497 relations: Achaemenid Empire, Acre, Israel, Adiabene, Adrian David Hugh Bivar, Afghanistan, Ahura Mazda, Akkadian language, Alans, Aleppo, Alexandria, An Shigao, Anahita, Anatolia, Ancient Greek, Ancient Greek architecture, Ancient Greek literature, Ancient Macedonian calendar, Ancient Rome, Andragoras (Seleucid satrap), Angra Mainyu, Anilai and Asinai, Antigonus II Mattathias, Antioch, Antiochus III the Great, Antiochus VII Sidetes, Antiochus X Eusebes, Antonine Plague, Antoninus Pius, Antony's Parthian War, Apamea Ragiana, Apasiacae, Aphrodite, Apicius, Apollo, Apollodorus of Artemita, Apollonius of Tyana, Appian, Aquila (Roman), Arabian Peninsula, Aramaic alphabet, Aramaic language, Arameans, Archon, Ardashir I, Arrian, Arsaces I of Parthia, Arsaces II of Parthia, Arsacid dynasty of Armenia, Arsacid dynasty of Caucasian Albania, Arsacid dynasty of Iberia, ..., Artabanus III of Parthia, Artabanus V of Parthia, Artavasdes I of Armenia, Artavasdes I of Media Atropatene, Artavasdes 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The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
Acre (or, עַכּוֹ, ʻAko, most commonly spelled as Akko; عكّا, ʻAkkā) is a city in the coastal plain region of Israel's Northern District at the extremity of Haifa Bay.
Adiabene (from the Ancient Greek Ἀδιαβηνή, Adiabene, itself derived from ܚܕܝܐܒ, or, Middle Persian: Nodshēragān, Armenian: Նոր Շիրական, Nor Shirakan) was an ancient kingdom in Assyria, with its capital at Arbela (modern-day Erbil, Iraq).
Adrian David Hugh Bivar (abbreviated A.D.H. Bivar) (1926 - 2015) was an Emeritus Professor of Iranian Studies at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Ahura Mazda (also known as Ohrmazd, Ahuramazda, Hourmazd, Hormazd, Harzoo and Hurmuz) is the Avestan name for the creator and sole God of Zoroastrianism, the old Iranian religion that spread across the Middle East, before ultimately being relegated to small minorities after the Muslim conquest of Iran.
Akkadian (akkadû, ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: URIKI)John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages.
The Alans (or Alani) were an Iranian nomadic pastoral people of antiquity.
Aleppo (ﺣﻠﺐ / ALA-LC) is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most-populous Syrian governorate.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
An Shigao (Korean: An Sego, Japanese: An Seikō) (fl. c. 148-180 CE) was an early Buddhist missionary to China, and the earliest known translator of Indian Buddhist texts into Chinese.
Anahita is the Old Persian form of the name of an Iranian goddess and appears in complete and earlier form as Aredvi Sura Anahita (Arədvī Sūrā Anāhitā), the Avestan name of an Indo-Iranian cosmological figure venerated as the divinity of "the Waters" (Aban) and hence associated with fertility, healing and wisdom.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
The architecture of ancient Greece is the architecture produced by the Greek-speaking people (Hellenic people) whose culture flourished on the Greek mainland, the Peloponnese, the Aegean Islands, and in colonies in Anatolia and Italy for a period from about 900 BC until the 1st century AD, with the earliest remaining architectural works dating from around 600 BC.
Ancient Greek literature refers to literature written in the Ancient Greek language from the earliest texts until the time of the Byzantine Empire.
The Ancient Macedonian calendar is a lunisolar calendar that was in use in ancient Macedon in the 1st millennium BC.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Narisanka, better known by his Hellenized name of Andragoras (died 238 BCE) was an Iranian nobleman who served as the Seleucid satrap of the province of Parthia under the Seleucid rulers Antiochus I Soter and Antiochus II Theos.
Angra Mainyu (Avestan: Aŋra Mainiiu) is the Avestan-language name of Zoroastrianism's hypostasis of the "destructive spirit".
Anilai and Asinai were two Babylonian-Jewish robber chieftains of the Parthian Empire whose exploits were reported by Josephus.
Antigonus II Mattathias (מתתיהו אנטיגונוס השני, Matityahu), also known as Antigonus the Hasmonean (died 37 BCE) was the last Hasmonean king of Judea.
Antioch on the Orontes (Antiókheia je epi Oróntou; also Syrian Antioch)Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ, "Antioch on Daphne"; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη, "Antioch the Great"; Antiochia ad Orontem; Անտիոք Antiok; ܐܢܛܝܘܟܝܐ Anṭiokya; Hebrew: אנטיוכיה, Antiyokhya; Arabic: انطاكية, Anṭākiya; انطاکیه; Antakya.
Antiochus III the Great (Greek: Ἀντίoχoς Μέγας; c. 241187 BC, ruled 222–187 BC) was a Hellenistic Greek king and the 6th ruler of the Seleucid Empire.
Antiochus VII Euergetes (Ἀντίοχος Ζ΄ Ευεργέτης), nicknamed Sidetes (Σιδήτης) (from Side, a city in Asia Minor), ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire, reigned from 138 to 129 BC.
Antiochus X Eusebes Philopator (Ἀντίοχος Εὐσεβής Φιλοπάτωρ; –92 or 89 BC) was a Hellenistic Seleucid monarch who reigned as the King of Syria between 95 and 92 or 89BC.
The Antonine Plague of 165–180 AD, also known as the Plague of Galen (from the name of the Greek physician living in the Roman Empire who described it), was an ancient pandemic brought back to the Roman Empire by troops returning from campaigns in the Near East.
Antoninus Pius (Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius; 19 September 867 March 161 AD), also known as Antoninus, was Roman emperor from 138 to 161.
Antony's Parthian War or the Roman–Parthian War of 40–33 BC was a major conflict between the Roman Republic, represented in the East by the triumvir Mark Antony, and the Parthians.
Apamea Ragiana (Απάμεια) – Apamea Rhagiana, Apamea Raphiana, or Apameia Rhagiane; previously, Arsace, Khuvar, and Choara – was an ancient Hellenistic city of Choarene, Media (formerly Parthia), according to Strabo 500 stadia (ca. 15 km) south of the Caspian Gates, southeast of Rhagae.
Apasiacae is the name of a nomadic tribe belonging to the Scythian Massagetae.
Aphrodite is the ancient Greek goddess of love, beauty, pleasure, and procreation.
Apicius is a collection of Roman cookery recipes, usually thought to have been compiled in the 1st century AD and written in a language that is in many ways closer to Vulgar than to Classical Latin; later recipes using Vulgar Latin (such as ficatum, bullire) were added to earlier recipes using Classical Latin (such as iecur, fervere).
Apollo (Attic, Ionic, and Homeric Greek: Ἀπόλλων, Apollōn (Ἀπόλλωνος); Doric: Ἀπέλλων, Apellōn; Arcadocypriot: Ἀπείλων, Apeilōn; Aeolic: Ἄπλουν, Aploun; Apollō) is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology.
Apollodorus of Artemita (Ἀπολλόδωρος Ἀρτεμιτηνός) (c. 130 – 87 BC) was a Greek writer of the 1st century BC.
Apollonius of Tyana (Ἀπολλώνιος ὁ Τυανεύς; c. 15 – c. 100 AD), sometimes also called Apollonios of Tyana, was a Greek Neopythagorean philosopher from the town of Tyana in the Roman province of Cappadocia in Anatolia.
Appian of Alexandria (Ἀππιανὸς Ἀλεξανδρεύς Appianòs Alexandreús; Appianus Alexandrinus) was a Greek historian with Roman citizenship who flourished during the reigns of Emperors of Rome Trajan, Hadrian, and Antoninus Pius.
An aquila, or eagle, was a prominent symbol used in ancient Rome, especially as the standard of a Roman legion.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
The ancient Aramaic alphabet is adapted from the Phoenician alphabet and became distinct from it by the 8th century BCE.
Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.
The Arameans, or Aramaeans (ܐܪ̈ܡܝܐ), were an ancient Northwest Semitic Aramaic-speaking tribal confederation who emerged from the region known as Aram (in present-day Syria) in the Late Bronze Age (11th to 8th centuries BC).
Archon (ἄρχων, árchon, plural: ἄρχοντες, árchontes) is a Greek word that means "ruler", frequently used as the title of a specific public office.
Ardashir I or Ardeshir I (Middle Persian:, New Persian: اردشیر بابکان, Ardashir-e Bābakān), also known as Ardashir the Unifier (180–242 AD), was the founder of the Sasanian Empire.
Arrian of Nicomedia (Greek: Ἀρριανός Arrianos; Lucius Flavius Arrianus) was a Greek historian, public servant, military commander and philosopher of the Roman period.
Arsaces I (from Ἀρσάκης; in 𐭀𐭓𐭔𐭊 Aršak, Persian Ashk اشک) was the founder of the Arsacid dynasty of Parthia, and after whom all 30+ monarchs of the Arsacid empire officially named themselves.
Arsaces II, also Artabanus I (ارشک يکم), of the Arsacid dynasty was King of Parthia between 211 BC and 185 BC.
The Arsacid dynasty, known natively as the Arshakuni dynasty (Արշակունի Aršakuni), ruled the Kingdom of Armenia from 54 to 428.
The Arsacid Dynasty was a dynasty of Parthian origin, which ruled the kingdom of Caucasian Albania from the 1st to the 5th century AD.
The Iberian Arsacids or Arshakiani (არშაკიანი), a branch of the Arsacid dynasty of Parthia, ruled the ancient Kingdom of Iberia (Kartli, eastern Georgia) from c. 189 until 284 AD.
Artabanus III of Parthia (اردوان سوم), flourished second half of 1st century BCAD 38, was a Prince of Iranian and Greek ancestry.
Artabanus V of Parthia, also known as Ardavan V (Parthian: 𐭍𐭐𐭕𐭓), ruled the Parthian Empire from c. 208 to 224.
Artavasdes I of Armenia (also called Artavazd, Արտավազդ Առաջին) reigned as King of Armenia from 159 BC to 123 BC and was the son of Artaxias I and Satenik.
Artavasdes I of Media Atropatene, also known as Artavasdes I of Atropatene, Artavasdes I and Artavasdes (before or about 59 BC-about 20 BC) was a Prince who served as a King of Media Atropatene.
Artavasdes II (ΒΑΣΙΛΕΟΣ ΑΡΤΑΥΑΖΔΟΥ Basileos Artavazdou, Արտավազդ Երկրորդ Artavazd Yerkrord) was a King of the Kingdom of Armenia from 54 BC until 34 BC and a member of the Artaxiad Dynasty.
Artashat (Արտաշատ); Hellenized as Artaxata (Ἀρτάξατα), was a large commercial city and the capital of ancient Armenia during the reign of king Artaxias I; the founder of the Artaxiad Dynasty of the ancient Kingdom of Armenia.
Artaxerxes II Mnemon (𐎠𐎼𐎫𐎧𐏁𐏂, meaning "whose reign is through truth") was the Xšâyathiya Xšâyathiyânâm (King of Kings) of Persia from 404 BC until his death in 358 BC.
Artaxias II, also known as Artaxes II and Artashes (Արտաշես Երկրորդ., birth 60s BC – murdered 20 BC) was a Prince of the Kingdom of Armenia and member of the Artaxiad Dynasty who served as a Roman Client King of Armenia from 33 BC until 20 BC.
Asaak or Arshak was an ancient city which was a capital of the Parthian Empire.
Assyria was a Roman province that lasted only two years (116–118 AD).
Atropatene (in Ἀτροπατηνή; in Middle Iranian: Atropatkan and Atorpatkan) was an ancient kingdom established and ruled under local ethnic Iranian dynasties, first with Darius III of Persia and later Alexander the Great of Macedonia starting in the 4th century BC and includes the territory of modern-day Iranian Azerbaijan, Iranian Kurdistan, and a small part of the contemporary Azerbaijan Republic.
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
Augustus of Prima Porta (Augusto di Prima Porta) is a 2.03 mHonour, H. and J. He was the first emperor Fleming, (2009) A World History of Art.
Aulus Gabinius (?-48 or 47 BC) was a Roman statesman, general and supporter of Pompey.
The Auxilia (Latin, lit. "auxiliaries") constituted the standing non-citizen corps of the Imperial Roman army during the Principate era (30 BC–284 AD), alongside the citizen legions.
The Avesta is the primary collection of religious texts of Zoroastrianism, composed in the otherwise unrecorded Avestan language.
Gaius Avidius Cassius (130 – July 175 AD) was a Roman general and usurper.
Axidares or Ashkhadar also known as Exedares or Exedates (flourished second half of the 1st century & first half of the 2nd century, died 113) was a Parthian Prince who served as a Roman Client King of Armenia.
Azerbaijan or Azarbaijan (آذربایجان Āzarbāijān; آذربایجان Azərbaycan), also known as Iranian Azerbaijan, is a historical region in northwestern Iran that borders Iraq, Turkey, the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, Armenia, and the Republic of Azerbaijan.
Óc Eo (French, from អូរកែវ,: if the Khmer appears too small, kindly download better fonts--> O Keo, "Glass Canal") is an archaeological site in Thoại Sơn District in southern An Giang Province, Vietnam, in the Mekong River Delta.
Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.
Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).
The Babylonian calendar was a lunisolar calendar with years consisting of 12 lunar months, each beginning when a new crescent moon was first sighted low on the western horizon at sunset, plus an intercalary month inserted as needed by decree.
Babylonian religion is the religious practice of Babylonia.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
The Baghdad Battery or Parthian Battery is a set of three artifacts which were found together: a ceramic pot, a tube of copper, and a rod of iron.
Ban Biao (3–54 CE), courtesy name, was a Chinese historian, and an official born in what is now Xianyang, Shaanxi during the Han Dynasty.
Ban Chao (32–102 CE), courtesy name Zhongsheng, was a Chinese military general, explorer and diplomat of the Eastern Han Dynasty.
Ban Gu 班固 (32–92) was a Chinese historian, politician, and poet best known for his part in compiling the Book of Han, the second of China's 24 dynastic histories.
Ban Zhao (45 – c. 116 CE), courtesy name Huiban, was a Chinese historian, philosopher, and politician.
A barrel vault, also known as a tunnel vault or a wagon vault, is an architectural element formed by the extrusion of a single curve (or pair of curves, in the case of a pointed barrel vault) along a given distance.
Barzapharnes was a Parthian general during the latter half of the 1st century BC.
A bashlyk, also spelled Bashlik (Shkharkhon, Başlıq, Başlıq, Turkish: Başlık; "baş" - head, "-lıq" (Tatar) / "-lık" (Turkish) - derivative suffix), is a traditional Circassian, Turkic and Cossack cone-shaped headdress hood, usually of leather, felt or wool, an ancient round topped felt bonnet with lappets for wrapping around the neck.
Basileus (βασιλεύς) is a Greek term and title that has signified various types of monarchs in history.
A battering ram is a siege engine that originated in ancient times and designed to break open the masonry walls of fortifications or splinter their wooden gates.
The Battle of Actium was the decisive confrontation of the Final War of the Roman Republic, a naval engagement between Octavian and the combined forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra on 2 September 31 BC, on the Ionian Sea near the promontory of Actium, in the Roman province of Epirus Vetus in Greece.
The Battle of Amanus Pass took place in 39 BC at Belen Pass in the Nur Mountains, after the Parthian defeat in the battle of the Cilician Gates.
The Battle of Carrhae was fought in 53 BC between the Roman Republic and the Parthian Empire near the town of Carrhae.
The Battle of Hormozdgan was the climactic battle between the Parthian and the Sasanian Empires that took place on April 28, 224.
The Battle of Magnesia was the concluding battle of the Roman–Seleucid War, fought in 190 BC near Magnesia ad Sipylum on the plains of Lydia between Romans, led by the consul Lucius Cornelius Scipio and the Roman ally Eumenes II of Pergamum, and the army of Antiochus III the Great of the Seleucid Empire.
The Battle of Mount Gindarus or battle of Cyrrhestica in 38 BC was a decisive victory for the Roman general Publius Ventidius Bassus over the Parthian army of Pacorus, son of King Orodes, in the Greater Syria district of Cyrrhestica.
The Battle of Nisibis was fought in the summer of 217 between the armies of the Roman Empire under the newly ascended emperor Macrinus and the Parthian army of King Artabanus V. It lasted for three days, and ended with a bloody Parthian victory, with both sides suffering large casualties.
The Battle of Philippi was the final battle in the Wars of the Second Triumvirate between the forces of Mark Antony and Octavian (of the Second Triumvirate) and the leaders of Julius Caesar's assassination, Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus in 42 BC, at Philippi in Macedonia.
The Battle of Tigranocerta (Tigranakerti tchakatamart) was fought on 6 October 69 BC between the forces of the Roman Republic and the army of the Kingdom of Armenia led by King Tigranes the Great.
The Behistun Inscription (also Bisotun, Bistun or Bisutun; بیستون, Old Persian: Bagastana, meaning "the place of god") is a multilingual inscription and large rock relief on a cliff at Mount Behistun in the Kermanshah Province of Iran, near the city of Kermanshah in western Iran.
The Book of Han or History of the Former Han is a history of China finished in 111, covering the Western, or Former Han dynasty from the first emperor in 206 BCE to the fall of Wang Mang in 23 CE.
The Book of the Later Han, also known as the History of the Later Han and by its Chinese name Hou Hanshu, is one of the Twenty-Four Histories and covers the history of the Han dynasty from 6 to 189 CE, a period known as the Later or Eastern Han.
A breastplate or chestplate is a device worn over the torso to protect it from injury, as an item of religious significance, or as an item of status.
The British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture.
A brooch is a decorative jewelry item designed to be attached to garments, often to hold them closed.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Buddhist texts were initially passed on orally by monks, but were later written down and composed as manuscripts in various Indo-Aryan languages which were then translated into other local languages as Buddhism spread.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
The Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 was the final and most devastating of the series of wars fought between the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire and the Sasanian Empire of Iran.
The Great Roman Civil War (49–45 BC), also known as Caesar's Civil War, was one of the last politico-military conflicts in the Roman Republic before the establishment of the Roman Empire.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Caracalla (Latin: Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus Augustus; 4 April 188 – 8 April 217), formally known as Antoninus, was Roman emperor from 198 to 217 AD.
Cassius Dio or Dio Cassius (c. 155 – c. 235) was a Roman statesman and historian of Greek origin.
A cataphract was a form of armored heavy cavalry used in ancient warfare by a number of peoples in Europe, East Asia, Middle East and North africa.
Albania, usually referred to as Caucasian Albania for disambiguation with the modern state of Albania (the endonym is unknownRobert H. Hewsen. "Ethno-History and the Armenian Influence upon the Caucasian Albanians", in: Samuelian, Thomas J. (Ed.), Classical Armenian Culture. Influences and Creativity. Chicago: 1982, pp. 27-40.Bosworth, Clifford E.. Encyclopædia Iranica.), is a name for the historical region of the eastern Caucasus, that existed on the territory of present-day republic of Azerbaijan (where both of its capitals were located) and partially southern Dagestan.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
Characene (مملكة ميسان), (Ancient Greek: Χαρακηνή), also known as Mesene (Μεσσήνη) or Meshan, was an Arab principality within the Parthian Empire located at the head of the Persian Gulf.
Spasinu Charax, or Charax Spasinu, Charax Pasinu, Charax Spasinou (Σπασίνου Χάραξ), Alexandria (Greek: Ἀλεξάνδρεια), and Antiochia in Susiana (Greek: Ἀντιόχεια τῆς Σουσιανῆς) was an ancient port at the head of the Persian Gulf, and the capital of the ancient kingdom of Characene.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese historiography is the study of the techniques and sources used by historians to develop the recorded history of China.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
In antiquity, Cilicia(Armenian: Կիլիկիա) was the south coastal region of Asia Minor and existed as a political entity from Hittite times into the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia during the late Byzantine Empire.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Claudius (Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 1 August 10 BC – 13 October 54 AD) was Roman emperor from 41 to 54.
Cleopatra VII Philopator (Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ Cleopatra Philopator; 69 – August 10 or 12, 30 BC)Theodore Cressy Skeat, in, uses historical data to calculate the death of Cleopatra as having occurred on 12 August 30 BC.
Cleopatra Thea (Κλεοπάτρα Θεά, which means "Cleopatra the Goddess"; c. 164 – 121 BC) surnamed Eueteria (i.e., "good-harvest/fruitful season") was the ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire.
A client state is a state that is economically, politically, or militarily subordinate to another more powerful state in international affairs.
A composite bow is a traditional bow made from horn, wood, and sinew laminated together, cf., laminated bow.
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
Corduene (also known as Gorduene, Cordyene, Cardyene, Carduene, Gordyene, Gordyaea, Korduene, Gordian; Kardox; Karduya; Կորճայք Korchayk;; Hebrew: קרטיגיני) was an ancient region located in northern Mesopotamia, present-day eastern Turkey.
A coronation is the act of placement or bestowal of a crown upon a monarch's head.
A crown prince is the male heir apparent to the throne in a royal or imperial monarchy.
Ctesiphon (Κτησιφῶν; from Parthian or Middle Persian: tyspwn or tysfwn) was an ancient city located on the eastern bank of the Tigris, and about southeast of present-day Baghdad.
The culture of Greece has evolved over thousands of years, beginning in Mycenaean Greece, continuing most notably into Classical Greece, through the influence of the Roman Empire and its successor the Byzantine Empire.
The culture of Iran (Farhang-e Irān), also known as culture of Persia, is one of the oldest in the world.
Cuneiform script, one of the earliest systems of writing, was invented by the Sumerians.
Cyrus II of Persia (𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁 Kūruš; New Persian: کوروش Kuruš;; c. 600 – 530 BC), commonly known as Cyrus the Great  and also called Cyrus the Elder by the Greeks, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian Empire.
The Dahae, also known as the Daae, Dahas or Dahaeans --> (Dahae; Δάοι, Δάαι, Δαι, Δάσαι Dáoi, Dáai, Dai, Dasai; Sanskrit: Dasa; Chinese Dayi 大益)(p. 19. were a people of ancient Central Asia. A confederation of three tribes – the Parni, Xanthii and Pissuri – the Dahae lived in an area now comprising much of modern Turkmenistan. The area has consequently been known as Dahestan, Dahistan and Dihistan. Relatively little is known about their way of life. For example, according to the Iranologist A. D. H. Bivar, the capital of "the ancient Dahae (if indeed they possessed one) is quite unknown.". The Dahae dissolved, apparently, some time before the beginning of the 1st millennium. One of the three tribes of the Dahae confederation, the Parni, emigrated to Parthia (present-day north-eastern Iran), where they founded the Arsacid dynasty.
Daniel Théodore Schlumberger (19 December 1904 in Mulhouse, France – 21 October 1972 in Princeton, New Jersey, USA.) was a French archaeologist and Professor of Near Eastern Archaeology at the University of Strasbourg and later Princeton University.
Daqin (alternative transliterations include Tachin, Tai-Ch'in) is the ancient Chinese name for the Roman Empire or, depending on context, the Near East, especially Syria.
Darius I (Old Persian: Dārayava(h)uš, New Persian: rtl Dāryuš;; c. 550–486 BCE) was the fourth king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire.
The death of Cleopatra VII, the last reigning ruler of Ptolemaic Egypt, occurred on either 10 or 12 August 30 BC in Alexandria, when she was 39 years old.
Decentralization is the process by which the activities of an organization, particularly those regarding planning and decision-making, are distributed or delegated away from a central, authoritative location or group.
Demetrius II (Δημήτριος Β`, Dēmḗtrios B; died 125 BC), called Nicator (Νικάτωρ, Nikátōr, "the Victor"), was one of the sons of Demetrius I Soter possibly by Laodice V, as was his brother Antiochus VII Sidetes.
Demetrius III (died 88 BC), called Eucaerus ("well-timed," possibly a misunderstanding of the derogative name Akairos, "the untimely one"), Philopator and Soter, was a ruler of the Seleucid kingdom, the son of Antiochus VIII Grypus and his wife Tryphaena.
The denarius (dēnāriī) was the standard Roman silver coin from its introduction in the Second Punic War c. 211 BC to the reign of Gordian III (AD 238-244), when it was gradually replaced by the Antoninianus.
A diadem is a type of crown, specifically an ornamental headband worn by monarchs and others as a badge of royalty.
Diodorus Siculus (Διόδωρος Σικελιώτης Diodoros Sikeliotes) (1st century BC) or Diodorus of Sicily was a Greek historian.
Diodotus I Soter (Greek: Διόδοτος Α' ὁ Σωτήρ; epithet means "the Saviour"; c. 285 BC – c. 239 BC) was Seleucid satrap of Bactria, rebelled against Seleucid rule soon after the death of Antiochus II in c. 255 or 246 BC, and wrested independence for his territory, the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom.
Diodotus II (Greek: Διόδοτος Β΄; c. 252 BC – c. 223 BC) was a Greco-Bactrian king from c. 239 BC, son of Diodotus I. He is known for concluding a peace treaty with the Parthian king Arsaces, in order to forestall the Seleucid reconquest of both Parthia and Bactria: Around 230 or 223 BC, Diodotus was killed by a usurper, his brother-in-law Euthydemus I, founder of the Greco-Bactrian Euthydemid dynasty.
Diodotus Tryphon (Διόδοτος Τρύφων) was a king of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire who initially acted as regent and tutor for the son of Alexander Balas, but soon declared himself king in 142 BC after the death of his charge, Antiochus VI Dionysus, and reigned until his own death in 138 BC.
Dura-Europos (Δοῦρα Εὐρωπός), also spelled Dura-Europus, was a Hellenistic, Parthian and Roman border city built on an escarpment above the right bank of the Euphrates river.
The Dura-Europos synagogue (or "Dura Europas", "Dura Europos" etc.) is an ancient synagogue uncovered at Dura-Europos, Syria, in 1932.
The early Muslim conquests (الفتوحات الإسلامية, al-Futūḥāt al-Islāmiyya) also referred to as the Arab conquests and early Islamic conquests began with the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the 7th century.
East Azerbaijan Province (استان آذربایجان شرقی Āzarbāijān-e Sharqi; شرقی آذربایجان اوستانی) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages emerging in Middle Iranian times (from c. the 4th century BC).
Ecbatana (𐏃𐎥𐎶𐎫𐎠𐎴 Hagmatāna or Haŋmatāna, literally "the place of gathering", אַחְמְתָא, Ἀγβάτανα in Aeschylus and Herodotus,Ἐκβάτανα, Akkadian: kura-gam-ta-nu in the Nabonidus Chronicle) was an ancient city in Media in western Iran.
Edessa (Ἔδεσσα; الرها ar-Ruhā; Şanlıurfa; Riha) was a city in Upper Mesopotamia, founded on an earlier site by Seleucus I Nicator ca.
Eisenbrauns, an imprint of The Pennsylvania State University Press, is an academic publisher specializing in the ancient Near East and biblical studies.
Elymais or Elamais (Ἐλυμαΐς, Hellenic form of the more ancient name, Elam) was a semi-independent state of the 2nd century BC to the early 3rd century AD, frequently a vassal under Parthian control, and located at the head of the Persian Gulf in the present-day region of Khuzestan, Iran (Susiana).
Emperor He of Han (79 – 13 February 106) was an emperor of the Chinese Han dynasty who ruled from 88 to 105.
Emperor Huan of Han (132 – 25 January 168) was the 27th emperor of the Han Dynasty after he was enthroned by the Empress Dowager and her brother Liang Ji on 1 August 146.
Emperor Wu of Han (30 July 157BC29 March 87BC), born Liu Che, courtesy name Tong, was the seventh emperor of the Han dynasty of China, ruling from 141–87 BC.
Emperor Zhang of Han (57 – 9 April 88) was an emperor of the Chinese Han dynasty from 75 to 88.
Encyclopædia Iranica is a project whose goal is to create a comprehensive and authoritative English language encyclopedia about the history, culture, and civilization of Iranian peoples from prehistory to modern times.
Eparchy is an anglicized Greek word (ἐπαρχία), authentically Latinized as eparchia, which can be loosely translated as the rule or jurisdiction over something, such as a province, prefecture, or territory.
An epic poem, epic, epos, or epopee is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily involving a time beyond living memory in which occurred the extraordinary doings of the extraordinary men and women who, in dealings with the gods or other superhuman forces, gave shape to the moral universe that their descendants, the poet and his audience, must understand to understand themselves as a people or nation.
Epigraphy (ἐπιγραφή, "inscription") is the study of inscriptions or epigraphs as writing; it is the science of identifying graphemes, clarifying their meanings, classifying their uses according to dates and cultural contexts, and drawing conclusions about the writing and the writers.
Erbil, also spelt Arbil or Irbil, locally called Hawler by the Kurdish people (ھەولێر Hewlêr; أربيل, Arbīl; ܐܲܪܒܝܠ, Arbela), is the capital of Iraqi Kurdistan and the largest city in northern Iraq.
Erzurum (Կարին) is a city in eastern Anatolia (Asian Turkey).
Eucratides I (Greek: Εὐκρατίδης Α΄; reigned c. 171–145 BC), sometimes called Eucratides the Great, was one of the most important Greco-Bactrian kings, descendants of dignitaries of Alexander the Great.
The Euphrates (Sumerian: Buranuna; 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu; الفرات al-Furāt; ̇ܦܪܬ Pǝrāt; Եփրատ: Yeprat; פרת Perat; Fırat; Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.
Euripides (Εὐριπίδης) was a tragedian of classical Athens.
Flavius Eutropius was an Ancient Roman historian who flourished in the latter half of the 4th century AD.
FallujahSometimes also transliterated as Falluja, Fallouja, or Falowja (الفلوجة, Iraqi pronunciation) is a city in the Iraqi province of Al Anbar, located roughly west of Baghdad on the Euphrates.
Fan Ye (398–445 or 446), courtesy name Weizong (蔚宗), was a Chinese historian and politician of the Liu Song dynasty during the Southern and Northern dynasties period.
Pars Province (استان پارس, Ostān-e Pārs) also known as Fars (Persian: فارس) or Persia in the Greek sources in historical context, is one of the thirty-one provinces of Iran and known as the cultural capital of the country.
The Fertile Crescent (also known as the "cradle of civilization") is a crescent-shaped region where agriculture and early human civilizations like the Sumer and Ancient Egypt flourished due to inundations from the surrounding Nile, Euphrates, and Tigris rivers.
Festus, whose name also appears in the manuscripts of his work as Rufus Festus, Ruffus Festus, Sextus Festus, Sextus Rufus, and Sextus, was a Late Roman historian and proconsul of Asia whose epitome Breviarium rerum gestarum populi Romani ("Summary of the history of Rome") was commissioned by the emperor Valens in preparation for his war against Persia.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
The First Triumvirate is a term historians use for an informal political alliance of three prominent men between 59 and 53 BC, during the late Roman Republic: Gaius Julius Caesar, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great), and Marcus Licinius Crassus.
Imperial China had a long tradition of foreign relations.
The Forum of Augustus (Foro di Augusto) is one of the Imperial forums of Rome, Italy, built by Augustus.
Fresco (plural frescos or frescoes) is a technique of mural painting executed upon freshly laid, or wet lime plaster.
Gaius Cassius Longinus (October 3, before 85 BC – October 3, 42 BC) was a Roman senator, a leading instigator of the plot to kill Julius Caesar, and the brother in-law of Marcus Junius Brutus.
Gan Ying, was a Chinese military ambassador who was sent on a mission to Rome in 97 CE by the Chinese general Ban Chao.
Gansu (Tibetan: ཀན་སུའུ་ Kan su'u) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northwest of the country.
The Gates of Alexander was a legendary barrier supposedly built by Alexander the Great in the Caucasus to keep the uncivilized barbarians of the north (typically associated with Gog and Magog) from invading the land to the south.
The Gauls were Celtic people inhabiting Gaul in the Iron Age and the Roman period (roughly from the 5th century BC to the 5th century AD).
Gentile (from Latin gentilis, by the French gentil, feminine: gentille, meaning of or belonging to a clan or a tribe) is an ethnonym that commonly means non-Jew.
The Geographica (Ancient Greek: Γεωγραφικά Geōgraphiká), or Geography, is an encyclopedia of geographical knowledge, consisting of 17 'books', written in Greek by Strabo, an educated citizen of the Roman Empire of Greek descent.
The Geography (Γεωγραφικὴ Ὑφήγησις, Geōgraphikḕ Hyphḗgēsis, "Geographical Guidance"), also known by its Latin names as the Geographia and the Cosmographia, is a gazetteer, an atlas, and a treatise on cartography, compiling the geographical knowledge of the 2nd-century Roman Empire.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo (Peltuinum c. 7 – 67 AD) was a Roman general, brother-in-law of the emperor Caligula and father-in-law of Domitian.
Gotarzes I (𐭂𐭅𐭕𐭓𐭆 Gōtarz, Γωτάρζης Gōtarzēs) was the ruler of parts of the Parthian Empire from ca.
Gotarzes II of Parthia (𐭂𐭅𐭕𐭓𐭆 Gōtarz, Γωτάρζης Gōtarzēs; flourished 1st century) was a Prince of Iranian ancestry.
Graffiti (plural of graffito: "a graffito", but "these graffiti") are writing or drawings that have been scribbled, scratched, or painted, typically illicitly, on a wall or other surface, often within public view.
Grand strategy or high strategy comprises the "purposeful employment of all instruments of power available to a security community".
The Great Zab or Upper Zab ((al-Zāb al-Kabīr),,, (zāba ʻalya)) is an approximately long river flowing through Turkey and Iraq.
Khorasan (Middle Persian: Xwarāsān; خراسان Xorāsān), sometimes called Greater Khorasan, is a historical region lying in northeast of Greater Persia, including part of Central Asia and Afghanistan.
The Greco-Bactrian Kingdom was – along with the Indo-Greek Kingdom – the easternmost part of the Hellenistic world, covering Bactria and Sogdiana in Central Asia from 250 to 125 BC.
Drachma (δραχμή,; pl. drachmae or drachmas) was the currency used in Greece during several periods in its history.
Greek historiography refers to Hellenic efforts to track and record history.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Greek mythology is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
The Gulf of Thailand, formerly the Gulf of Siam, is a shallow inlet in the western part of the South China and Eastern Archipelagic Seas, a marginal body of water in the western Pacific Ocean.
Hades (ᾍδης Háidēs) was the ancient Greek chthonic god of the underworld, which eventually took his name.
Hadrian (Publius Aelius Hadrianus Augustus; 24 January 76 – 10 July 138 AD) was Roman emperor from 117 to 138.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
The Han–Xiongnu War,.
Harem (حريم ḥarīm, "a sacred inviolable place; harem; female members of the family"), also known as zenana in South Asia, properly refers to domestic spaces that are reserved for the women of the house in a Muslim family and are inaccessible to adult males except for close relations.
Harran (حران,Harran, حران) was a major ancient city in Upper Mesopotamia whose site is near the modern village of Altınbaşak, Turkey, 44 kilometers southeast of Şanlıurfa.
Hatra الحضر was an ancient city in the Ninawa Governorate and al-Jazira region of Iraq.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
Hera (Ἥρᾱ, Hērā; Ἥρη, Hērē in Ionic and Homeric Greek) is the goddess of women, marriage, family, and childbirth in Ancient Greek religion and myth, one of the Twelve Olympians and the sister-wife of Zeus.
Heraclius (Flavius Heracles Augustus; Flavios Iraklios; c. 575 – February 11, 641) was the Emperor of the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire from 610 to 641.
Hermes (Ἑρμῆς) is an Olympian god in Greek religion and mythology, the son of Zeus and the Pleiad Maia, and the second youngest of the Olympian gods (Dionysus being the youngest).
Herod (Greek:, Hērōdēs; 74/73 BCE – c. 4 BCE/1 CE), also known as Herod the Great and Herod I, was a Roman client king of Judea, referred to as the Herodian kingdom.
Herodian or Herodianus (Ἡρωδιανός) of Syria, sometimes referred to as "Herodian of Antioch" (c. 170 – c. 240), was a minor Roman civil servant who wrote a colourful history in Greek titled History of the Empire from the Death of Marcus (τῆς μετὰ Μάρκον βασιλείας ἱστορία) in eight books covering the years 180 to 238.
History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.
The history of Iran, commonly also known as Persia in the Western world, is intertwined with the history of a larger region, also to an extent known as Greater Iran, comprising the area from Anatolia, the Bosphorus, and Egypt in the west to the borders of Ancient India and the Syr Darya in the east, and from the Caucasus and the Eurasian Steppe in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the south.
The history of metallurgy in the Indian subcontinent began prior to the 3rd millennium BCE and continued well into the British Raj.
The production of silk originates in China in the Neolithic (Yangshao culture, 4th millennium BC).
The history of Syria covers events which occurred on the territory of the present Syrian Arab Republic and events which occurred in Syria (region).
The history of the Jews in Iraq (יְהוּדִים בָּבְלִים,, Yehudim Bavlim, اليهود العراقيون), is documented from the time of the Babylonian captivity c. 586 BC.
The House of Karen (Middle Persian: Kārēn, قارن Qārin or Qāran, قارنوند Qārinwand), also known as Karen-Pahlavi (Kārēn-Pahlaw) were an aristocratic feudal family of Hyrcania (Gurgan).
House of Suren or Surenas.
Hyrcania (Ὑρκανία Hyrkania, Old Persian: Varkâna,Lendering (1996) Middle Persian: Gurgān, Akkadian: Urqananu) is a historical region composed of the land south-east of the Caspian Sea in modern-day Iran, bound in the south by the Alborz mountain range and the Kopet Dag in the east.
John Hyrcanus II (Yohanan Hurqanos), a member of the Hasmonean dynasty, was for a long time the Jewish High Priest in the 1st century BCE.
Hyspaosines or Aspasine (in arabic هيسباوسينز or أسباسين),(c. 209 BC - 124 BC) was a satrap installed by Antiochus IV Epiphanes and later the first King (before 127-124 BC) of Characene or Mesene (Meshun).
An imperial cult is a form of state religion in which an emperor or a dynasty of emperors (or rulers of another title) are worshipped as demigods or deities.
Inanna was the ancient Sumerian goddess of love, beauty, sex, desire, fertility, war, combat, justice, and political power.
The Indo-Parthian Kingdom was ruled by the Gondopharid dynasty and other rulers who were a group of ancient kings from Central Asia that ruled parts of present-day Afghanistan, Pakistan and northwestern India, during or slightly before the 1st century AD.
The Indus River (also called the Sindhū) is one of the longest rivers in Asia.
Infobase Publishing is an American publisher of reference book titles and textbooks geared towards the North American library, secondary school, and university-level curriculum markets.
The Greek inscription "ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΝ ΑΡΣΑΚΟΥ ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ ΔΙΚΑΙΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΦΙΛΕΛΛΗΝΟΣ" means "king of kings Arsaces, the benefactor, the just, the illustrious, friend of the Greeks".
Investiture, from the Latin (preposition in and verb vestire, "dress" from vestis "robe"), is the formal installation of an incumbent.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iranian architecture or Persian architecture (Persian:مهرازى ایرانی) is the architecture of Iran and parts of the rest of West Asia, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The Iranian calendars (گاهشماری ایرانی Gâhshomâriye Irâni) are a succession of calendars invented or used for over two millennia in Iran (Persia).
The Iranian peoples, or Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages.
The Iranian Plateau or the Persian Plateau is a geological formation in Western Asia and Central Asia.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Isfahan (Esfahān), historically also rendered in English as Ispahan, Sepahan, Esfahan or Hispahan, is the capital of Isfahan Province in Iran, located about south of Tehran.
Isidore of Charax (Ἰσίδωρος ὁ Χαρακηνός, Isídōros o Haracēnós; Isidorus Characenus) was a Greco-Roman geographer of the 1st century and 1st century about whom nothing is known but his name and that he wrote at least one work.
Istakhr (Middle Persian: Stakhr, اصطخر Estakhr) was an ancient city located in southern Iran, in Fars province, five kilometers north of Persepolis.
An iwan (ایوان eyvān, إيوان Iwan, also spelled ivan, Turkish: eyvan) is a rectangular hall or space, usually vaulted, walled on three sides, with one end entirely open.
Izates II (Ἰζάτης), son of Monobaz (Μονόβαζος), or Izates bar Monobaz (also known as Izaates, ایزد or זוטוס בן מונבז) (ca. 1-55 CE).
Izeh (ايذه, also Romanized as Īz̄eh; also known as Malāmir, Izaj, and Malemir) is a city and capital of Izeh County, Khuzestan Province, Iran.
Jiaozhi (Tai: kɛɛuA1, Wade-Giles: Chiāo-chǐh), was the name for various provinces, commanderies, prefectures, and counties in northern Vietnam from the era of the Hùng kings to the middle of the Third Chinese domination of Vietnam (–10th centuries) and again during the Fourth Chinese domination (1407–1427).
Titus Flavius Josephus (Φλάβιος Ἰώσηπος; 37 – 100), born Yosef ben Matityahu (יוסף בן מתתיהו, Yosef ben Matityahu; Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς), was a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Judea or Judæa (from יהודה, Standard Yəhuda, Tiberian Yəhûḏāh, Ἰουδαία,; Iūdaea, يهودا, Yahudia) is the ancient Hebrew and Israelite biblical, the exonymic Roman/English, and the modern-day name of the mountainous southern part of Canaan-Israel.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
Justin (Marcus Junianus Justinus Frontinus; century) was a Latin historian who lived under the Roman Empire.
The Kayanians, also Kays, Kayanids or Kaianids, or Kiani, are a semi-mythological dynasty of Persian tradition and folklore which supposedly ruled after the Pishdadids, and before the historical Achaemenids.
Khosrow II (Chosroes II in classical sources; Middle Persian: Husrō(y)), entitled "Aparvēz" ("The Victorious"), also Khusraw Parvēz (New Persian: خسرو پرویز), was the last great king of the Sasanian Empire, reigning from 590 to 628.
Khuzestan Province (استان خوزستان Ostān-e Khūzestān, محافظة خوزستان Muḥāfaẓa Khūzistān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
Khwadāy-Nāmag ("Book of Kings") was a Middle Persian history text from the Sasanid era, now lost, imagined first by Theodor Nöldeke to be the common ancestor of all later Persian-language histories of the Sasanian Empire, a view which has recently been disproven.
Khwarezmian (Khwarazmian, Khorezmian, Chorasmian) is an extinct East Iranian language closely related to Sogdian.
The genitive phrase King of Kings (Assyrian šar šarrāni, Hebrew מֶלֶךְ מְלָכִים melek mĕlakîm, Persian شاهنشاه) is a superlative expression for "great king" or high king; it is probably originally of Semitic origins (compare the superlatives Lord of Lords, Song of Songs or Holy of Holies), but from there was also adopted in Persian (Shahanshah), Hellenistic and Christian traditions.
The Kingdom of Armenia, also the Kingdom of Greater Armenia, or simply Greater Armenia (Մեծ Հայք; Armenia Maior), was a monarchy in the Ancient Near East which existed from 321 BC to 428 AD.
In Greco-Roman geography, Iberia (Ancient Greek: Ἰβηρία; Hiberia) was an exonym (foreign name) for the Georgian kingdom of Kartli (ქართლი), known after its core province, which during Classical Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages was a significant monarchy in the Caucasus, either as an independent state or as a dependent of larger empires, notably the Sassanid and Roman empires.
The Kushan Empire (Βασιλεία Κοσσανῶν; Κυϸανο, Kushano; कुषाण साम्राज्य Kuṣāṇa Samrajya; BHS:; Chinese: 貴霜帝國; Kušan-xšaθr) was a syncretic empire, formed by the Yuezhi, in the Bactrian territories in the early 1st century.
Laodice (who lived in 92 BC), was a Queen of an unknown Kingdom in Asia.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
This is a list of the kings and queens of Armenia, for more information on ancient Armenia and Armenians, please see History of Armenia.
This article lists the monarchs of Persia, who ruled over the area of modern-day Iran from the establishment of the Achaemenid dynasty by Achaemenes around 705 BCE until the deposition of the Pahlavi dynasty in 1979.
Below is a list of rulers of the Iranian Parthian Empire (247 BC – 228 AD).
Lucius Afranius (died 46 BC) was an ancient Roman legatus and client of Pompey the Great.
Lucius Junius Caesennius Paetus (c. 20 - 72?) was a Roman senator, and member of the gens Caesennian and Junian, who held several offices in the emperor's service.
Lucius Verus (Lucius Aurelius Verus Augustus; 15 December 130 – 23 January 169 AD) was the co-emperor of Rome with his adoptive brother Marcus Aurelius from 161 until his own death in 169.
Lucius Licinius Lucullus (118 – 57/56 BC) was an optimate politician of the late Roman Republic, closely connected with Lucius Cornelius Sulla.
Luoyang, formerly romanized as Loyang, is a city located in the confluence area of Luo River and Yellow River in the west of Henan province.
Lusius Quietus was a Roman general and governor of Judaea in 117 AD.
Macrinus (Marcus Opellius Severus Macrinus Augustus; – June 218) was Roman Emperor from April 217 to 8 June 218.
Magi (singular magus; from Latin magus) denotes followers of Zoroastrianism or Zoroaster.
The Magnus Sinus or Sinus Magnus (Latin; ὀ Μέγας Κόλπος, o Mégas Kólpos), also anglicized as the was the form of the Gulf of Thailand and South China Sea known to Greek, Roman, Arab, Persian, and Renaissance cartographers before the Age of Discovery.
Mail or maille (also chain mail(le) or chainmail(le)) is a type of armour consisting of small metal rings linked together in a pattern to form a mesh.
Mandaeism or Mandaeanism (مندائية) is a gnostic religion with a strongly dualistic worldview.
Mani (in Middle Persian Māni, New Persian: مانی Māni, Syriac Mānī, Greek Μάνης, Latin Manes; also Μανιχαῖος, Latin Manichaeus, from Syriac ܡܐܢܝ ܚܝܐ Mānī ḥayyā "Living Mani"), of Iranian origin, was the prophet and the founder of Manichaeism, a gnostic religion of Late Antiquity which was widespread but no longer prevalent by name.
Manichaeism (in Modern Persian آیین مانی Āyin-e Māni) was a major religious movement that was founded by the Iranian prophet Mani (in مانی, Syriac: ܡܐܢܝ, Latin: Manichaeus or Manes from Μάνης; 216–276) in the Sasanian Empire.
Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (c. 89 or 88 BC – late 13 or early 12 BC) was a Roman patrician who was a part of the Second Triumvirate alongside Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (the future Augustus) and Marcus Antonius, and the last Pontifex Maximus of the Roman Republic.
Marcus Aurelius (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus; 26 April 121 – 17 March 180 AD) was Roman emperor from, ruling jointly with his adoptive brother, Lucius Verus, until Verus' death in 169, and jointly with his son, Commodus, from 177.
Marcus Junius Brutus (the Younger) (85 BC – 23 October 42 BC), often referred to as Brutus, was a politician of the late Roman Republic.
Marcus Licinius Crassus (c. 115 – 6 May 53 BC) was a Roman general and politician who played a key role in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
Marcus Statius Priscus Licinius Italicus (M. Statius M. f. Cl. Priscus Licinius Italicus)The name M. Statius M. f. Cl.
Marduk (cuneiform: dAMAR.UTU; Sumerian: amar utu.k "calf of the sun; solar calf"; Greek Μαρδοχαῖος, Mardochaios) was a late-generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon.
Marcus Antonius (Latin:; 14 January 1 August 30 BC), commonly known in English as Mark Antony or Marc Antony, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic from an oligarchy into the autocratic Roman Empire.
Marzbān, or Marzpān (Middle Persian transliteration: mrzwpn, derived from marz "border, boundary" and the suffix -pān "guardian"; Modern Persian: مرزبان Marzbān) were a class of margraves, warden of the marches, and by extension military commanders, in charge of border provinces of the Parthian Empire (247 BC–224 AD) and mostly Sasanian Empire (224–651 AD) of Iran.
Masada (מצדה, "fortress") is an ancient fortification in the Southern District of Israel situated on top of an isolated rock plateau, akin to a mesa.
A medal or medallion is a small portable artistic object, a thin disc, normally of metal, carrying a design, usually on both sides.
Media (Old Persian: Māda, Middle Persian: Mād) is a region of north-western Iran, best known for having been the political and cultural base of the Medes.
In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (also known as the Mediterranean region or sometimes Mediterranea) is the region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea that have a Mediterranean climate, with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers, which supports characteristic Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub vegetation.
Meharaspes (Iranian: Mehrasp) was the Parthian client king of Adiabene in the early 2nd century CE.
The Mekong Delta (Đồng bằng Sông Cửu Long, "Nine Dragon river delta" or simply Đồng Bằng Sông Mê Kông, "Mekong river delta"), also known as the Western Region (Miền Tây) or the South-western region (Tây Nam Bộ) is the region in southwestern Vietnam where the Mekong River approaches and empties into the sea through a network of distributaries.
A mercenary is an individual who is hired to take part in an armed conflict but is not part of a regular army or other governmental military force.
The Mersin Province (Mersin ili) is a province in southern Turkey, on the Mediterranean coast between Antalya and Adana. The provincial capital is the city of Mersin and the other major town is Tarsus, birthplace of St Paul. The province is part of Çukurova, a geographical, economical and cultural region, that covers the provinces of Mersin, Adana, Osmaniye and Hatay.
Merv (Merw, Мерв, مرو; مرو, Marv), formerly Achaemenid Persian Satrapy of Margiana, and later Alexandria (Margiana) (Ἀλεξάνδρεια) and Antiochia in Margiana (Ἀντιόχεια τῆς Μαργιανῆς), was a major oasis-city in Central Asia, on the historical Silk Road, located near today's Mary in Turkmenistan.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
Mesopotamia was the name of two distinct Roman provinces, the one a short-lived creation of the Roman Emperor Trajan in 116–117 and the other established by Emperor Septimius Severus in ca.
Middle Persian is the Middle Iranian language or ethnolect of southwestern Iran that during the Sasanian Empire (224–654) became a prestige dialect and so came to be spoken in other regions of the empire as well.
A minstrel was a medieval European entertainer.
A mint is an industrial facility which manufactures coins that can be used in currency.
Mithra (𐬀𐬭𐬚𐬌𐬨 Miθra, 𐎷𐎰𐎼 Miça, New Persian: Mehr) is the Zoroastrian angelic divinity (yazata) of Covenant, Light, and Oath.
A Mithraeum, sometimes spelled Mithreum, is a large or small Mithraic temple, erected in classical antiquity by the worshippers of Mithras.
Mithridates or Mithradates I (Parthian: Mihrdat, مهرداد, Mehrdād), (ca. 195 BC – 132 BC) was king of the Parthian Empire from 165 BC to 132 BC, succeeding his brother Phraates I. His father was King Phriapatius of Parthia, who died ca.
Mithridates II (meaning "Gift of Mithra") was king of Parthian Empire from 121 to 91 BC.
Mithridates III of Parthia (Persian: مهرداد سوم) ruled the Parthian Empire c. 57–54 BC.
Mithridates of Armenia (Միհրդատ Իբերացի, მითრიდატე; fl. 1st century) was an Iberian prince who served as a King of Armenia under the protection of the Roman Empire.
Mithridates VI or Mithradates VI (Μιθραδάτης, Μιθριδάτης), from Old Persian Miθradāta, "gift of Mithra"; 135–63 BC, also known as Mithradates the Great (Megas) and Eupator Dionysius, was king of Pontus and Armenia Minor in northern Anatolia (now Turkey) from about 120–63 BC.
Molon or Molo (Moλων; died 220 BC) was a general and satrap of the Seleucid king Antiochus the Great (223–187 BC).
A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty.
Mosul (الموصل, مووسڵ, Māwṣil) is a major city in northern Iraq. Located some north of Baghdad, Mosul stands on the west bank of the Tigris, opposite the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh on the east bank. The metropolitan area has grown to encompass substantial areas on both the "Left Bank" (east side) and the "Right Bank" (west side), as the two banks are described by the locals compared to the flow direction of Tigris. At the start of the 21st century, Mosul and its surrounds had an ethnically and religiously diverse population; the majority of Mosul's population were Arabs, with Assyrians, Armenians, Turkmens, Kurds, Yazidis, Shabakis, Mandaeans, Kawliya, Circassians in addition to other, smaller ethnic minorities. In religious terms, mainstream Sunni Islam was the largest religion, but with a significant number of followers of the Salafi movement and Christianity (the latter followed by the Assyrians and Armenians), as well as Shia Islam, Sufism, Yazidism, Shabakism, Yarsanism and Mandaeism. Mosul's population grew rapidly around the turn of the millennium and by 2004 was estimated to be 1,846,500. In 2014, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant seized control of the city. The Iraqi government recaptured it in the 2016–2017 Battle of Mosul. Historically, important products of the area include Mosul marble and oil. The city of Mosul is home to the University of Mosul and its renowned Medical College, which together was one of the largest educational and research centers in Iraq and the Middle East. Mosul, together with the nearby Nineveh plains, is one of the historic centers for the Assyrians and their churches; the Assyrian Church of the East; its offshoot, the Chaldean Catholic Church; and the Syriac Orthodox Church, containing the tombs of several Old Testament prophets such as Jonah, some of which were destroyed by ISIL in July 2014.
In art and iconography, a motif is an element of an image.
Mount Bisotoun (or Behistun and Bisotun) is a mountain of the Zagros Mountains range, located in Kermanshah Province of western Iran.
A horse archer is a cavalryman armed with a bow, able to shoot while riding from horseback.
Musa was Queen of the Parthian Empire from c. 2 BC to 4 AD.
The Nabataeans, also Nabateans (الأنباط  , compare Ναβαταῖος, Nabataeus), were an Arab people who inhabited northern Arabia and the Southern Levant.
Nanaya (Sumerian, DNA.NA.A; also transcribed as "Nanâ", "Nanãy", "Nanaja", "Nanãja", or '"Nanãya"; in Greek: Ναναια or Νανα; Aramaic: ננױננאױ) is the canonical name for a goddess worshipped by the Sumerians and Akkadians, a deity who personified voluptuousness and sexuality,Westenholz, 1997 and warfare.
Naples (Napoli, Napule or; Neapolis; lit) is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan.
The Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.
Nehardea or Nehardeah (nəhardəʿā "river of knowledge") was a city of Babylonia, situated at or near the junction of the Euphrates with the Nahr Malka (also known as Nâr Sharri, Ar-Malcha, Nahr el-Malik, and King's Canal), one of the earliest centers of Babylonian Judaism.
Nero (Latin: Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 15 December 37 – 9 June 68 AD) was the last Roman emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty.
The Nerva–Antonine dynasty was a dynasty of seven Roman Emperors who ruled over the Roman Empire from 96 AD to 192 AD.
Neurofibromatosis (NF) is a group of three conditions in which tumors grow in the nervous system.
Nineveh (𒌷𒉌𒉡𒀀 URUNI.NU.A Ninua); ܢܝܼܢܘܹܐ was an ancient Assyrian city of Upper Mesopotamia, located on the outskirts of Mosul in modern-day northern Iraq.
Nisa (also Parthaunisa) was an ancient settlement of the Iranic peoples, located near (modern-day) Bagir village, 18 km southwest of Ashgabat, Turkmenistan.
A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.
Northwestern China includes the autonomous regions of Xinjiang and Ningxia and the provinces of Shaanxi, Gansu, and Qinghai.
Nusaybin (Akkadian: Naṣibina; Classical Greek: Νίσιβις, Nisibis; نصيبين., Kurdish: Nisêbîn; ܢܨܝܒܝܢ, Nṣībīn; Armenian: Մծբին, Mtsbin) is a city and multiple titular see in Mardin Province, Turkey.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
Old Aramaic (code: oar) refers to the earliest stage of the Aramaic language, considered to give way to Middle Aramaic by the 3rd century (a conventional date is the rise of the Sasanian Empire in 224 CE).
Scholars have attempted to reconstruct the phonology of Old Chinese from documentary evidence.
Opis (Akkadian Upî or Upija; Ὦπις) was an ancient Babylonian city near the Tigris, not far from modern Baghdad.
Oral literature or folk literature corresponds in the sphere of the spoken (oral) word to literature as literature operates in the domain of the written word.
Orobazus was the ambassador of the Parthian king Mithridates II who contacted the Roman magistrate Lucius Cornelius Sulla.
Orodes I of Parthia (ارد يکم) ruled the Parthian Empire from c. 85 to 80 BC in succession to Gotarzes I and Mithridates III.
Orodes II of Parthia (ارد دوم), (also called Hyrodes Anaridius) was the king of the Parthian Empire from 57 BC to 37 BC.
Orodes III (ارد سوم) was raised to the throne of the Parthian Empire around AD 4 by the magnates after the death of Phraates V (reigned c. 2 BC – AD 4).
Osroene, also spelled Osroëne and Osrhoene (مملكة الرها; ܡܠܟܘܬܐ ܕܒܝܬ ܐܘܪܗܝ "Kingdom of Urhay"; Ὀσροηνή) and sometimes known by the name of its capital city, Edessa (now Şanlıurfa, Turkey), was a historical kingdom in Upper Mesopotamia, which was ruled by a dynasty of Arab origin.
Osroes I (Greek version of Khusraw) or Chosroes was a prince of Iranian and Greek ancestry.
An ostracon (Greek: ὄστρακον ostrakon, plural ὄστρακα ostraka) is a piece of pottery, usually broken off from a vase or other earthenware vessel.
Pacorus I (died 38 BC) was a Parthian prince, who was the son of King Orodes II and Queen Laodice.
Pacorus II (پاکور دوم, flourished 1st century & first half of second century) was king of the Parthian Empire from 78 to 105.
Pahlavi or Pahlevi is a particular, exclusively written form of various Middle Iranian languages.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Palazzo Madama e Casaforte degli Acaja is a palace in Turin, northern Italy.
Palmyra (Palmyrene: Tadmor; تَدْمُر Tadmur) is an ancient Semitic city in present-day Homs Governorate, Syria.
Papyrus is a material similar to thick paper that was used in ancient times as a writing surface.
Parchment is a writing material made from specially prepared untanned skins of animals—primarily sheep, calves, and goats.
Parley is a discussion or conference, especially one between enemies over terms of a truce or other matters.
The Parni (Πάρνοι, Parnoi) or Aparni (Ἄπαρνοι, Aparnoi) were an east Iranian people.
In 247 BC, Andragoras, the Seleucid governor (satrap) of Parthia ("roughly western Khurasan".) proclaimed independence from the Seleucids, when - following the death of Antiochus II - Ptolemy III seized control of the Seleucid capital at Antioch, and "so left the future of the Seleucid dynasty for a moment in question.". Meanwhile, "a man called Arsaces, of Scythian or Bactrian origin, elected leader of the Parni tribes." Following the secession of Parthia from the Seleucid Empire and the resultant loss of Seleucid military support, Andragoras had difficulty in maintaining his borders, and about 238 BCE—under the command of "Arsaces and his brother Tiridates".
Parthamaspates, was the Roman client king of the Parthian Empire and later of Osroene.
Parthia (𐎱𐎼𐎰𐎺 Parθava; 𐭐𐭓𐭕𐭅 Parθaw; 𐭯𐭫𐭮𐭥𐭡𐭥 Pahlaw) is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran.
Parthian art was Iranian art made during the Parthian Empire from 247 BC to 224 AD, based in the Near East.
The Parthian language, also known as Arsacid Pahlavi and Pahlawānīg, is a now-extinct ancient Northwestern Iranian language spoken in Parthia, a region of northeastern ancient Iran.
The Parthian shot is a light horse military tactic made famous in the West by the Parthians, an ancient Iranian people.
In Greek mythology, Pentheus (Πενθεύς) was a king of Thebes.
Persepolis (𐎱𐎠𐎼𐎿) was the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire.
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
Persian mythology are traditional tales and stories of ancient origin, all involving extraordinary or supernatural beings.
Persis (Περσίς), better known as Persia (Parsa; پارس, Pars), or "Persia proper", was originally a name of a region near the Zagros mountains at Lake Urmia.
Pharasmanes I (ფარსმან I) (died 58) was a king of Iberia.
Phasael (died 40 BC;, Fatza'el; Latin: Phasaelus; from Φασάηλος, Phasaelos), was a prince from the Herodian Dynasty of Judea.
Philhellenism ("the love of Greek culture") and philhellene ("the admirer of Greeks and everything Greek"), from the Greek φίλος philos "friend, lover" and ἑλληνισμός hellenism "Greek", was an intellectual fashion prominent mostly at the turn of the 19th century.
Phraates I of Parthia was ruler of the Parthian Empire from ca.
Phraates II was king of the Parthian Empire from 132 BC to 126 BC.
Phraates III of Parthia succeeded his father Sanatruces and ruled the Parthian Empire from 70 to 57 BC.
Phraates IV of Parthia (son of Orodes II), ruled the Parthian Empire from 37–2 BC.
Phraates V, known by the diminutive Phraataces (Φραατάκης), ruled the Parthian Empire from 2 BC to AD 4.
Phriapatius (فریاپت) or Priapatius, sometimes called Phriapites, was the king of the Parthian Empire from 185 BC to 170 BC.
Plaster is a building material used for the protective and/or decorative coating of walls and ceilings and for moulding and casting decorative elements.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.
Pointed hats have been a distinctive item of headgear of a wide range of cultures throughout history.
Polygamy (from Late Greek πολυγαμία, polygamía, "state of marriage to many spouses") is the practice of marrying multiple spouses.
Polytheism (from Greek πολυθεϊσμός, polytheismos) is the worship of or belief in multiple deities, which are usually assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses, along with their own religions and rituals.
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (29 September 106 BC – 28 September 48 BC), usually known in English as Pompey or Pompey the Great, was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic.
A portrait is a painting, photograph, sculpture, or other artistic representation of a person, in which the face and its expression is predominant.
Posidonius (Ποσειδώνιος, Poseidonios, meaning "of Poseidon") "of Apameia" (ὁ Ἀπαμεύς) or "of Rhodes" (ὁ Ῥόδιος) (c. 135 BCE – c. 51 BCE), was a Greek Stoic philosopher, politician, astronomer, geographer, historian and teacher native to Apamea, Syria.
In the study of history as an academic discipline, a primary source (also called original source or evidence) is an artifact, document, diary, manuscript, autobiography, recording, or any other source of information that was created at the time under study.
A proconsul was an official of ancient Rome who acted on behalf of a consul.
The Protectorate of the Western Regions was an imperial administration imposed by Han China – between the 2nd century BCE and 2nd century CE – on many smaller and previously independent states, which were known in China as the "Western Regions"). "Western Regions" referred mostly to areas west of Yumen Pass, especially the Tarim Basin. These areas were later regarded as Altishahr (southern Xinjiang, excluding Dzungaria). Previously, "western regions" was used more generally in regard to Central Asia and sometimes even included parts of South Asia. The protectorate was the first direct rule by a Chinese government of the area.Yu 2003, 57-59 It comprised various vassal protectorates, under the nominal authority of a Chief Protector of the Western Regions, appointed by the Han court.
The Ptolemaic Kingdom (Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ basileía) was a Hellenistic kingdom based in Egypt.
Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
Ptolemy III Euergetes (Πτολεμαῖος Εὐεργέτης, Ptolemaĩos Euergétēs "Ptolemy the Benefactor"; 284–222 BC) was the third king of the Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt from 246 to 222 BCE.
Ptolemy Neos Dionysos Theos Philopator Theos Philadelphos (Πτολεμαῖος Νέος Διόνυσος Θεός Φιλοπάτωρ Θεός Φιλάδελφος, Ptolemaios Néos Diónysos Theós Philopátōr Theós Philádelphos "Ptolemy New Dionysus, God Beloved of his Father, God Beloved of his Brother"; 117–51 BC) was a pharaoh of the ethnically Macedonian Greek Ptolemaic dynasty of Ancient Egypt.
Publius Ventidius Bassus, or in full, Publius Ventidius Publii filius Bassus, "Publius Ventidius, Publius's son, Bassus" (P·VENTIDIVS·P·F·BASSVS) was a Roman general and one of Julius Caesar's protégés.
Quintus Labienus Parthicus (died 39 BC) was the son of Titus Labienus.
Qumis (قومس; Middle Iranian Kōmiš), also known as Hecatompylos (Ἑκατόμπυλος, in صددروازه Saddarvazeh) was an ancient city of uncertain location which was the capital of the Arsacid dynasty by 200 BCE.
The Records of the Grand Historian, also known by its Chinese name Shiji, is a monumental history of ancient China and the world finished around 94 BC by the Han dynasty official Sima Qian after having been started by his father, Sima Tan, Grand Astrologer to the imperial court.
A regnal year is a year of the reign of a sovereign, from the Latin regnum meaning kingdom, rule.
The reign of Cleopatra VII of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt began with the death of her father, the ruling pharaoh Ptolemy XII Auletes, by March 51 BC.
The beliefs, activities, and cultural events of the ancient Iranians in ancient Iran are complex matters.
Res Gestae Divi Augusti (Eng. The Deeds of the Divine Augustus) is the funerary inscription of the first Roman emperor, Augustus, giving a first-person record of his life and accomplishments.
Rey or Ray (شهر ری, Šahr-e Rey, “City of Ray”), also known as Rhages (Ῥάγαι, or Europos (Ευρωπός) Rhagai; Rhagae or Rhaganae) and formerly as Arsacia, is the capital of Rey County in Tehran Province of Iran, and the oldest existing city in the province.
Rhadamistus (რადამისტი, radamist'i, Հռադամիզդ, Hřadamizd) (died 58) was a royal prince of the Pharnavazid dynasty of the Kingdom of Iberia who reigned over the Kingdom of Armenia from 51 to 53 and 54 to 55.
Rhodogune was the daughter of the Parthian king Mithridates I (171 BCE-132 BCE), and sister of Phraates II (ruled 132 BCE-127 BCE).
A rhyton (plural rhytons or, following the Greek plural, rhyta) is a roughly conical container from which fluids were intended to be drunk or to be poured in some ceremony such as libation, or merely at table.
The commerce of the Roman Empire was a major sector of the Roman economy during the early Republic and throughout most of the imperial period.
The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC).
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Roman glass objects have been recovered across the Roman Empire in domestic, industrial and funerary contexts.
Roman historiography is indebted to the Greeks, who invented the form.
A Roman legion (from Latin legio "military levy, conscription", from legere "to choose") was a large unit of the Roman army.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
The Roman Senate (Senatus Romanus; Senato Romano) was a political institution in ancient Rome.
Syria was an early Roman province, annexed to the Roman Republic in 64 BC by Pompey in the Third Mithridatic War, following the defeat of Armenian King Tigranes the Great.
The Roman triumph (triumphus) was a civil ceremony and religious rite of ancient Rome, held to publicly celebrate and sanctify the success of a military commander who had led Roman forces to victory in the service of the state or, originally and traditionally, one who had successfully completed a foreign war.
The Roman–Parthian War of 161–166 (also called the Parthian War of Lucius Verus) was fought between the Roman and Parthian Empires over Armenia and Upper Mesopotamia.
The Roman–Parthian War of 58–63 or the War of the Armenian Succession was fought between the Roman Empire and the Parthian Empire over control of Armenia, a vital buffer state between the two realms.
The Roman–Parthian Wars (66 BC – 217 AD) were a series of conflicts between the Parthian Empire and the Roman Republic and Roman Empire.
Romans in Persia is related to the brief invasion and occupation of western and central areas of Parthia (modern-day Iran) by the Romans during their empire.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
Sagittarii (Latin, plural form of sagittarius) is the Latin term for archers.
Saka, Śaka, Shaka or Saca mod. ساکا; Śaka; Σάκαι, Sákai; Sacae;, old *Sək, mod. Sāi) is the name used in Middle Persian and Sanskrit sources for the Scythians, a large group of Eurasian nomads on the Eurasian Steppe speaking Eastern Iranian languages.
Sanatruces II of Parthia, the son of Mithridates IV, was a pretender to the throne of the Parthian Empire during the disputed reign of his uncle Osroes I. When Osroes was deposed by the invading Roman Emperor Trajan in 116 in favor of the puppet ruler Parthamaspates, Sanatruces and his father, Osroes' brother Mithridates, together claimed the diadem and continued the struggle against the Romans in Mesopotamia.
King Sanatruces of Parthia (also Sinatruces or Sanatruk, c. 157 BC – 70 BC) ruled the Parthian Empire from c. 93/2 BC to 88/87 BC during his first reign and c. 77 to 70 BC during his second reign.
Sanatruk (Սանատրուկ, Latinized as Sanatruces) was a member of the Arsacid dynasty of Armenia who succeeded Tiridates I of Armenia as King of Armenia at the end of the 1st century.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
Satraps were the governors of the provinces of the ancient Median and Achaemenid Empires and in several of their successors, such as in the Sasanian Empire and the Hellenistic empires.
Scythia (Ancient Greek: Σκυθική, Skythikē) was a region of Central Eurasia in classical antiquity, occupied by the Eastern Iranian Scythians, encompassing Central Asia and parts of Eastern Europe east of the Vistula River, with the eastern edges of the region vaguely defined by the Greeks.
or Scyths (from Greek Σκύθαι, in Indo-Persian context also Saka), were a group of Iranian people, known as the Eurasian nomads, who inhabited the western and central Eurasian steppes from about the 9th century BC until about the 1st century BC.
The Second Triumvirate is the name historians have given to the official political alliance of Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (Caesar Augustus), Marcus Antonius (Mark Antony), and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, formed on 27 November 43 BC with the enactment of the Lex Titia, the adoption of which some view as marking the end of the Roman Republic, whilst others argue the Battle of Actium or Octavian becoming Caesar Augustus in 27 BC.
Seleucia, also known as or, was a major Mesopotamian city of the Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanian empires.
The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
The Seleucid–Parthian wars were a series of conflicts between the Seleucid Empire and Parthia which resulted in the ultimate expulsion of the Seleucids from Persia and the establishment of the Parthian Empire.
Seleucus II Callinicus Pogon (Σέλευκος Β΄ ὁ Καλλίνικος ὁ Πώγων; Kallinikos means "gloriously triumphant"; Pogon means "the Beard"; 265–225 BCE), was a ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire, who reigned from 246 to 225 BC.
Septimius Severus (Lucius Septimius Severus Augustus; 11 April 145 – 4 February 211), also known as Severus, was Roman emperor from 193 to 211.
Serfdom is the status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism.
A siege engine is a device that is designed to break or circumvent heavy castle doors, thick city walls and other fortifications in siege warfare.
The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.
Buddhism entered Han China via the Silk Road, beginning in the 1st or 2nd century CE.
Sima Qian was a Chinese historian of the early Han dynasty (206AD220).
Sino-Roman relations comprised the mostly indirect contact, flow of trade goods, information, and occasional travellers between the Roman Empire and Han Empire of China, as well as between the later Eastern Roman Empire and various Chinese dynasties.
Sīstān (Persian/Baloch/Pashto: سیستان), known in ancient times as Sakastan (Persian/Baloch/Pashto: ساكاستان; "the land of the Saka"), is a historical and geographical region in present-day eastern Iran (Sistan and Baluchestan Province), southern Afghanistan (Nimruz, Kandahar) and the Nok Kundi region of Balochistan (western Pakistan).
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
Sogdia or Sogdiana was an ancient Iranian civilization that at different times included territory located in present-day Tajikistan and Uzbekistan such as: Samarkand, Bukhara, Khujand, Panjikent and Shahrisabz.
The Sogdian language was an Eastern Iranian language spoken in the Central Asian region of Sogdia, located in modern-day Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan (capital: Samarkand; other chief cities: Panjakent, Fergana, Khujand, and Bukhara), as well as some Sogdian immigrant communities in ancient China.
The South China Sea is a marginal sea that is part of the Pacific Ocean, encompassing an area from the Karimata and Malacca Straits to the Strait of Taiwan of around.
The spice trade refers to the trade between historical civilizations in Asia, Northeast Africa and Europe.
A standing army, unlike a reserve army, is a permanent, often professional, army.
The Statue of Parthian Noble Man, National Museum of Iran 2401 is one of the main surviving works of Parthian art.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
Stucco or render is a material made of aggregates, a binder and water.
Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (c. 138 BC – 78 BC), known commonly as Sulla, was a Roman general and statesman.
Surena or Suren (died 53 BC) was a Parthian spahbed ("General" or "Commander") during the 1st century BC.
Susa (fa Šuš;; שׁוּשָׁן Šušān; Greek: Σοῦσα; ܫܘܫ Šuš; Old Persian Çūšā) was an ancient city of the Proto-Elamite, Elamite, First Persian Empire, Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanian empires of Iran, and one of the most important cities of the Ancient Near East.
Suzerainty (and) is a back-formation from the late 18th-century word suzerain, meaning upper-sovereign, derived from the French sus (meaning above) + -erain (from souverain, meaning sovereign).
The Tarim Basin is an endorheic basin in northwest China occupying an area of about.
Taxila (from Pāli: Takkasilā, Sanskrit: तक्षशिला,, meaning "City of Cut Stone" or " Rock") is a town and an important archaeological site in the Rawalpindi District of the Punjab, Pakistan, situated about north-west of Islamabad and Rawalpindi, just off the famous Grand Trunk Road.
The tetradrachm (τετράδραχμον, tetrádrakhmon) was an Ancient Greek silver coin equivalent to four drachmae.
The Bacchae (Βάκχαι, Bakchai; also known as The Bacchantes) is an ancient Greek tragedy, written by the Athenian playwright Euripides during his final years in Macedonia, at the court of Archelaus I of Macedon.
The ancient Greek drama was a theatrical culture that flourished in ancient Greece from c. 700 BC.
A prop, formally known as (theatrical) property, is an object used on stage or on screen by actors during a performance or screen production.
The Third Mithridatic War (73–63 BC) was the last and longest of three Mithridatic Wars and was fought between Mithridates VI of Pontus, who was joined by his allies, and the Roman Republic.
A tiara (from tiara, from τιάρα) is a jeweled, ornamental crown traditionally worn by women.
Tiberius (Tiberius Caesar Divi Augusti filius Augustus; 16 November 42 BC – 16 March 37 AD) was Roman emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD, succeeding the first emperor, Augustus.
Tigranes II, more commonly known as Tigranes the Great (Տիգրան Մեծ, Tigran Mets; Τιγράνης ὁ Μέγας Tigránes ho Mégas; Tigranes Magnus) (140 – 55 BC) was King of Armenia under whom the country became, for a short time, the strongest state to Rome's east.
Tigranes VI, also known as Tigran VI or by his Roman name Gaius Julius Tigranes (Γαίος Ιούλιος Τιγράνης., Armenian:Տիգրան, before 25 – after 68) was a Herodian Prince and served as a Roman Client King of Armenia in the 1st century.
Tigranocerta (Τιγρανόκερτα, Tigranόkerta; Tigranakert (Տիգրանակերտ)) was the capital of the Armenian Kingdom.
Batman River The Tigris (Sumerian: Idigna or Idigina; Akkadian: 𒁇𒄘𒃼; دجلة Dijlah; ܕܹܩܠܵܬ.; Տիգրիս Tigris; Դգլաթ Dglatʿ;, biblical Hiddekel) is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates.
Timarchus or Timarch was a usurper in the Seleucid empire between 163–160 BC.
Tiridates I (Տրդատ Ա, Trdat A; 𐭕𐭉𐭓𐭉𐭃𐭕, Tīridāt; Τιριδάτης, Tiridátes) was King of Armenia beginning in 53 AD and the founder of the Arsacid dynasty of Armenia.
Tiridates or Teridates or Tirdad or تیرداد is a Persian name, given by Arrian in his Parthica to the brother of Arsaces I, the founder of the Parthian kingdom, whom he is said to have succeeded in about 246 BC.
Tiridates II of Parthia was set up by the Parthians against Phraates IV in about 32 BC, but was expelled when Phraates returned with the help of the Scythians.
Tiridates III of Parthia (تيرداد سوم), ruled the Parthian Empire briefly in 35–36.
Trajan (Imperator Caesar Nerva Trajanus Divi Nervae filius Augustus; 18 September 538August 117 AD) was Roman emperor from 98 to 117AD.
A tunic is any of several types of garment for the body, usually simple in style, reaching from the shoulders to a length somewhere between the hips and the ankles.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Twenty-Four Histories, also known as the Orthodox Histories are the Chinese official historical books covering a period from 3000 BC to the Ming dynasty in the 17th century.
Tyre (صور, Ṣūr; Phoenician:, Ṣūr; צוֹר, Ṣōr; Tiberian Hebrew, Ṣōr; Akkadian:, Ṣurru; Greek: Τύρος, Týros; Sur; Tyrus, Տիր, Tir), sometimes romanized as Sour, is a district capital in the South Governorate of Lebanon.
A universal history is a work aiming at the presentation of the history of humankind as a whole, coherent unit.
Utu later worshipped by East Semitic peoples as Shamash, was the ancient Mesopotamian god of the sun, justice, morality, and truth, and the twin brother of the goddess Inanna, the Queen of Heaven.
Vardanes I of Parthia (وردان يکم, flourished 1st century) was a Prince of Iranian and Greek ancestry.
Vardanes II of Parthia was the son of Vologases I and briefly ruler of part of the Parthian Empire.
A vassal is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch, in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe.
Vault (French voûte, from Italian volta) is an architectural term for an arched form used to provide a space with a ceiling or roof.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Vis and Rāmin (ويس و رامين., Vis o Rāmin) is an ancient Persian love story.
Vologases I of Parthia (ولاش يکم) sometimes called Vologaeses or Vologeses or following Parthian usage, Walagash (بلاش Balāsh) was king of the Parthian Empire from about 51 until his death in 78.
Vologases III (Parthian: Walagash, بلاش, Balāsh, Վաղարշ, Vāghārsh) was a Parthian Prince who claimed the throne of the Parthian Empire about 105, in the last days of Pacorus II of Parthia (80–105) and reigned over the eastern portion of the kingdom to 147.
Vologases IV of Parthia (Parthian: Walagash, بلاش, Balāsh) was the ruler of the Parthian Empire from 147 to 191.
Vologases V of Parthia (Parthian: Walagash, بلاش, Balāsh), known in Armenian sources as Vologases II (Վաղարշ, Vagharsh), was king of Arsacid Armenia from to 180 to 191, and king of the Parthian Empire from 191 to 208.
Vologases VI of Parthia (Parthian: Walagash, بلاش, Balāsh) succeeded his father Vologases V of Parthia (191–208) to the throne of the Parthian Empire in 208.
Vonones I of Parthia (ΟΝΩΝΗΣ Onōnēs on his coins) ruled the Parthian Empire from about 8 to 12 AD.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
The Western Iranian languages are a branch of the Iranian languages, attested from the time of Old Persian (6th century BC) and Median.
The Xiongnu were a confederation of nomadic peoples who, according to ancient Chinese sources, inhabited the eastern Asian Steppe from the 3rd century BC to the late 1st century AD.
Yazdegerd III or Yazdgerd III (literally meaning "made by God"; New Persian: یزدگرد; Izdegerdes in classical sources), was the thirty-eighth and last king of the Sasanian Empire of Iran from 632 to 651.
The Yuezhi or Rouzhi were an ancient people first reported in Chinese histories as nomadic pastoralists living in an arid grassland area in the western part of the modern Chinese province of Gansu, during the 1st millennium BC.
Zahhak Castle (or citadel) is a castle in East Azerbaijan Province, Hashtrud, Iran.
Zeus (Ζεύς, Zeús) is the sky and thunder god in ancient Greek religion, who rules as king of the gods of Mount Olympus.
Zhang Qian (d. 113) was a Chinese official and diplomat who served as an imperial envoy to the world outside of China in the 2nd century BC, during the time of the Han dynasty.
Zoroaster (from Greek Ζωροάστρης Zōroastrēs), also known as Zarathustra (𐬰𐬀𐬭𐬀𐬚𐬎𐬱𐬙𐬭𐬀 Zaraθuštra), Zarathushtra Spitama or Ashu Zarathushtra, was an ancient Iranian-speaking prophet whose teachings and innovations on the religious traditions of ancient Iranian-speaking peoples developed into the religion of Zoroastrianism.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.
Arsacid, Arsacid Dynasty, Arsacid Dynasty of Parthia, Arsacid Empire, Arsacid Persian Empire, Arsacid dynasty, Arsacid dynasty of Parthia, Arsacid empire, Arsacids, Ashkanian, Iranian Arsacid Empire, King of Parthia, Parthian Babylonia, Parthian Iraq, Parthian Kingdom, Parthian empire, Praaspa, Second Persian Empire.