172 relations: Antiparticle, ArXiv, Atom, Atomic physics, B meson, Baryon, Batavia, Illinois, Beijing, Belle experiment, Bond-dissociation energy, Boson, Brane, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Carbon–carbon bond, CERN, Chemical element, Chemical reaction, China, Collider, Color charge, CP violation, Dark matter, Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment, DESY, Effective field theory, Electromagnetism, Electron, Electronvolt, Elementary particle, Exotic matter, Experiment, External beam radiotherapy, Fermilab, Fermion, France, Fundamental interaction, Gamma ray, Gauge boson, General relativity, Generation (particle physics), Geneva, Germany, Gluon, Gram, Grand Unified Theory, Gravity, Hadron, Hamburg, Hans Bethe, ..., Harvard University Press, HERA (particle accelerator), Hierarchy problem, Higgs boson, Higgs mechanism, High energy nuclear physics, High pressure, Hilbert space, Hydrogen, Institute of High Energy Physics, Institute of Physics, International Conference on High Energy Physics, International Conference on Photonic, Electronic and Atomic Collisions, International Linear Collider, Introduction to quantum mechanics, Invariant mass, Isotopes in medicine, Japan, John Dalton, Johns Hopkins University Press, Joule, K2K experiment, KEK, Kuro5hin, Large Electron–Positron Collider, Large Hadron Collider, Lattice field theory, Lattice gauge theory, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lepton, Light, Lise Meitner, List of accelerators in particle physics, List of particles, Long Island, Loop quantum gravity, Macroscopic scale, Magnetic monopole, Mass, Mathematical formulation of the Standard Model, Matter, Menlo Park, California, Micro black hole, Model building (particle physics), Muon, Neutrino, Neutrino oscillation, Neutron, Non-extensive self-consistent thermodynamical theory, Novosibirsk, Nuclear fission, Nuclear fusion, Nuclear physics, Nuclear weapon, Number theory, Order of magnitude, Otto Hahn, Oxford University Press, Particle, Particle accelerator, Particle beam, Particle Data Group, Particle detector, Particle physics in cosmology, Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel, Particle zoo, Phenomenology (particle physics), Photon, Photon energy, Physical cosmology, Physics, Physics beyond the Standard Model, Plume (publisher), Positron, Positron emission tomography, Preon, Preprint, Proton, Proton decay, Quantum chromodynamics, Quantum field theory, Quantum mechanics, Quantum state, Quark, Radiation, Radioactive decay, Randall–Sundrum model, Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, Resonance (particle physics), Russia, Scattering, Self-consistency principle in high energy Physics, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Springer Science+Business Media, Standard Model, Stanford Physics Information Retrieval System, Stoichiometry, String theory, Strong interaction, Subatomic particle, Super Proton Synchrotron, Superconductivity, Superpartner, Supersymmetry, Switzerland, Taylor & Francis, Tetraquark, Tevatron, Theoretical physics, Theory of everything, Timeline of particle physics, Touchscreen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, United States, Unparticle physics, VEPP-2000, W and Z bosons, Wave, Wave–particle duality, Weak interaction, World Wide Web, X-ray laser. Expand index (122 more) » « Shrink index
In particle physics, every type of particle has an associated antiparticle with the same mass but with opposite physical charges (such as electric charge).
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arXiv (pronounced "archive") is a repository of electronic preprints (known as e-prints) approved for publication after moderation, that consists of scientific papers in the fields of mathematics, physics, astronomy, computer science, quantitative biology, statistics, and quantitative finance, which can be accessed online.
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An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
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Atomic physics is the field of physics that studies atoms as an isolated system of electrons and an atomic nucleus.
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In particle physics, B mesons are mesons composed of a bottom antiquark and either an up, down, strange or charm quark.
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A baryon is a composite subatomic particle made up of three quarks (a triquark, as distinct from mesons, which are composed of one quark and one antiquark).
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Batavia is a city in DuPage and Kane counties in the U.S. state of Illinois.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
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The Belle experiment was a particle physics experiment conducted by the Belle Collaboration, an international collaboration of more than 400 physicists and engineers, at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organisation (KEK) in Tsukuba, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan.
Bond-dissociation energy (BDE or D0) is one measure of the strength of a chemical bond.
In quantum mechanics, a boson is a particle that follows Bose–Einstein statistics.
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In string theory and related theories such as supergravity theories, a brane is a physical object that generalizes the notion of a point particle to higher dimensions.
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Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory located in Upton, New York, on Long Island, and was formally established in 1947 at the site of Camp Upton, a former U.S. Army base.
The Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP) is one of the major centres of advanced study of nuclear physics in Russia.
A carbon–carbon bond is a covalent bond between two carbon atoms.
The European Organization for Nuclear Research (Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (derived from the name Conseil européen pour la recherche nucléaire), is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world.
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A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
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A collider is a type of particle accelerator involving directed beams of particles.
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Color charge is a property of quarks and gluons that is related to the particles' strong interactions in the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD).
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In particle physics, CP violation is a violation of CP-symmetry (or charge conjugation parity symmetry): the combination of C-symmetry (charge conjugation symmetry) and P-symmetry (parity symmetry).
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Dark matter is a theorized form of matter that is thought to account for approximately 80% of the matter in the universe, and about a quarter of its total energy density.
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The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE), formerly the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE), is a neutrino experiment with a near detector at Fermilab and a far detector at the Sanford Underground Research Facility that will observe neutrinos produced at Fermilab.
The Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (English German Electron Synchrotron) commonly referred to by the abbreviation DESY, is a national research center in Germany that operates particle accelerators used to investigate the structure of matter.
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In physics, an effective field theory is a type of approximation, or effective theory, for an underlying physical theory, such as a quantum field theory or a statistical mechanics model.
Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
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In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV, also written electron-volt and electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately joules (symbol J).
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In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle with no substructure, thus not composed of other particles.
In physics, exotic matter is matter that somehow deviates from normal matter and has "exotic" properties.
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An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis.
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External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) or teletherapy is the most common form of radiotherapy (radiation therapy).
Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics.
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In particle physics, a fermion is a particle that follows Fermi–Dirac statistics.
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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
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In physics, the fundamental interactions, also known as fundamental forces, are the interactions that do not appear to be reducible to more basic interactions.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
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In particle physics, a gauge boson is a force carrier, a bosonic particle that carries any of the fundamental interactions of nature, commonly called forces.
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General relativity (GR, also known as the general theory of relativity or GTR) is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics.
In particle physics, a generation or family is a division of the elementary particles.
Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.
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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
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A gluon is an elementary particle that acts as the exchange particle (or gauge boson) for the strong force between quarks.
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The gram (alternative spelling: gramme; SI unit symbol: g) (Latin gramma, from Greek γράμμα, grámma) is a metric system unit of mass.
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A Grand Unified Theory (GUT) is a model in particle physics in which, at high energy, the three gauge interactions of the Standard Model which define the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, or forces, are merged into one single force.
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.
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In particle physics, a hadron (ἁδρός, hadrós, "stout, thick") is a composite particle made of quarks held together by the strong force in a similar way as molecules are held together by the electromagnetic force.
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Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.
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Hans Albrecht Bethe (July 2, 1906 – March 6, 2005) was a German-American nuclear physicist who made important contributions to astrophysics, quantum electrodynamics and solid-state physics, and won the 1967 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis.
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Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
HERA (Hadron-Elektron-Ringanlage, Hadron-Electron Ring Accelerator) was a particle accelerator at DESY in Hamburg.
In theoretical physics, the hierarchy problem is the large discrepancy between aspects of the weak force and gravity.
The Higgs boson is an elementary particle in the Standard Model of particle physics.
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In the Standard Model of particle physics, the Higgs mechanism is essential to explain the generation mechanism of the property "mass" for gauge bosons.
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High-energy nuclear physics studies the behaviour of nuclear matter in energy regimes typical of high energy physics.
In science and engineering the study of high pressure examines its effects on materials and the design and construction of devices, such as a diamond anvil cell, which can create high pressure.
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The mathematical concept of a Hilbert space, named after David Hilbert, generalizes the notion of Euclidean space.
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Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
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The Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) is the most comprehensive fundamental research center of high-energy physics in China.
The Institute of Physics (IOP) is a scientific charity that works to advance physics education, research and application.
ICHEP or International Conference on High Energy Physics is one of the most prestigious international scientific conferences in the field of particle physics, bringing together leading theorists and experimentalists of the world.
ICPEAC, the International Conference on Photonic, Electronic and Atomic Collisions, is a biannual scientific conference.
The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a proposed linear particle accelerator.
Quantum mechanics is the science of the very small.
The invariant mass, rest mass, intrinsic mass, proper mass, or in the case of bound systems simply mass, is the portion of the total mass of an object or system of objects that is independent of the overall motion of the system.
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A medical isotope is an isotope used in medicine.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
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John Dalton FRS (6 September 1766 – 27 July 1844) was an English chemist, physicist, and meteorologist.
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The Johns Hopkins University Press (also referred to as JHU Press or JHUP) is the publishing division of Johns Hopkins University.
The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.
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The K2K experiment (KEK to Kamioka) was a neutrino experiment that ran from June 1999 to November 2004.
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, known as KEK, is a Japanese organization whose purpose is to operate the largest particle physics laboratory in Japan, situated in Tsukuba, Ibaraki prefecture.
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Kuro5hin (K5; "corrosion") was a collaborative discussion website founded by Rusty Foster in 1999, having been inspired by Slashdot.
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The Large Electron–Positron Collider (LEP) was one of the largest particle accelerators ever constructed.
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world's largest and most powerful particle collider, the most complex experimental facility ever built and the largest single machine in the world.
In physics, lattice field theory is the study of lattice models of quantum field theory, that is, of field theory on a spacetime that has been discretized onto a lattice.
In physics, lattice gauge theory is the study of gauge theories on a spacetime that has been discretized into a lattice.
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), commonly referred to as Berkeley Lab, is a United States national laboratory located in the Berkeley Hills near Berkeley, California that conducts scientific research on behalf of the United States Department of Energy (DOE).
In particle physics, a lepton is an elementary particle of half-integer spin (spin) that does not undergo strong interactions.
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Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
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Lise Meitner (7 November 1878 – 27 October 1968) was an Austrian-Swedish physicist who worked on radioactivity and nuclear physics.
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A list of particle accelerators used for particle physics experiments.
This article includes a list of the different types of atomic- and sub-atomic particles found or hypothesized to exist in the whole of the universe categorized by type.
Long Island is a densely populated island off the East Coast of the United States, beginning at New York Harbor just 0.35 miles (0.56 km) from Manhattan Island and extending eastward into the Atlantic Ocean.
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Loop quantum gravity (LQG) is a theory of quantum gravity, merging quantum mechanics and general relativity.
The macroscopic scale is the length scale on which objects or phenomena are large enough to be visible almost practically with the naked eye, without magnifying optical instruments.
A magnetic monopole is a hypothetical elementary particle in particle physics that is an isolated magnet with only one magnetic pole (a north pole without a south pole or vice versa).
Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.
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This article describes the mathematics of the Standard Model of particle physics, a gauge quantum field theory containing the internal symmetries of the unitary product group.
In the classical physics observed in everyday life, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume.
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Menlo Park is a city at the eastern edge of San Mateo County, in the San Francisco Bay Area of California, in the United States.
Micro black holes, also called quantum mechanical black holes or mini black holes, are hypothetical tiny black holes, for which quantum mechanical effects play an important role.
In particle physics, the term model building refers to a construction of new quantum field theories beyond the Standard Model that have certain features making them attractive theoretically or for possible observations in the near future.
The muon (from the Greek letter mu (μ) used to represent it) is an elementary particle similar to the electron, with an electric charge of −1 e and a spin of 1/2, but with a much greater mass.
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A neutrino (denoted by the Greek letter ν) is a fermion (an elementary particle with half-integer spin) that interacts only via the weak subatomic force and gravity.
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Neutrino oscillation is a quantum mechanical phenomenon whereby a neutrino created with a specific lepton flavor (electron, muon, or tau) can later be measured to have a different flavor.
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In experimental physics, researchers have proposed Non-extensive self-consistent thermodynamic theory to describe phenomena observed in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).
Novosibirsk (p) is the third-most populous city in Russia after Moscow and St. Petersburg.
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In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).
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In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons).
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Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions.
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A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
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Number theory, or in older usage arithmetic, is a branch of pure mathematics devoted primarily to the study of the integers.
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An order of magnitude is an approximate measure of the number of digits that a number has in the commonly-used base-ten number system.
Otto Hahn, (8 March 1879 – 28 July 1968) was a German chemist and pioneer in the fields of radioactivity and radiochemistry.
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Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
In the physical sciences, a particle (or corpuscule in older texts) is a small localized object to which can be ascribed several physical or chemical properties such as volume, density or mass.
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A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to nearly light speed and to contain them in well-defined beams.
A particle beam is a stream of charged or neutral particles, in many cases moving at near the speed of light.
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The Particle Data Group (or PDG) is an international collaboration of particle physicists that compiles and reanalyzes published results related to the properties of particles and fundamental interactions.
In experimental and applied particle physics, nuclear physics, and nuclear engineering, a particle detector, also known as a radiation detector, is a device used to detect, track, and/or identify ionizing particles, such as those produced by nuclear decay, cosmic radiation, or reactions in a particle accelerator.
Particle physics, which deals with the interactions of elementary particles at high energies, is an important component of cosmological models of the early universe, when the universe was dominated by radiation and its average energy density was very high.
The Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel (P5) is a scientific advisory panel tasked with recommending plans for U.S. investment in particle physics research over the next ten years, on the basis of various funding scenarios.
In particle physics, the term particle zoo is used colloquially to describe a relatively extensive list of the then known "elementary particles" by comparison to the variety of species in a zoo.
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Particle physics phenomenology is the part of theoretical particle physics that deals with the application of theoretical physics to high-energy experiments.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
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Photon energy is the energy carried by a single photon.
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Physical cosmology is the study of the largest-scale structures and dynamics of the Universe and is concerned with fundamental questions about its origin, structure, evolution, and ultimate fate.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
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Physics beyond the Standard Model (BSM) refers to the theoretical developments needed to explain the deficiencies of the Standard Model, such as the origin of mass, the strong CP problem, neutrino oscillations, matter–antimatter asymmetry, and the nature of dark matter and dark energy.
Plume is a publishing company in the United States, founded in 1970 as the trade paperback imprint of New American Library.
The positron or antielectron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron.
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Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.
In particle physics, preons are point particles, conceived of as subcomponents of quarks and leptons.
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In academic publishing, a preprint is a version of a scholarly or scientific paper that precedes publication in a peer-reviewed scholarly or scientific journal.
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In particle physics, proton decay is a hypothetical form of radioactive decay in which the proton decays into lighter subatomic particles, such as a neutral pion and a positron.
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In theoretical physics, quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory of the strong interaction between quarks and gluons, the fundamental particles that make up composite hadrons such as the proton, neutron and pion.
In theoretical physics, quantum field theory (QFT) is the theoretical framework for constructing quantum mechanical models of subatomic particles in particle physics and quasiparticles in condensed matter physics.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
In quantum physics, quantum state refers to the state of an isolated quantum system.
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A quark is a type of elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter.
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In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.
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Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
In physics, Randall–Sundrum models (also called 5-dimensional warped geometry theory) are models that describe the world in terms of a warped geometry higher-dimensional universe, or more concretely as a 5-dimensional anti-de Sitter space where the elementary particles (except the graviton) are localized on a (3 + 1)-dimensional brane or branes.
The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is the first and one of only two operating heavy-ion colliders, and the only spin-polarized proton collider ever built.
In particle physics, a resonance is the peak located around a certain energy found in differential cross sections of scattering experiments.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
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Scattering is a general physical process where some forms of radiation, such as light, sound, or moving particles, are forced to deviate from a straight trajectory by one or more paths due to localized non-uniformities in the medium through which they pass.
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The self-consistency principle was established by Rolf Hagedorn in 1965 to explain the thermodynamics of fireballs in high energy physics collisions.
SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, originally named Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, is a United States Department of Energy National Laboratory operated by Stanford University under the programmatic direction of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science and located in Menlo Park, California.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
The Standard Model of particle physics is the theory describing three of the four known fundamental forces (the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, and not including the gravitational force) in the universe, as well as classifying all known elementary particles.
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The Stanford Physics Information Retrieval System (SPIRES) is a database management system developed by Stanford University.
Stoichiometry is the calculation of reactants and products in chemical reactions.
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In physics, string theory is a theoretical framework in which the point-like particles of particle physics are replaced by one-dimensional objects called strings.
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In particle physics, the strong interaction is the mechanism responsible for the strong nuclear force (also called the strong force or nuclear strong force), and is one of the four known fundamental interactions, with the others being electromagnetism, the weak interaction, and gravitation.
In the physical sciences, subatomic particles are particles much smaller than atoms.
The Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) is a particle accelerator of the synchrotron type at CERN.
Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic flux fields occurring in certain materials, called superconductors, when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.
In particle physics, a superpartner (also sparticle) is a hypothetical elementary particle.
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In particle physics, supersymmetry (SUSY) is a theory that proposes a relationship between two basic classes of elementary particles: bosons, which have an integer-valued spin, and fermions, which have a half-integer spin.
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Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
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Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.
A tetraquark, in particle physics, is an exotic meson composed of four valence quarks.
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The Tevatron was a circular particle accelerator (now inactive, since 2011) in the United States, at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (also known as Fermilab), east of Batavia, Illinois, and holds the title of the second highest energy particle collider in the world, after the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) near Geneva, Switzerland.
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Theoretical physics is a branch of physics that employs mathematical models and abstractions of physical objects and systems to rationalize, explain and predict natural phenomena.
A theory of everything (ToE), final theory, ultimate theory, or master theory is a hypothetical single, all-encompassing, coherent theoretical framework of physics that fully explains and links together all physical aspects of the universe.
The timeline of particle physics lists the sequence of particle physics theories and discoveries in chronological order.
A touchscreen is an input and output device normally layered on the top of an electronic visual display of an information processing system.
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is a city located in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
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In theoretical physics, unparticle physics is a speculative theory that conjectures a form of matter that cannot be explained in terms of particles using the Standard Model of particle physics, because its components are scale invariant.
VEPP-2000 is an upgrade of the former VEPP-2M electron-positron collider (particle accelerator) at Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP) in Novosibirsk, Siberia, Russia.
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The W and Z bosons are together known as the weak or more generally as the intermediate vector bosons. These elementary particles mediate the weak interaction; the respective symbols are,, and.
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In physics, a wave is a disturbance that transfers energy through matter or space, with little or no associated mass transport.
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Wave–particle duality is the concept in quantum mechanics that every particle or quantic entity may be partly described in terms not only of particles, but also of waves.
In particle physics, the weak interaction (the weak force or weak nuclear force) is the mechanism of interaction between sub-atomic particles that causes radioactive decay and thus plays an essential role in nuclear fission.
The World Wide Web (abbreviated WWW or the Web) is an information space where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators (URLs), interlinked by hypertext links, and accessible via the Internet.
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An X-ray laser is a device that uses stimulated emission to generate or amplify electromagnetic radiation in the near X-ray or extreme ultraviolet region of the spectrum, that is, usually on the order of several of tens of nanometers (nm) wavelength.
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