110 relations: -ing, -ly, -s, Adjectival noun (Japanese), Adjective, Adverb, Agglutinative language, Aristotle, Article (grammar), Auxiliary verb, Basque verbs, Bemba language, Cardinal number (linguistics), Chinese language, Classical Greece, Classifier (linguistics), Clitic, Complement (linguistics), Compound (linguistics), Conjunction (grammar), Content word, Contraction (grammar), Conversion (word formation), Count noun, Coverb, Cratylus (dialogue), Demonstrative, Determiner, Dictionary, Dionysius Thrax, Distributive number, English grammar, English language, English verbs, Finnish language, Floruit, Function word, Fusional language, Gerund, Grammar, Grammatical case, Grammatical category, Grammatical number, Grammatical particle, Grammatical person, Grammatical tense, History of linguistics, Hungarian language, Ideophone, Indo-European languages, ..., Inflection, Interjection, Japanese equivalents of adjectives, Japanese language, Japanese pronouns, Jingulu language, Korean language, Language Log, Latin, Latin grammar, Lexical item, Light verb, Linguistics, Loanword, Luganda, Marker (linguistics), Mass noun, Measure word, Morphological derivation, Morphology (linguistics), Multiplier (linguistics), Nirukta, Nonce word, Noun, Noun phrase, Numeral (linguistics), Object (grammar), Ordinal number (linguistics), Part-of-speech tagging, Participle, Persian language, Phrase, Plato, Possessive determiner, Prefix, Preposition and postposition, Preverb, Priscian, Pronoun, Protologism, Quantifier (linguistics), Relative pronoun, Robert M. W. Dixon, Sanskrit, Semantics, Sino-Japanese vocabulary, Sliding window based part-of-speech tagging, Stative verb, Subcategorization, Syntactic category, Syntax, Tamil language, The Art of Grammar, Tolkāppiyam, Traditional grammar, Uralic languages, Verb, Verb phrase, Vietnamese language, Yāska. Expand index (60 more) » « Shrink index
-ing is a suffix used to make one of the inflected forms of English verbs.
The suffix -ly in English is usually a contraction of -like, similar to the Anglo-Saxon lice and German lich.
-s or -es may be.
In descriptions of the Japanese language, an adjectival noun, adjectival, or na-adjective is a noun that can function as an adjective by taking the particle 〜な -na.
In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.
An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, adjective, another adverb, determiner, noun phrase, clause, or sentence.
An agglutinative language is a type of synthetic language with morphology that primarily uses agglutination.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope.
An auxiliary verb (abbreviated) is a verb that adds functional or grammatical meaning to the clause in which it appears, such as to express tense, aspect, modality, voice, emphasis, etc.
The verb is one of the most complex parts of Basque grammar.
The Bemba language, ChiBemba (also Cibemba, Ichibemba, Icibemba and Chiwemba), is a major Bantu language spoken primarily in north-eastern Zambia by the Bemba people and as a lingua franca by about 18 related ethnic groups, including the Bisa people of Mpika and Lake Bangweulu, and to a lesser extent in Katanga in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Tanzania, and Botswana.
In linguistics, more precisely in traditional grammar, a cardinal number or cardinal numeral (or just cardinal) is a part of speech used to count, such as the English words one, two, three, but also compounds, e.g. three hundred and forty-two (Commonwealth English) or three hundred forty-two (American English).
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
Classical Greece was a period of around 200 years (5th and 4th centuries BC) in Greek culture.
A classifier (abbreviated or), sometimes called a measure word or counter word, is a word or affix that is used to accompany nouns and can be considered to "classify" a noun depending on the type of its referent.
A clitic (from Greek κλιτικός klitikos, "inflexional") is a morpheme in morphology and syntax that has syntactic characteristics of a word, but depends phonologically on another word or phrase.
In grammar, a complement is a word, phrase or clause that is necessary to complete the meaning of a given expression.
In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (less precisely, a word) that consists of more than one stem.
In grammar, a conjunction (abbreviated or) is a part of speech that connects words, phrases, or clauses that are called the conjuncts of the conjoining construction.
In linguistics content words are words that name objects of reality and their qualities.
A contraction is a shortened version of the written and spoken forms of a word, syllable, or word group, created by omission of internal letters and sounds.
In linguistics, conversion, also called zero derivation, is a kind of word formation involving the creation of a word (of a new word class) from an existing word (of a different word class) without any change in form, which is to say, derivation using only zero.
In linguistics, a count noun (also countable noun) is a noun that can be modified by a numeral and that occurs in both singular and plural forms, and that co-occurs with quantificational determiners like every, each, several, etc.
Coverb is a grammatical term that can have several different meanings but generally denotes a word or prefix that resembles a verb or co-operates with a verb.
Cratylus (Κρατύλος, Kratylos) is the name of a dialogue by Plato.
Demonstratives (abbreviated) are words, such as this and that, used to indicate which entities are being referred to and to distinguish those entities from others.
A determiner, also called determinative (abbreviated), is a word, phrase, or affix that occurs together with a noun or noun phrase and serves to express the reference of that noun or noun phrase in the context.
A dictionary, sometimes known as a wordbook, is a collection of words in one or more specific languages, often arranged alphabetically (or by radical and stroke for ideographic languages), which may include information on definitions, usage, etymologies, pronunciations, translation, etc.
Dionysius Thrax (Διονύσιος ὁ Θρᾷξ,, Contemporary Koine:; 170–90 BC) was a Hellenistic grammarian and a pupil of Aristarchus of Samothrace.
In linguistics, more precisely in traditional grammar, a distributive number is a word that answers "how many times each?" or "how many at a time?", such as singly or doubly.
English grammar is the way in which meanings are encoded into wordings in the English language.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Verbs constitute one of the main word classes in the English language.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
Floruit, abbreviated fl. (or occasionally, flor.), Latin for "he/she flourished", denotes a date or period during which a person was known to have been alive or active.
In linguistics, function words (also called functors) are words that have little lexical meaning or have ambiguous meaning and express grammatical relationships among other words within a sentence, or specify the attitude or mood of the speaker.
Fusional languages or inflected languages are a type of synthetic languages, distinguished from agglutinative languages by their tendency to use a single inflectional morpheme to denote multiple grammatical, syntactic, or semantic features.
A gerund (abbreviated) is any of various nonfinite verb forms in various languages, most often, but not exclusively, one that functions as a noun.
In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.
Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.
A grammatical category is a property of items within the grammar of a language; it has a number of possible values (sometimes called grammemes), which are normally mutually exclusive within a given category.
In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").
In grammar the term particle (abbreviated) has a traditional meaning, as a part of speech that cannot be inflected, and a modern meaning, as a function word associated with another word or phrase to impart meaning.
Grammatical person, in linguistics, is the grammatical distinction between deictic references to participant(s) in an event; typically the distinction is between the speaker (first person), the addressee (second person), and others (third person).
In grammar, tense is a category that expresses time reference with reference to the moment of speaking.
Linguistics, as a study, endeavors to describe and explain the human faculty of language.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
Ideophones are words that evoke an idea in sound, often a vivid impression of certain sensations or sensory perceptions, e.g. sound (onomatopoeia), movement, color, shape, or action.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.
In linguistics, an interjection is a word or expression that occurs as an utterance on its own and expresses a spontaneous feeling or reaction.
The Japanese language does not have words that function as adjectives in a syntactic sense – that is to say that tree diagrams of Japanese sentences can be constructed without employing adjective phrases.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
Japanese pronouns (or Japanese deictic classifiers) are words in the Japanese language used to address or refer to present people or things, where present means people or things that can be pointed at.
Jingulu (Djingili) is an Australian language spoken by the Jingili in the Northern Territory of Australia, historically around the township of Elliot.
The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.
Language Log is a collaborative language blog maintained by Mark Liberman, a phonetician at the University of Pennsylvania.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latin is a heavily inflected language with largely free word order.
In lexicography, a lexical item (or lexical unit/ LU, lexical entry) is a single word, a part of a word, or a chain of words (.
In linguistics, a light verb is a verb that has little semantic content of its own and forms a predicate with some additional expression, which is usually a noun.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
Luganda, or Ganda (Oluganda), is one of the major languages in Uganda and is spoken by more than five million Baganda and other people principally in central Uganda, including the capital Kampala of Uganda.
In linguistics, a marker is a free or bound morpheme that indicates the grammatical function of the marked word, phrase, or sentence.
In linguistics, a mass noun, uncountable noun, or non-count noun is a noun with the syntactic property that any quantity of it is treated as an undifferentiated unit, rather than as something with discrete subsets.
In linguistics, measure words are words (or morphemes) that are used in combination with a numeral to indicate an amount of something represented by some noun.
Morphological derivation, in linguistics, is the process of forming a new word from an existing word, often by adding a prefix or suffix, such as For example, happiness and unhappy derive from the root word happy.
In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.
In linguistics, more precisely in traditional grammar, a multiplier is a word that counts how many times its object should be multiplied, such as single or double.
Nirukta (निरुक्त) means "explained, interpreted" and refers to one of the six ancient Vedangas, or ancillary science connected with the Vedas – the scriptures of Hinduism.
A nonce word (also called an occasionalism) is a lexeme created for a single occasion to solve an immediate problem of communication.
A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.
A noun phrase or nominal phrase (abbreviated NP) is a phrase which has a noun (or indefinite pronoun) as its head, or which performs the same grammatical function as such a phrase.
In linguistics, a numeral is a member of a part of speech characterized by the designation of numbers; some examples are the English word 'two' and the compound 'seventy-seventh'.
Traditional grammar defines the object in a sentence as the entity that is acted upon by the subject.
In linguistics, ordinal numbers (or ordinal numerals) are words representing position or rank in a sequential order; the order may be of size, importance, chronology, and so on (e.g., "third", "tertiary").
In corpus linguistics, part-of-speech tagging (POS tagging or PoS tagging or POST), also called grammatical tagging or word-category disambiguation, is the process of marking up a word in a text (corpus) as corresponding to a particular part of speech, based on both its definition and its context—i.e., its relationship with adjacent and related words in a phrase, sentence, or paragraph.
A participle is a form of a verb that is used in a sentence to modify a noun, noun phrase, verb, or verb phrase, and plays a role similar to an adjective or adverb.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
In everyday speech, a phrase may be any group of words, often carrying a special idiomatic meaning; in this sense it is roughly synonymous with expression.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Possessive determiners constitute a sub-class of determiners which modify a noun by attributing possession (or other sense of belonging) to someone or something.
A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word.
Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or mark various semantic roles (of, for).
Although not widely accepted in linguistics, the term preverb is used in Caucasian (including all three families: Northwest Caucasian, Northeast Caucasian and Kartvelian), Caddoan, Athabaskan, and Algonquian linguistics to describe certain elements prefixed to verbs.
Priscianus Caesariensis, commonly known as Priscian, was a Latin grammarian and the author of the Institutes of Grammar which was the standard textbook for the study of Latin during the Middle Ages.
In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun (abbreviated) is a word that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase.
Protologism is a term invented in the early 2000s by Mikhail Epstein, an American literary theorist, to refer to a new word which has not gained wide acceptance in the language.
In linguistics and grammar, a quantifier is a type of determiner, such as all, some, many, few, a lot, and no, (but not numerals) that indicates quantity.
A relative pronoun marks a relative clause; it has the same referent in the main clause of a sentence that the relative modifies.
Robert Malcolm Ward Dixon (Gloucester, England, 25 January 1939) is a Professor of Linguistics in the College of Arts, Society, and Education and The Cairns Institute, James Cook University, Queensland.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Semantics (from σημαντικός sēmantikós, "significant") is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning, in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics.
Sino-Japanese vocabulary or refers to that portion of the Japanese vocabulary that originated in Chinese or has been created from elements borrowed from Chinese.
Sliding window based part-of-speech tagging is used to part-of-speech tag a text.
In linguistics, a stative verb is one that describes a state of being, in contrast to a dynamic verb, which describes an action.
In linguistics, subcategorization denotes the ability/necessity for lexical items (usually verbs) to require/allow the presence and types of the syntactic arguments with which they co-occur.
A syntactic category is a type of syntactic unit that theories of syntax assume.
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.
Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.
The Art of Grammar (Τέχνη Γραμματική or (romanized) Téchnē Grammatikḗ) is a treatise on Greek grammar, attributed to Dionysius Thrax, who wrote in the 2nd century BC.
The Tholkāppiyam (தொல்காப்பியம், literally Paleo-literature) is a work on the grammar of the Tamil language and the earliest extant work of Tamil literature and linguistics.
A traditional grammar is a framework for the description of the structure of a language.
The Uralic languages (sometimes called Uralian languages) form a language family of 38 languages spoken by approximately 25million people, predominantly in Northern Eurasia.
A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).
In linguistics, a verb phrase (VP) is a syntactic unit composed of at least one verb and its dependentsobjects, complements and other modifiersbut not always including the subject.
Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language.
was an early Sanskrit grammarian who preceded Pāṇini (fl. 6-5th century BCE, Quote: "Ashtadhyayi, Sanskrit Aṣṭādhyāyī (“Eight Chapters”), Sanskrit treatise on grammar written in the 6th to 5th century BCE by the Indian grammarian Panini."), assumed to have lived in the 7th century BCE.
8 Parts of speech, Closed class, Closed class word, Closed word class, Closed word classes, Closed-cass system, Closed-class word, Lexical categories, Lexical category, Lexical class, Lexical word, Open class (linguistics), Open class word, Open word class, Open word classes, Part-of-speech, Parts of Speech, Parts of speech, Word category, Word class, Wordclass.