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Particle physics

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Particle physics is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter (particles with mass) and radiation (massless particles). [1]

150 relations: Antiparticle, ArXiv, Atom, Atomic physics, B meson, Baryon, Batavia, Illinois, Belle experiment, Boson, Brane, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, CERN, Chemical element, Collider, Color charge, CP violation, Cyclotron, Dark matter, Deep inelastic scattering, Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment, DESY, Dynamics, Effective field theory, Electromagnetism, Electron, Elementary particle, Exotic particle, Fermilab, Field (physics), France, Fundamental interaction, Gauge boson, General relativity, Generation (particle physics), Geneva, Germany, Gluon, Grand Unified Theory, Gravity, Hadron Elektron Ring Anlage, Hamburg, Hans Bethe, Harvard University Press, Hierarchy problem, Higgs boson, Higgs mechanism, High energy nuclear physics, High pressure, Hilbert space, ..., Institute of Physics, International Conference on High Energy Physics, International Linear Collider, Introduction to quantum mechanics, Invariant mass, Japan, John Dalton, Johns Hopkins University Press, K2K experiment, KEK, Kuro5hin, Large Electron–Positron Collider, Large Hadron Collider, Lattice field theory, Lattice gauge theory, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lepton, Lise Meitner, List of accelerators in particle physics, List of particles, Long Island, Loop quantum gravity, Magnetic monopole, Mass, Matter, Menlo Park, California, Micro black hole, Model building (particle physics), Muon, Neutrino, Neutrino oscillation, Neutron, Non-extensive self-consistent thermodynamical theory, Novosibirsk, Nuclear fission, Nuclear fusion, Nuclear physics, Nuclear weapon, Number theory, Otto Hahn, Oxford University Press, Particle, Particle accelerator, Particle Data Group, Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel, Particle zoo, Phenomenology (particle physics), Photon, Physical cosmology, Physics, Physics beyond the Standard Model, Plume (publisher), Positron, Positron emission tomography, Preon, Preprint, Proton, Proton decay, Quantum chromodynamics, Quantum field theory, Quantum mechanics, Quantum state, Quark, Radiation, Radioactive decay, Randall–Sundrum model, Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, Resonance (particle physics), Russia, Scattering, Self-consistency principle in high energy Physics, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Springer Science+Business Media, Standard Model, Standard Model (mathematical formulation), Stanford Physics Information Retrieval System, Stoichiometry, String theory, Strong interaction, Subatomic particle, Super Proton Synchrotron, Superconductivity, Superpartner, Supersymmetry, Switzerland, Taylor & Francis, Tetraquark, Tevatron, Theoretical physics, Theory of everything, Timeline of particle physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, United States, Unparticle physics, VEPP-2000, W and Z bosons, Wave, Wave–particle duality, Weak interaction, X-ray laser. Expand index (100 more) »

Corresponding to most kinds of particles, there is an associated antimatter antiparticle with the same mass and opposite charge (including electric charge).

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The arXiv (pronounced "archive", as if the "X" were the Greek letter Chi, χ) is a repository of electronic preprints, known as e-prints, of scientific papers in the fields of mathematics, physics, astronomy, computer science, quantitative biology, statistics, and quantitative finance, which can be accessed online.

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An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.

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Atomic physics is the field of physics that studies atoms as an isolated system of electrons and an atomic nucleus.

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In particle physics, B mesons are mesons composed of a bottom antiquark and either an up, down, strange or charm quark.

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A baryon is a composite subatomic particle made up of three quarks (as distinct from mesons, which are composed of one quark and one antiquark).

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Batavia is a suburb of Chicago.

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The Belle experiment is a particle physics experiment conducted by the Belle Collaboration, an international collaboration of more than 400 physicists and engineers investigating CP-violation effects at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organisation (KEK) in Tsukuba, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan.

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In quantum mechanics, a boson is a particle that follows Bose–Einstein statistics.

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In string theory and related theories such as supergravity theories, a brane is a physical object that generalizes the notion of a point particle to higher dimensions.

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Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a United States national laboratory located in Upton, New York, on Long Island, and was formally established in 1947 at the site of Camp Upton, a former U.S. Army base.

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The Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP) is one of the major centres of advanced study of nuclear physics in Russia.

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The European Organization for Nuclear Research (French: Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (derived from the name "Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire"; see ''History'') is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world.

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A chemical element (or element) is a chemical substance consisting of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (i.e. the same atomic number, Z).

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A collider is a type of particle accelerator involving directed beams of particles.

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Color charge is a property of quarks and gluons that is related to the particles' strong interactions in the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD).

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In particle physics, CP violation (CP standing for charge parity) is a violation of the postulated CP-symmetry (or charge conjugation parity symmetry): the combination of C-symmetry (charge conjugation symmetry) and P-symmetry (parity symmetry).

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A cyclotron is a type of particle accelerator invented by Ernest O. Lawrence in 1932 in which charged particles accelerate outwards from the center along a spiral path.

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Dark matter is a hypothetical kind of matter that cannot be seen with telescopes but would account for most of the matter in the universe.

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Deep inelastic scattering is the name given to a process used to probe the insides of hadrons (particularly the baryons, such as protons and neutrons), using electrons, muons and neutrinos.

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The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE), formerly the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) is a proposed neutrino detector at the Homestake Mine which would observe neutrinos produced at Fermilab.

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The Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (english German Electron Synchrotron) commonly referred to by the abbreviation DESY, is a national research center in Germany that operates particle accelerators used to investigate the structure of matter.

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Every object experiences some form of motion which is the result of different forces acting on the object.

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In physics, an effective field theory is a type of approximation to (or effective theory for) an underlying physical theory, such as a quantum field theory or a statistical mechanics model.

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Electromagnetism is a branch of physics which involves the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.

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The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, with a negative elementary electric charge.

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In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle whose substructure is unknown, thus it is unknown whether it is composed of other particles.

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An exotic particle is a kind of theoretical particle said to exist by some areas of modern physics, and whose alleged properties are extremely unusual.

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Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics.

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In physics, a field is a physical quantity that has a value for each point in space and time.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state comprising territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.

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Fundamental interactions, also known as fundamental forces, are the interactions in physical systems that don't appear to be reducible to more basic interactions.

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In particle physics, a gauge boson is a force carrier, a bosonic particle that carries any of the fundamental interactions of nature.

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General relativity, also known as the general theory of relativity, is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics.

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In particle physics, a generation (or family) is a division of the elementary particles.

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Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and is the most populous city of Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.

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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a federal parliamentary republic in western-central Europe.

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No description.

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A Grand Unified Theory (GUT) is a model in particle physics in which at high energy, the three gauge interactions of the Standard Model which define the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions or forces, are merged into one single force.

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Gravity or gravitation is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass are brought towards (or 'gravitate' towards) one another including stars, planets, galaxies and even light and sub-atomic particles.

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HERA (Hadron-Elektron-Ringanlage, Hadron-Electron Ring Accelerator) was a particle accelerator at DESY in Hamburg.

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Hamburg (local pronunciation; Low German/Low Saxon: Hamborg), officially Freie und Hansestadt HamburgConstitution of Hamburg (Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg), is the second largest city in Germany and the eighth largest city in the European Union.

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Hans Albrecht Bethe (July 2, 1906 – March 6, 2005) was a German and American nuclear physicist who, in addition to making important contributions to astrophysics, quantum electrodynamics and solid-state physics, won the 1967 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis.

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Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.

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In theoretical physics, the hierarchy problem is the large discrepancy between aspects of the weak force and gravity.

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The Higgs boson or Higgs particle is an elementary particle in the Standard Model of particle physics.

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In the Standard Model of particle physics, the Higgs mechanism is essential to explain the generation mechanism of the property "mass" for gauge bosons.

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High-energy nuclear physics studies the behaviour of nuclear matter in energy regimes typical of high energy physics.

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High pressure in science and engineering is studying the effects of high pressure on materials and the design and construction of devices, such as a diamond anvil cell, which can create high pressure.

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The mathematical concept of a Hilbert space, named after David Hilbert, generalizes the notion of Euclidean space.

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The Institute of Physics (IOP) is a scientific charity that works to advance physics education, research and application.

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ICHEP or International Conference on High Energy Physics is one of the most prestigious international scientific conferences in the field of particle physics, bringing together leading theorists and experimentalists of the world.

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The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a proposed linear particle accelerator.

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Quantum mechanics is the science of the very small: the body of scientific principles that explains the behaviour of matter and its interactions with energy on the scale of atoms and subatomic particles.

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The invariant mass, rest mass, - Lawrence S. Lerner - Science - 1997 intrinsic mass, proper mass, or in the case of bound systems simply mass, is a characteristic of the total energy and momentum of an object or a system of objects that is the same in all frames of reference related by Lorentz transformations.

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Japan (日本 Nippon or Nihon; formally or Nihon-koku, "State of Japan") is an island country in East Asia.

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John Dalton FRS (6 September 1766 – 27 July 1844) was an English chemist, physicist, and meteorologist.

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The Johns Hopkins University Press (also referred to as JHU Press or JHUP) is the publishing division of Johns Hopkins University.

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The K2K experiment (KEK to Kamioka) was a neutrino experiment that ran from June 1999 to November 2004.

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, known as KEK, is a national organization whose purpose is to operate the largest particle physics laboratory in Japan, which is situated in Tsukuba, Ibaraki prefecture.

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Kuro5hin (K5) was a collaborative discussion website.

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The Large Electron–Positron Collider (LEP) was one of the largest particle accelerators ever constructed.

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The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world's largest and most powerful particle collider, the largest, most complex experimental facility ever built, and the largest single machine in the world.

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In physics, lattice field theory is the study of lattice models of quantum field theory, that is, of field theory on a spacetime that has been discretized onto a lattice.

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In physics, lattice gauge theory is the study of gauge theories on a spacetime that has been discretized into a lattice.

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The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL or LBL), commonly referred to as Berkeley Lab, is a United States national laboratory located in the Berkeley Hills near Berkeley, California that conducts scientific research on behalf of the United States Department of Energy (DOE).

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A lepton is an elementary, half-integer spin (spin) particle that does not undergo strong interactions, but is subject to the Pauli exclusion principle.

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Lise Meitner (7 November 1878 – 27 October 1968) was an Austrian physicist who worked on radioactivity and nuclear physics.

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A list of particle accelerators used for particle physics experiments.

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This is a list of the different types of particles found or believed to exist in the whole of the universe.

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Long Island is an island located just off the northeast coast of the United States and a region within the U.S. state of New York.

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Loop quantum gravity (LQG) is a theory that attempts to describe the quantum properties of the universe and gravity.

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A magnetic monopole is a hypothetical elementary particle in particle physics that is an isolated magnet with only one magnetic pole (a north pole without a south pole or vice versa).

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In physics, mass is a property of a physical body which determines the strength of its mutual gravitational attraction to other bodies, its resistance to being accelerated by a force, and in the theory of relativity gives the mass–energy content of a system.

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Before the 20th century, the term matter included ordinary matter composed of atoms and excluded other energy phenomena such as light or sound.

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Menlo Park is an affluent city at the eastern edge of San Mateo County, in the San Francisco Bay Area of California, in the United States.

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Micro black holes, also called quantum mechanical black holes or mini black holes, are hypothetical tiny black holes, for which quantum mechanics effects play an important role.

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In particle physics, the term model building refers to a construction of new quantum field theories beyond the Standard Model that have certain features making them attractive theoretically or for possible observations in the near future.

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The muon (from the Greek letter mu (μ) used to represent it) is an elementary particle similar to the electron, with electric charge of −1 e and a 2, but with a much greater mass.

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A neutrino (or, in Italian) is an electrically neutral elementary particle with half-integer spin.

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Neutrino oscillation is a quantum mechanical phenomenon whereby a neutrino created with a specific lepton flavor (electron, muon or tau) can later be measured to have a different flavor.

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The neutron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, with no net electric charge and a mass slightly larger than that of a proton.

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In experimental physics, researchers have proposed Non-extensive self-consistent thermodynamic theory to describe phenomena observed in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).

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Novosibirsk (p) is the third most populous city in Russia after Moscow and St. Petersburg and the most populous city in Asian Russia, with a population of 1,523,801 (2013 est.). It is the administrative center of Novosibirsk Oblast as well as of the Siberian Federal District.

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In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).

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In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a nuclear reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come very close and then collide at a very high speed and join to form a new nucleus.

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Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies the constituents and interactions of atomic nuclei.

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A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or a combination of fission and fusion (thermonuclear weapon).

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Number theory (or arithmeticEspecially in older sources; see two following notes.) is a branch of pure mathematics devoted primarily to the study of the integers.

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Otto Hahn,, (8 March 1879 – 28 July 1968) was a German chemist and pioneer in the fields of radioactivity and radiochemistry who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1944 for the discovery and the radiochemical proof of nuclear fission.

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Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second-oldest, after Cambridge University Press.

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A particle is a minute fragment or quantity of matter.

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A particle accelerator is a device that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to high speeds and to contain them in well-defined beams.

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The Particle Data Group (or PDG) is an international collaboration of particle physicists that compiles and reanalyzes published results related to the properties of particles and fundamental interactions.

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The Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel (P5) is a scientific advisory panel tasked with recommending plans for U.S. investment in particle physics research over the next ten years, on the basis of various funding scenarios.

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In particle physics, the term particle zoo is used colloquially to describe a relatively extensive list of the then known "elementary particles" that almost look like hundreds of species in the zoo.

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Particle physics phenomenology is the part of theoretical particle physics that deals with the application of theoretical physics to high-energy particle physics experiments.

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No description.

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Physical cosmology is the study of the largest-scale structures and dynamics of the Universe and is concerned with fundamental questions about its origin, structure, evolution, and ultimate fate.

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Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phúsis "nature") is the natural science that involves the study of matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion through space and time, along with related concepts such as energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." More broadly, it is the general analysis of nature, conducted in order to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines, perhaps the oldest through its inclusion of astronomy. Over the last two millennia, physics was a part of natural philosophy along with chemistry, certain branches of mathematics, and biology, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, the natural sciences emerged as unique research programs in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms of other sciences while opening new avenues of research in areas such as mathematics and philosophy. Physics also makes significant contributions through advances in new technologies that arise from theoretical breakthroughs. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism or nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization, and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

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Physics beyond the Standard Model (BSM) refers to the theoretical developments needed to explain the deficiencies of the Standard Model, such as the origin of mass, the strong CP problem, neutrino oscillations, matter–antimatter asymmetry, and the nature of dark matter and dark energy.

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Plume is a publishing company in the United States, founded in 1970 as the trade paperback imprint of New American Library.

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The positron or antielectron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron.

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Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine, functional imaging technique that produces a three-dimensional image of functional processes in the body.

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In particle physics, preons are "point-like" particles, conceived to be subcomponents of quarks and leptons.

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In academic publishing, a preprint is a draft of a scientific paper that has not yet been published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal.

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In particle physics, proton decay is a hypothetical form of radioactive decay in which the proton decays into lighter subatomic particles, such as a neutral pion and a positron.

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In theoretical physics, quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory of strong interactions, a fundamental force describing the interactions between quarks and gluons which make up hadrons such as the proton, neutron and pion.

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In theoretical physics, quantum field theory (QFT) is a theoretical framework for constructing quantum mechanical models of subatomic particles in particle physics and quasiparticles in condensed matter physics.

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Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, or quantum theory), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental branch of physics concerned with processes involving, for example, atoms and photons.

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In quantum physics, quantum state refers to the state of a quantum system.

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A quark is an elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter.

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In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.

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Radioactive decay, also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity, is the process by which a nucleus of an unstable atom loses energy by emitting radiation.

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In physics, Randall–Sundrum models (also called 5-dimensional warped geometry theory) imagines that the real world is a higher-dimensional universe described by warped geometry.

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The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is one of only two operating heavy-ion colliders, and the only spin-polarized proton collider ever built.

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In particle physics, a resonance is the peak located around a certain energy found in differential cross sections of scattering experiments.

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Russia (Ru-Россия.ogg), also officially known as the Russian Federation (a), is a country in northern Eurasia.

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Scattering is a general physical process where some forms of radiation, such as light, sound, or moving particles, are forced to deviate from a straight trajectory by one or more paths due to localized non-uniformities in the medium through which they pass.

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The self-consistency principle was established by Rolf Hagedorn in 1965 to explain the thermodynamics of fireballs in high energy physics collisions.

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SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, originally named Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, is a United States Department of Energy National Laboratory operated by Stanford University under the programmatic direction of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science and located in Menlo Park, California.

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Springer Science+Business Media or Springer is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

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The Standard Model of particle physics is a theory concerning the electromagnetic, weak, and strong nuclear interactions, as well as classifying all the subatomic particles known.

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This article describes the mathematics of the Standard Model of particle physics, a gauge quantum field theory containing the internal symmetries of the unitary product group.

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The Stanford Physics Information Retrieval System (SPIRES) is a database management system developed by Stanford University.

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Stoichiometry is the calculation of relative quantities of reactants and products in chemical reactions.

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In physics, string theory is a theoretical framework in which the point-like particles of particle physics are replaced by one-dimensional objects called strings.

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In particle physics, the strong interaction is the mechanism responsible for the strong nuclear force (also called the strong force, nuclear strong force or colour force), one of the four fundamental interactions of nature, the others being electromagnetism, the weak interaction and gravitation.

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In the physical sciences, subatomic particles are particles much smaller than atoms.

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The Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) is a particle accelerator of the synchrotron type at CERN.

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Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic fields occurring in certain materials when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.

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In particle physics, a Superpartner (also Sparticle) is a hypothetical elementary particle.

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Supersymmetry (SUSY), a theory of particle physics, is a proposed type of spacetime symmetry that relates two basic classes of elementary particles: bosons, which have an integer-valued spin, and fermions, which have a half-integer spin.

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Switzerland (Schweiz;Swiss Standard German spelling and pronunciation. The Swiss German name is sometimes spelled as Schwyz or Schwiiz. Schwyz is also the standard German (and international) name of one of the Swiss cantons. Suisse; Svizzera; Svizra or),The latter is the common Sursilvan pronunciation.

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Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in the United Kingdom that publishes books and academic journals.

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A tetraquark, in particle physics, is an exotic meson composed of four valence quarks.

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The Tevatron is a circular particle accelerator in the United States, at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (also known as Fermilab), just east of Batavia, Illinois, and holds the title of the second highest energy particle collider in the world, after the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) near Geneva, Switzerland.

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Theoretical physics is a branch of physics which employs mathematical models and abstractions of physical objects and systems to rationalize, explain and predict natural phenomena.

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A theory of everything (ToE) or final theory, ultimate theory, or master theory is a hypothetical single, all-encompassing, coherent theoretical framework of physics that fully explains and links together all physical aspects of the universe.

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The timeline of particle physics lists the sequence of particle physics theories and discoveries in chronological order.

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is a city located in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan.

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The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.

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In theoretical physics, unparticle physics is a speculative theory that conjectures a form of matter that cannot be explained in terms of particles using the Standard Model of particle physics, because its components are scale invariant.

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VEPP-2000 is an upgrade of the former VEPP-2M electron-positron collider (particle accelerator) currently under construction at Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP) in Novosibirsk, Siberia, Russia.

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The W and Z bosons (together known as the weak bosons or, less specifically, the intermediate vector bosons) are the elementary particles that mediate the weak interaction; their symbols are,, and.

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In physics, a wave is an oscillation accompanied by a transfer of energy that travels through space or mass.

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Wave–particle duality is the fact that every elementary particle or quantic entity exhibits the properties of not only particles, but also waves.

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In particle physics, the weak interaction is the mechanism responsible for the weak force or weak nuclear force, one of the four known fundamental interactions of nature, alongside the strong interaction, electromagnetism, and gravitation.

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An X-ray laser (or Xaser) is a device that uses stimulated emission to generate or amplify electromagnetic radiation in the near X-ray or extreme ultraviolet region of the spectrum, that is, usually on the order of several of tens of nanometers (nm) wavelength.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Particle_physics

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