170 relations: Abdication, Administrative division of Polish–Lithuanian territories after Partitions, Administrative division of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Alexander Pushkin, Allies of World War I, Ambassadors and envoys from Russia to Poland (1763–1794), Annexation, Austria-Hungary, Austrian Empire, Austrian Partition, Balance of power (international relations), Baltic Sea, Bar Confederation, Bar, Vinnytsia Oblast, Belarus, Belarusians, Bishop, Bochnia, Cardinal Laws, Catherine the Great, Central Powers, Client state, Coat of arms of Poland, Congress of Vienna, Congress Poland, Constitution of 3 May 1791, Cossacks, Częstochowa, Denis Fonvizin, Duchy of Warsaw, Eastern Catholic Churches, Eastern Orthodox Church, Edmund Burke, Encyclopædia Britannica, Federalist No. 14, Federalist No. 19, Federalist No. 22, Federalist No. 39, First Partition of Poland, For our freedom and yours, Frederick the Great, Free City of Cracow, Galicia (Eastern Europe), Gavrila Derzhavin, Gdańsk, German Empire, Germanisation of Poles during the Partitions, Golden Liberty, Grand Duchy of Posen, Great Emigration, ..., Greater Poland, Grodno, Grodno Sejm, Habsburg Monarchy, Hajo Holborn, Heinrich Bernhard Oppenheim, Hungarian Revolution of 1848, Hungary, Il Canto degli Italiani, International law, Jacobin (politics), January Uprising, Józef Andrzej Załuski, Jules Michelet, Kaluga, Kievan Rus', Kingdom of Poland (1917–1918), Kingdom of Prussia, Kościuszko Uprising, Koliyivshchyna, Kraków, Kraków uprising, Kuyavia, Latvia, Lesser Poland, Liberum veto, List of Polish monarchs, Lithuania, Livonia, Lublin, Magnate, Margraviate of Brandenburg, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Maria Theresa, Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Mstsislaw, Napoleon, Napoleonic era, Napoleonic Wars, Nazi Germany, Netze District, New East Prussia, New Silesia, Nicholas Repnin, Nikolay Karamzin, Norman Davies, Noteć, November Uprising, Nowy Sącz, Nowy Targ, Oświęcim, Occupation of Poland (1939–1945), Organic Statute of the Kingdom of Poland, Ottoman Empire, Partition (politics), Partition Sejm, Paul W. Schroeder, Poland, Polish diaspora, Polish Legions (Napoleonic period), Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Polish–Prussian alliance, Polish–Russian War of 1792, Polotsk, Poznań, Prussia, Prussian Partition, Puppet state, Repnin Sejm, Revolutions of 1848, Robert Phillimore, Romanticism in Poland, Royal Prussia, Rurik dynasty, Russian Empire, Russian Enlightenment, Russian Partition, Russian Revolution, Russification, Ruthenians, Rzeczpospolita, Saint Petersburg, Salt mining, Sandomierz, Sarmatian Review, Satellite state, Second Partition of Poland, Sejm, Serfdom, Sergey Solovyov, Seven Years' War, South Prussia, Soviet Union, Spiš, Stanisław August Poniatowski, Szlachta, Targowica Confederation, The Federalist Papers, Third Partition of Poland, Thomas Babington Macaulay, Three Emperors' Corner, Toponymy, Toruń, Treaty of the Three Black Eagles, Treaty of Versailles, Tsar, Tyniec, Ukraine, Ukrainians, United States Constitution, Vassal state, Vienna, Vilnius, Vitebsk, Warmia, Warsaw, Władysław IV Vasa, Wenzel Anton, Prince of Kaunitz-Rietberg, Wieliczka, Zator. Expand index (120 more) » « Shrink index
Abdication is the act of formally relinquishing monarchical authority.
The three consecutive partitions of Poland carried out in the late 18th century by the Austrian, Prussian and the Russian empires, between 1772 and 1795, resulted in the complete disappearance of sovereign Poland from the map of Europe until the end of World War One in 1918.
The administrative division of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was the result of the long and complicated history of the fragmentation of the Polish Kingdom and the union of Poland and Lithuania.
Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin (a) was a Russian poet, playwright, and novelist of the Romantic eraBasker, Michael.
The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.
Ambassadors and envoys from Russia to Poland–Lithuania in the years 1763–1794 were among the most important characters in the politics of Poland.
Annexation (Latin ad, to, and nexus, joining) is the administrative action and concept in international law relating to the forcible transition of one state's territory by another state.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
The Austrian Empire (Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling Kaisertum Österreich) was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1919, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs.
The Austrian Partition (zabór austriacki) comprise the former territories of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth acquired by the Habsburg Monarchy during the Partitions of Poland in the late 18th century.
The balance of power theory in international relations suggests that national security is enhanced when military capability is distributed so that no one state is strong enough to dominate all others.
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
The Bar Confederation (Konfederacja barska; 1768–1772) was an association of Polish nobles (szlachta) formed at the fortress of Bar in Podolia in 1768 to defend the internal and external independence of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth against Russian influence and against King Stanisław II Augustus with Polish reformers, who were attempting to limit the power of the Commonwealth's wealthy magnates.
Bar (Бар; Bar; Barium; Βάρ; Bar; Бар) is a town located on the Riv River in the Vinnytsia Oblast (province) of central Ukraine.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
Belarusians (беларусы, biełarusy, or Byelorussians (from the Byelorussian SSR), are an East Slavic ethnic group who are native to modern-day Belarus and the immediate region. There are over 9.5 million people who proclaim Belarusian ethnicity worldwide, with the overwhelming majority residing either in Belarus or the adjacent countries where they are an autochthonous minority.
A bishop (English derivation from the New Testament of the Christian Bible Greek επίσκοπος, epískopos, "overseer", "guardian") is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight.
Bochnia (German: Salzberg) is a town of 30,000 inhabitants on the river Raba in southern Poland.
The Cardinal Laws (Prawa kardynalne) were a quasi-constitution enacted in Warsaw, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, by the Repnin Sejm of 1767–68.
Catherine II (Russian: Екатерина Алексеевна Yekaterina Alekseyevna; –), also known as Catherine the Great (Екатери́на Вели́кая, Yekaterina Velikaya), born Princess Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst, was Empress of Russia from 1762 until 1796, the country's longest-ruling female leader.
The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri / Bağlaşma Devletleri; translit), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).
A client state is a state that is economically, politically, or militarily subordinate to another more powerful state in international affairs.
The coat of arms of Poland is a white, crowned eagle with a golden beak and talons, on a red background.
The Congress of Vienna (Wiener Kongress) also called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814.
The Kingdom of Poland, informally known as Congress Poland or Russian Poland, was created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna as a sovereign state of the Russian part of Poland connected by personal union with the Russian Empire under the Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland until 1832.
The Constitution of 3 May 1791 (Konstytucja 3 Maja, Gegužės trečiosios konstitucija) was adopted by the Great Sejm (parliament) of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, a dual monarchy comprising the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
Cossacks (козаки́, translit, kozaky, казакi, kozacy, Czecho-Slovak: kozáci, kozákok Pronunciations.
Częstochowa,, is a city in southern Poland on the Warta River with 240,027 inhabitants as of June 2009.
Denis Ivanovich Fonvizin (Дени́с Ива́нович Фонви́зин, from von Wiesen) was a playwright of the Russian Enlightenment, whose plays are still staged today.
The Duchy of Warsaw (Księstwo Warszawskie, Duché de Varsovie, Herzogtum Warschau) was a Polish state established by Napoleon I in 1807 from the Polish lands ceded by the Kingdom of Prussia under the terms of the Treaties of Tilsit.
The Eastern Catholic Churches or Oriental Catholic Churches, also called the Eastern-rite Catholic Churches, and in some historical cases Uniate Churches, are twenty-three Eastern Christian particular churches sui iuris in full communion with the Pope in Rome, as part of the worldwide Catholic Church.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Edmund Burke (12 January 17309 July 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman born in Dublin, as well as an author, orator, political theorist and philosopher, who after moving to London in 1750 served as a member of parliament (MP) between 1766 and 1794 in the House of Commons with the Whig Party.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
The First Partition of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth took place in 1772 as the first of three partitions that ended the existence of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth by 1795.
For our freedom and yours (Za naszą i waszą wolność) is one of the unofficial mottos of Poland.
Frederick II (Friedrich; 24 January 171217 August 1786) was King of Prussia from 1740 until 1786, the longest reign of any Hohenzollern king.
The Free, Independent, and Strictly Neutral City of CracowThe Polish variant of Kraków is occasionally retroactively applied in English to the historical Free City.
Galicia (Ukrainian and Галичина, Halyčyna; Galicja; Czech and Halič; Galizien; Galícia/Kaliz/Gácsország/Halics; Galiția/Halici; Галиция, Galicija; גאַליציע Galitsiye) is a historical and geographic region in Central Europe once a small Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia and later a crown land of Austria-Hungary, the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, that straddled the modern-day border between Poland and Ukraine.
Gavriil (Gavrila) Romanovich Derzhavin (a; 14 July 1743 – 20 July 1816) was one of the most highly esteemed Russian poets before Alexander Pushkin, as well as a statesman.
Gdańsk (Danzig) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
After partitioning Poland in the end of 18th century, the Kingdom of Prussia and later German Empire imposed a number of Germanisation policies and measures in the newly gained territories, aimed at limiting the Polish ethnic presence in these areas.
Golden Liberty (Aurea Libertas; Złota Wolność, Auksinė laisvė), sometimes referred to as Golden Freedoms, Nobles' Democracy or Nobles' Commonwealth (Szlachecka or Złota wolność szlachecka, aureă lībertās) was a political system in the Kingdom of Poland and, after the Union of Lublin (1569), in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The Grand Duchy of Posen (Großherzogtum Posen; Wielkie Księstwo Poznańskie) was part of the Kingdom of Prussia, created from territories annexed by Prussia after the Partitions of Poland, and formally established following the Napoleonic Wars in 1815.
The Great Emigration (Wielka Emigracja) involved the emigration of thousands of Poles, particularly from the political and cultural elites, from 1831 to 1870, after the failure of the November Uprising and of other uprisings (1846, 1863).
Greater Poland, often known by its Polish name Wielkopolska (Großpolen; Latin: Polonia Maior), is a historical region of west-central Poland.
Grodno or Hrodna (Гродна, Hrodna; ˈɡrodnə, see also other names) is a city in western Belarus.
Grodno Sejm (Sejm grodzieński; Гарадзенскі сойм; Gardino seimas) was the last Sejm (session of parliament) of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The Habsburg Monarchy (Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.
Hajo Holborn (18 May 1902, Berlin – 20 June 1969, Bonn) was a German-American historian and specialist in modern German history.
Heinrich Bernhard Oppenheim (July 20, 1819 in Frankfurt – March 29, 1880 in Berlin) was a German publicist and philosopher concerned with the ideas of liberalism, free trade and international law.
The Hungarian Revolution of 1848 ("1848–49 Revolution and War") was one of the many European Revolutions of 1848 and closely linked to other revolutions of 1848 in the Habsburg areas.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
"Il Canto degli Italiani" ("The Song of the Italians" or "The Chant of the Italians") is the national anthem of Italy.
International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.
A Jacobin was a member of the Jacobin Club, a revolutionary political movement that was the most famous political club during the French Revolution (1789–99).
The January Uprising (Polish: powstanie styczniowe, Lithuanian: 1863 m. sukilimas, Belarusian: Паўстанне 1863-1864 гадоў, Польське повстання) was an insurrection instigated principally in the Russian Partition of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth against its occupation by the Russian Empire.
Józef Andrzej Załuski (12 January 17029 January 1774) was a Polish Catholic priest, Bishop of Kiev, a sponsor of learning and culture, and a renowned bibliophile.
Jules Michelet (21 August 1798 – 9 February 1874) was a French historian.
Kaluga (p) is a city and the administrative center of Kaluga Oblast, Russia, located on the Oka River southwest of Moscow.
Kievan Rus' (Рѹ́сь, Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia) was a loose federationJohn Channon & Robert Hudson, Penguin Historical Atlas of Russia (Penguin, 1995), p.16.
The Kingdom of Poland (Królestwo Polskie), also known informally as the Regency Kingdom of Poland (Królestwo Regencyjne), was a proposed puppet state of the German Empire during World War I.The Regency Kingdom has been referred to as a puppet state by Norman Davies in Europe: A history; by Jerzy Lukowski and Hubert Zawadzki in A Concise History of Poland; by Piotr J. Wroblel in Chronology of Polish History and Nation and History; and by Raymond Leslie Buell in Poland: Key to Europe ("The Polish Kingdom... was merely a pawn ").
The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.
The Kościuszko Uprising was an uprising against Imperial Russia and the Kingdom of Prussia led by Tadeusz Kościuszko in the Commonwealth of Poland and the Prussian partition in 1794.
Koliyivshchyna (Коліївщина, koliszczyzna) was a major haidamaka rebellion that broke out in Right-bank Ukraine in June 1768, caused by the dissatisfaction of the peasants because of the serfdom oppression, the anti-nobility and anti-Polish moods among the Cossacks and peasants.
Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.
The Kraków Uprising of February 1846 was an attempt, led by Polish insurgents such as Jan Tyssowski and Edward Dembowski, to incite a fight for national independence.
Kuyavia (Kujawy, Kujawien, Cuiavia), also referred to as Cuyavia, is a historical region in north-central Poland, situated on the left bank of Vistula, as well as east from Noteć River and Lake Gopło.
Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
Lesser Poland (Polish: Małopolska, Latin: Polonia Minor) is a historical region (dzielnica) of Poland; its capital is the city of Kraków.
The liberum veto (Latin for "free veto") was a parliamentary device in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Poland was ruled at various times either by dukes (the 10th–14th century) or by kings (the 11th-18th century).
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
Livonia (Līvõmō, Liivimaa, German and Scandinavian languages: Livland, Latvian and Livonija, Inflanty, archaic English Livland, Liwlandia; Liflyandiya) is a historical region on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea.
Lublin (Lublinum) is the ninth largest city in Poland and the second largest city of Lesser Poland.
Magnate, from the Late Latin magnas, a great man, itself from Latin magnus, 'great', designates a noble or other man in a high social position, by birth, wealth or other qualities.
The Margraviate of Brandenburg (Markgrafschaft Brandenburg) was a major principality of the Holy Roman Empire from 1157 to 1806 that played a pivotal role in the history of Germany and Central Europe.
Maria Curie-Skłodowska University (Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej, UMCS) was founded October 23, 1944 in Lublin.
Maria Theresa Walburga Amalia Christina (Maria Theresia; 13 May 1717 – 29 November 1780) was the only female ruler of the Habsburg dominions and the last of the House of Habsburg.
The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, also known as the Nazi–Soviet Pact,Charles Peters (2005), Five Days in Philadelphia: The Amazing "We Want Willkie!" Convention of 1940 and How It Freed FDR to Save the Western World, New York: PublicAffairs, Ch.
Mstislaw or Mstislavl (Мсці́слаў, Mscisłaŭ, Мстиславль, Mścisław, Mstislavlis) is a town in Mogilev Region, Eastern Belarus.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Napoleonic era is a period in the history of France and Europe.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The Netze District or District of the Netze (Netzedistrikt or Netze-Distrikt; Obwód Nadnotecki) was a territory in the Kingdom of Prussia from 1772 until 1807.
New East Prussia (Neuostpreußen; Prusy Nowowschodnie; Naujieji Rytprūsiai) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1795 to 1807.
New Silesia (Neuschlesien or Neu-Schlesien) was a small province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1795 to 1807, created after the Third Partition of Poland.
Prince Nikolai Vasilyevich Repnin (Никола́й Васи́льевич Репни́н; –) was an Imperial Russian statesman and general from the Repnin princely family who played a key role in the dissolution of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Nikolay Mikhailovich Karamzin (p) was a Russian writer, poet, historian and critic.
Ivor Norman Richard Davies (born 8 June 1939) is a British-Polish historian noted for his publications on the history of Europe, Poland and the United Kingdom.
Noteć is a river in central Poland with a length of (7th longest) and a basin area of.
The November Uprising (1830–31), also known as the Polish–Russian War 1830–31 or the Cadet Revolution, was an armed rebellion in the heartland of partitioned Poland against the Russian Empire.
Nowy Sącz is a city in the Lesser Poland Voivodeship of southern Poland.
Nowy Targ (Novum Forum, Nový Targ, Neumarkt, ניימארקט Naymarkt) is a town in southern Poland with 34,000 inhabitants (2006).
Oświęcim (Auschwitz; אָשפּיצין Oshpitzin) is a town in the Lesser Poland (Małopolska) province of southern Poland, situated west of Cracow, near the confluence of the Vistula (Wisła) and Soła rivers.
The occupation of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union during the Second World War (1939–1945) began with the German-Soviet invasion of Poland in September 1939, and it was formally concluded with the defeat of Germany by the Allies in May 1945.
The Organic Statute of the Kingdom of Poland (Statut Organiczny dla Królestwa Polskiego) was a statute which replaced the Constitution of 1815 in the aftermath of the failed November Uprising in the Russian Partition of Poland.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
In politics, a partition is a change of political borders cutting through at least one territory considered a homeland by some community.
The Partition Sejm (Sejm Rozbiorowy) was a Sejm lasting from 1773 to 1775 in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, convened by its three neighbours (the Russian Empire, Prussia and Austria) in order to legalize their First Partition of Poland.
Paul W. Schroeder (born February 23, 1927)International Who's Who 2000, Vol.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
The Polish diaspora refers to Poles who live outside Poland.
The Polish Legions (Legiony Polskie we Włoszech; also known as the Dąbrowski Legions) in the Napoleonic period, were several Polish military units that served with the French Army, mainly from 1797 to 1803, although some units continued to serve until 1815.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
The Polish–Lithuanian and Prussian alliance was a mutual defense alliance signed on 29 March 1790 in Warsaw between representatives of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Kingdom of Prussia.
The Polish–Russian War of 1792 (also, War of the Second Partition, and in Polish sources, War in Defence of the Constitution (wojna w obronie Konstytucji 3 maja)) was fought between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth on one side, and the Targowica Confederation (conservative nobility of the Commonwealth opposed to the new Constitution of 3 May 1791) and the Russian Empire under Catherine the Great on the other.
Polack (official transliteration), Polotsk or Polatsk (translit, translit, Połock, Polockas, Polotsk) is a historical city in Belarus, situated on the Dvina River.
Poznań (Posen; known also by other historical names) is a city on the Warta River in west-central Poland, in the Greater Poland region.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
The Prussian Partition (Zabór pruski), or Prussian Poland, refers to the former territories of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth acquired during the Partitions of Poland, in the late 18th century by the Kingdom of Prussia.
A puppet state is a state that is supposedly independent but is in fact dependent upon an outside power.
The Repnin Sejm (Sejm Repninowski) was a Sejm (session of the parliament) of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place between 1767 and 1768 in Warsaw.
The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations, People's Spring, Springtime of the Peoples, or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848.
Sir Robert Joseph Phillimore, 1st Baronet (5 November 1810 – 4 February 1885), was an English judge and politician.
Romanticism in Poland, a literary, artistic and intellectual period in the evolution of Polish culture, began around 1820, coinciding with the publication of Adam Mickiewicz's first poems in 1822.
Royal Prussia (Prusy Królewskie; Königlich-Preußen or Preußen Königlichen Anteils, Królewsczé Prësë) or Polish PrussiaAnton Friedrich Büsching, Patrick Murdoch.
The Rurik dynasty, or Rurikids (Рю́риковичи, Ryúrikovichi; Рю́риковичі, Ryúrykovychi; Ру́рыкавічы, Rúrykavichi, literally "sons of Rurik"), was a dynasty founded by the Varangian prince Rurik, who established himself in Novgorod around the year AD 862.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russian Age of Enlightenment was a period in the 18th century in which the government began to actively encourage the proliferation of arts and sciences, which had a profound impact on Russian culture.
The Russian Partition (sometimes called Russian Poland) constituted the former territories of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that were invaded by the Russian Empire in the course of late-18th-century Partitions of Poland.
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
Russification (Русификация), or Russianization, is a form of cultural assimilation process during which non-Russian communities, voluntarily or not, give up their culture and language in favor of the Russian one.
Ruthenians and Ruthenes are Latin exonyms which were used in Western Europe for the ancestors of modern East Slavic peoples, Rus' people with Ruthenian Greek Catholic religious background and Orthodox believers which lived outside the Rus'.
Rzeczpospolita Polska is a traditional and official name of the Polish State – Rzeczpospolita Polska (Res Publica Poloniae, Republic of Poland).
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
A salt mine is a mine from which halite, commonly known as rock salt, is extracted from evaporite formations.
Sandomierz (pronounced:; Tsoizmer צויזמער) is a town in south-eastern Poland with 25,714 inhabitants (2006), situated in the Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship (since 1999).
Sarmatian Review is an English language peer reviewed academic journal on Slavistics, which is the study of culture, history, and societies of Slavic nations (located in Central, Eastern and Southern Europe) published by the Polish Institute of Houston at Rice University three times a year in January, April, and September.
The term satellite state designates a country that is formally independent in the world, but under heavy political, economic and military influence or control from another country.
The 1793 Second Partition of Poland was the second of three partitions (or partial annexations) that ended the existence of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth by 1795.
The Sejm of the Republic of Poland (Sejm Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej) is the lower house of the Polish parliament.
Serfdom is the status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism.
Sergey Mikhaylovich Solovyov (Soloviev, Solovyev; Серге́й Миха́йлович Соловьёв) (in Moscow –, in Moscow) was one of the greatest Russian historians whose influence on the next generation of Russian historians (Vasily Klyuchevsky, Dmitry Ilovaisky, Sergey Platonov) was paramount.
The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763.
South Prussia (Südpreußen; Prusy Południowe) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1793 to 1807.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spiš (Latin: Cips/Zepus/Scepus, Zips, Szepesség, Spisz) is a region in north-eastern Slovakia, with a very small area in south-eastern Poland (14 villages).
Stanisław II Augustus (also Stanisław August Poniatowski; born Stanisław Antoni Poniatowski; 17 January 1732 – 12 February 1798), who reigned as King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1764 to 1795, was the last monarch of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The szlachta (exonym: Nobility) was a legally privileged noble class in the Kingdom of Poland, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Ruthenia, Samogitia (both after Union of Lublin became a single state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth) and the Zaporozhian Host.
The Targowica Confederation (konfederacja targowicka,, Targovicos konfederacija) was a confederation established by Polish and Lithuanian magnates on 27 April 1792, in Saint Petersburg, with the backing of the Russian Empress Catherine II.
The Federalist (later known as The Federalist Papers) is a collection of 85 articles and essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay under the pseudonym "Publius" to promote the ratification of the United States Constitution.
The Third Partition of Poland (1795) was the last in a series of the Partitions of Poland and the land of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth among Prussia, the Austrian Empire, and the Russian Empire which effectively ended Polish–Lithuanian national sovereignty until 1918.
Thomas Babington Macaulay, 1st Baron Macaulay, FRS FRSE PC (25 October 1800 – 28 December 1859) was a British historian and Whig politician.
Three Emperors' Corner (Trójkąt Trzech Cesarzy, Dreikaisereck, Угол трёх императоров) is a former tripoint at the confluence of the Black and White Przemsza rivers, near the towns of Mysłowice, Sosnowiec and Jaworzno in the present-day Silesian Voivodeship of Poland.
Toponymy is the study of place names (toponyms), their origins, meanings, use, and typology.
Toruń (Thorn) is a city in northern Poland, on the Vistula River.
The Treaty of the Three Black Eagles (because all three signatories used a black eagle as a state symbol, in contrast to the white eagle, a symbol of Poland) or the Treaty of Berlin (where it was signed by Prussia), was a secret treaty between the Austrian Empire, the Russian Empire and Prussia.
The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end.
Tsar (Old Bulgarian / Old Church Slavonic: ц︢рь or цар, цaрь), also spelled csar, or czar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe.
Tyniec is a historic village in Poland on the Vistula river, since 1973 a part of the city of Kraków (currently in the district of Dębniki).
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
Ukrainians (українці, ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe.
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.
A vassal state is any state that is subordinate to another.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
Vilnius (see also other names) is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 574,221.
Vitebsk, or Vitsebsk (Ві́цебск, Łacinka: Viciebsk,; Витебск,, Vitebskas), is a city in Belarus.
Warmia (Warmia, Latin: Varmia,, Old Prussian: Wārmi, Varmė) is a historical region in northern Poland.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
Władysław IV Vasa (Władysław IV Waza; Vladislovas Vaza; r; Vladislaus IV Vasa or Ladislaus IV Vasa; 9 June 1595 – 20 May 1648) was a Polish prince from the Royal House of Vasa.
Wenzel Anton, Prince of Kaunitz-Rietberg (Wenzel Anton Fürst von Kaunitz-Rietberg, Václav Antonín z Kounic a Rietbergu; 2 February 1711 – 27 June 1794) was an Austrian and Czech diplomat and statesman in the Habsburg Monarchy.
Wieliczka (German: Groß Salze) is a town (2006 population: 19,128) in southern Poland in the Kraków metropolitan area, and situated (since 1999) in Lesser Poland Voivodeship; previously, it was in Kraków Voivodeship (1975–1998).
Zator (Neuenstadt an der Schaue, Wymysorys: Naojśtaod) is an old town on the Skawa river within Oświęcim County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship (since 1999) in southern Poland.
Fourth Partition, Partition of Poland, Partition of poland, Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Partitions of Lithuanian - Polish commonwealth, Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Partitions of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Partitions of poland, Partitions of the Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth, Partitions of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Polish Partitions, Polish partition, The Partitions of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.