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Index Pashto

Pashto (پښتو Pax̌tō), sometimes spelled Pukhto, is the language of the Pashtuns. [1]

179 relations: Abdul Hai Habibi, Academy of Sciences of Afghanistan, Adjective, Adpositional phrase, Affricate consonant, Afghan National Anthem, Afghan proverbs, Afghanistan, Afridi Pashto, Ahmad Shah Durrani, Amanullah Khan, Amir Kror Suri, Anthology, Approximant consonant, Arabic script, Ariana, Aspirated consonant, Attock District, Australia, Austronesian languages, Avestan, Baburnama, Back vowel, Bactrian language, Balochistan, Pakistan, Barech, British Council, British Empire, Canada, Central Asia, Central Pashto, Central vowel, Close back rounded vowel, Close vowel, Constitution of Afghanistan, Dari language, David Neil MacKenzie, Decree, Demographics of Afghanistan, Denti-alveolar consonant, Durrani Empire, Eastern Iranian languages, Education in Pakistan, English language, Ergative–absolutive language, Ethnologue, First language, Formality, French language, Fricative consonant, ..., Front vowel, Georg Morgenstierne, German language, Germany, Ghor Province, Glottal consonant, Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Government of Pakistan, Grammatical case, Grammatical gender, Grammatical number, Greek language, Habibullāh Kalakāni, Hafiz Rahmat Khan Barech, Henry George Raverty, Herbert Penzl, Hindi, Hindustani language, History of India, Hotak dynasty, Hyderabad, Sindh, India, Indo-European languages, Indo-Iranian languages, Indus River, Inflection, Institute for Comparative Research in Human Culture, Iran, Iranian languages, Islamabad, James Darmesteter, Japan, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Kabul University, Kandahar, Kanishka, Karachi, Khushal Khattak, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Kurdish grammar, Labial consonant, Labialization, Languages of Afghanistan, Languages of Pakistan, Linguistic purism, List of heads of state of Afghanistan, Louis Dupree (professor), Maidan Wardak Province, Manuscript, Mianwali District, Mid vowel, Middle East, Mohammed Nadir Shah, Mohammed Zahir Shah, Nasal consonant, Naskh (script), Nastaʿlīq script, National language, Nationalencyklopedin, Nazo Tokhi, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicholas Sims-Williams, Northern Pashto, Noun, Official language, Open vowel, Oral literature, Packard Humanities Institute, Pakistan, Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, Palatal consonant, Palatal fricative, Pashto Academy, Pashto alphabet, Pashto dialects, Pashtun diaspora, Pashtun tribes, Pashtunistan, Pashtuns, Pata Khazana, Persian alphabet, Persian language, Pir Roshan, Postalveolar consonant, Prakrit, Pre-Islamic scripts in Afghanistan, Punjab, Pakistan, Qaen, Qatar, Rabatak inscription, Rahman Baba, Retroflex approximant, Retroflex consonant, Retroflex lateral flap, Rhotic consonant, Romance languages, Russia, Saudi Arabia, SIL International, Sindh, South Asia, South Khorasan Province, Southern Pashto, Spanish language, Split ergativity, Stop consonant, Strabo, Subject–object–verb, Subjunctive mood, Sweden, Tajikistan, Thailand, The Times of India, Third Anglo-Afghan War, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, University of California, Los Angeles, University of Michigan, Urdu, Urdu alphabet, Uvular consonant, Velar consonant, Verb, Voiced palatal fricative, Wanetsi, Wazir dialect, 1964 Constitution of Afghanistan. Expand index (129 more) »

Abdul Hai Habibi

Abdul Hai Habibi (عبدالحى حبيبي, عبدالحی حبیبی) – ʿAbd' ul-Ḥay Ḥabībi) (1910 – 9 May 1984) was a prominent Afghan historian for much of his lifetime as well as a member of the National Assembly of Afghanistan (Afghan Parliament) during the reign of King Zahir Shah. A Pashtun nationalist from Kakar tribe of Kandahar, Afghanistan, he began as a young teacher who made his way up to become a writer, scholar, politician and Dean of Faculty of Literature at Kabul University. He is the author of over 100 books but is best known for editing Pata Khazana, an "old" Pashto language manuscript that he claimed to have "discovered" in 1944; the academic community, however, does not acknowledge the manuscript as genuine.

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Academy of Sciences of Afghanistan

Academy of Sciences of Afghanistan (ASA) is the official government agency of Afghanistan that regulates the Pashto and Dari Persian languages spoken in Afghanistan.

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In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.

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Adpositional phrase

An adpositional phrase, in linguistics, is a syntactic category that includes prepositional phrases, postpositional phrases, and circumpositional phrases.

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Affricate consonant

An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).

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Afghan National Anthem

The "Afghan National Anthem" (ملی سرود - Milli Sorud; سرود ملی - Sorude Melli, literally "National anthem") was adopted and officially announced as such by a Loya Jirga in May 2006.

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Afghan proverbs

Across Afghanistan, proverbs are a valued part of speaking, both publicly and in conversations.

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Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.

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Afridi Pashto

Afridi or Apridi Pashto (افريدی، اپريدی afrīdī/aprīdī) is a Northern Karlani dialect of the Pashto language that is widespread among the representatives of the Afridis kin.

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Ahmad Shah Durrani

Ahmad Shāh Durrānī (c. 1722 – 16 October 1772) (Pashto: احمد شاه دراني), also known as Ahmad Khān Abdālī (احمد خان ابدالي), was the founder of the Durrani Empire and is regarded as the founder of the modern state of Afghanistan.

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Amanullah Khan

Amānullāh Khān (امان الله خان) was the sovereign of the Kingdom of Afghanistan from 1919 to 1929, first as Emir and after 1926 as Malik (King).

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Amir Kror Suri

Amīr Krōṛ Sūrī (امير کروړ سوري), also known as Jahan Pahlawan, is a legendary character in Pashtun national history and is claimed to have become the governor of Mandesh in Ghor.

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In book publishing, an anthology is a collection of literary works chosen by the compiler.

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Approximant consonant

Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.

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Arabic script

The Arabic script is the writing system used for writing Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Azerbaijani, Pashto, Persian, Kurdish, Lurish, Urdu, Mandinka, and others.

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Ariana, the Latinized form of the Ancient Greek Ἀρ(ε)ιανή Ar(e)ianē (inhabitants: Ariani; Ἀρ(ε)ιανοί Ar(e)ianoi), was a general geographical term used by some Greek and Roman authors of the ancient period for a district of wide extent between Central Asia and the Indus River, compromising the eastern provinces of the Achaemenid Empire that covered the whole of modern-day Afghanistan, as well as the easternmost part of Iran and up to the Indus River in Pakistan (former Northern India).

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Aspirated consonant

In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.

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Attock District

Attock District (ضِلع اٹک) is a district in Pothohar Plateau of the Punjab Province of Pakistan.

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Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Austronesian languages

The Austronesian languages are a language family that is widely dispersed throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, with a few members in continental Asia.

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Avestan, also known historically as Zend, is a language known only from its use as the language of Zoroastrian scripture (the Avesta), from which it derives its name.

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Bāburnāma (Chagatai/بابر نامہ;´, literally: "Book of Babur" or "Letters of Babur"; alternatively known as Tuzk-e Babri) is the name given to the memoirs of Ẓahīr-ud-Dīn Muhammad Bābur (1483–1530), founder of the Mughal Empire and a great-great-great-grandson of Timur.

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Back vowel

A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.

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Bactrian language

Bactrian (Αριαο, Aryao, arjaːu̯ɔ) is an Iranian language which was spoken in the Central Asian region of Bactria (present-day Afghanistan and Tajikistan) and used as the official language of the Kushan and the Hephthalite empires.

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Balochistan, Pakistan

Balochistan (bəloːt͡ʃɪs't̪ɑːn) (بلوچِستان), is one of the five provinces of Pakistan.

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Barech (also Baraich, Bareach, Barreach) is a Pashtun tribe indigenous to southern Kandahar province of Afghanistan and in Quetta, Pakistan.

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British Council

The British Council is a British organisation specialising in international cultural and educational opportunities.

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British Empire

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.

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Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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Central Asia

Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.

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Central Pashto

Central Pashto (منځنۍ پښتو manźanəi pax̌to) is the standardized variety of Pashto which serves as a prestige Pashto dialect, and is based on the Ghilji dialect, spoken in the central Ghilji region, which covers the eastern Afghan region of Paktika, northern Zabul, southern Ghazni, Kabul (including Afghan capital Kabul) and some surrounding region.

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Central vowel

A central vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.

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Close back rounded vowel

The close back rounded vowel, or high back rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.

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Close vowel

A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.

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Constitution of Afghanistan

The Constitution of Afghanistan is the supreme law of the state of Afghanistan, which serves as the legal framework between the Afghan government and the Afghan citizens.

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Dari language

Darī (دری) or Dari Persian (فارسی دری Fārsī-ye Darī) or synonymously Farsi (فارسی Fārsī) is the variety of the Persian language spoken in Afghanistan.

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David Neil MacKenzie

David Neil MacKenzie FBA (8 April 1926 – 13 October 2001) was a scholar of Iranian languages.

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A decree is a rule of law usually issued by a head of state (such as the president of a republic or a monarch), according to certain procedures (usually established in a constitution).

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Demographics of Afghanistan

The population of Afghanistan is around 33 million as of 2016, which includes the roughly 3 million Afghan citizens living as refugees in both Pakistan and Iran.

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Denti-alveolar consonant

In linguistics, a denti-alveolar consonant or dento-alveolar consonant is a consonant that is articulated with a flat tongue against the alveolar ridge and upper teeth, such as and in languages such as Spanish and French.

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Durrani Empire

The Durrani Empire (د درانیانو واکمني), also called the Afghan Empire (د افغانانو واکمني), was founded and built by Ahmad Shah Durrani.

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Eastern Iranian languages

The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages emerging in Middle Iranian times (from c. the 4th century BC).

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Education in Pakistan

Education in Pakistan is overseen by the Federal Ministry of Education and the provincial governments, whereas the federal government mostly assists in curriculum development, accreditation and in the financing of research and development.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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Ergative–absolutive language

Ergative–absolutive languages, or ergative languages are languages that share a certain distinctive pattern relating to the subjects (technically, arguments) of verbs.

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Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.

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First language

A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.

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A formality is an established procedure or set of specific behaviors and utterances, conceptually similar to a ritual although typically secular and less involved.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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Fricative consonant

Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.

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Front vowel

A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.

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Georg Morgenstierne

Georg Valentin von Munthe af Morgenstierne (2 January 1892 Oslo, Norway – 3 March 1978, Oslo, Norway) was a Norwegian professor of linguistics with the University of Oslo (UiO).

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Ghor Province

Ghōr (Pashto/غور), also spelled Ghowr or Ghur, is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan.

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Glottal consonant

Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.

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Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

The Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (د خیبر پښتونخوا حکومت, حکومتِ خیبرپختونخوا) is the provincial government of the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

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Government of Pakistan

The Government of Pakistan (حکومتِ پاکستان) is a federal government established by the Constitution of Pakistan as a constituted governing authority of the four provinces of a proclaimed and established parliamentary democratic republic, constitutionally called the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.

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Grammatical case

Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.

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Grammatical gender

In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.

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Grammatical number

In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Habibullāh Kalakāni

King Habibullah Kalakani (fa, or Bache Saqqaw, fa), 19 January 1891 – 1 November 1929), was King of Afghanistan from January to October 1929 after deposing Amanullah Khan He was executed nine months later by Nadir Khan.Dupree, Louis: "Afghanistan", page 459. Princeton University Press, 1973 Khalilullah Khalili, a Kohistani poet laureate, depicts King Habibullah Kalakani as a mujahid, a "warrior of God." Kalakani was nicknamed Bacha-e Saqaw (literally son of the water carrier) and bandit king.

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Hafiz Rahmat Khan Barech

Hafiz Rahmat Khan Barech (1723 – April 1774) was Regent of Rohilkhand in North India, from 1749 to 1774.

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Henry George Raverty

Henry George Raverty (31 May 1825 – 20 October 1906) was an officer and linguist in the British Indian Army.

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Herbert Penzl

Herbert Penzl, born September 2, 1910 in Neufelden, Austria, died September 1, 1995 in Oakland, California, was an Austrian-born American philologist and historical linguist.

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Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.

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Hindustani language

Hindustani (हिन्दुस्तानी, ہندوستانی, ||lit.

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History of India

The history of India includes the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent; the advancement of civilisation from the Indus Valley Civilisation to the eventual blending of the Indo-Aryan culture to form the Vedic Civilisation; the rise of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism;Sanderson, Alexis (2009), "The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period." In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo, Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2009.

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Hotak dynasty

The Hotak dynasty (د هوتکيانو ټولواکمني) was an Afghan monarchy of the Ghilji Pashtuns, established in April 1709 by Mirwais Hotak after leading a successful revolution against their declining Persian Safavid overlords in the region of Loy Kandahar ("Greater Kandahar") in what is now southern Afghanistan.

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Hyderabad, Sindh

Hyderabad (Sindhi and حيدرآباد; is a city located in the Sindh province of Pakistan. Located 140 kilometres east of Karachi, Hyderabad is the 2nd largest in Sindh province, and the 8th largest city in Pakistan. Founded in 1768 by Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro of the Kalhora Dynasty, Hyderabad served as the Kalhoro, and later Talpur, capital until the British transferred the capital to Karachi in 1843.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indo-European languages

The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.

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Indo-Iranian languages

The Indo-Iranian languages or Indo-Iranic languages, or Aryan languages, constitute the largest and easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Indus River

The Indus River (also called the Sindhū) is one of the longest rivers in Asia.

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In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.

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Institute for Comparative Research in Human Culture

The Institute for Comparative Research in Human Culture (Instituttet for sammenlignende kulturforskning) is a humanities research institute based in Oslo, Norway.

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Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Iranian languages

The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages in the Indo-European language family.

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Islamabad (اسلام آباد) is the capital city of Pakistan located within the federal Islamabad Capital Territory.

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James Darmesteter

James Darmesteter (28 March 184919 October 1894) was a French author, orientalist, and antiquarian.

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Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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Journal of the American Oriental Society

The Journal of the American Oriental Society is a quarterly academic journal published by the American Oriental Society since 1843.

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Kabul University

Kabul University (KU) (Pashto دکابل پوهنتون Da Kābul Pohantūn / Dari پوهنتون کابل Pohantūn-e Kābul) is located in Kabul, the capital of Afghanistan.

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Kandahār or Qandahār (کندهار; قندهار; known in older literature as Candahar) is the second-largest city in Afghanistan, with a population of about 557,118.

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Kanishka I (कनिष्क), or Kanishka the Great, was the emperor of the Kushan dynasty in the second century (c. 127–150 CE).

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Karachi (کراچی; ALA-LC:,; ڪراچي) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Sindh.

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Khushal Khattak

Khushāl Khān Khattak (1613 – 25 February 1689; خوشحال خان خټک Khʷushḥāl Khān Khaṭṭak), also called Khushāl Bābā (خوشحال بابا), was an Afghan or Pashtun warrior-poet, chief, and freedom fighter from the Khattak tribe of the Pashtuns.

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Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (abbreviated as KP; خیبر پختونخوا; خیبر پښتونخوا) is one of the four administrative provinces of Pakistan, located in the northwestern region of the country along the international border with Afghanistan.

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Kurdish grammar

Kurdish grammar has many Inflections, with prefixes and suffixes added to roots to express grammatical relations and to form words.

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Labial consonant

Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.

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Labialization is a secondary articulatory feature of sounds in some languages.

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Languages of Afghanistan

Afghanistan is a multilingual country in which two languages – Pashto and Dari – are both official and most widely spoken.

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Languages of Pakistan

Pakistan is home to many dozens of languages spoken as first languages.

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Linguistic purism

Linguistic purism or linguistic protectionism is the practice of defining or recognizing one variety of a language as being purer or of intrinsically higher quality than other varieties.

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List of heads of state of Afghanistan

This article lists the heads of state of Afghanistan since the foundation of the first Afghan state, the Hotak Empire, in 1709.

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Louis Dupree (professor)

Professor Louis Dupree (August 23, 1925 – March 21, 1989) was an American archaeologist, anthropologist, and scholar of Afghan culture and history.

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Maidan Wardak Province

Maidan Wardak Province (د ميدان وردگ ولايت, ولایت میدان وردک), also called Maidan Wardag or simply Wardak Province, is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the central east region of Afghanistan.

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A manuscript (abbreviated MS for singular and MSS for plural) was, traditionally, any document written by hand -- or, once practical typewriters became available, typewritten -- as opposed to being mechanically printed or reproduced in some indirect or automated way.

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Mianwali District

The Mianwali District (ضِلع مِيانوالى; Pashto,ضلع میانوالی), is a district in the northwest of Punjab province, Pakistan.

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Mid vowel

A mid vowel (or a true-mid vowel) is any in a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages.

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Middle East

The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).

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Mohammed Nadir Shah

Muhammad Nadir Shah (محمد نادر شاه, محمد نادر شاه – born Muhammad Nadir Khan; 9 April 1883 – 8 November 1933) was King of Afghanistan from 15 October 1929 until his assassination in November 1933.

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Mohammed Zahir Shah

Mohammed Zahir Shah (محمد ظاهرشاه, محمد ظاهر شاه; 16 October 1914 – 23 July 2007) was the last King of Afghanistan, reigning from 8 November 1933 until he was deposed on 17 July 1973.

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Nasal consonant

In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.

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Naskh (script)

(نسخ /; also known as Naskhi or by its Turkish name Nesih) is a specific style of the Arabic alphabet, said to have been invented by Persian calligrapher Ibn Muqlah Shirazi (d. 940).

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Nastaʿlīq script

Nastaʿlīq (نستعلیق, from نسخ Naskh and تعلیق Taʿlīq) is one of the main calligraphic hands used in writing the Persian alphabet, and traditionally the predominant style in Persian calligraphy.

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National language

A national language is a language (or language variant, e.g. dialect) that has some connection—de facto or de jure—with people and the territory they occupy.

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Nationalencyklopedin, abbreviated NE, is a comprehensive contemporary Swedish-language encyclopedia, initiated by a favourable loan from the Government of Sweden of 17 million Swedish kronor in 1980, which was repaid by December 1990.

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Nazo Tokhi

Nāzo Tokhī (نازو توخۍ), commonly known as Nāzo Anā (نازو انا, "Nazo the grandmother"), was a Pashtun female poet and a literary figure of the Pashto language.

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The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.

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New Zealand

New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.

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Nicholas Sims-Williams

Nicholas Sims-Williams (born 11 April 1949, Chatham, Kent) is a professor of the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), University of London, where he is the Research Professor of Iranian and Central Asian Studies at the Department of the Languages and Cultures of Near and Middle East.

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Northern Pashto

Northern Pashto or Northeastern Pashto, sometimes known as Yusufzai Pashto after its principal subdialect, is a Northern dialect of Pashto spoken in northern Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan and northeastern Afghanistan.

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A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.

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Official language

An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.

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Open vowel

An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.

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Oral literature

Oral literature or folk literature corresponds in the sphere of the spoken (oral) word to literature as literature operates in the domain of the written word.

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Packard Humanities Institute

The Packard Humanities Institute (PHI) is a non-profit foundation, established in 1987, and located in Los Altos, California, which funds projects in a wide range of conservation concerns in the fields of archaeology, music, film preservation, and historic conservation, plus Greek epigraphy, with an aim to create tools for basic research in the Humanities.

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Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.

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Pakistan Bureau of Statistics

The Pakistan Bureau of Statistics (ادارہ شماریات پاکستان, abbreviated as PBS) is the Government of Pakistan government agency commissioned charged with the national statistical services and to provide solid and comprehensive statistical research.

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Palatal consonant

Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).

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Palatal fricative

A palatal fricative is a type of fricative consonant that is also a palatal consonant, i.e. pronounced with the body of the tongue in contact with the hard palate.

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Pashto Academy

Pashto Academy (پښتو اکېډمي) is a language regulatory institution based at the University of Peshawar in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan responsible for the standardisation, advancement, and promotion of Pashto language.

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Pashto alphabet

The Pashto / Pukhto alphabet (پښتو الفبې or پښتو الپبې – Eastern dialect: pux̌to alifbe pukh'hto / pukhhto alifbe; Western dialect: paṣ̌to alipbe) is a modified form of the Persian alphabet known as Perso-Arabic, which is itself a derivative of the Arabic alphabet, with letters added to accommodate phonemes used in Pashto that are not found in either Arabic or Persian.

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Pashto dialects

Pashto dialects (د پښتو ګړدودونه da Pax̌to gəṛdoduna) are divided into two varieties, the "hard" northern variety Pax̌to, and the "soft" southern variety Paṣ̌to.

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Pashtun diaspora

Pashtun diaspora refers to ethnic Pashtuns who live outside their traditional homeland of Pashtunistan, which is south of the Amu River in Afghanistan and west of the Indus River in Pakistan.

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Pashtun tribes

The Pashtun tribes, or Afghan tribes (پښتانه ټبرونه يا پښتانه قبايل), are the tribes of the Pashtun people, a large Eastern Iranian ethnic group who use the Pashto language and follow Pashtunwali code of conduct.

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Pashtūnistān (پښتونستان; also called Pakhtūnistān, or Pathānistān, meaning the "land of Pashtuns") is the geographic historical region inhabited by the indigenous Pashtun people of modern-day Afghanistan and Pakistan, wherein Pashtun culture, language, and national identity have been based.

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The Pashtuns (or; پښتانه Pax̌tānə; singular masculine: پښتون Pax̌tūn, feminine: پښتنه Pax̌tana; also Pukhtuns), historically known as ethnic Afghans (افغان, Afğān) and Pathans (Hindustani: پٹھان, पठान, Paṭhān), are an Iranic ethnic group who mainly live in Pakistan and Afghanistan.

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Pata Khazana

Pata Khazāna (پټه خزانه – The Hidden Treasure, alternative transcriptions: Peta Khazāna, Pota Khazana, Pata Xazāna) is the title of a disputed manuscript written in Pashto language.

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Persian alphabet

The Persian alphabet (الفبای فارسی), or Perso-Arabic alphabet, is a writing system used for the Persian language.

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Persian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Pir Roshan

Pīr Bāyazīd Khān (پير بايزيد خان), more commonly known as Pīr Rōshān or Pīr Rōkhān (پیر روښان, "the enlightened Pir"; پیر روشن) (1525 – 1581/1585), was an Afghan or Pashtun warrior-poet, Sufi master, and freedom fighter from the Ormur tribe of Waziristan.

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Postalveolar consonant

Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.

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The Prakrits (प्राकृत; pāuda; pāua) are any of several Middle Indo-Aryan languages formerly spoken in India.

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Pre-Islamic scripts in Afghanistan

Afghanistan possesses a rich linguistic legacy of pre-Islamic scripts, which existed before being displaced by the Arabic alphabet, after the Islamic conquest of Afghanistan.

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Punjab, Pakistan

Punjab (Urdu, Punjabi:, panj-āb, "five waters") is Pakistan's second largest province by area, after Balochistan, and its most populous province, with an estimated population of 110,012,442 as of 2017.

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Qayen (قائن, also Romanized as Ghayen, Qaen or Ghaen; from kʾyyn Kāyēn) is a city in and the capital of Qaen County, in South Khorasan Province, Iran.

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Qatar (or; قطر; local vernacular pronunciation), officially the State of Qatar (دولة قطر), is a sovereign country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Rabatak inscription

The Rabatak inscription is an inscription written on a rock in the Bactrian language and the Greek script, which was found in 1993 at the site of Rabatak, near Surkh Kotal in Afghanistan.

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Rahman Baba

Abdur Rahmān Mohmand (1632–1706) (عبدالرحمان بابا), or Rahmān Bābā (رحمان بابا), was a renowned Pashtun Sufi Dervish and poet from Peshawar in the Mughal Empire (modern-day Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan).

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Retroflex approximant

The retroflex approximant is a type of consonant used in some languages.

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Retroflex consonant

A retroflex consonant is a coronal consonant where the tongue has a flat, concave, or even curled shape, and is articulated between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate.

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Retroflex lateral flap

The retroflex lateral flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Rhotic consonant

In phonetics, rhotic consonants, or "R-like" sounds, are liquid consonants that are traditionally represented orthographically by symbols derived from the Greek letter rho, including r in the Latin script and p in the Cyrillic script.

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Romance languages

The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.

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Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.

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SIL International

SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics) is a U.S.-based, worldwide, Christian non-profit organization, whose main purpose is to study, develop and document languages, especially those that are lesser-known, in order to expand linguistic knowledge, promote literacy, translate the Christian Bible into local languages, and aid minority language development.

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Sindh (سنڌ; سِندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, in the southeast of the country.

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South Asia

South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.

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South Khorasan Province

South Khorasan Province (استان خراسان جنوبی Ostān-e Khorāsān-e Jonūbī) is a province located in eastern Iran.

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Southern Pashto

Kandahārī Pashtō (کندهارۍ پښتو), also known as Southern Pashto, Western Pashto, or Southwestern Pashto, is a Pashto dialect, spoken in southern and western Afghanistan, including the city of Kandahar.

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Spanish language

Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.

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Split ergativity

Split ergativity is a term used by comparative linguists to refer to languages where some constructions use ergative syntax and morphology, but other constructions show another pattern, usually nominative-accusative.

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Stop consonant

In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.

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Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.

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In linguistic typology, a subject–object–verb (SOV) language is one in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence always or usually appear in that order.

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Subjunctive mood

The subjunctive is a grammatical mood (that is, a way of speaking that allows people to express their attitude toward what they are saying) found in many languages.

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Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

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Tajikistan (or; Тоҷикистон), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Jumhuriyi Tojikiston), is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an estimated population of million people as of, and an area of.

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Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.

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The Times of India

The Times of India (TOI) is an Indian English-language daily newspaper owned by The Times Group.

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Third Anglo-Afghan War

The Third Anglo-Afghan War (د افغان-انګرېز درېمه جګړه), also referred to as the Third Afghan War, began on 6 May 1919 when the Emirate of Afghanistan invaded British India and ended with an armistice on 8 August 1919.

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United Arab Emirates

The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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University of California, Los Angeles

The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) is a public research university in the Westwood district of Los Angeles, United States.

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University of Michigan

The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, or UMich), often simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan.

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Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.

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Urdu alphabet

The Urdu alphabet is the right-to-left alphabet used for the Urdu language.

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Uvular consonant

Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants.

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Velar consonant

Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).

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A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).

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Voiced palatal fricative

The voiced palatal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Waṇētsī (وڼېڅي), also called Tarīnō (ترينو), Chalgarī (څلګري tsalgarī), or Waneci, is a Pashto dialect which is spoken by a small population of Tareen tribes in Pakistan and Afghanistan, primarily in Harnai and Sinjawi area east of Quetta, northern Balochistan, Pakistan.

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Wazir dialect

Wazirwola (وزیر واله wazīrwāla, meaning "of the Wazirs"), or Waziri (وزیري)), is an east-central Pashto dialect spoken in North Waziristan, South Waziristan, Bannu and parts of Tank in Pakistan, and in certain adjacent districts of Paktika, Khost and Paktia provinces of Afghanistan.

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1964 Constitution of Afghanistan

The 1964 Afghanistan Constitution was the constitution of Afghanistan from 1964 to 1977.

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Afghan language, Afghani language, Eastern Pashto language, ISO 639:ps, ISO 639:pus, PUS (language), Pakhto, Pakhto language, Pakhtun language, Pashto (language), Pashto Language, Pashto language, Pashto languages, Pashto languege, Pashto macrolanguage, Pashtoe, Pashtoo, Pashtoon language, Pashtu, Pashtu language, Pashtun (language), Pashtun language, Pasthu, Pathani Language, Pathani language, Paxtonix, Pukhto, Pukhto language, Pukhtu, Pushto, Pushto language, Pushtoo, Pushtu, Pushtu language, Western Pashto language, پښتو.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pashto

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