311 relations: A. K. Fazlul Huq, ABC News, Abul Kalam Azad, Akhil Bharatiya Hindu Mahasabha, All-India Muslim League, Amsterdam University Press, Anand Math, Andaman Islands, Anglo-Indian, Annexation of Goa, Arya Samaj, Assam, Associated Press, Attlee ministry, B. R. Ambedkar, Bacha Khan, Badin, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Baluchistan (Chief Commissioner's Province), Bangladesh, Bangladesh Liberation War, Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, Bapsi Sidhwa, Barrister, Battle of Singapore, Beas City, Bengal, Bengal Presidency, Bengali language, Bhadralok, Bhisham Sahni, Bhowani Junction (film), Bhutan, Bihar, Booker Prize, Brahmin, British Ceylon, British Empire, British Indian Army, British Raj, Cambridge University Press, Chaman Nahal, Chaudhry Khaliquzzaman, Chenab River, Chinnamul, Chittagong Hill Tracts, Choudhry Rahmat Ali, Christianity in India, Clement Attlee, Cracking India, ..., Crown colony, Cyril Radcliffe, 1st Viscount Radcliffe, Dalit, Dastaan (TV series), Deccan Chronicle, Dhaka, Dharmputra, Diarchy, Direct Action Day, Doab, Dogra dynasty, Dominion, Dominion of India, Dominion of Pakistan, Dominique Lapierre, Duke University Press, Earl of Minto, Earth (1998 film), East Bengal, East India, East Pakistan, Economic and Political Weekly, Edwin Montagu, Encyclopædia Britannica, Ethnic cleansing, Ethnic group, Faiz Ahmad Faiz, Fordham University, Frederic Thesiger, 1st Viscount Chelmsford, Frederick Pethick-Lawrence, 1st Baron Pethick-Lawrence, Freedom at Midnight, French India, Frontline (magazine), Gadar: Ek Prem Katha, Gandhi (film), Garhmukteshwar, Garm Hava, Genocide, George Cukor, George Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston, Goa, Government of India Act, 1919, Government of India Act, 1935, Governor-General of India, Greater India, Greenwood Publishing Group, Hari Singh, Haryana, Hazratbal Shrine, Srinagar, Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, Hey Ram, Himachal Pradesh, Hindu, Hindu nationalism, History of Bangladesh, History of India, History of Myanmar, History of Pakistan, History of rail transport in India, History of Sri Lanka, History of the Republic of India, House of Commons of the United Kingdom, Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy, Hyderabad State, Hyderabad, Sindh, Ideology, Imperial Legislative Council, India, India–Pakistan relations, Indian annexation of Hyderabad, Indian Civil Service (British India), Indian Councils Act 1909, Indian Independence Act 1947, Indian independence movement, Indian National Army, Indian National Congress, Indian Ocean, Indian provincial elections, 1937, Indian Rebellion of 1857, Indian subcontinent, Indus River, Instrument of Accession, International Business Times, Ishtiaq Ahmed (political scientist), Islam, Islamic republic, Jagmohan, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir (princely state), Jangpura, Javed Mohammed, Jawaharlal Nehru, Jerusalem, Jhelum, Jinnah (film), Jugantar, Junagadh State, Kali, Karachi, Kashmir, Khamosh Pani, Khudai Khidmatgar, Khulna District, Khushwant Singh, Khwaja Salimullah, Kingsway Camp, Kolkata, Komal Gandhar, Krishak Sramik Party, Lahore, Lahore Resolution, Lajpat Nagar, Lala Lajpat Rai, Language, Larry Collins (writer), League of Nations, Liaquat Ali Khan, Lists of princely states of India, Lord William Bentinck, Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, Lucknow Pact, Madras Presidency, Madrasapattinam, Mahatma Gandhi, Malay Peninsula, Malda district, Maldives, Manohar Malgonkar, Masood Ashraf Raja, Mecca, Medina, Meghe Dhaka Tara, Mesopotamia, Midnight's Children, Mirpur Khas, Mohammad Ali Jouhar, Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Muhammad Iqbal, Murshidabad district, Muslim, Myanmar, Nation state, Nawab of Dhaka, Nemai Ghosh (director), Nepal, Niall Ferguson, Nizamuddin East, Noakhali riots, North-West Frontier Province (1901–2010), Northeast India, Odisha, Omar Khalidi, Ottoman Caliphate, Oxford University Press, Pakistan, Pakistan Declaration, Pakistan Movement, Parliament of the United Kingdom, Partition (2007 film), Partition (politics), Partition of Bengal (1905), Pashtuns, Pinjar (film), Political integration of India, Population transfer, Portuguese India, Presidencies and provinces of British India, Press Trust of India, Prime Minister of India, Princely state, Princely states of Pakistan, Protectorate, Public Radio International, Punjab, Punjab Province (British India), Punjab, India, Punjab, Pakistan, Punjabi Bagh, Punjabis, Purana Qila, Quit India Movement, Radcliffe Line, Rajendra Nagar, Delhi, Ravi River, Rawalpindi, Red Fort, Reunion (advertisement), Richard Symonds (academic), Ritwik Ghatak, Royal Indian Navy, Royal Indian Navy mutiny, S. 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Ikram, Saadat Hasan Manto, Salman Rushdie, Sanghar, Sardar (1993 film), Sarojini Naidu, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, Second Anglo-Afghan War, Secretary of State for India, Shahbag, Shaheed Minar, Kolkata, Shaukat Ali (politician), Shikarpur, Sindh, Shiromani Akali Dal, Shuddhi, Sikandar Hayat Khan (Punjabi politician), Sikh, Sikkim, Sind Province (1936–55), Sindh, Sri Lanka, Stafford Cripps, Subarnarekha (film), Subhas Chandra Bose, Sukkur, Sutlej, Suzerainty, Swadeshi movement, Tamas (film), Tara Singh (activist), Tehsil, Tharparkar District, The 1947 Partition Archive, The Best of the Booker, The Crown, The Express Tribune, The Hindu, The Times of India, Time (magazine), Toba Tek Singh (short story), Train to Pakistan, Train to Pakistan (film), Treason, Tripura, Two-nation theory, Umerkot, Unionist Party (Punjab), United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, University of California, Berkeley, University of California, Los Angeles, Urdu, Urvashi Butalia, Vallabhbhai Patel, Vande Mataram, Viceroy, Viceroy's House (film), Victor Hope, 2nd Marquess of Linlithgow, Violence against Muslims in India, Viral video, West Bengal, West Pakistan, West Punjab, Winston Churchill, World War I, 1920 Summer Olympics, 1946 Bihar riots, 1946 Cabinet Mission to India, 1950 East Pakistan riots, 1964 East Pakistan riots. 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Abul Kasem Fazlul Huq (26 October 1873—27 April 1962); was a Bengali lawyer, legislator and statesman in the 20th century.
ABC News is the news division of the American Broadcasting Company (ABC), owned by the Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company.
Maulana Sayyid Abul Kalam Ghulam Muhiyuddin Ahmed bin Khairuddin Al-Hussaini Azad (11 November 1888 – 22 February 1958) was an Indian scholar and the senior Muslim leader of the Indian National Congress during the Indian independence movement.
The Akhil Bhāratiya Hindū Mahāsabhā (translation: All-India Hindu Grand-Assembly) is a right wing Hindu nationalist political party in India.
The All-India Muslim League (popularised as Muslim League) was a political party established during the early years of the 20th century in the British Indian Empire.
Amsterdam University Press (AUP) is a university press that was founded in 1992 by the University of Amsterdam in the Netherlands.
Anand Math is a 1952 Indian bollywood historical patriotic film directed by Hemen Gupta, based on the famous Bengali novel Anandamath, written by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee in 1882.
The Andaman Islands form an archipelago in the Bay of Bengal between India, to the west, and Myanmar, to the north and east.
The term Anglo-Indians can refer to at least two groups of people: those with mixed Indian and British ancestry, and people of British descent born or living in the Indian subcontinent.
The Annexation of Goa was the process in which the Republic of India annexed the former Portuguese Indian territories of Goa, Daman and Diu, starting with the "armed action" carried out by the Indian Armed Forces in December 1961.
Arya Samaj (Sanskrit: आर्य समाज "Noble Society" Hindi: आर्य समाज, Bengali: আর্য সমাজ, Punjabi: ਆਰੀਆ ਸਮਾਜ, Gujarati: આર્ય સમાજ) is an Indian Hindu reform movement that promotes values and practices based on the belief in the infallible authority of the Vedas.
Assam is a state in Northeast India, situated south of the eastern Himalayas along the Brahmaputra and Barak River valleys.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
Clement Attlee was invited by King George VI to form the Attlee ministry in the United Kingdom in July 1945, succeeding Winston Churchill as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (14 April 1891 – 6 December 1956), popularly known as Babasaheb, was an Indian jurist, economist, politician and social reformer who inspired the Dalit Buddhist movement and campaigned against social discrimination towards Untouchables (Dalits), while also supporting the rights of women and labour.
Abdul Ghaffār Khān (6 February 1890 – 20 January 1988), nicknamed Fakhr-e-Afghān, lit.
Badin (بدين بدین) is the main city and capital of Badin District in Sindh, Pakistan.
Bal Gangadhar Tilak (or Lokmanya Tilak,; 23 July 1856 – 1 August 1920), born as Keshav Gangadhar Tilak, was an Indian nationalist, teacher, social reformer, lawyer and an independence activist.
The Chief Commissioner's Province of Balochistan (Urdu: بلوچستان,چیف کمشنر صوبہ) was a province of British India, and later Pakistan, located in the northern parts of the modern Balochistan province.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
The Bangladesh Liberation War (মুক্তিযুদ্ধ), also known as the Bangladesh War of Independence, or simply the Liberation War in Bangladesh, was a revolution and armed conflict sparked by the rise of the Bengali nationalist and self-determination movement in what was then East Pakistan during the 1971 Bangladesh genocide.
Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay or Bankim Chandra Chatterjee (27 June 1838–8 April 1894) was an Indian writer, poet and journalist.
Bapsi Sidhwa (باپسا سادہوا; born August 11, 1938) is a Pakistani novelist of Gujarati Parsi descent who writes in English and is resident in the United States.
A barrister (also known as barrister-at-law or bar-at-law) is a type of lawyer in common law jurisdictions.
The Battle of Singapore, also known as the Fall of Singapore, was fought in the South-East Asian theatre of World War II when the Empire of Japan invaded the British stronghold of Singapore—nicknamed the "Gibraltar of the East".
Beas is a riverfront town in the Amritsar district of the Majha region of the Eastern Punjab (India).
Bengal (Bānglā/Bôngô /) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in Asia, which is located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal.
The Bengal Presidency was once the largest subdivision (presidency) of British India, with its seat in Calcutta (now Kolkata).
Bengali, also known by its endonym Bangla (বাংলা), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in South Asia.
Bhadralok (ভদ্রলোক bhôdrôlok, literally 'gentleman', 'well-mannered person') is Bengali for the new class of 'gentlefolk' who arose during British colonial times (approximately 1757 to 1947) in Bengal.
Bhisham Sahni (8 August 1915 – 11 July 2003) was a Hindi writer, playwright, and actor, most famous for his novel and television screenplay Tamas ("Darkness, Ignorance"), a powerful and passionate account of the Partition of India.
Bhowani Junction is a 1956 film adaptation of the 1954 novel Bhowani Junction by John Masters made by MGM.
Bhutan, officially the Kingdom of Bhutan (Druk Gyal Khap), is a landlocked country in South Asia.
Bihar is an Indian state considered to be a part of Eastern as well as Northern India.
The Man Booker Prize for Fiction (formerly known as the Booker–McConnell Prize and commonly known simply as the Booker Prize) is a literary prize awarded each year for the best original novel written in the English language and published in the UK.
Brahmin (Sanskrit: ब्राह्मण) is a varna (class) in Hinduism specialising as priests, teachers (acharya) and protectors of sacred learning across generations.
Ceylon (Sinhala: බ්රිතාන්ය ලංකාව, Brithānya Laṃkāva; Tamil: பிரித்தானிய இலங்கை, Birithaniya Ilangai) was a British Crown colony between 1815 and 1948.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The Indian Army (IA), often known since 1947 (but rarely during its existence) as the British Indian Army to distinguish it from the current Indian Army, was the principal military of the British Indian Empire before its decommissioning in 1947.
The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Chaman Nahal commonly known as C Nahal, also known as Chaman Nahal Azadi, is an Indian born writer of English literature.
Chaudhry Khaliquzzaman (چودھری خلیق الزمان) (25 December 1889 – 1973) was a Pakistani politician and a very important Muslim figure during British India.
The Chenab River (चेनाब; ਚਨਾਬ,; چناب) is a major river that flows in India and Pakistan, and is one of the 5 major rivers of the Punjab region.
Chinnamul (alternate spelling Chhinnamul, The Uprooted) was a 1950 Bengali film directed by Nemai Ghosh.
The Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT; Bengali: পার্বত্য চট্টগ্রাম, Parbotto Choŧŧogram; or the Hill Tracts for short) are an area within the Chattogram Division in southeastern Bangladesh, bordering India and Myanmar (Burma).
Chaudhry Rehmat Ali (In Punjabi and) (16 November 1893 – 3 February 1951) was a Pakistani Punjabi Muslim nationalist who was one of the earliest proponents of the creation of the state of Pakistan.
Christianity is India's third most followed religion according to the census of 2011, with approximately 28 million followers, constituting 2.3 percent of India's population. It is traditionally believed that Christianity was introduced to India by Thomas the Apostle, who supposedly landed in Kerala in 52 AD. There is a general scholarly consensus that Christianity was definitely established in India by the 6th century AD. including some communities who used Syriac liturgies, and it is possible that the religion's existence extends as far back as the purported time of St.Thomas's arrival. Christians are found all across India and in all walks of life, with major populations in parts of South India and the south shore, the Konkan Coast, and Northeast India. Indian Christians have contributed significantly to and are well represented in various spheres of national life. They include former and current chief ministers, governors and chief election commissioners. Indian Christians have the highest ratio of women to men among the various religious communities in India. Christians are the second most educated religious group in India after Jains. Christianity in India has different denominations. The state of Kerala is home to the Saint Thomas Christian community, an ancient body of Christians, who are now divided into several different churches and traditions. They are East Syriac Saint Thomas Christian churches: the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church and the Chaldean Syrian Church. The Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, Malankara Jacobite Syrian Church, Mar Thoma Syrian Church, Syro-Malankara Catholic Church, and the Malabar Independent Syrian Church are West Syriac Saint Thomas Christian Churches. Since the 19th century Protestant churches have also been present; major denominations include the Baptists, Church of South India (CSI), Evangelical Church of India (ECI), St. Thomas Evangelical Church of India, Believers Eastern Church, the Church of North India (CNI), the Presbyterian Church of India, Pentecostal Church, Apostolics, Lutherans, Traditional Anglicans and other evangelical groups. The Christian Church runs thousands of educational institutions and hospitals which have contributed significantly to the development of the nation. Roman Catholicism was first introduced to India by Portuguese, Italian and Irish Jesuits in the 16th century to preach the gospel of Jesus Christ among Indians. Most Christian schools, hospitals, primary care centres originated through the Roman Catholic missions brought by the trade of these countries. Evangelical Protestantism was later spread to India by the efforts of British, American, German, Scottish missionaries. These Protestant missions were also responsible for introducing English education in India for the first time and were also accountable in the first early translations of the Holy Bible in various Indian languages (including Tamil, Malayalam, Telugu, Hindi, Urdu and others). Even though Christians are a significant minority, they form a major religious group in three states of India - Meghalaya, Mizoram, and Nagaland with plural majority in Manipur and Arunachal Pradesh and other states with significant Christian population include Tamil Nadu and Kerala. Christianity is widespread across India and is present in all states with major populations in South India.
Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was a British statesman of the Labour Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1935 to 1955.
Cracking India, (1991, U.S., 1992, India; originally published as Ice Candy Man, 1988, England) is a novel by author Bapsi Sidhwa.
Crown colony, dependent territory and royal colony are terms used to describe the administration of United Kingdom overseas territories that are controlled by the British Government.
Cyril John Radcliffe, 1st Viscount Radcliffe, (30 March 1899 – 1 April 1977) was a British lawyer and Law Lord best known for his role in the partition of British India.
Dalit, meaning "broken/scattered" in Sanskrit and Hindi, is a term mostly used for the castes in India that have been subjected to untouchability.
Dastaan (داستان) (English: The Tale) is a Pakistani TV series dramatized by Samira Fazal, and based on the novel Bano, by Razia Butt.
Deccan Chronicle is an Indian English-language daily newspaper.
Dhaka (or; ঢাকা); formerly known as Dacca is the capital and largest city of Bangladesh.
Dharmputra is a 1961 Hindi film directed by Yash Chopra based on a novel of the same name by Acharya Chatursen.
A diarchy (from Greek δι-, di-, "double", and -αρχία, -arkhía, "ruled").
Direct Action Day (16 August 1946), also known as the Great Calcutta Killings, was a day of widespread communal rioting between Muslims and Hindus in the city of Calcutta (now known as Kolkata) in the Bengal province of British India.
Doab (from dō, "two" + āb, "water" or "river") is a term used in India and Pakistan for the "tongue," or water-richAugust 2010,, Society for Promotion of Wastelands Development,, page vi.
The Dogra dynasty (or Jamwal dynasty) was a Hindu Dogra Rajput dynasty that formed the royal house of Jammu and Kashmir.
Dominions were semi-independent polities under the British Crown, constituting the British Empire, beginning with Canadian Confederation in 1867.
Between gaining independence from the United Kingdom on 15 August 1947 and the proclamation of a republic on 26 January 1950, India was an independent dominion in the British Commonwealth of Nations with king George VI as its head of state.
Pakistan (পাকিস্তান অধিরাজ্য; مملکتِ پاکستان), also called the Dominion of Pakistan, was an independent federal dominion in South Asia that was established in 1947 as a result of the Pakistan movement, followed by the simultaneous partition of British India to create a new country called Pakistan.
Dominique Lapierre (born 30 July 1931 in Châtelaillon, Charente-Maritime, France) is a French author.
Duke University Press is an academic publisher of books and journals, and a unit of Duke University.
Earl of Minto, in the County of Roxburgh, is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
Earth (अर्थ) (released in India as 1947: Earth) is a 1999 Indian period drama film directed by Deepa Mehta.
East Bengal (পূর্ব বাংলা Purbô Bangla) was a geographically noncontiguous province of the Dominion of Pakistan covering Bangladesh.
East India is a region of India consisting of the Indian states of Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Odisha and also the union territory Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
East Pakistan was the eastern provincial wing of Pakistan between 1955 and 1971, covering the territory of the modern country Bangladesh.
The Economic and Political Weekly is a weekly peer-reviewed academic journal covering all social sciences, and is published by the Sameeksha Trust.
Edwin Samuel Montagu PC (6 February 1879 – 15 November 1924) was a British Liberal politician who served as Secretary of State for India between 1917 and 1922.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Ethnic cleansing is the systematic forced removal of ethnic or racial groups from a given territory by a more powerful ethnic group, often with the intent of making it ethnically homogeneous.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
Faiz Ahmad Faiz MBE, NI (فَیض احمد فَیض), (born 13 February 1911 – 20 November 1984) was a Pakistani leftist poet and author, and one of the most celebrated writers of the Urdu language.
Fordham University is a private research university in New York City.
Frederic John Napier Thesiger, 1st Viscount Chelmsford, (12 August 1868 – 1 April 1933) was a British statesman who served as Governor of Queensland from 1905 to 1909, Governor of New South Wales from 1909 to 1913, and Viceroy of India from 1916 to 1921, where he was responsible for the creation of the Montagu-Chelmsford reforms.
Frederick William Pethick-Lawrence, 1st Baron Pethick-Lawrence, PC (28 December 1871 – 10 September 1961) was a British Labour politician.
Freedom at Midnight (1975) is a book by Larry Collins and Dominique Lapierre.
French India, formally the Établissements français dans l'Inde ("French establishments in India"), was a French colony comprising geographically separate enclaves on the Indian subcontinent.
Frontline is a fortnightly English language magazine published by The Hindu Group of publications from Chennai, India.
Gadar: Ek Prem Katha (English: Revolt: A Love Story) is a 2001 Indian period action drama film starring Sunny Deol, Amisha Patel, and Amrish Puri, set in the time of the Partition of India in 1947.
Gandhi is a 1982 epic historical drama film based on the life of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, the leader of India's non-violent, non-cooperative independence movement against the United Kingdom's rule of the country during the 20th century.
Garhmukteshwar (also spelled Garhmukhteshwar) is a town and a municipal board in Hapur district in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India.
Garam Hava (गर्म हवा; translation: Hot Winds or Scorching Winds) is a 1973 Urdu drama film directed by M. S. Sathyu, with Balraj Sahni as the lead.
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.
George Dewey Cukor (July 7, 1899 – January 24, 1983) was an American film director.
George Nathaniel Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston, (11 January 1859 – 20 March 1925), known as Lord Curzon of Kedleston between 1898 and 1911 and as Earl Curzon of Kedleston between 1911 and 1921, and commonly as Lord Curzon, was a British Conservative statesman.
Goa is a state in India within the coastal region known as the Konkan, in Western India.
The Government of India Act 1919 (9 & 10 Geo. 5 c. 101) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Government of India Act,1935 was originally passed in August 1935 (25 & 26 Geo. 5 c. 42), and is said to be the longest Act (British) of Parliament ever enacted by that time.
The Governor-General of India (or, from 1858 to 1947, officially the Viceroy and Governor-General of India, commonly shortened to Viceroy of India) was originally the head of the British administration in India and, later, after Indian independence in 1947, the representative of the Indian head of state.
The term Greater India is most commonly used to encompass the historical and geographic extent of all political entities of the Indian subcontinent, and the regions which are culturally linked to India or received significant Indian cultural influence.
ABC-CLIO/Greenwood is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.
Hari Singh (September 1895 – 26 April 1961) was the last ruling Maharaja of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir in India.
Haryana, carved out of the former state of East Punjab on 1November 1966 on linguistic basis, is one of the 29 states in India.
The Hazratbal Shrine (Urdu, آستان عالیہ درگاہ حضرت بل., literally "Majestic Place"), is a Muslim shrine in Hazratbal, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir.
Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, (24 June 1850 – 5 June 1916), was a senior British Army officer and colonial administrator who won notoriety for his imperial campaigns, most especially his scorched earth policy against the Boers and his establishment of concentration camps during the Second Boer War, and later played a central role in the early part of the First World War.
Hey Ram (translation: Oh Ram! or Oh God!) is a 2000 Indian historical fiction-political thriller film simultaneously made in Tamil and Hindi languages.
Himachal Pradesh (literally "snow-laden province") is a Indian state located in North India.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
Hindu nationalism has been collectively referred to as the expressions of social and political thought, based on the native spiritual and cultural traditions of the Indian subcontinent.
Modern Bangladesh emerged as an independent nation in 1971 after breaking away and achieving independence from Pakistan in the Bangladesh Liberation War.
The history of India includes the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent; the advancement of civilisation from the Indus Valley Civilisation to the eventual blending of the Indo-Aryan culture to form the Vedic Civilisation; the rise of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism;Sanderson, Alexis (2009), "The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period." In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo, Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2009.
The history of Myanmar (also known as Burma) covers the period from the time of first-known human settlements 13,000 years ago to the present day.
The history of Pakistan encompasses the history of the region constituting modern-day Pakistan.
Rail transport in India began during the early nineteenth century.
The earliest human remains found on the island of Sri Lanka date to about 35,000 years ago (Balangoda Man).
The history of the Republic of India begins on 26 January 1950.
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy (English IPA: ɦusæŋ ʃɑid sɦuɾɑwɑɾdɪə; حسین شہید سہروردی; হোসেন শহীদ সোহ্রাওয়ার্দী; 8 September 18925 December 1963) is a Bengali politician and a lawyer who served as the fifth Prime Minister of Pakistan, appointed in this capacity on 12 September 1956 until resigning on 17 October 1957.
Hyderabad State was an Indian princely state located in the south-central region of India with its capital at the city of Hyderabad.
Hyderabad (Sindhi and حيدرآباد; is a city located in the Sindh province of Pakistan. Located 140 kilometres east of Karachi, Hyderabad is the 2nd largest in Sindh province, and the 8th largest city in Pakistan. Founded in 1768 by Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro of the Kalhora Dynasty, Hyderabad served as the Kalhoro, and later Talpur, capital until the British transferred the capital to Karachi in 1843.
An Ideology is a collection of normative beliefs and values that an individual or group holds for other than purely epistemic reasons.
The Imperial Legislative Council was a legislature for British India from 1861 to 1947.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Relations between India and Pakistan have been complex and largely hostile due to a number of historical and political events.
Operation Polo is the code name of the Hyderabad "police action" in September 1948, by the newly independent India against the Hyderabad State.
The Indian Civil Service (ICS) for part of the 19th century officially known as the Imperial Civil Service, was the elite higher civil service of the British Empire in British India during British rule in the period between 1858 and 1947.
The (9 Edw. 7 c. 4), commonly known as the Morley-Minto Reforms (or as the Minto-Morley Reforms), was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that brought about a limited increase in the involvement of Indians in the governance of British India.
The Indian Independence Act 1947 (1947 c. 30 (10 & 11. Geo. 6.)) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that partitioned British India into the two new independent dominions of India and Pakistan.
The Indian independence movement encompassed activities and ideas aiming to end the East India Company rule (1757–1857) and the British Indian Empire (1857–1947) in the Indian subcontinent.
The Indian National Army (INA; Azad Hind Fauj; lit.: Free Indian Army) was an armed force formed by Indian nationalists in 1942 in Southeast Asia during World War II.
The Indian National Congress (INC, often called Congress Party) is a broadly based political party in India.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
Provincial elections were held in British India in the winter of 1936-37 as mandated by the Government of India Act 1935.
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a major uprising in India between 1857–58 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
The Indus River (also called the Sindhū) is one of the longest rivers in Asia.
The Instrument of Accession was a legal document first introduced by the Government of India Act 1935 and used in 1947 to enable each of the rulers of the princely states under British paramountcy to join one of the new dominions of India or Pakistan created by the Partition of British India.
The International Business Times is an American online news publication that publishes seven national editions and four languages.
Ishtiaq Ahmed (اشتیاق احمد; born 24 February 1947) is a Swedish political scientist and author of Pakistani descent.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
An Islamic republic is the name given to several states that are officially ruled by Islamic laws, including the Islamic Republics of Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan, and Mauritania.
Jagmohan Malhotra (born 25 September 1927 in the railway colony of Cheecho Ki Malian, West Punjab), known by the mononym Jagmohan, is a former Indian civil servant and politician belonging to the Bharatiya Janata Party.
Jammu is the largest city in the Jammu Division and the winter capital of state of Jammu and Kashmir in India.
Jammu and Kashmir was, from 1846 until 1952, a princely state of the British Empire in India and ruled by a Jamwal Rajput Dogra Dynasty.
Jangpura is a neighbourhood in South Delhi district of Delhi.
Javed Mohammed (born April 17, 1989) is a Trinidadian footballer who currently plays in the TT Pro League with T&TEC SC.
Jawaharlal Nehru (14 November 1889 – 27 May 1964) was the first Prime Minister of India and a central figure in Indian politics before and after independence.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
Jhelum (جِہلم) is a city on the right bank of the Jhelum River, in the district of the same name in the north of Punjab province, Pakistan.
Jinnah is a 1998 epic biographical film which follows the life of the founder of Pakistan, Muhammad Ali Jinnah.
Jugantar or Yugantar (যুগান্তর Jugantor) (English meaning New Era or more literally Transition of an Epoch) was one of the two main secret revolutionary trends operating in Bengal for Indian independence.
Junagadh was a princely state in Gujarat ruled by the Muslim Babi or Babai dynasty in British India, until its integration into the Indian Union in 1948.
(काली), also known as (कालिका), is a Hindu goddess.
Karachi (کراچی; ALA-LC:,; ڪراچي) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Sindh.
Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent.
Khamosh Pani (خاموش پانی, Silent Waters) is a 2003 Pakistani film about a widowed mother and her young son living in a Punjabi village as it undergoes radical changes during the late 1970s.
Khudai Khidmatgar (خدايي خدمتگار) literally translates as the servants of God, represented a non-violent struggle against the British Empire by the Pashtuns (also known as Pathans, Pakhtuns or Afghans) of the North-West Frontier Province of British India (now in Pakistan).
Khulna District (খুলনা জেলা, Khulna Jela also Khulna Zila) is a district of Bangladesh.
Khushwant Singh (born Khushal Singh, 15 August 1915 – 20 March 2014) was an Indian author, lawyer, diplomat, journalist and politician.
Nawab Sir Khwaja Salimullah Bahadur (1871–1915) was the fourth Nawab of Dhaka and one of the leading Muslim politicians during the British Raj.
Kingsway Camp officially known as Guru Teg Bahadur Nagar (GTB Nagar), since 1970, is a historic area located in North Delhi, near Civil Lines and Delhi University.
Kolkata (also known as Calcutta, the official name until 2001) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal.
Komal Gandhar (কোমল গান্ধার Kōmal Gāndhār), also known as A Soft Note on a Sharp Scale, is a 1961 Bengali film written and directed by noted film maker Ritwik Ghatak.
The Krishak Sramik Party was a major anti-feudal political party in the British Indian province of Bengal and later in the Dominion of Pakistan's East Bengal and East Pakistan provinces.
Lahore (لاہور, لہور) is the capital city of the Pakistani province of Punjab, and is the country’s second-most populous city after Karachi.
The Lahore Resolution (قرارداد لاہور, Karardad-e-Lahore; Bengali: লাহোর প্রস্তাব, Lahor Prostab),was a declaration written by Muhammad Zafarullah Khan and others and presented by A. K. Fazl ul Huq, the Prime Minister of Bengal, was a formal political statement adopted by the All-India Muslim League on the occasion of its three-day general session in Lahore on 22–24 March 1940.
Lajpat Nagar is a residential and commercial neighbourhood of the South Delhi district of Delhi.
Lala Lajpat Rai, (28 January 1865 – 17 November 1928) was an Indian freedom fighter.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
Larry Collins, born John Lawrence Collins Jr., (September 14, 1929 – June 20, 2005) was an American writer.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan (Næʍābzādāh Liāqat Alī Khān,لِیاقت علی خان; born October 1895 – 16 October 1951), widely known as Quaid-e-Millat (Leader of the Nation) and Shaheed-e-Millat (شہِیدِ مِلّت Martyr of the Nation), was one of the leading founding fathers of Pakistan, statesman, lawyer, and political theorist who became and served as the first Prime Minister of Pakistan; in addition, he also held cabinet portfolio as the first foreign, defence, and the frontier regions minister from 1947 until his assassination in 1951.
The following lists of princely states of (British) India have been compiled.
Lieutenant-General Lord William Henry Cavendish-Bentinck (14 September 1774 – 17 June 1839), known as Lord William Bentinck, was a British soldier and statesman.
Admiral of the Fleet Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, (born Prince Louis of Battenberg; 25 June 1900 – 27 August 1979) was a British Royal Navy officer and statesman, an uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, and second cousin once removed of Queen Elizabeth II.
The Lucknow Pact was an agreement reached between the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League at the joint session of both the parties held in Lucknow in December 1916.
The Madras Presidency, or the Presidency of Fort St.
Madrasapattinam (italic) is a 2010 Indian Tamil period drama film, written and directed by A. L. Vijay.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule.
The Malay Peninsula (Tanah Melayu, تانه ملايو; คาบสมุทรมลายู,, မလေး ကျွန်းဆွယ်, 马来半岛 / 馬來半島) is a peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Malda district, also spelt Maldah or Maldaha (often; মালদা, মালদহ) is a district in West Bengal, India.
The Maldives (or; ދިވެހިރާއްޖެ Dhivehi Raa'jey), officially the Republic of Maldives, is a South Asian sovereign state, located in the Indian Ocean, situated in the Arabian Sea.
Manohar Malgonkar (Marathi: मनोहर माळगांवकर; 12 July 1913 – 14 June 2010) was an Indian author of both fiction and nonfiction in the English language.
Masood Ashraf Raja (Urdu: مسعود اشرف راجہ) is an associate professor of postcolonial literature and theory at the University of North Texas.
Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.
Medina (المدينة المنورة,, "the radiant city"; or المدينة,, "the city"), also transliterated as Madīnah, is a city in the Hejaz region of the Arabian Peninsula and administrative headquarters of the Al-Madinah Region of Saudi Arabia.
Meghe Dhaka Tara (মেঘে ঢাকা তারা Mēghē Ḍhākā Tārā, meaning The Cloud-Capped Star) is a 1960 film written and directed by Ritwik Ghatak, based on a social novel by Shaktipada Rajguru with the same title.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
Midnight's Children is a 1981 novel by British Indian author Salman Rushdie.
Mirpur Khas (Sindhi and; meaning "Town of the most-high Mirs") is the capital city of Mirpur Khas District in the province of Sindh in Pakistan and was the capital of an eponymous princely state.
Muhammad Ali Jauhar (10 December 1878 – 4 January 1931), also known as Maulana Mohammad Ali Jauhar (Arabic: مَولانا مُحمّد علی جَوہر), was an Indian Muslim leader, activist, scholar, journalist and a poet, and was among the leading figures of the Khilafat Movement.
The Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms or more briefly known as Mont-Ford Reforms were reforms introduced by the British colonial government in India to introduce self-governing institutions gradually to India.
Muhammad Ali Jinnah (محمد علی جناح ALA-LC:, born Mahomedali Jinnahbhai; 25 December 1876 – 11 September 1948) was a lawyer, politician, and the founder of Pakistan.
Muhammad Iqbal (محمد اِقبال) (November 9, 1877 – April 21, 1938), widely known as Allama Iqbal, was a poet, philosopher, and politician, as well as an academic, barrister and scholar in British India who is widely regarded as having inspired the Pakistan Movement.
Murshidabad district is a district of West Bengal, in eastern India.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
A nation state (or nation-state), in the most specific sense, is a country where a distinct cultural or ethnic group (a "nation" or "people") inhabits a territory and have formed a state (often a sovereign state) that they predominantly govern.
The Nawab of Dhaka was the largest Muslim zamindar in British Bengal based in Dhaka city.
Nemai Ghosh, or Nimai Ghosh (1914 - 1988), was an Indian film director and cinematographer, best known for his film Chinnamul (1950).
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
Niall Campbell Ferguson (born 18 April 1964) Niall Ferguson is a conservative British historian and political commentator.
Nizamuddin East is a residential colony in Delhi, India.
The Noakhali riots, were a series of semi-organized massacres, rapes, abductions and forced conversions of Hindus to Islam and looting and arson of Hindu properties perpetrated by the Muslim community in the districts of Noakhali in the Chittagong Division of Bengal (now in Bangladesh) in October–November 1946, a year before India's independence from British rule.
The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) was a province of British India and subsequently of Pakistan.
Northeast India (officially North Eastern Region, NER) is the easternmost region of India representing both a geographic and political administrative division of the country.
Odisha (formerly Orissa) is one of the 29 states of India, located in eastern India.
Omar Khalidi (1952 – 29 November 2010), born in Hyderabad, India, was a Muslim scholar, a staff member of MIT in the US, and an author.
The Ottoman Caliphate (1517–1924), under the Ottoman dynasty of the Ottoman Empire, was the last Sunni Islamic caliphate of the late medieval and the early modern era.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Pakistan Declaration (titled Now or Never; Are We to Live or Perish Forever?) was a pamphlet written and published by Choudhary Rahmat Ali, on 28 January 1933, in which the word Pakstan (without the letter "i") was used for the first time and was presented in the Round Table conferences in 1933.
The Pakistan Movement or Tehrik-e-Pakistan (تحریک پاکستان –) was a religious political movement in the 1940s that aimed for and succeeded in the creation of Pakistan from the Muslim-majority areas of the British Indian Empire.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.
Partition is a 2007 film directed by Vic Sarin, written by Patricia Finn and Vic Sarin, and starring Jimi Mistry and Kristin Kreuk.
In politics, a partition is a change of political borders cutting through at least one territory considered a homeland by some community.
The decision to effect the Partition of Bengal (বঙ্গভঙ্গ.) was announced on 19 July 1905 by the Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon.
The Pashtuns (or; پښتانه Pax̌tānə; singular masculine: پښتون Pax̌tūn, feminine: پښتنه Pax̌tana; also Pukhtuns), historically known as ethnic Afghans (افغان, Afğān) and Pathans (Hindustani: پٹھان, पठान, Paṭhān), are an Iranic ethnic group who mainly live in Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Pinjar (English:The Cage) is a 2003 Indian period drama film directed by Chandraprakash Dwivedi.
At the time of Indian independence in 1947, India was divided into two sets of territories, one under direct British rule, and the other under the suzerainty of the British Crown, with control over their internal affairs remaining in the hands of their hereditary rulers.
Population transfer or resettlement is the movement of a large group of people from one region to another, often a form of forced migration imposed by state policy or international authority and most frequently on the basis of ethnicity or religion but also due to economic development.
The State of India (Estado da Índia), also referred as the Portuguese State of India (Estado Português da Índia, EPI) or simply Portuguese India (Índia Portuguesa), was a state of the Portuguese Overseas Empire, founded six years after the discovery of a sea route between Portugal and the Indian Subcontinent to serve as the governing body of a string of Portuguese fortresses and colonies overseas.
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.
Press Trust of India (PTI) is the largest news agency in India.
The Prime Minister of India is the leader of the executive of the Government of India.
A princely state, also called native state (legally, under the British) or Indian state (for those states on the subcontinent), was a vassal state under a local or regional ruler in a subsidiary alliance with the British Raj.
The princely states of Pakistan (Urdu: پاکستان کی نوابی ریاستیں) were former princely states of the British Indian Empire which acceded to the new Dominion of Pakistan between 1947 and 1948, following the Partition of (British) India and its independence.
A protectorate, in its inception adopted by modern international law, is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy and some independence while still retaining the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state.
Public Radio International (PRI) is an American public radio organization.
The Punjab, also spelled Panjab (land of "five rivers"; Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi); Πενταποταμία, Pentapotamia) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India.
Punjab, also spelled Panjab, was a province of British India.
Punjab is a state in northern India.
Punjab (Urdu, Punjabi:, panj-āb, "five waters") is Pakistan's second largest province by area, after Balochistan, and its most populous province, with an estimated population of 110,012,442 as of 2017.
Punjabi Bagh is a locality in Delhi, India.
The Punjabis (Punjabi:, ਪੰਜਾਬੀ), or Punjabi people, are an ethnic group associated with the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent, who speak Punjabi, a language from the Indo-Aryan language family.
Purana Qila (Old Fort) is one of the oldest forts in Delhi.
The Quit India Movement or the India August Movement, was a movement launched at the Bombay session of the All-India Congress Committee by Mahatma Gandhi on 8 August 1942, during World War II, demanding an end to British Rule of India.
The Radcliffe Line was the boundary demarcation line between India and Pakistan published on 17 August 1947 upon the Partition of India.
Rajinder Nagar (often spelled Rajender Nagar or Rajinder Nagar The Hindu, December 15, 2008." Rajinder Nagar constituency") is a residential colony in Central Delhi Delhi, India.
The Ravi (ਰਾਵੀ, راوی, रावी) is a transboundary river crossing northwestern India and eastern Pakistan.
Rawalpindi (Punjabi, راولپِنڈى), commonly known as Pindi (پِنڈی), is a city in the Punjab province of Pakistan.
Red Fort is a historic fort in the city of Delhi in India.
Reunion is a 2013 Google India advertisement for Google Search.
Richard Symonds (2 October 1918 – 15 July 2006) was an English academic and civil servant.
Ritwik Ghatak (4 November 19256 February 1976) was a Bengali filmmaker and script writer.
The Royal Indian Navy (RIN) was the naval force of British India and the Dominion of India.
The Royal Indian Navy revolt (also called the Royal Indian Navy mutiny or Bombay mutiny) encompasses a total strike and subsequent revolt by Indian sailors of the Royal Indian Navy on board ship and shore establishments at Bombay harbour on 18 February 1946.
Sheikh Muhammad Ikram (Urdu: شیخ محمد اکرام; b. 10 September 1908 – 17 January 1973) better known as S. M. Ikram, was a Pakistani historian, biographer, and littérateur.
Saadat Hasan Manto (سعادت حسن منٹو,; 11 May 1912 – 18 January 1955) was a Pakistani writer, playwright and author born in British India.
Sir Ahmed Salman Rushdie (born 19 June 1947) is a British Indian novelist and essayist.
Sanghar (سانگھڙ; سانگھڑ) is a city in Sanghar District, Sindh, Pakistan. Sanghar is the headquarters of Sanghar District and Sanghar Taluka (a subdivision of the district). It is one of the agriculture towns situated approximately 265 km from Karachi city. It has road links with Hyderabad, Nawabshah, Mirpur Khas, Khairpur and other major cities of Sindh.
Sardar is a 1993 Indian biographical drama film on Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, one of India's greatest freedom fighters, directed by Ketan Mehta and written by noted playwright Vijay Tendulkar.
Sarojini Naidu; Chattopadhyay, (13 February 1879 – 2 March 1949) was an Indian independence activist and poet.
The Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs) are officially designated groups of historically disadvantaged people in India.
The Second Anglo-Afghan War (د افغان-انګرېز دويمه جګړه) was a military conflict fought between the British Raj and the Emirate of Afghanistan from 1878 to 1880, when the latter was ruled by Sher Ali Khan of the Barakzai dynasty, the son of former Emir Dost Mohammad Khan.
The Secretary of State for India or India Secretary was the British Cabinet minister and the political head of the India Office responsible for the governance of the British Raj (India), Aden, and Burma.
Shahbag (also Shahbaugh, শাহবাগ় Shabagh) is a major neighbourhood and a police precinct or thana in Dhaka, the capital and largest city of Bangladesh.
The Shaheed Minar (শহীদ মিনার Shôhid Minar; English: Martyrs' Monument), formerly known as the Ochterlony Monument (অক্টারলোনি মনুমেন্ট), is a monument in Kolkata that was erected in 1828 in memory of Major-general Sir David Ochterlony, commander of the British East India Company, to commemorate both his successful defense of Delhi against the Marathas in 1804 and the victory of the East India Company’s armed forces over the Gurkhas in the Anglo-Nepalese War.
Maulana Shaukat Ali (10 March 1873 – 26 November 1938; Urdu: مولانا شوكت علي) was an Indian Muslim leader of the Khilafat Movement that erupted in response to the fall of the Ottoman Empire.
Shikarpur (Urdu and شِکارپُور) is small city and the capital of Shikarpur District in Sindh province of Pakistan.
The Shiromani Akali Dal (SAD), (translation: Supreme Akali Party) is a political party in India.
Shuddhi is Sanskrit for purification.
Captain (retired) Sardar Sir Sikandar Hayat Khan, KBE (also written Sikandar Hyat Khan or Sikander Hyat-Khan at times) (5 June 1892 in Multan–25/26 December 1942) was a statesman from the Punjab.
A Sikh (ਸਿੱਖ) is a person associated with Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the 15th century based on the revelation of Guru Nanak.
Sikkim is a state in Northeast India.
Sind was a province of British India from 1936 to 1947 and Pakistan from 1947 to 1955.
Sindh (سنڌ; سِندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, in the southeast of the country.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
Sir Richard Stafford Cripps, (24 April 1889 – 21 April 1952) was a British Labour politician of the first half of the twentieth century.
Subarnarekha (সুবর্ণরেখা Subarṇarēkhā) is an Indian Bengali film directed by Ritwik Ghatak.
Subhas Chandra Bose (23 January 1897 – 18 August 1945) was an Indian nationalist whose defiant patriotism made him a hero in India, but whose attempt during World War II to rid India of British rule with the help of Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan left a troubled legacy.
Sukkur is a city in the Pakistani province of Sindh along the western bank of the Indus River, directly across from the historic city of Rohri.
The Sutlej River (alternatively spelled as Satluj River) (सतलुज, ਸਤਲੁਜ, शतद्रुम (shatadrum), is the longest of the five rivers that flow through the historic crossroads region of Punjab in northern India and Pakistan. The Sutlej River is also known as Satadree. It is the easternmost tributary of the Indus River. The waters of the Sutlej are allocated to India under the Indus Waters Treaty between India and Pakistan, and are mostly diverted to irrigation canals in India. There are several major hydroelectric projects on the Sutlej, including the 1,000 MW Bhakra Dam, the 1,000 MW Karcham Wangtoo Hydroelectric Plant, and the 1,530 MW Nathpa Jhakri Dam. The river basin area in India is located in Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Jammu and Kashmir, Rajasthan and Haryana states.
Suzerainty (and) is a back-formation from the late 18th-century word suzerain, meaning upper-sovereign, derived from the French sus (meaning above) + -erain (from souverain, meaning sovereign).
The Swadeshi movement, part of the Indian independence movement and the developing Indian nationalism, was an economic strategy aimed at removing the British Empire from power and improving economic conditions in India by following the principles of swadeshi and which had some success.
Tamas (lit. Darkness) is a 1988 period television film written and directed by Govind Nihalani.
Master Tara Singh (24 June 1885, in Rawalpindi, Punjab – 22 November 1967, in Chandigarh) was a prominent Sikh political and religious leader in the first half of the 20th century.
A tehsil (also known as a mandal, taluk, taluq or taluka) is an administrative division of some countries of South Asia.
Tharparkar District (ضلعو ٿرپارڪر, (ضِلع تھرپارکر), is one of the twenty nine districts of Sindh province in Pakistan. It is largest district of Sindh province by land area. It is headquartered at Mithi. It has the lowest Human Development Index of all the districts in Sindh. Thar has a fertile desert and the livelihood of Thari people depends on rainfall agriculture. Tharparkar has the only fertile desert in the world.
The 1947 Partition Archive is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit oral history organization in Berkeley, California and a registered trust in Delhi, India, that collects, preserves and shares firsthand accounts of the Partition of India in 1947.
The Best of the Booker is a special prize awarded in commemoration of the Booker Prize's 40th anniversary.
The Crown is the state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth realms and their sub-divisions (such as Crown dependencies, provinces, or states).
The Express Tribune is a major daily English-language newspaper based in Pakistan.
The Hindu is an Indian daily newspaper, headquartered at Chennai.
The Times of India (TOI) is an Indian English-language daily newspaper owned by The Times Group.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
"Toba Tek Singh" (ٹوبہ ٹیک سنگھ ALA-LC) is a short story written by Saadat Hasan Manto and published in 1955.
Train to Pakistan is a historical novel by Khushwant Singh, published in 1956.
Train to Pakistan is a 1998 Indian Hindi film adapted from Khushwant Singh's 1956 classic novel by the same name set in the Partition of India of 1947 and directed by Pamela Rooks.
In law, treason is the crime that covers some of the more extreme acts against one's nation or sovereign.
Tripura 'ত্রিপুরা (Bengali)' is a state in Northeast India.
The two-nation theory is the basis of the creation of Pakistan.
Umarkot (عُمَركوٹ, عمرڪوٽ), formerly known as Amarkot (امَرکوٹ), is a town in Umarkot District in the Sindh province of Pakistan.
The Unionist Party was a political party based in the Punjab Province during the period of British rule in India.
The United Provinces of Agra and Oudh was a province of India under the British Raj, which existed from 1902 to 1947; the official name was shortened by the Government of India Act 1935 to United Provinces (UP), by which the province had been commonly known, and by which name it was also a province of independent India until 1950.
The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public research university in Berkeley, California.
The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) is a public research university in the Westwood district of Los Angeles, United States.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
Urvashi Butalia (born 1952) is an Indian feminist and publisher.
Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Patel (31 October 1875 – 15 December 1950), popularly known as Sardar Patel, was the first Deputy Prime Minister of India.
Vande Mataram (IAST) (English Translation: Mother, I bow to thee) is a Bengali poem written by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee in 1870s, which he included in his 1881 novel Anandamath.
A viceroy is a regal official who runs a country, colony, city, province, or sub-national state, in the name of and as the representative of the monarch of the territory.
Viceroy's House is a 2017 British-Indian historical drama film directed by Gurinder Chadha and written by Paul Mayeda Berges, Moira Buffini, and Chadha.
Victor Alexander John Hope, 2nd Marquess of Linlithgow, (24 September 18875 January 1952) was a British Unionist politician, agriculturalist and colonial administrator.
Religious violence in India includes targeted violence against Muslims.
A viral video is a video that becomes popular through a viral process of Internet sharing, typically through video sharing websites, social media and email.
West Bengal (Paśchimbāṅga) is an Indian state, located in Eastern India on the Bay of Bengal.
West Pakistan (مغربی پاکستان,; পশ্চিম পাকিস্তান) was one of the two exclaves created at the formation of the modern State of Pakistan following the 1947 Partition of India.
West Punjab was a province of Pakistan from 1947 to 1955.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
The 1920 Summer Olympics (Les Jeux olympiques d'été de 1920; Olympische Zomerspelen van de VIIe Olympiade), officially known as the Games of the VII Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event in 1920 in Antwerp, Belgium.
Communal riots occurred in Bihar from 24 October to 11 November 1946, in which Hindu mobs targeted Muslim families.
The United Kingdom Cabinet Mission of 1946 to India aimed to discuss the transfer of power from the British government to the Indian leadership, with the aim of preserving India's unity and granting it independence.
The Barisal Riots of 1950 or simply the 1950 riots (পঞ্চাশের গণহত্যা) refers to the rioting between Bengali Hindus and Bengali Muslims, the Pakistani police and the para-military accompanied by arson, loot, rape and abduction in the months of February and March 1950.
The 1964 East Pakistan Riots refer to the massacre and ethnic cleansing of Bengali Hindus from East Pakistan in the wake of an alleged theft of what was believed to be the Prophet's hair from the Hazratbal shrine in Jammu and Kashmir in India.
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