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Parthenon

Index Parthenon

The Parthenon (Παρθενών; Παρθενώνας, Parthenónas) is a former temple, on the Athenian Acropolis, Greece, dedicated to the goddess Athena, whom the people of Athens considered their patron. [1]

191 relations: A Greek–English Lexicon, A. E. Stallings, Achaemenid Empire, Acropolis, Acropolis Museum, Acropolis of Athens, Aglaurus, Amazonomachy, Amazons, American Journal of Archaeology, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek architecture, Ancient Greek art, Ancient Greek temple, Apse, Archaeoastronomy, Architrave, Arrephoros, Artemis, Artifact (archaeology), Athena, Athena Parthenos, Athenian democracy, Athens, Basil II, Basilica, Battle of Marathon, Battle of Plataea, Bell tower, Bert Hodge Hill, British Museum, Byzantine Empire, Callicrates, Callirhoe (Greek mythology), Catholic Church, Cecrops, Cella, Centaur, Cephissus (mythology), Chalcis, Chryselephantine sculpture, Cimon, Classical architecture, Classical Greece, Computer simulation, Constantinople, Copenhagen, Cult image, Delian League, Demosthenes, ..., Doric order, Edinburgh, Elgin Marbles, Entablature, Entasis, Erechtheion, Erechtheus, Eumolpus, European Union, Evliya Çelebi, First Bulgarian Empire, Florence, Fourth Crusade, Francesco Morosini, Frieze, Gable, Garry Wills, German Archaeological Institute, Giants (Greek mythology), Goddess, Golden ratio, Golden rectangle, Great Turkish War, Greco-Persian Wars, Greece, Greek Orthodox Church, Gunpowder magazine, Hampden–Sydney College, Harpocration, Helios, Herodotus, Herse, Herules, Hyades (star cluster), Icon, Iconostasis, Ictinus, Ilisos, Iliupersis, Imbrex and tegula, Ionic order, Jacques Carrey, James Stuart (1713–1788), Joan Breton Connelly, John Julius Norwich, John Travlos, Julian (emperor), Justinian I, Kerameikos, Khan Academy, Lapiths, Latin Empire, Limestone, List of Ancient Greek temples, List of Greek mythological figures, List of largest monoliths, London, Louvre, Marble, Mary Beard (classicist), Mary, mother of Jesus, Mehmed the Conqueror, Melina Mercouri, Metope, Mihrab, Minbar, Minerva, Ministry of Culture and Sports (Greece), Mosque, Narthex, Nashville, Tennessee, National Monument of Scotland, Nave, Nicholas Revett, Old Temple of Athena, Older Parthenon, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Greece, Paganism, Palermo, Palermo Fragment, Panathenaic Games, Pandrosus, Parallel (geometry), Parthenon (Nashville), Pausanias (geographer), PBS, Peace of Callias, Pediment, Peloponnesian War, Peplos, Pericles, Peripteros, Peristyle, Persecution of pagans in the late Roman Empire, Peter Green (historian), Phidias, Philhellenism, Pierre-Gustave Joly de Lotbinière, Plutarch, Portico, Poseidon, Post and lintel, Priest, Propylaea, Pteron, Regensburg, Republic of Venice, Sack of Constantinople (1204), Sanctuary, Saudi Aramco, Saudi Aramco World, Selene, Seriation (archaeology), Severe style, Shrine, Sick man of Europe, Smarthistory, Smithsonian (magazine), Society of Dilettanti, Stylobate, Sultan, Susan Deacy, Temple, Temple of Athena Nike, Temple of Hephaestus, Theodosius II, Theotokos, Theseus, Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin, Thucydides, Treasury, Triglyph, Veneration of Mary in the Catholic Church, Vienna, Walhalla memorial, Western culture, Wilhelm Dörpfeld, William Bell Dinsmoor, Xoanon, Zeno (emperor). Expand index (141 more) »

A Greek–English Lexicon

A Greek–English Lexicon, often referred to as Liddell & Scott, Liddell–Scott–Jones, or LSJ, is a standard lexicographical work of the Ancient Greek language.

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A. E. Stallings

Alicia Elsbeth Stallings (born July 2, 1968) is an American poet and translator.

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Achaemenid Empire

The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.

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Acropolis

An acropolis (Ancient Greek: ἀκρόπολις, tr. Akrópolis; from ákros (άκρος) or ákron (άκρον) "highest, topmost, outermost" and pólis "city"; plural in English: acropoles, acropoleis or acropolises) is a settlement, especially a citadel, built upon an area of elevated ground—frequently a hill with precipitous sides, chosen for purposes of defense.

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Acropolis Museum

The Acropolis Museum (Μουσείο Ακρόπολης, Mouseio Akropolis) is an archaeological museum focused on the findings of the archaeological site of the Acropolis of Athens.

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Acropolis of Athens

The Acropolis of Athens is an ancient citadel located on a rocky outcrop above the city of Athens and contains the remains of several ancient buildings of great architectural and historic significance, the most famous being the Parthenon.

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Aglaurus

Aglaurus (Ἄγλαυρος) or Agraulus (Ancient Greek: Ἄγραυλος) is a name attributed to three figures in Greek mythology.

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Amazonomachy

In Greek mythology, Amazonomachy (English translation: "Amazon battle"; plural, Amazonomachiai (Ἀμαζονομαχίαι) or Amazonomachies) was the portrayal of the mythical battle between the Ancient Greeks and the Amazons, a nation of all-female warriors.

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Amazons

In Greek mythology, the Amazons (Ἀμαζόνες,, singular Ἀμαζών) were a tribe of women warriors related to Scythians and Sarmatians.

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American Journal of Archaeology

The American Journal of Archaeology (AJA), the peer-reviewed journal of the Archaeological Institute of America, has been published since 1897 (continuing the American Journal of Archaeology and of the History of the Fine Arts founded by the institute in 1885).

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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Ancient Greek architecture

The architecture of ancient Greece is the architecture produced by the Greek-speaking people (Hellenic people) whose culture flourished on the Greek mainland, the Peloponnese, the Aegean Islands, and in colonies in Anatolia and Italy for a period from about 900 BC until the 1st century AD, with the earliest remaining architectural works dating from around 600 BC.

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Ancient Greek art

Ancient Greek art stands out among that of other ancient cultures for its development of naturalistic but idealized depictions of the human body, in which largely nude male figures were generally the focus of innovation.

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Ancient Greek temple

Greek temples (dwelling, semantically distinct from Latin templum, "temple") were structures built to house deity statues within Greek sanctuaries in ancient Greek religion.

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Apse

In architecture, an apse (plural apses; from Latin absis: "arch, vault" from Greek ἀψίς apsis "arch"; sometimes written apsis, plural apsides) is a semicircular recess covered with a hemispherical vault or semi-dome, also known as an Exedra.

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Archaeoastronomy

Archaeoastronomy (also spelled archeoastronomy) is the study of how people in the past "have understood the phenomena in the sky, how they used these phenomena and what role the sky played in their cultures".

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Architrave

An architrave (from architrave "chief beam", also called an epistyle; from Greek ἐπίστυλον epistylon "door frame") is the lintel or beam that rests on the capitals of the columns.

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Arrephoros

An Arrephoros (Ἀρρήφορος) was a girl acolyte in the cult of Athena Polias on the Athenian Acropolis.

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Artemis

Artemis (Ἄρτεμις Artemis) was one of the most widely venerated of the Ancient Greek deities.

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Artifact (archaeology)

An artifact, or artefact (see American and British English spelling differences), is something made or given shape by humans, such as a tool or a work of art, especially an object of archaeological interest.

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Athena

Athena; Attic Greek: Ἀθηνᾶ, Athēnā, or Ἀθηναία, Athēnaia; Epic: Ἀθηναίη, Athēnaiē; Doric: Ἀθάνα, Athānā or Athene,; Ionic: Ἀθήνη, Athēnē often given the epithet Pallas,; Παλλὰς is the ancient Greek goddess of wisdom, handicraft, and warfare, who was later syncretized with the Roman goddess Minerva.

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Athena Parthenos

Athena Parthenos (Ἀθηνᾶ Παρθένος; literally, "Athena the Virgin") is a lost massive chryselephantine (gold and ivory) sculpture of the Greek goddess Athena, made by Phidias and his assistants and housed in the Parthenon in Athens.

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Athenian democracy

Athenian democracy developed around the fifth century BC in the Greek city-state (known as a polis) of Athens, comprising the city of Athens and the surrounding territory of Attica, and is often described as the first known democracy in the world.

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Athens

Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.

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Basil II

Basil II (Βασίλειος Β΄, Basileios II; 958 – 15 December 1025) was a Byzantine Emperor from the Macedonian dynasty who reigned from 10 January 976 to 15 December 1025.

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Basilica

A basilica is a type of building, usually a church, that is typically rectangular with a central nave and aisles, usually with a slightly raised platform and an apse at one or both ends.

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Battle of Marathon

The Battle of Marathon (Greek: Μάχη τοῦ Μαραθῶνος, Machē tou Marathōnos) took place in 490 BC, during the first Persian invasion of Greece.

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Battle of Plataea

The Battle of Plataea was the final land battle during the second Persian invasion of Greece.

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Bell tower

A bell tower is a tower that contains one or more bells, or that is designed to hold bells even if it has none.

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Bert Hodge Hill

Bert Hodge Hill (March 7, 1874 – December 2, 1958) was an American archeologist and the director of the American School of Classical Studies in Athens from 1906 to 1926.

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British Museum

The British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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Callicrates

Callicrates (Καλλικράτης, Kallikratēs) was an ancient Greek architect active in the middle of the fifth century BC.

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Callirhoe (Greek mythology)

In Greek mythology, Callirrhoe (also Callirhoe) may refer to the following characters.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Cecrops

This name may refer to two legendary kings of Athens.

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Cella

A cella (from Latin for small chamber) or naos (from the Greek ναός, "temple") is the inner chamber of a temple in classical architecture, or a shop facing the street in domestic Roman architecture, such as a domus.

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Centaur

A centaur (Κένταυρος, Kéntauros), or occasionally hippocentaur, is a mythological creature with the upper body of a human and the lower body and legs of a horse.

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Cephissus (mythology)

Cephissus (Κηφισός, kephisos) is a river god of ancient Greece, associated with the river Cephissus in Attica, Greece.

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Chalcis

Chalcis (Ancient Greek & Katharevousa: Χαλκίς, Chalkís) or Chalkida (Modern Χαλκίδα) is the chief town of the island of Euboea in Greece, situated on the Euripus Strait at its narrowest point.

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Chryselephantine sculpture

Chryselephantine sculpture (from Greek χρυσός, chrysós, gold, and ελεφάντινος, elephántinos, ivory) is sculpture made with gold and ivory.

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Cimon

Cimon (– 450BC) or Kimon (Κίμων, Kimōn) was an Athenian statesman and general in mid-5th century BC Greece.

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Classical architecture

Classical architecture usually denotes architecture which is more or less consciously derived from the principles of Greek and Roman architecture of classical antiquity, or sometimes even more specifically, from the works of Vitruvius.

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Classical Greece

Classical Greece was a period of around 200 years (5th and 4th centuries BC) in Greek culture.

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Computer simulation

Computer simulation is the reproduction of the behavior of a system using a computer to simulate the outcomes of a mathematical model associated with said system.

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Constantinople

Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.

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Copenhagen

Copenhagen (København; Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark.

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Cult image

In the practice of religion, a cult image is a human-made object that is venerated or worshipped for the deity, spirit or daemon that it embodies or represents.

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Delian League

The Delian League, founded in 478 BC, was an association of Greek city-states, with the amount of members numbering between 150 to 330under the leadership of Athens, whose purpose was to continue fighting the Persian Empire after the Greek victory in the Battle of Plataea at the end of the Second Persian invasion of Greece.

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Demosthenes

Demosthenes (Δημοσθένης Dēmosthénēs;; 384 – 12 October 322 BC) was a Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens.

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Doric order

The Doric order was one of the three orders of ancient Greek and later Roman architecture; the other two canonical orders were the Ionic and the Corinthian.

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Edinburgh

Edinburgh (Dùn Èideann; Edinburgh) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas.

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Elgin Marbles

The Elgin Marbles (/ˈel gin/), also known as the Parthenon Marbles, are a collection of Classical Greek marble sculptures made under the supervision of the architect and sculptor Phidias and his assistants.

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Entablature

An entablature (nativization of Italian intavolatura, from in "in" and tavola "table") is the superstructure of moldings and bands which lie horizontally above columns, resting on their capitals.

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Entasis

In architecture, entasis is the application of a convex curve to a surface for aesthetic purposes.

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Erechtheion

The Erechtheion or Erechtheum (Ἐρέχθειον, Ερέχθειο) is an ancient Greek temple on the north side of the Acropolis of Athens in Greece which was dedicated to both Athena and Poseidon.

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Erechtheus

Erechtheus (Ἐρεχθεύς) in Greek mythology was the name of an archaic king of Athens, the founder of the polis and, in his role as god, attached to Poseidon, as "Poseidon Erechtheus".

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Eumolpus

In Greek Mythology, Eumolpus (Ancient Greek: Εὔμολπος Eumolpos, Eumolpus "good singer" or "sweet singing" derived from eu "good" and molpe "song","singing") was a legendary Thracian king who established the city of Eumolpias, also called Eumolpiada (present-day Plovdiv) around 1200 BC (or 1350 BC), naming it after himself.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Evliya Çelebi

Mehmed Zilli (25 March 1611 – 1682), known as Evliya Çelebi (اوليا چلبى), was an Ottoman explorer who travelled through the territory of the Ottoman Empire and neighboring lands over a period of forty years, recording his commentary in a travelogue called the Seyahatname ("Book of Travel").

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First Bulgarian Empire

The First Bulgarian Empire (Old Bulgarian: ц︢рьство бл︢гарское, ts'rstvo bl'garskoe) was a medieval Bulgarian state that existed in southeastern Europe between the 7th and 11th centuries AD.

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Florence

Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.

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Fourth Crusade

The Fourth Crusade (1202–1204) was a Latin Christian armed expedition called by Pope Innocent III.

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Francesco Morosini

Francesco Morosini (26 February 1619 – 16 January 1694) was the Doge of Venice from 1688 to 1694, at the height of the Great Turkish War.

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Frieze

In architecture the frieze is the wide central section part of an entablature and may be plain in the Ionic or Doric order, or decorated with bas-reliefs.

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Gable

A gable is the generally triangular portion of a wall between the edges of intersecting roof pitches.

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Garry Wills

Garry Wills (born May 22, 1934) is an American author, journalist, and historian, specializing in American history, politics, and religion, especially the history of the Catholic Church.

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German Archaeological Institute

The German Archaeological Institute (Deutsches Archäologisches Institut, DAI) is an institution of research within the field of archaeology (and related fields), and a "scientific corporation", under the auspices of the federal Foreign Office of Germany.

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Giants (Greek mythology)

In Greek and Roman Mythology, the Giants, also called Gigantes (jye-GAHN-tees or gee-GAHN-tees; Greek: Γίγαντες, Gígantes, Γίγας, Gígas) were a race of great strength and aggression, though not necessarily of great size, known for the Gigantomachy (Gigantomachia), their battle with the Olympian gods.

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Goddess

A goddess is a female deity.

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Golden ratio

In mathematics, two quantities are in the golden ratio if their ratio is the same as the ratio of their sum to the larger of the two quantities.

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Golden rectangle

In geometry, a golden rectangle is a rectangle whose side lengths are in the golden ratio, 1: \tfrac, which is 1:\varphi (the Greek letter phi), where \varphi is approximately 1.618.

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Great Turkish War

The Great Turkish War (Der Große Türkenkrieg) or the War of the Holy League (Kutsal İttifak Savaşları) was a series of conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and the Holy League consisting of the Habsburg Empire, Poland-Lithuania, Venice and Russia.

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Greco-Persian Wars

The Greco-Persian Wars (also often called the Persian Wars) were a series of conflicts between the Achaemenid Empire of Persia and Greek city-states that started in 499 BC and lasted until 449 BC.

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Greece

No description.

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Greek Orthodox Church

The name Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: Ἑλληνορθόδοξη Ἑκκλησία, Ellinorthódoxi Ekklisía), or Greek Orthodoxy, is a term referring to the body of several Churches within the larger communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, whose liturgy is or was traditionally conducted in Koine Greek, the original language of the Septuagint and New Testament, and whose history, traditions, and theology are rooted in the early Church Fathers and the culture of the Byzantine Empire.

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Gunpowder magazine

A gunpowder magazine is a magazine (building) designed to store the explosive gunpowder in wooden barrels for safety.

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Hampden–Sydney College

Hampden–Sydney College (H-SC) is a liberal arts college for men in Hampden Sydney, Virginia.

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Harpocration

Valerius Harpocration (Οὐαλέριος or Βαλέριος Ἁρποκρατίων, gen. Ἁρποκρατίωνος) was a Greek grammarian of Alexandria, probably working in the 2nd century AD.

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Helios

Helios (Ἥλιος Hēlios; Latinized as Helius; Ἠέλιος in Homeric Greek) is the god and personification of the Sun in Greek mythology.

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Herodotus

Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.

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Herse

In Greek mythology, Herse (Ἕρση "dew") may refer to the following figures.

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Herules

The Herules (or Heruli) were an East Germanic tribe who lived north of the Black Sea apparently near the Sea of Azov, in the third century AD, and later moved (either wholly or partly) to the Roman frontier on the central European Danube, at the same time as many eastern barbarians during late antiquity, such as the Goths, Huns, Scirii, Rugii and Alans.

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Hyades (star cluster)

The Hyades (Greek Ὑάδες, also known as Melotte 25 or Collinder 50) is the nearest open cluster and one of the best-studied star clusters.

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Icon

An icon (from Greek εἰκών eikōn "image") is a religious work of art, most commonly a painting, from the Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, and certain Eastern Catholic churches.

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Iconostasis

In Eastern Christianity an iconostasis (plural: iconostases) is a wall of icons and religious paintings, separating the nave from the sanctuary in a church.

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Ictinus

Ictinus (Ἰκτῖνος, Iktinos) was an architect active in the mid 5th century BC.

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Ilisos

The Ilisos or Ilisus (Ιλισός) is a river in Athens, Greece.

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Iliupersis

The Iliupersis (Greek: Ἰλίου πέρσις, Iliou persis, "Sack of Ilium"), also known as The Sack of Troy, is a lost epic of ancient Greek literature.

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Imbrex and tegula

The imbrex and tegula (plurals imbrices and tegulae) were overlapping roof tiles used in ancient Greek and Roman architecture as a waterproof and durable roof covering.

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Ionic order

The Ionic order forms one of the three classical orders of classical architecture, the other two canonic orders being the Doric and the Corinthian.

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Jacques Carrey

Jacques Carrey (12 January 1649 — 18 February 1726) was a French painter and draughtsman, now remembered almost exclusively for the series of drawings he made of the Parthenon, Athens, in 1674.

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James Stuart (1713–1788)

James "Athenian" Stuart (1713 – 2 February 1788) was a Scottish archaeologist, architect and artist, best known for his central role in pioneering Neoclassicism.

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Joan Breton Connelly

Joan Breton Connelly is an American classical archaeologist and Professor of Classics and Art History at New York University.

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John Julius Norwich

John Julius Cooper, 2nd Viscount Norwich, (15 September 1929 – 1 June 2018), known as John Julius Norwich, was an English popular historian, travel writer and television personality.

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John Travlos

John Travlos (Iωάννης Tραυλóς, Iōannēs Travlos; Rostov-on-Don 1908 – Athens, October 28, 1985) was a Greek architect, architectural historian, and archaeologist known especially for his work at Athens in the agora of the ancient city.

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Julian (emperor)

Julian (Flavius Claudius Iulianus Augustus; Φλάβιος Κλαύδιος Ἰουλιανὸς Αὔγουστος; 331/332 – 26 June 363), also known as Julian the Apostate, was Roman Emperor from 361 to 363, as well as a notable philosopher and author in Greek.

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Justinian I

Justinian I (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; 482 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565.

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Kerameikos

Kerameikos also known by its Latinized form Ceramicus, is an area of Athens, Greece, located to the northwest of the Acropolis, which includes an extensive area both within and outside the ancient city walls, on both sides of the Dipylon (Δίπυλον) Gate and by the banks of the Eridanos River.

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Khan Academy

Khan Academy is a non-profit educational organization created in 2006 by educator Salman Khan with a goal of creating a set of online tools that help educate students.

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Lapiths

The Lapiths (Λαπίθαι) are a legendary people of Greek mythology, whose home was in Thessaly, in the valley of the Peneus and on the mountain Pelion.

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Latin Empire

The Empire of Romania (Imperium Romaniae), more commonly known in historiography as the Latin Empire or Latin Empire of Constantinople, and known to the Byzantines as the Frankokratia or the Latin Occupation, was a feudal Crusader state founded by the leaders of the Fourth Crusade on lands captured from the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire.

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Limestone

Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.

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List of Ancient Greek temples

This list of ancient Greek temples covers temples built by the Hellenic people from the 6th century BC until the 2nd century AD on mainland Greece and in Hellenic towns in the Aegean Islands, Asia Minor, Sicily and Italy, wherever there were Greek colonies, and the establishment of Greek culture.

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List of Greek mythological figures

The following is a list of gods, goddesses and many other divine and semi-divine figures from Ancient Greek mythology and Ancient Greek religion.

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List of largest monoliths

This is a list of monoliths organized according to the size of the largest block of stone on the site.

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London

London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Louvre

The Louvre, or the Louvre Museum, is the world's largest art museum and a historic monument in Paris, France.

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Marble

Marble is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite.

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Mary Beard (classicist)

Dame Winifred Mary Beard, (born 1 January 1955) is an English scholar and classicist.

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Mary, mother of Jesus

Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran.

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Mehmed the Conqueror

Mehmed II (محمد ثانى, Meḥmed-i sānī; Modern II.; 30 March 1432 – 3 May 1481), commonly known as Mehmed the Conqueror (Fatih Sultan Mehmet), was an Ottoman Sultan who ruled first for a short time from August 1444 to September 1446, and later from February 1451 to May 1481.

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Melina Mercouri

Maria Amalia Mercouri (Μαρία Αμαλία Μερκούρη; 31 October 1920 – 6 March 1994), known professionally as Melina Mercouri (Μελίνα Μερκούρη), was a Greek actress, singer and politician.

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Metope

In classical architecture, a metope (μετόπη) is a rectangular architectural element that fills the space between two triglyphs in a Doric frieze, which is a decorative band of alternating triglyphs and metopes above the architrave of a building of the Doric order.

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Mihrab

Mihrab (محراب, pl. محاريب) is a semicircular niche in the wall of a mosque that indicates the qibla; that is, the direction of the Kaaba in Mecca and hence the direction that Muslims should face when praying.

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Minbar

A minbar (but pronounced mimbar, also romanized as mimber) is a pulpit in the mosque where the imam (prayer leader) stands to deliver sermons (خطبة, khutbah) or in the Hussainia where the speaker sits and lectures the congregation.

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Minerva

Minerva (Etruscan: Menrva) was the Roman goddess of wisdom and strategic warfare, although it is noted that the Romans did not stress her relation to battle and warfare as the Greeks would come to, and the sponsor of arts, trade, and strategy.

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Ministry of Culture and Sports (Greece)

The Ministry of Culture and Sports (Υπουργείο Πολιτισμού και Αθλητισμού) is a government department of Greece which is entrusted with the preservation of the country's cultural heritage, the arts, as well as sports, through the subordinate General Secretariat for Sports.

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Mosque

A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.

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Narthex

The narthex is an architectural element typical of early Christian and Byzantine basilicas and churches consisting of the entrance or lobby area, located at the west end of the nave, opposite the church's main altar.

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Nashville, Tennessee

Nashville is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Tennessee and the seat of Davidson County.

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National Monument of Scotland

The National Monument of Scotland, on Calton Hill in Edinburgh, is Scotland's national memorial to the Scottish soldiers and sailors who died fighting in the Napoleonic Wars.

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Nave

The nave is the central aisle of a basilica church, or the main body of a church (whether aisled or not) between its rear wall and the far end of its intersection with the transept at the chancel.

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Nicholas Revett

Nicholas Revett (1721–1804) was a British architect.

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Old Temple of Athena

The Old Temple of Athena was an Archaic temple located on the Acropolis of Athens between the old Parthenon and Erechteion, built around 525-500 BC.

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Older Parthenon

The Older Parthenon or Pre‐Parthenon, as it is frequently referred to, constitutes the first endeavour to build a sanctuary for Athena Parthenos on the site of the present Parthenon on the Acropolis of Athens.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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Ottoman Greece

Most of the areas which today are within modern Greece's borders were at some point in the past a part of the Ottoman Empire.

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Paganism

Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).

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Palermo

Palermo (Sicilian: Palermu, Panormus, from Πάνορμος, Panormos) is a city of Southern Italy, the capital of both the autonomous region of Sicily and the Metropolitan City of Palermo.

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Palermo Fragment

The Palermo fragment is a 2,500-year-old marble sculpture fragment of the foot and dress of the ancient Greek goddess Artemis.

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Panathenaic Games

The Panathenaic Games were held every four years in Athens in Ancient Greece from 566 BC to the 3rd century AD.

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Pandrosus

Pandrosos or Pandrosus (Ancient Greek: Πάνδροσος) was known in Greek myth as one of the three daughters of Kekrops, the first king of Athens, along with her sisters Aglauros and Herse.

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Parallel (geometry)

In geometry, parallel lines are lines in a plane which do not meet; that is, two lines in a plane that do not intersect or touch each other at any point are said to be parallel.

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Parthenon (Nashville)

The Parthenon in Centennial Park, Nashville, Tennessee is a full-scale replica of the original Parthenon in Athens.

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Pausanias (geographer)

Pausanias (Παυσανίας Pausanías; c. AD 110 – c. 180) was a Greek traveler and geographer of the second century AD, who lived in the time of Roman emperors Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius.

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PBS

The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.

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Peace of Callias

The Peace of Callias is a purported treaty established around 449 BC between the Delian League (led by Athens) and Persia, ending the Greco-Persian Wars.

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Pediment

A pediment is an architectural element found particularly in classical, neoclassical and baroque architecture, and its derivatives, consisting of a gable, usually of a triangular shape, placed above the horizontal structure of the entablature, typically supported by columns.

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Peloponnesian War

The Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC) was an ancient Greek war fought by the Delian League led by Athens against the Peloponnesian League led by Sparta.

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Peplos

A peplos (ὁ πέπλος) is a body-length garment established as typical attire for women in ancient Greece by 500 BC (the Classical period).

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Pericles

Pericles (Περικλῆς Periklēs, in Classical Attic; c. 495 – 429 BC) was a prominent and influential Greek statesman, orator and general of Athens during the Golden Age — specifically the time between the Persian and Peloponnesian wars.

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Peripteros

A peripteros (a peripteral building, περίπτερος) is a type of ancient Greek or Roman temple surrounded by a portico with columns.

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Peristyle

In Hellenistic Greek and Roman architecture a peristyle (from Greek περίστυλος) is a continuous porch formed by a row of columns surrounding the perimeter of building or a courtyard.

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Persecution of pagans in the late Roman Empire

The persecution of pagans in the late Roman Empire began late during the reign of Constantine the Great, when he ordered the pillaging and the tearing down of some temples.

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Peter Green (historian)

Peter Morris Green (born 22 December 1924), Contemporary Authors, New Revision Series.

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Phidias

Phidias or Pheidias (Φειδίας, Pheidias; 480 – 430 BC) was a Greek sculptor, painter, and architect.

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Philhellenism

Philhellenism ("the love of Greek culture") and philhellene ("the admirer of Greeks and everything Greek"), from the Greek φίλος philos "friend, lover" and ἑλληνισμός hellenism "Greek", was an intellectual fashion prominent mostly at the turn of the 19th century.

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Pierre-Gustave Joly de Lotbinière

Pierre-Gustave-Gaspard Joly de Lotbinière (born February 5, 1798 in Frauenfeld, Switzerland, died June 8, 1865 in Paris) was a French businessman and amateur daguerreotypist, married to a Canadian seigneuress.

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Plutarch

Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.

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Portico

A portico is a porch leading to the entrance of a building, or extended as a colonnade, with a roof structure over a walkway, supported by columns or enclosed by walls.

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Poseidon

Poseidon (Ποσειδῶν) was one of the Twelve Olympians in ancient Greek religion and myth.

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Post and lintel

In architecture, post and lintel (also called prop and lintel or a trabeated system) is a building system where strong horizontal elements are held up by strong vertical elements with large spaces between them.

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Priest

A priest or priestess (feminine) is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities.

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Propylaea

A propylaea, propylea or propylaia (Greek: Προπύλαια) is any monumental gateway in ancient Greek architecture.

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Pteron

Pteron (Gr. πτερον – pteron — wing) is an architectural term used by Pliny the Elder for the peristyle of the tomb of Mausolus, which was raised on a lofty podium, and so differed from an ordinary peristyle raised only on a stylobate, as in Greek temples, or on a low podium, as in Roman temples.

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Regensburg

Regensburg (Castra-Regina;; Řezno; Ratisbonne; older English: Ratisbon; Bavarian: Rengschburg or Rengschburch) is a city in south-east Germany, at the confluence of the Danube, Naab and Regen rivers.

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Republic of Venice

The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.

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Sack of Constantinople (1204)

The siege and sack of Constantinople occurred in April 1204 and marked the culmination of the Fourth Crusade.

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Sanctuary

A sanctuary, in its original meaning, is a sacred place, such as a shrine.

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Saudi Aramco

Saudi Aramco (أرامكو السعودية), officially the Saudi Arabian Oil Company, most popularly known just as Aramco (formerly Arabian-American Oil Company), is a Saudi Arabian national petroleum and natural gas company based in Dhahran.

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Saudi Aramco World

Aramco World (formerly Saudi Aramco World) is a bi-monthly magazine published by Aramco Services Company, U.S.-based subsidiary of Saudi Aramco, the state-owned oil company of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

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Selene

In Greek mythology, Selene ("Moon") is the goddess of the moon.

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Seriation (archaeology)

In archaeology, seriation is a relative dating method in which assemblages or artifacts from numerous sites, in the same culture, are placed in chronological order.

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Severe style

The severe style, or Early Classical style, was the dominant idiom of Greek sculpture in the period ca.

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Shrine

A shrine (scrinium "case or chest for books or papers"; Old French: escrin "box or case") is a holy or sacred place, which is dedicated to a specific deity, ancestor, hero, martyr, saint, daemon, or similar figure of awe and respect, at which they are venerated or worshipped.

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Sick man of Europe

"Sick man of Europe" is a label given to a European country experiencing a time of economic difficulty or impoverishment.

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Smarthistory

Smarthistory is a free resource for the study of art history created by art historians Beth Harris and Steven Zucker.

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Smithsonian (magazine)

Smithsonian is the official journal published by the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. The first issue was published in 1970.

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Society of Dilettanti

The Society of Dilettanti (founded 1734) is a society of noblemen and scholars which sponsors the study of ancient Greek and Roman art, and the creation of new work in the style.

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Stylobate

In classical Greek architecture, a stylobate (στυλοβάτης) is the top step of the crepidoma, the stepped platform upon which colonnades of temple columns are placed (it is the floor of the temple).

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Sultan

Sultan (سلطان) is a position with several historical meanings.

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Susan Deacy

Susan Deacy is a classical scholar who has been Professor of Classics at the University of Roehampton since January 2018.

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Temple

A temple (from the Latin word templum) is a structure reserved for religious or spiritual rituals and activities such as prayer and sacrifice.

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Temple of Athena Nike

The Temple of Athena Nike (Greek: Ναός Αθηνάς Νίκης, Naós Athinás Níkis) is a temple on the Acropolis of Athens, dedicated to the goddess Athena Nike.

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Temple of Hephaestus

The Temple of Hephaestus or Hephaisteion (also "Hephesteum"; Ἡφαιστεῖον, Ναός Ηφαίστου) or earlier as the Theseion (also "Theseum"; Θησεῖον, Θησείο), is a well-preserved Greek temple; it remains standing largely as built.

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Theodosius II

Theodosius II (Flavius Theodosius Junior Augustus; Θεοδόσιος Βʹ; 10 April 401 – 28 July 450),"Theodosius II" in The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, New York & Oxford, 1991, p. 2051.

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Theotokos

Theotokos (Greek Θεοτόκος) is a title of Mary, mother of God, used especially in Eastern Christianity.

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Theseus

Theseus (Θησεύς) was the mythical king and founder-hero of Athens.

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Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin

Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin and 11th Earl of Kincardine (20 July 1766 – 14 November 1841) was a Scottish nobleman, soldier, politician and diplomat, known primarily for the removal of marble sculptures (also known as the Elgin Marbles) from the Parthenon in Athens.

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Thucydides

Thucydides (Θουκυδίδης,, Ancient Attic:; BC) was an Athenian historian and general.

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Treasury

A treasury is either.

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Triglyph

Triglyph is an architectural term for the vertically channeled tablets of the Doric frieze in classical architecture, so called because of the angular channels in them.

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Veneration of Mary in the Catholic Church

In the Catholic Church, the veneration of Mary, mother of Jesus, encompasses various Marian devotions which include prayer, pious acts, visual arts, poetry, and music devoted to the Blessed Virgin Mary.

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Vienna

Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.

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Walhalla memorial

The Walhalla is a hall of fame that honors laudable and distinguished people in German history – "politicians, sovereigns, scientists and artists of the German tongue";Official Guide booklet, 2002, p. 3 thus the celebrities honored are drawn from Greater Germany, a wider area than today's Germany, and even as far away as Britain in the case of several Anglo-Saxons who are honored.

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Western culture

Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.

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Wilhelm Dörpfeld

Wilhelm Dörpfeld (26 December 1853 – 25 April 1940) was a German architect and archaeologist, a pioneer of stratigraphic excavation and precise graphical documentation of archaeological projects.

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William Bell Dinsmoor

William Bell Dinsmoor Sr. (July 29, 1886 – July 2, 1973) was an American architectural historian of classical Greece and a Columbia University professor of art and archaeology.

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Xoanon

A xoanon (ξόανον; plural: ξόανα xoana, from the verb ξέειν, xeein, to carve or scrape) was an Archaic wooden cult image of Ancient Greece.

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Zeno (emperor)

Zeno the Isaurian (Flavius Zeno Augustus; Ζήνων; c. 425 – 9 April 491), originally named Tarasis Kodisa RousombladadiotesThe sources call him "Tarasicodissa Rousombladadiotes", and for this reason it was thought his name was Tarasicodissa. However, it has been demonstrated that this name actually means "Tarasis, son of Kodisa, Rusumblada", and that "Tarasis" was a common name in Isauria (R.M. Harrison, "The Emperor Zeno's Real Name", Byzantinische Zeitschrift 74 (1981) 27–28)., was Eastern Roman Emperor from 474 to 475 and again from 476 to 491. Domestic revolts and religious dissension plagued his reign, which nevertheless succeeded to some extent in foreign issues. His reign saw the end of the Western Roman Empire following the deposition of Romulus Augustus and the death of Julius Nepos, but he contributed much to stabilising the eastern Empire. In ecclesiastical history, Zeno is associated with the Henotikon or "instrument of union", promulgated by him and signed by all the Eastern bishops, with the design of solving the monophysite controversy.

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Redirects here:

Doric Parthenon, Parthanon, Parthenoi, Temple of Athena, The Parthenon, The Parthenon, Greece.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parthenon

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