located in Valletta.
The Parliament of Montenegro (Skupština Crne Gore, Скупштина Црне Горе) is the unicameral legislature of Montenegro.
The Parliament of Pakistan (مجلس شوریٰ پاکستان —) is the federal and supreme legislative body of Pakistan.
The Parliament of the Republic of Singapore and the President jointly make up the legislature of Singapore, which is based on the Westminster system.
The Parliament of South Africa is South Africa's legislature and under the country's current Constitution is composed of the National Assembly and the National Council of Provinces.
The Parliament of The Bahamas is the bicameral national parliament of Commonwealth of The Bahamas.
The Parliament of the Republic of Moldova (Parlamentul Republicii Moldova) is the unicameral assembly of the Republic of Moldova.
The Parliament of Trinidad and Tobago is the legislative branch of the Government of Trinidad and Tobago.
The Parliament (or Parlement in French) is the unicameral legislative body of the Republic of Vanuatu.
A parliamentary leader is a political title or a descriptive term used in various countries to the person leading a caucus (or parliamentary group) in a legislative body, whether it be a national or sub-national legislature.
A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament).
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
The Pashtuns (or; پښتانه Pax̌tānə; singular masculine: پښتون Pax̌tūn, feminine: پښتنه Pax̌tana; also Pukhtuns), historically known as ethnic Afghans (افغان, Afğān) and Pathans (Hindustani: پٹھان, पठान, Paṭhān), are an Iranic ethnic group who mainly live in Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Philip II (Felipe II; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598), called "the Prudent" (el Prudente), was King of Spain (1556–98), King of Portugal (1581–98, as Philip I, Filipe I), King of Naples and Sicily (both from 1554), and jure uxoris King of England and Ireland (during his marriage to Queen Mary I from 1554–58).
A plenary session is a session of a conference which all members of all parties are to attend.
Plurality voting is an electoral system in which each voter is allowed to vote for only one candidate, and the candidate who polls the most among their counterparts (a plurality) is elected.
A political party is an organised group of people, often with common views, who come together to contest elections and hold power in government.
The politics of Grenada takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democracy, whereby the Prime Minister is the head of government.
The politics of Saint Kitts and Nevis takes place in the framework of a federal parliamentary democracy.
Politics of Saint Lucia takes place in the framework of an independent parliamentary democratic constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state, represented by a Governor General, who acts on the advice of the prime minister and the cabinet.
Politics of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines takes place in the framework of a parliamentary democracy.
Politics of Suriname take place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the president of Suriname is the head of state and head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system.
Politics in the Republic of Macedonia occur within the framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister is the head of government, and of a multi-party system.
Pouvoirs (full title: Pouvoirs, revue d'études constitutionnelles et politiques) is a French political science journal that publishes academic articles relating to constitutional affairs.
The President of the Republic of Botswana is the head of state and the head of government of Botswana, as well as the commander-in-chief of the armed forces, according to the Constitution of Botswana.
The President of the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariigi President) is the head of state of the Republic of Estonia.
The President of Germany, officially the Federal President of the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundespräsident der Bundesrepublik Deutschland),The official title within Germany is Bundespräsident, with der Bundesrepublik Deutschland being added in international correspondence; the official English title is President of the Federal Republic of Germany is the head of state of Germany.
The President of Iceland (Forseti Íslands) is Iceland's elected head of state.
The President of the Republic of India is the head of state of India and the commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces.
The President of Ireland (Uachtarán na hÉireann) is the head of state of the Republic of Ireland and the Supreme Commander of the Irish Defence Forces.
The President of the State of Israel (נְשִׂיא מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, Nesi Medinat Yisra'el, or נְשִׂיא הַמְדִינָה, Nesi HaMedina, literally President of the State) is the head of state of Israel.
The President of the Italian Republic (Presidente della Repubblica Italiana) is the head of state of Italy and in that role represents national unity and guarantees that Italian politics comply with the Constitution.
The President of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar is the head of state and the head of government of Myanmar and leads the executive branch of the Burmese government, and heads the Cabinet of Myanmar.
The President of Somalia (Madaxaweynaha Soomaaliya) is the head of state of Somalia.
The President of the Republic of South Africa is the head of state and head of government under the Constitution of South Africa.
The President of the Republic of Suriname (President van de Republiek Suriname) is, in accordance with the Constitution of 1987, the head of state and head of government of Suriname, and commander-in-chief of Suriname National Army.
The President of the Czech Republic is the elected formal head of state of the Czech Republic and the commander-in-chief of the Military of the Czech Republic.
The Presidential Electoral College (သမ္မတရွေးချယ်တင်မြှောက်ရေးအဖွဲ့) is an electoral college made up of MPs that elects the President of Myanmar.
A presidential system is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.
A prime minister is the head of a cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system.
The Prime Minister of Antigua and Barbuda is the head of government of that country.
The Prime Minister of Australia (sometimes informally abbreviated to PM) is the head of government of Australia.
The Prime Minister of Barbados is the head of government of Barbados.
The Prime Minister of Canada (Premier ministre du Canada) is the primary minister of the Crown, chairman of the Cabinet, and thus Canada's head of government, charged with advising the Canadian monarch or Governor General of Canada on the exercise of the executive powers vested in them by the constitution.
The Prime Minister of Croatia (Premijer/ Premijerka Hrvatske), officially the President of the Government of the Republic of Croatia (Predsjednik/ Predsjednica Vlade Republike Hrvatske), is Croatia's head of government, and is the de facto the most powerful and influential state officeholder in the Croatian system of government.
The Prime Minister of Estonia (Estonian: Eesti Vabariigi peaminister, literally translated as Head Minister of Estonia) is the head of government of the Republic of Estonia.
The Prime Minister of India is the leader of the executive of the Government of India.
The Prime Minister of Israel (רֹאשׁ הַמֶּמְשָׁלָה, Rosh HaMemshala, lit. Head of the Government, Hebrew acronym: רה״מ; رئيس الحكومة, Ra'īs al-Ḥukūma) is the head of government of Israel and the most powerful figure in Israeli politics.
The Prime Minister of Jamaica is Jamaica's head of government, currently Andrew Holness.
The is the head of government of Japan.
The Prime Minister of Kyrgyzstan is the head of government of Kyrgyzstan.
The Prime Minister of New Zealand (Te Pirimia o Aotearoa) is the head of government of New Zealand.
The Prime Minister of Norway (statsminister, literally the "minister of the state") is the head of government of Norway and the most powerful person in Norwegian politics.
The Prime Minister of Papua New Guinea, is Papua New Guinea's head of government, consequent on being the leader of the party or coalition with majority support in the National Parliament.
The Prime Minister of Spain, officially the President of the Government of Spain (Presidente del Gobierno de España), is the head of the government of Spain.
The Prime Minister (statsminister, literally "Minister of the State") is the head of government in Sweden.
The Prime Minister (นายกรัฐมนตรี) of Thailand is the head of government of Thailand.
The Prime Minister of The Bahamas is the head of government of the Bahamas, currently Hubert Minnis.
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.
Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems by which divisions into an electorate are reflected proportionately into the elected body.
A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories generally viewed as distinct by society.
The Representation of the People Act 1832 (known informally as the 1832 Reform Act, Great Reform Act or First Reform Act to distinguish it from subsequent Reform Acts) was an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom (indexed as 2 & 3 Will. IV c. 45) that introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system of England and Wales.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
The Riigikogu (from riigi-, of the state, and kogu, assembly) is the unicameral parliament of Estonia.
The Riksdag (riksdagen or Sveriges riksdag) is the national legislature and the supreme decision-making body of Sweden.
Robert Alan Dahl (December 17, 1915 Inwood, Iowa, U.S. – February 5, 2014 Hamden, Connecticut, U.S.) was a political theorist and Sterling Professor of Political Science at Yale University.
Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford, (26 August 1676 – 18 March 1745), known before 1742 as Sir Robert Walpole, was a British statesman who is generally regarded as the de facto first Prime Minister of Great Britain.
The rule according to a higher law means that no law may be enforced by the government unless it conforms with certain universal principles (written or unwritten) of fairness, morality, and justice.
The rule of law is the "authority and influence of law in society, especially when viewed as a constraint on individual and institutional behavior; (hence) the principle whereby all members of a society (including those in government) are considered equally subject to publicly disclosed legal codes and processes".
The Saeima is the parliament of the Republic of Latvia.
A semi-parliamentary system (also described as a neo-parliamentary or prime-ministerial system) is a classification of systems of government proposed by Maurice Duverger, in which citizens directly elect at the same time the legislature and the prime minister, possibly with an electoral law ensuring the existence of a parliamentary majority for the prime minister-elect.
A semi-presidential system or dual executive system is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter two being responsible for the legislature of a state.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Simon de Montfort's Parliament was an English parliament held from 20 January 1265 until mid-March the same year, instigated by Simon de Montfort, a baronial rebel leader.
Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester (– 4 August 1265), also called Simon de Munford and sometimes referred to as Simon V de Montfort to distinguish him from other Simons de Montfort, was a French-English nobleman who inherited the title and estates of the earldom of Leicester in England.
The single transferable vote (STV) is a voting system designed to achieve proportional representation through ranked voting in multi-seat organizations or constituencies (voting districts).
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
The States General of the Netherlands (Staten-Generaal) is the bicameral legislature of the Netherlands consisting of the Senate (Eerste Kamer) and the House of Representatives (Tweede Kamer).
The Storting (Stortinget, "the great thing" or "the great assembly") is the supreme legislature of Norway, established in 1814 by the Constitution of Norway.
The Supreme Council (Жогорку Кеңеш, Joğorqu Keñeş, جوعورقۇ كەڭەش) is the unicameral Parliament of the Kyrgyz Republic.
Early general elections were held in Sweden on 1 June 1958,Nohlen, D & Stöver, P (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p1858 after the defeat of the Social Democratic government's proposals for a new pensions system in a parliamentary vote.
The Taif Agreement (اتفاقية الطائف / ittifāqiyat al-Ṭā’if) (also the or) was an agreement reached to provide "the basis for the ending of the civil war and the return to political normalcy in Lebanon".
The Taoiseach (pl. Taoisigh) is the prime minister, chief executive and head of government of Ireland.
The English Constitution is a book by Walter Bagehot.
The term "Third World" arose during the Cold War to define countries that remained non-aligned with either NATO or the Communist Bloc.
In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.
The Union Council of Ministers exercises executive authority in the Republic of India.
The Union of South Africa (Unie van Zuid-Afrika, Unie van Suid-Afrika) is the historic predecessor to the present-day Republic of South Africa.
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprise the legislature of the United States.
An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature (or one of three chambers of a tricameral legislature), the other chamber being the lower house.
Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.
Walter Bagehot (3 February 1826 – 24 March 1877) was a British journalist, businessman, and essayist, who wrote extensively about government, economics, and literature.
The Weimar Republic (Weimarer Republik) is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state during the years 1919 to 1933.
The Westminster system is a parliamentary system of government developed in the United Kingdom.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
On 22 May 2014, the Royal Thai Armed Forces, led by General Prayut Chan-o-cha, Commander of the Royal Thai Army (RTA), launched a coup d'état, the 12th since the country's first coup in 1932, against the caretaker government of Thailand, following six months of political crisis.
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