179 relations: Accelerator mass spectrometry, Accelerator physics, Advanced Light Source, Advanced Photon Source, Alternating Gradient Synchrotron, Antimatter, Antiproton, Argonne National Laboratory, Aspect ratio, Atom smasher (disambiguation), Atomic nucleus, Available energy (particle collision), BBC News, Betatron, Bevatron, Big Bang, Black hole, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Carbon-14, Cathode ray tube, CERN, Cobalt-60, Cockcroft–Walton generator, Collider, Color confinement, Compact Linear Collider, Condensed matter physics, Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-based Sciences and Education, Cosmic ray, Cosmology, Cosmotron, Cryomodule, Curvature, Cyclotron, Cyclotron resonance, Deuterium, Diamond Light Source, Dielectric strength, Dielectric wall accelerator, Dipole magnet, Direct current, Donald William Kerst, Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility, Electric charge, Electric field, Electrical breakdown, Electrical polarity, Electrode, Electromagnet, Electromagnetic field, ..., Electromagnetic induction, Electromagnetic radiation, Electron, Electronvolt, Electrostatics, Energy, Ernest Lawrence, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Fermilab, FFAG accelerator, Free-electron laser, Future Circular Collider, Gluon, Gold, Grenoble, Gustav Ising, Hawking radiation, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Hydrogen, Illinois, Integrated circuit, International Linear Collider, Ion, Ion implantation, Iron, Isochronous timing, Isotope, Isotope separation, John Wiley & Sons, Journal of Physics G, Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, Jussieu Campus, KEK, KEKB (accelerator), Kinetic energy, Klystron, Large Electron–Positron Collider, Large Hadron Collider, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Leo Szilard, Lepton, Linear particle accelerator, List of accelerators in particle physics, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Magnet, Magnetic confinement fusion, Magnetic field, Mass in special relativity, Max Steenbeck, McGraw-Hill Education, Medicine, Microwave cavity, Molybdenum, Momentum, National Synchrotron Light Source II, Nuclear physics, Nuclear transmutation, Nucleon, Oncology, Paris, Particle, Particle beam, Particle beam cooling, Particle physics, Particle therapy, Parton (particle physics), Paul Scherrer Institute, PDF, Phosphor, Photon, Physical Review, Physicist, Physics Today, Plasma acceleration, Popular Mechanics, Positron, Power supply, Protein, Proton, Proton Synchrotron, Quadrupole magnet, Quantum field theory, Quark, Radiation therapy, Radio frequency, Radionuclide, Radiosurgery, Rehovot, Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, Resonator, Reviews of Modern Physics, Rigidity (electromagnetism), Rolf Widerøe, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Safety of high-energy particle collision experiments, Science (journal), Secondary emission, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Spallation Neutron Source, Special relativity, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, Storage ring, Strong focusing, Subatomic particle, Sulfur hexafluoride, Superconducting Super Collider, Superconductivity, Superstring theory, Synchrocyclotron, Synchrotron, Synchrotron light source, Synchrotron radiation, Tevatron, Texas, Thomson Reuters, Tritium, U.S. News & World Report, Ultra-high-energy cosmic ray, University of California Press, University of California, Berkeley, Uranium, Vacuum, Van de Graaff generator, Voltage, Voltage multiplier, World War II, X-ray, X-ray absorption fine structure, X-ray spectroscopy. Expand index (129 more) » « Shrink index
Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is a form of mass spectrometry that accelerates ions to extraordinarily high kinetic energies before mass analysis.
Accelerator physics is a branch of applied physics, concerned with designing, building and operating particle accelerators.
The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a research facility at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California.
The Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory (in Argonne, Illinois, USA) is a national synchrotron-radiation light source research facility funded by the United States Department of Energy Office of Science.
The Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) is a particle accelerator located at the Brookhaven National Laboratory in Long Island, New York, United States.
In modern physics, antimatter is defined as a material composed of the antiparticle (or "partners") to the corresponding particles of ordinary matter.
The antiproton,, (pronounced p-bar) is the antiparticle of the proton.
Argonne National Laboratory is a science and engineering research national laboratory operated by the University of Chicago Argonne LLC for the United States Department of Energy located near Lemont, Illinois, outside Chicago.
The aspect ratio of a geometric shape is the ratio of its sizes in different dimensions.
An atom smasher is a particle accelerator.
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
In particle physics, the available energy is the energy in a particle collision available to produce new matter from the kinetic energy of the colliding particles.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
A betatron is a type of cyclic particle accelerator.
The Bevatron was a particle accelerator — specifically, a weak-focusing proton synchrotron — at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, U.S., which began operating in 1954.
The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.
A black hole is a region of spacetime exhibiting such strong gravitational effects that nothing—not even particles and electromagnetic radiation such as light—can escape from inside it.
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory located in Upton, New York, on Long Island, and was formally established in 1947 at the site of Camp Upton, a former U.S. Army base.
Carbon-14, 14C, or radiocarbon, is a radioactive isotope of carbon with an atomic nucleus containing 6 protons and 8 neutrons.
The cathode ray tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube that contains one or more electron guns and a phosphorescent screen, and is used to display images.
The European Organization for Nuclear Research (Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (derived from the name Conseil européen pour la recherche nucléaire), is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world.
Cobalt-60,, is a synthetic radioactive isotope of cobalt with a half-life of 5.2714 years.
The Cockcroft–Walton (CW) generator, or multiplier, is an electric circuit that generates a high DC voltage from a low-voltage AC or pulsing DC input.
A collider is a type of particle accelerator involving directed beams of particles.
In quantum chromodynamics (QCD), color confinement, often simply called confinement, is the phenomenon that color charged particles (such as quarks and gluons) cannot be isolated, and therefore cannot be directly observed in normal conditions below the Hagedorn temperature of approximately 2 trillion kelvin (corresponding to energies of approximately 130–140 MeV per particle).
The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a concept for a future linear particle accelerator that aims to explore the next energy frontier.
Condensed matter physics is the field of physics that deals with the macroscopic and microscopic physical properties of matter.
The Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-based Sciences and Education (CLASSE) is a particle accelerator facility located in Wilson Laboratory on the Cornell University campus in Ithaca, NY.
Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies.
Cosmology (from the Greek κόσμος, kosmos "world" and -λογία, -logia "study of") is the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe.
The Cosmotron was a particle accelerator, specifically a proton synchrotron, at Brookhaven National Laboratory.
A cryomodule is a section of a modern particle accelerator composed of superconducting RF (SRF) acceleration cavities, and needs very low operating temperatures (around 2 kelvins).
In mathematics, curvature is any of a number of loosely related concepts in different areas of geometry.
A cyclotron is a type of particle accelerator invented by Ernest O. Lawrence in 1929-1930 at the University of California, Berkeley, and patented in 1932.
Cyclotron resonance describes the interaction of external forces with charged particles experiencing a magnetic field, thus already moving on a circular path.
Deuterium (or hydrogen-2, symbol or, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen (the other being protium, or hydrogen-1).
Diamond Light Source ("Diamond") is the UK's national synchrotron science facility located at the Harwell Science and Innovation Campus in Oxfordshire.
In physics, the term dielectric strength has the following meanings.
A Dielectric Wall Accelerator (DWA) is a compact linear particle accelerator concept designed and patented in the late 1990s, that works by inducing a travelling electromagnetic wave in a tube which is constructed mostly from dielectric material.
A dipole magnet is a magnet in which opposite poles (i.e., North and South poles) are on opposite sides of the magnet.
Direct current (DC) is the unidirectional flow of electric charge.
Donald William Kerst (November 1, 1911 – August 19, 1993) was an American physicist who worked on advanced particle accelerator concepts (accelerator physics) and plasma physics.
The Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility (DARHT) is a facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory which is part of the Department of Energy's stockpile stewardship program.
Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.
An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.
Electrical breakdown or dielectric breakdown is when current flows through an electrical insulator when the voltage applied across it exceeds the breakdown voltage.
Electrical polarity is a term used throughout industries and fields that involve electricity.
An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e.g. a semiconductor, an electrolyte, a vacuum or air).
An electromagnet is a type of magnet in which the magnetic field is produced by an electric current.
An electromagnetic field (also EMF or EM field) is a physical field produced by electrically charged objects.
Electromagnetic or magnetic induction is the production of an electromotive force (i.e., voltage) across an electrical conductor in a changing magnetic field.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV, also written electron-volt and electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately joules (symbol J).
Electrostatics is a branch of physics that studies electric charges at rest.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
Ernest Orlando Lawrence (August 8, 1901 – August 27, 1958) was a pioneering American nuclear scientist and winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1939 for his invention of the cyclotron.
The European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) is a joint research facility situated in Grenoble, France, and supported by 22 countries (13 member countries: France, Germany, Italy, UK, Spain, Switzerland, Belgium, The Netherlands, Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Russia and 9 associate countries: Austria, Portugal, Israel, Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia, India and South Africa).
Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics.
A Fixed-Field Alternating Gradient accelerator (FFAG) is a circular particle accelerator concept on which development was started in the early 50s, and that can be characterized by its time-independent magnetic fields (fixed-field, like in a cyclotron) and the use of strong focusing (alternating gradient, like in a synchrotron).
A free-electron laser (FEL) is a kind of laser whose lasing medium consists of very-high-speed electrons moving freely through a magnetic structure, hence the term free electron.
The Future Circular Collider (FCC) study aims at developing conceptual designs for a post-LHC particle accelerator research infrastructure in a global context, with an energy significantly above that of previous circular colliders (SPS, Tevatron, LHC).
A gluon is an elementary particle that acts as the exchange particle (or gauge boson) for the strong force between quarks.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
Grenoble is a city in southeastern France, at the foot of the French Alps where the river Drac joins the Isère.
Gustaf Ising (or Gustav Ising in some publications), (19 February 1883 in Finja – 5 February 1960 in Danderyd), was a Swedish accelerator physicist and geophysicist.
Hawking radiation is blackbody radiation that is predicted to be released by black holes, due to quantum effects near the event horizon.
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (HMH) is an educational and trade publisher in the United States.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States.
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.
The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a proposed linear particle accelerator.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Ion implantation is low-temperature process by which ions of one element are accelerated into a solid target, thereby changing the physical, chemical, or electrical properties of the target.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
A sequence of events is isochronous if the events occur regularly, or at equal time intervals.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Isotope separation is the process of concentrating specific isotopes of a chemical element by removing other isotopes.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics is a peer-reviewed journal that publishes theoretical and experimental research into nuclear physics, particle physics and particle astrophysics, including all interface areas between these fields.
Journal of the Physical Society of Japan (JPSJ) is a monthly, peer reviewed, scientific journal published by the Physical Society of Japan (JPS).
The Jussieu Campus (Campus Universitaire de Jussieu) is a higher education campus located in the 5th arrondissement of Paris, France.
, known as KEK, is a Japanese organization whose purpose is to operate the largest particle physics laboratory in Japan, situated in Tsukuba, Ibaraki prefecture.
KEKB is a particle accelerator used in the Belle experiment to study CP violation.
In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion.
A klystron is a specialized linear-beam vacuum tube, invented in 1937 by American electrical engineers Russell and Sigurd Varian,Pond, Norman H. "The Tube Guys".
The Large Electron–Positron Collider (LEP) was one of the largest particle accelerators ever constructed.
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world's largest and most powerful particle collider, the most complex experimental facility ever built and the largest single machine in the world.
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), commonly referred to as Berkeley Lab, is a United States national laboratory located in the Berkeley Hills near Berkeley, California that conducts scientific research on behalf of the United States Department of Energy (DOE).
Leo Szilard (Szilárd Leó; Leo Spitz until age 2; February 11, 1898 – May 30, 1964) was a Hungarian-German-American physicist and inventor.
In particle physics, a lepton is an elementary particle of half-integer spin (spin) that does not undergo strong interactions.
A linear particle accelerator (often shortened to linac) is a type of particle accelerator that accelerates charged subatomic particles or ions to a high speed by subjecting them to a series of oscillating electric potentials along a linear beamline.
A list of particle accelerators used for particle physics experiments.
Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos or LANL for short) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory initially organized during World War II for the design of nuclear weapons as part of the Manhattan Project.
A magnet is a material or object that produces a magnetic field.
Magnetic confinement fusion is an approach to generate thermonuclear fusion power that uses magnetic fields to confine the hot fusion fuel in the form of a plasma.
A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.
Mass in special relativity incorporates the general understandings from the laws of motion of special relativity along with its concept of mass–energy equivalence.
Max Christian Theodor Steenbeck (21 March 1904 in Kiel – 15 December 1981 in East Berlin) was a German physicist who worked at the Siemens-Schuckertwerke in his early career, during which time he invented the betatron in 1934.
McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
A microwave cavity or radio frequency (RF) cavity is a special type of resonator, consisting of a closed (or largely closed) metal structure that confines electromagnetic fields in the microwave region of the spectrum.
Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42.
In Newtonian mechanics, linear momentum, translational momentum, or simply momentum (pl. momenta) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.
The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in Upton, New York is a national user research facility funded primarily by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science.
Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions.
Nuclear transmutation is the conversion of one chemical element or an isotope into another chemical element.
In chemistry and physics, a nucleon is either a proton or a neutron, considered in its role as a component of an atomic nucleus.
Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
In the physical sciences, a particle (or corpuscule in older texts) is a small localized object to which can be ascribed several physical or chemical properties such as volume, density or mass.
A particle beam is a stream of charged or neutral particles, in many cases moving at near the speed of light.
Cooling techniques are important for the control the emittance of particle beams in particle accelerators.
Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation.
Particle therapy is a form of external beam radiotherapy using beams of energetic protons, neutrons, or positive ions for cancer treatment.
In particle physics, the parton model is a model of hadrons, such as protons and neutrons, proposed by Richard Feynman.
The Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) is a multi-disciplinary research institute which belongs to the Swiss Federal Institutes of Technology Domain covering also ETH Zurich and EPFL.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
A phosphor, most generally, is a substance that exhibits the phenomenon of luminescence.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
Physical Review is an American peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1893 by Edward Nichols.
A physicist is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of physics, which encompasses the interactions of matter and energy at all length and time scales in the physical universe.
Physics Today is the membership magazine of the American Institute of Physics that was established in 1948.
Plasma acceleration is a technique for accelerating charged particles, such as electrons, positrons, and ions, using the electric field associated with electron plasma wave or other high-gradient plasma structures (like shock and sheath fields).
Popular Mechanics is a classic magazine of popular science and technology.
The positron or antielectron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron.
A power supply is an electrical device that supplies electric power to an electrical load.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
The Proton Synchrotron (PS) is a particle accelerator at CERN.
Quadrupole magnets, abbreviated as Q-magnets, consist of groups of four magnets laid out so that in the planar multipole expansion of the field, the dipole terms cancel and where the lowest significant terms in the field equations are quadrupole.
In theoretical physics, quantum field theory (QFT) is the theoretical framework for constructing quantum mechanical models of subatomic particles in particle physics and quasiparticles in condensed matter physics.
A quark is a type of elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter.
Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.
Radio frequency (RF) refers to oscillatory change in voltage or current in a circuit, waveguide or transmission line in the range extending from around twenty thousand times per second to around three hundred billion times per second, roughly between the upper limit of audio and the lower limit of infrared.
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
Radiosurgery is surgery using radiation, that is, the destruction of precisely selected areas of tissue using ionizing radiation rather than excision with a blade.
Rehovot (רְחוֹבוֹת) is a city in the Central District of Israel, about south of Tel Aviv.
The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is the first and one of only two operating heavy-ion colliders, and the only spin-polarized proton collider ever built.
A resonator is a device or system that exhibits resonance or resonant behavior, that is, it naturally oscillates at some frequencies, called its resonant frequencies, with greater amplitude than at others.
Reviews of Modern Physics is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Physical Society.
In accelerator physics, rigidity is the effect of particular magnetic fields on the motion of the charged particles.
Rolf Widerøe (11 July 1902 – 11 October 1996), was a Norwegian accelerator physicist who was the originator of many particle acceleration concepts, including the resonance accelerator and the betatron accelerator.
The Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) is one of the national scientific research laboratories in the UK operated by the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC).
The safety of high energy particle collisions was a topic of widespread discussion and topical interest during the time when the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and later the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)—currently the world's largest and most powerful particle accelerator—were being constructed and commissioned.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Secondary emission in physics is a phenomenon where primary incident particles of sufficient energy, when hitting a surface or passing through some material, induce the emission of secondary particles.
SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, originally named Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, is a United States Department of Energy National Laboratory operated by Stanford University under the programmatic direction of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science and located in Menlo Park, California.
The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an accelerator-based neutron source facility that provides the most intense pulsed neutron beams in the world for scientific research and industrial development.
In physics, special relativity (SR, also known as the special theory of relativity or STR) is the generally accepted and experimentally well-confirmed physical theory regarding the relationship between space and time.
The Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (formerly Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory), a division of SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, is operated by Stanford University for the Department of Energy.
A storage ring is a type of circular particle accelerator in which a continuous or pulsed particle beam may be kept circulating typically for many hours.
In accelerator physics strong focusing or alternating-gradient focusing is the principle that the net effect on a particle beam of charged particles passing through alternating field gradients is to make the beam converge.
In the physical sciences, subatomic particles are particles much smaller than atoms.
Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is an inorganic, colorless, odorless, non-flammable, extremely potent greenhouse gas, and an excellent electrical insulator.
The Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) (also nicknamed the Desertron) was a particle accelerator complex under construction in the vicinity of Waxahachie, Texas.
Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic flux fields occurring in certain materials, called superconductors, when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.
Superstring theory is an attempt to explain all of the particles and fundamental forces of nature in one theory by modeling them as vibrations of tiny supersymmetric strings.
A synchrocyclotron is a special type of cyclotron, patented by Edwin McMillan, in which the frequency of the driving RF electric field is varied to compensate for relativistic effects as the particles' velocity begins to approach the speed of light.
A synchrotron is a particular type of cyclic particle accelerator, descended from the cyclotron, in which the accelerating particle beam travels around a fixed closed-loop path.
A synchrotron light source is a source of electromagnetic radiation (EM) usually produced by a storage ring, for scientific and technical purposes.
Synchrotron radiation (also known as magnetobremsstrahlung radiation) is the electromagnetic radiation emitted when charged particles are accelerated radially, i.e., when they are subject to an acceleration perpendicular to their velocity.
The Tevatron was a circular particle accelerator (now inactive, since 2011) in the United States, at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (also known as Fermilab), east of Batavia, Illinois, and holds the title of the second highest energy particle collider in the world, after the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) near Geneva, Switzerland.
Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.
Thomson Reuters Corporation is a Canadian multinational mass media and information firm.
Tritium (or; symbol or, also known as hydrogen-3) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen.
U.S. News & World Report is an American media company that publishes news, opinion, consumer advice, rankings, and analysis.
In astroparticle physics, an ultra-high-energy cosmic ray (UHECR) is a cosmic ray particle with a kinetic energy greater than eV, far beyond both the rest mass and energies typical of other cosmic ray particles.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public research university in Berkeley, California.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
Vacuum is space devoid of matter.
A Van de Graaff generator is an electrostatic generator which uses a moving belt to accumulate electric charge on a hollow metal globe on the top of an insulated column, creating very high electric potentials.
Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (formally denoted or, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws) is the difference in electric potential between two points.
Villard cascade voltage multiplier. A voltage multiplier is an electrical circuit that converts AC electrical power from a lower voltage to a higher DC voltage, typically using a network of capacitors and diodes.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) is a specific structure observed in X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS).
X-ray spectroscopy is a gathering name for several spectroscopic techniques for characterization of materials by using x-ray excitation.
Accelerator operator, Atom Smashers, Atom smasher, Atom smashers, Electron accelerator, Electron-positron collider, Electron–positron collider, Ion accelerator, Nuclear accelerator, Particle Accelerator, Particle Accelerators, Particle accelerator test, Particle accelerators, Proton accelerator, Ring collider, Super collider, Super-collider, Supercollider.