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Abbottabad (Urdu, ایبٹ آباد) is the capital city of Abbottabad District in the Hazara region of eastern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Abdul Ahad Mohmand (born January 1, 1959) is a former Afghan Air Force aviator who became the first Afghan citizen and fourth Muslim to journey to outer space.
Abdul Hai Habibi (عبدالحى حبيبي, عبدالحی حبیبی) – ʿAbd' ul-Ḥay Ḥabībi) (1910 – 9 May 1984) was a prominent Afghan historian for much of his lifetime as well as a member of the National Assembly of Afghanistan (Afghan Parliament) during the reign of King Zahir Shah. A Pashtun nationalist from Kakar tribe of Kandahar, Afghanistan, he began as a young teacher who made his way up to become a writer, scholar, politician and Dean of Faculty of Literature at Kabul University. He is the author of over 100 books but is best known for editing Pata Khazana, an "old" Pashto language manuscript that he claimed to have "discovered" in 1944; the academic community, however, does not acknowledge the manuscript as genuine.
Abdul Haq (born Humayoun Arsala; April 23, 1958 – October 26, 2001) was an Afghan mujahideen commander who fought against the Soviet-backed People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan, the de facto Afghan government in the 1980s.
Abdul Qadeer (عبدالقدیر, born c. 1951 in Jalalabad, Afghanistan, assassinated July 6, 2002 in Kabul, Afghanistan) was a Pashtun leader in Afghanistan.
General Abdul Rahim Wardak (Pashto/عبدالرحیم وردگ; born 1945), an ethnic Pashtun, was the Defense Minister of Afghanistan.
Ustad Abdul Rab Rasul Sayyaf (عبد رب الرسول سياف, born 1946, Paghman Valley, Afghanistan) is an Afghan former mujahideen and current politician.
Abdul Salam Azimi (Pashto: عبدالسلام عظیمی, born: 1936) in Farah Province) was the Chief Justice of Afghanistan and, as such, the head of the Afghan Supreme Court from May 2006 to October 2014, when he resigned his position. A former professor at the University of Nebraska at Omaha in the United States, Azimi served as legal advisor to Afghan President Hamid Karzai and assisted with writing the 2004 Constitution of Afghanistan. He is an ethnic Pashtun of the Alizai tribe. Prior to the Soviet Invasion of 1979, Azimi and his family resided in the Kabul province of Afghanistan and were forced to flee the country in 1981 after the fall of the Communist regime and resulting civil war. Azimi has three daughters and three sons, one being Abdul Ghafar Azimi who studied in Omaha, Nebraska and graduated from the University of Nebraska at Omaha, and another is Hanan Azimi, who also studied at the University of Nebraska at Omaha, and is a well-respected teacher in the Omaha area. As chief justice, Azimi replaced Faisal Ahmad Shinwari, a conservative Islamic cleric with no higher education. Azimi, in contrast, is reported to have gained a reputation as a fair-minded moderate active in upholding the rule of law and improving the country's dilapidated legal system.
Abdul Samad Khan Achakzai (7 July 1907 – 2 December 1973) (عبدالصمد خان اڅکزی), commonly known as Khan Shaheed (خان شهيد), was a Pashtun nationalist and political leader from Quetta, Pakistan.
Abdullah Abdullah (Dari/Pashto: عبدالله عبدالله, born September 5, 1960) is an Afghan politician, serving as Chief Executive of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan since September 2014.
Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar (13 June 1899 – 14 February 1958; سردار عبد الرب نښتر) was a Muslim League stalwart, a Pakistan movement activist and later on a Pakistani politician.
Abdur Rahman Khan (عبد رحمان خان) (between 1840 and 1844October 1, 1901) was Emir of Afghanistan from 1880 to 1901.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
Afghan (also referred to as Afghanistani) (Pashto/افغان; see etymology) refers to someone or something from Afghanistan, in particular a citizen of that country.
The "Afghans" or "Ghans" were camel caravanners who worked in Outback Australia from the 1860s to the 1930s.
The ethnonym Afghan (افغان) has been used in the past to denote a member of the Pashtuns, by Muhammad Qāsim Hindū Šāh Astarābādī Firištah, The Packard Humanities Institute Persian Texts in Translation.
The Afghan Air Force (AAF; دافغانستان هوائی ځواک; قوای هوائی افغانستان) is the aerial warfare branch of the Afghan Armed Forces.
Afghan Americans are Americans of Afghan descent or Americans who originated from Afghanistan.
The Afghan Armed Forces are the military forces of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan.
Afghan diaspora or Afghan Refugees are citizens of Afghanistan who have immigrated to other countries, or people of Afghan origin who are born outside Afghanistan.
Afghan Girl is a 1984 photographic portrait of Sharbat Gula (شربت ګله) (pronounced) (born), also known as Sharbat Bibi, by journalist Steve McCurry.
The Afghan National Army (ANA) is the land warfare branch of the Afghan Armed Forces.
The Afghan Women's Network (AWN) is a non-governmental organization (NGO) which was created in 1996 by Afghan women following the World Conference on Women in Beijing and works to "empower women and ensure their equal participation in Afghan society.".
Afghana or Avagana is a tribal chief or prince in Pashtun folklore, said to be of Bani Israel (Israelite) origin, who is traditionally considered the progenitor of modern-day Pashtuns,Socio-economic Behaviour of Pukhtun Tribe By Dipali Saha, Dipali Saha - 2006 - 282 pages - Page 124.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
The Afghanistan national cricket team (د افغانستان د کريکټ ملي لوبډله) (Persian:تیم ملی کریکت افغانستان) represents is the 12th Test cricket playing Full Member nation.
The Afghanistan women's national football team (Dari) is the women's national team of Afghanistan and is controlled by the Afghanistan Football Federation (AFF).
Afghans in Iran are mostly refugees who have fled wars in Afghanistan since the April 1978 Saur Revolution in Kabul.
Afghans in Pakistan (افغان مهاجرين., Afghan Muhajreen) primarily constitute refugees who have fled wars in Afghanistan, but there are small numbers of Afghan asylum seekers, migrant workers, merchants, businesspeople, exchange students and diplomats..
The Afrīdī (اپريدی Aprīdai, plur. اپريدي Aprīdī; آفریدی) is a Pashtun tribe present in Pakistan, with substantial numbers in Afghanistan.
Afridi or Apridi Pashto (افريدی، اپريدی afrīdī/aprīdī) is a Northern Karlani dialect of the Pashto language that is widespread among the representatives of the Afridis kin.
Aftab Ahmad Khan Sherpao (born 20 August 1944) is a Pakistani politician who is the current chairman of Qaumi Watan Party.
Afzal Khan Khattak was a Pashtun chief of the Khattak tribe, Pashtoon poet, and author of Tarikh-e-morassa was the eldest son of Ashraf Khan "Hejri" (1044-1105/1635 to 1693-94).
Ahmad Hasan Dani (Urdu: احمد حسن دانی) FRAS, SI, HI (20 June 1920 – 26 January 2009), was a Pakistani intellectual, archaeologist, historian, and linguist.
Ahmad Shāh Durrānī (c. 1722 – 16 October 1772) (Pashto: احمد شاه دراني), also known as Ahmad Khān Abdālī (احمد خان ابدالي), was the founder of the Durrani Empire and is regarded as the founder of the modern state of Afghanistan.
Ahmad Shah Massoud (Dari Persian: احمد شاه مسعود; September 2, 1953September 9, 2001) was an Afghan political and military leader.
An aircraft pilot or aviator is a person who controls the flight of an aircraft by operating its directional flight controls.
Ajam (عجم) is an Arabic word meaning one who is not understandable in speech.
Ajmal Khattak (اجمل خټک) (اجمل خٹک) (15 September 1925 – 7 February 2010) was a Pakistani politician, writer, Pashtun poet, Khudai Khidmatgar, former President of Awami National Party and close friend of the late Khan Wali Khan.
Akbar Salahuddin Ahmed, (born. January 15, 1943) also known as Akbar Ahmed, is an American-Pakistani academic, author, poet, playwright, filmmaker and former diplomat.
Al Jazeera (translit,, literally "The Island", though referring to the Arabian Peninsula in context), also known as JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a state-funded broadcaster in Doha, Qatar, owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network.
Abū Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Al-Bīrūnī (Chorasmian/ابوریحان بیرونی Abū Rayḥān Bērōnī; New Persian: Abū Rayḥān Bīrūnī) (973–1050), known as Al-Biruni (البيروني) in English, was an IranianD.J. Boilot, "Al-Biruni (Beruni), Abu'l Rayhan Muhammad b. Ahmad", in Encyclopaedia of Islam (Leiden), New Ed., vol.1:1236–1238.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
The All-India Muslim League (popularised as Muslim League) was a political party established during the early years of the 20th century in the British Indian Empire.
Allah (translit) is the Arabic word for God in Abrahamic religions.
Amānullāh Khān (امان الله خان) was the sovereign of the Kingdom of Afghanistan from 1919 to 1929, first as Emir and after 1926 as Malik (King).
The Amazon rainforest (Portuguese: Floresta Amazônica or Amazônia; Selva Amazónica, Amazonía or usually Amazonia; Forêt amazonienne; Amazoneregenwoud), also known in English as Amazonia or the Amazon Jungle, is a moist broadleaf forest in the Amazon biome that covers most of the Amazon basin of South America.
Amb is a village in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
Amīr Krōṛ Sūrī (امير کروړ سوري), also known as Jahan Pahlawan, is a legendary character in Pashtun national history and is claimed to have become the governor of Mandesh in Ghor.
Amirzai Sangin (اميرزی سنگين, born 6 June 1949) is a politician in Afghanistan, currently serving as the Minister of Communications & Information Technology.
The Amu Darya, also called the Amu or Amo River, and historically known by its Latin name Oxus, is a major river in Central Asia.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
The Macedonians (Μακεδόνες, Makedónes) were an ancient tribe that lived on the alluvial plain around the rivers Haliacmon and lower Axios in the northeastern part of mainland Greece.
An anthropologist is a person engaged in the practice of anthropology.
Anwar ul-Haq Ahady (August 12, 1951) is a politician in Afghanistan, formerly serving as Afghan Minister of Commerce and Industry.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Ariana, the Latinized form of the Ancient Greek Ἀρ(ε)ιανή Ar(e)ianē (inhabitants: Ariani; Ἀρ(ε)ιανοί Ar(e)ianoi), was a general geographical term used by some Greek and Roman authors of the ancient period for a district of wide extent between Central Asia and the Indus River, compromising the eastern provinces of the Achaemenid Empire that covered the whole of modern-day Afghanistan, as well as the easternmost part of Iran and up to the Indus River in Pakistan (former Northern India).
"Aryan" is a term that was used as a self-designation by Indo-Iranian people.
Asadabad or Asad Abad (اسدآباد - Asadābād, اسدآباد) is the capital city of Kunar Province in Afghanistan.
Asadullah Khalid is a politician in Afghanistan.
Asfandyar Wali Khan (اسفند یار ولی خان) (born 19 February 1949) is a Pakistani politician.
Ashfaqulla Khan (22 October 1900 – 19 December 1927) was a freedom fighter in Indian independence movement.
Mohammad Ashraf Ghanī Ahmadzai (Pashto/محمد اشرف غني احمدزی, born 19 May 1949) is the current President of Afghanistan, elected on 21 September 2014.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.
Attan (اتڼ) is a form of dance that originated in Afghanistan.
Attock City (Punjabi, Urdu), formerly Campbellpore or Campbellpur until 1978, is a city located in northern part of Punjab province of Pakistan near the capital of Islamabad in the Panjistan region, and is the headquarters of Attock District.
Attock District (ضِلع اٹک) is a district in Pothohar Plateau of the Punjab Province of Pakistan.
Aurat Foundation, founded in 1986, is a women's rights organization based in Islamabad, Pakistan.
The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) is the independent statistical agency of the Government of Australia.
Avestan, also known historically as Zend, is a language known only from its use as the language of Zoroastrian scripture (the Avesta), from which it derives its name.
AVT Khyber or Khyber TV is a Pakistani-operated Pashto satellite television station in Pakistan, which was launched in July 2004.
The Awami National Party (ملي عوامي ګوند, عوامی نيشنل پارٹی; Acronym: ANP), is a secular and leftist Pashtun nationalist political party in Pakistan.
Mohammad Ayub Khan (محمد ایوب خان; 14 May 1907 – 19 April 1974),, was a Pakistani military dictator and the 2nd President of Pakistan who forcibly assumed the presidency from 1st President through coup in 1958, the first successful coup d'état of the country. The popular demonstrations and labour strikes which were supported by the protests in East Pakistan ultimately led to his forced resignation in 1969., Retrieved 25 August 2015 Trained at the British Royal Military College, Ayub Khan fought in the World War II as a Colonel in the British Indian Army before deciding to transfer to join the Pakistan Army as an aftermath of partition of British India in 1947. His command assignment included his role as chief of staff of Eastern Command in East-Bengal and elevated as the first native commander-in-chief of Pakistan Army in 1951 by then-Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan in a controversial promotion over several senior officers., Retrieved 25 August 2015 From 1953–58, he served in the civilian government as Defence and Home Minister and supported Iskander Mirza's decision to impose martial law against Prime Minister Feroze Khan's administration in 1958., Retrieved 27 August 2015 Two weeks later, he took over the presidency from Mirza after the meltdown of civil-military relations between the military and the civilian President., Retrieved 25 August 2015 After appointing General Musa Khan as an army chief in 1958, the policy inclination towards the alliance with the United States was pursued that saw the allowance of American access to facilities inside Pakistan, most notably the airbase outside of Peshawar, from which spy missions over the Soviet Union were launched. Relations with neighboring China were strengthened but deteriorated with Soviet Union in 1962, and with India in 1965. His presidency saw the war with India in 1965 which ended with Soviet Union facilitating the Tashkent Declaration between two nations. At home front, the policy of privatisation and industrialization was introduced that made the country's economy as Asia's fastest-growing economies. During his tenure, several infrastructure programs were built that consisted the completion of hydroelectric stations, dams and reservoirs, as well as prioritizing the space program but reducing the nuclear deterrence. In 1965, Ayub Khan entered in a presidential race as PML candidate to counter the popular and famed non-partisan Fatima Jinnah and controversially reelected for the second term. He was faced with allegations of widespread intentional vote riggings, authorized political murders in Karachi, and the politics over the unpopular peace treaty with India which many Pakistanis considered an embarrassing compromise. In 1967, he was widely disapproved when the demonstrations across the country were led by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto over the price hikes of food consumer products and, dramatically fell amid the popular uprising in East led by Mujibur Rahman in 1969. Forced to resign to avoid further protests while inviting army chief Yahya Khan to impose martial law for the second time, he fought a brief illness and died in 1974. His legacy remains mixed; he is credited with an ostensible economic prosperity and what supporters dub the "decade of development", but is criticized for beginning the first of the intelligence agencies' incursions into the national politics, for concentrating corrupt wealth in a few hands, and segregated policies that later led to the breaking-up of nation's unity that resulted in the creation of Bangladesh., Retrieved 25 August 2015.
Azam Khan (Pashto: اعظم خان) is a former squash player from Nawakille Peshawar Pakistan who won the British Open four times between 1959 and 1962.
The Babi dynasty or Babis or Babais are a community (Pashtun Tribe) in the Indian Subcontinent, originally of Pashtun descent, now residing in India, largely.
Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).
Abdul Ghaffār Khān (6 February 1890 – 20 January 1988), nicknamed Fakhr-e-Afghān, lit.
The Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex (short BMAC), also known as the Oxus civilisation, is the modern archaeological designation for a Bronze Age civilisation of Central Asia, dated to c. 2300–1700 BC, located in present-day northern Afghanistan, eastern Turkmenistan, southern Uzbekistan and western Tajikistan, centred on the upper Amu Darya (Oxus River).
Bactrian (Αριαο, Aryao, arjaːu̯ɔ) is an Iranian language which was spoken in the Central Asian region of Bactria (present-day Afghanistan and Tajikistan) and used as the official language of the Kushan and the Hephthalite empires.
Baghch-e-Simsim (باغچهٔ سم سم, "Sesame Garden") is a Dari- and Pashto-language children's television series launched in Afghanistan in December 2011, based on the American Sesame Street.
A ballot box is a temporarily sealed container, usually a square box though sometimes a tamper resistant bag, with a narrow slot in the top sufficient to accept a ballot paper in an election but which prevents anyone from accessing the votes cast until the close of the voting period.
Balochi (بلؤچی, transliteration: balòči) is the principal language of the Baloch people spoken primarily in Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Balochistan (bəloːt͡ʃɪs't̪ɑːn) (بلوچِستان), is one of the five provinces of Pakistan.
The Chief Commissioner's Province of Balochistan (Urdu: بلوچستان,چیف کمشنر صوبہ) was a province of British India, and later Pakistan, located in the northern parts of the modern Balochistan province.
The Bangash (بنګش), (بنگش) are one of the Karlani Pashtun tribe of the border region of eastern Afghanistan and North Western Pakistan.
Banū or Bannu (باني ګل / بنو, بنوں) is the principal city of the Bannu District in southern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
The two branches of the Barakzai dynasty (Translation of Barakzai: sons of Barak) ruled modern day Afghanistan from 1826 to 1973 when the monarchy ended under Musahiban Mohammad Zahir Shah.
Barshore, Pashto (برښور), in Urdu (برشور) is one of the four Tehsils (sub-divisions) of Pishin District in Pakistan.
Basketball is a team sport played on a rectangular court.
Batkhela (بټ خيله, بٹ خیلہ) is the main tehsil, city and capital of Malakand District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Battagram (بٹگرام, بټګرام) is the capital city of Battagram District in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan.
Battle of Kabul refers to a series of intermittent battles and sieges over the city of Kabul during the period of 1992–96.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
Besham (بشام; also known as Besham Qala) is the largest town and commercial centre of the Shangla District in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
The Bettani or Bēṭanī (بېټني) (also spelled Bhittani Bhitti Bhatti in older British sources) is a Pashtun tribal confederacy located mostly in Afghanistan and Pakistan with a small number dwelling in India.
Bismillah Khan Mohammadi (Persian: بسمالله خان محمدی; born 1961 in Panjshir Province), or Bismillah Khan, is the former Defense Minister of Afghanistan.
Bodybuilding is the use of progressive resistance exercise to control and develop one's musculature.
Hindi cinema, often metonymously referred to as Bollywood, is the Indian Hindi-language film industry, based in the city of Mumbai (formerly Bombay), Maharashtra, India.
In music, a bow is a tensioned stick with hair affixed to it that is moved across some part of a musical instrument to cause vibration, which the instrument emits as sound.
Bowling is a sport or leisure activity in which a player rolls or throws a bowling ball towards a target.
Boxing is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined set of time in a boxing ring.
Brigadier general (Brig. Gen.) is a senior rank in the armed forces.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The British Library is the national library of the United Kingdom and the largest national library in the world by number of items catalogued.
The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
The Brookings Institution is a century-old American research group on Think Tank Row in Washington, D.C. It conducts research and education in the social sciences, primarily in economics, metropolitan policy, governance, foreign policy, and global economy and development.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
.Burhanpur is a mid-sized historical city in the Nimar region of Madhya Pradesh state, India.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
The team captain of an association football team, sometimes known as the skipper, is a team member chosen to be the on-pitch leader of the team: it is often one of the older or more experienced members of the squad, or a player that can heavily influence a game.
The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.
Caving – also traditionally known as spelunking in the United States and Canada and potholing in the United Kingdom and Ireland – is the recreational pastime of exploring wild (generally non-commercial) cave systems.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
Central Pashto (منځنۍ پښتو manźanəi pax̌to) is the standardized variety of Pashto which serves as a prestige Pashto dialect, and is based on the Ghilji dialect, spoken in the central Ghilji region, which covers the eastern Afghan region of Paktika, northern Zabul, southern Ghazni, Kabul (including Afghan capital Kabul) and some surrounding region.
Chaman (Pashto/Balochi/Urdu) is the capital of Qilla Abdullah District, Balochistan Province, Pakistan.
Chandragupta Maurya (reign: 321–297 BCE) was the founder of the Maurya Empire in ancient India.
Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid.
The Chief Justice of Afghanistan is the head of the Afghan Supreme Court.
Child marriage is a formal marriage or informal union entered into by an individual before reaching a certain age, specified by several global organizations such as UNICEF as minors under the age of 18.
Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals.
A clan is a group of people united by actual or perceived kinship and descent.
A community is a small or large social unit (a group of living things) that has something in common, such as norms, religion, values, or identity.
The Copts (ⲚⲓⲢⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ̀ⲛ̀Ⲭⲣⲏⲥⲧⲓ̀ⲁⲛⲟⲥ,; أقباط) are an ethnoreligious group indigenous to North Africa who primarily inhabit the area of modern Egypt, where they are the largest Christian denomination in the country.
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, at the centre of which is a rectangular pitch with a target at each end called the wicket (a set of three wooden stumps upon which two bails sit).
Cue sports (sometimes written cuesports), also known as billiard sports, are a wide variety of games of skill generally played with a cue stick, which is used to strike billiard balls and thereby cause them to move around a cloth-covered billiards table bounded by elastic bumpers known as.
Cultural assimilation is the process in which a minority group or culture comes to resemble those of a dominant group.
The culture of Afghanistan has been around for over three millennia, tracing record to at least the time of the Achaemenid Empire in 500 BCE.
The culture of Iran (Farhang-e Irān), also known as culture of Persia, is one of the oldest in the world.
Darī (دری) or Dari Persian (فارسی دری Fārsī-ye Darī) or synonymously Farsi (فارسی Fārsī) is the variety of the Persian language spoken in Afghanistan.
Dawn News is one of Pakistan's 24-hour Urdu news channel.
The Deccan PlateauPage 46, is a large plateau in western and southern India.
The Delhi Sultanate (Persian:دهلی سلطان, Urdu) was a Muslim sultanate based mostly in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).
The Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (DRA; جمهوری دمکراتی افغانستان,; دافغانستان دمکراتی جمهوریت), renamed in 1987 to the Republic of Afghanistan (جمهوری افغانستان;; د افغانستان جمهوریت), commonly known as Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Afġānistān), existed from 1978 to 1992 and covers the period when the socialist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) ruled Afghanistan.
The population of Afghanistan is around 33 million as of 2016, which includes the roughly 3 million Afghan citizens living as refugees in both Pakistan and Iran.
Pakistan's latest estimated population is 207,774,520 (excluding the autonomous regions of Azad Jammu and Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan).
Dera Ismail Khan (Urdu:, ډېره اسماعيل خان, ډېره اسماعيل خان), often abbreviated to D.I. Khan, is a city in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan.
Dhol (ढोल, ਢੋਲ, ڈھول, ঢোল, ઢોલ, ढोल, ঢোল) can refer to any one of a number of similar types of double-headed drum widely used, with regional variations, throughout the Indian subcontinent.
Dir (Urdu, دیر) is a town in Upper Dir District, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakistan at an elevation of 1420 m. It is sometimes known as Dir Khas ("Proper Dir") to distinguish it from the district.
Domestic violence (also named domestic abuse or family violence) is violence or other abuse by one person against another in a domestic setting, such as in marriage or cohabitation.
The Durand Line (د ډیورنډ کرښه) is the international border between Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Durrani (دراني) or Abdali (ابدالي) is the name of a prominent Sarbani Pashtun tribal confederation in Afghanistan and Pakistan.
The Durrani Empire (د درانیانو واکمني), also called the Afghan Empire (د افغانانو واکمني), was founded and built by Ahmad Shah Durrani.
The early Muslim conquests (الفتوحات الإسلامية, al-Futūḥāt al-Islāmiyya) also referred to as the Arab conquests and early Islamic conquests began with the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the 7th century.
The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages emerging in Middle Iranian times (from c. the 4th century BC).
Eid al-Fitr (عيد الفطر) is an important religious holiday celebrated by Muslims worldwide that marks the end of Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting (sawm).
The term Elder or its equivalent in another language, is used in several different countries and organizations to indicate a position of authority.
The Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) is an encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies published by Brill.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Encyclopædia Iranica is a project whose goal is to create a comprehensive and authoritative English language encyclopedia about the history, culture, and civilization of Iranian peoples from prehistory to modern times.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
Afghanistan is a multiethnic and mostly-tribal society.
The major ethnic groups of Pakistan in numerical size include: Punjabis, Pashtuns, Sindhis, Siddis, Saraikis, Muhajirs, Baloch, Hindkowans, Chitralis, Gujarati and other smaller groups.
Ethnogenesis (from Greek ethnos ἔθνος, "group of people, nation", and genesis γένεσις, "beginning, coming into being"; plural ethnogeneses) is "the formation and development of an ethnic group." This can originate through a process of self-identification as well as come about as the result of outside identification.
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
An extinct language is a language that no longer has any speakers, especially if the language has no living descendants.
Faber and Faber Limited, often abbreviated to Faber, is an independent publishing house in the United Kingdom.
Farah (Pashto / Dari Persian: فراه) is the capital of Farah Province, located in western Afghanistan.
Farhad Darya Nashir (فرهاد دریا; born September 22, 1962) is an Afghan singer, composer and music producer.
Fauzia Gailani was elected to represent Herat Province in Afghanistan's Wolesi Jirga, the lower house of its National Legislature, in 2005.
Fawad Ahmad (Pashto/Urdu:; born 5 February 1982) is a Pakistani Australian cricketer who plays for the Victorian Bushrangers, having been granted Australian citizenship in July 2013.
Maulana Fazl-ur-Rehman (born 19 June 1953) is a Pakistani politician who is the current President of the Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam (F).
The Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA; قبایلي سیمې، منځنۍ پښتونخوا; وفاقی منتظم شدہ قبائیلی علاقہ جات) was a semi-autonomous tribal region in northwestern Pakistan that existed from 1947 until being merged with neighboring province Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, in 2018.
Feroz Khan (25 September 1939 – 27 April 2009) was an Indian actor, film editor, producer and director in the Hindi film industry.
Field hockey is a team game of the hockey family.
Fiji (Viti; Fiji Hindi: फ़िजी), officially the Republic of Fiji (Matanitu Tugalala o Viti; Fiji Hindi: फ़िजी गणराज्य), is an island country in Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean about northeast of New Zealand's North Island.
Firishta or Ferishta(فرِشتہ), full name Muhammad Qasim Hindu Shah (مُحمّد قاسِم ہِندُو شاہ), was a Persian historian who was born in 1560 and died in 1620.
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
A folk hero or national hero is a type of hero – real, fictional or mythological – with the sole salient characteristic being the imprinting of his or her name, personality and deeds in the popular consciousness of a people.
Frontline (styled by the program as FRONTLINE) is the flagship investigative journalism series of the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), producing in-depth documentaries on a variety of domestic and international stories and issues, and broadcasting them on air and online.
Gardēz (ګردېز, گردیز) is the capital of the Paktia Province of Afghanistan.
George Rawlinson (23 November 1812 – 7 October 1902) was a 19th-century English scholar, historian, and Christian theologian.
Ghorghushtī or Ghorghushtī (غرغښتي) is a Pakistani town whose name refers to the legendary Pashtun, traced to the third son of Qais Abdur Rashid.
Ghazala Javed (غزاله جاويد) (January 1, 1988 – June 18, 2012) was a Pakistani female singer of Pashto music from Swat Valley.
Ghazi (غازي) is an Arabic term originally referring to an individual who participates in ghazw (غزو), meaning military expeditions or raiding; after the emergence of Islam, it took on new connotations of religious warfare.
The Ghaznavid dynasty (غزنویان ġaznaviyān) was a Persianate Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin, at their greatest extent ruling large parts of Iran, Afghanistan, much of Transoxiana and the northwest Indian subcontinent from 977 to 1186.
Ghazni (Pashto/Persian) or Ghaznai, also historically known as Ghaznin or Ghazna, is a city in Afghanistan with a population of nearly 150,000 people.
The Ghilji (غلجي Ghəljī), غلزایی), also called Khaljī (خلجي), Khiljī, Ghilzai, or Gharzai (غرزی; ghar means "mountain" and zai "born of"), are the largest Pashtun tribal confederacy. The Ghilji at various times became rulers of present Afghanistan region and were the most dominant Pashtun confederacy from c. 1000 A.D. until 1747 A.D., when power shifted to the Durranis. The Ghilji tribes are today scattered all over Afghanistan and some parts of Pakistan, but most are concentrated in the region from Zabul to Kabul province, with Ghazni and Paktika provinces in the center of their region. The Ghilji tribes are also settled in Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan. Many of the migrating Kochi people of Afghanistan belong to the Ghilji confederacy. Ashraf Ghani Ahmadzai, the current President of Afghanistan, also belongs to the Ghilji tribe. From 1709 to 1738, the Ghilji ruled the Hotak Empire based first in Kandahar, Afghanistan and later, from 1722–1728, in Isfahan, Persia. The founder of the Hotak Empire was Mirwais Hotak. Another famous Ghilji from the 18th century was Azad Khan Afghan, who rose to power from 1752 to 1757 in western Iran.
Ghōr (Pashto/غور), also spelled Ghowr or Ghur, is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan.
Ghulam Farooq Wardak (born 1959) is a politician in Afghanistan, formerly serving as the Minister of Education.
Ghulam Ishaq Khan (غلام اسحاق خان.; January 20, 1915 – 27 October 2006), was a Pakistani bureaucrat who served as the 7th President of Pakistan, elected in 1988 until his resignation in 1993.
Sardar Ghulam Muhammad Khan Tarzi (born Kandahar, April 30, 1830 – 1900/1901)http://www.royalark.net/Afghanistan/tarzi.htm Royal Ark son of Sardar Rahim Dil Khan (and grandson of Sardar Painda Khan Mohammadizi) was a ruler of Kandahar and Baluchistan.
The Ghurids or Ghorids (سلسله غوریان; self-designation: شنسبانی, Shansabānī) were a dynasty of Eastern Iranian descent from the Ghor region of present-day central Afghanistan, presumably Tajik, but the exact ethnic origin is uncertain, and it has been argued that they were Pashtun.
Gilgit-Baltistan, formerly known as the Northern Areas, is the northernmost administrative territory in Pakistan.
Golf is a club-and-ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible.
The Governor-General of Pakistan (گورنر جنرل پاکستان), was the representative in Pakistan of the British monarch, from the country's independence in 1947.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
Gul Agha Sherzai, also known as Mohammad Shafiq, is a politician in Afghanistan.
Gulbuddin Hekmatyar (ګلبدين حکمتيار; گلبدین حکمتیار; born 1 August, 1949) is an Afghan politician and former warlord.
Hamid Karzai, (Pashto/حامد کرزی, born 24 December 1957) is an Afghan politician who was the leader of Afghanistan from 22 December 2001 to 29 September 2014, originally as an interim leader and then as President for almost ten years, from 7 December 2004 to 2014.
Ameer Hamza Shinwari (Pashto: حمزه شينواری), commonly known as Hamza Baba was a prominent Pashto-language poet.
The Hanafi (حنفي) school is one of the four religious Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).
Handball (also known as team handball, fieldball, European handball or Olympic handball) is a team sport in which two teams of seven players each (six outfield players and a goalkeeper) pass a ball using their hands with the aim of throwing it into the goal of the other team.
Hangu (Pashto) is a district in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
Hangu (هنګو) is a town in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
Haplogroup H (Y-DNA), also known as H-L901/M2939 is a Y-chromosome haplogroup.
Haplogroup L-M20 is a human Y-DNA haplogroup, which is defined by SNPs M11, M20, M61 and M185.
Haplogroup Q or Q-M242 is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. It has one primary subclade, Haplogroup Q1 (L232/S432), which includes numerous subclades that have been sampled and identified in males among modern populations. Q-M242 is the predominant Y-DNA haplogroup among Native Americans and several peoples of Central Asia and Northern Siberia. It is also the predominant Y-DNA of the Akha tribe in northern Thailand and the Dayak people of Indonesia.
Haplogroup R2a, or haplogroup R-M124, is a Y-chromosome haplogroup characterized by genetic markers M124, P249, P267, L266, and is mainly found in South Asia as well as in Central Asia, Caucasus, Southwest Asia, and the Arab countries with low frequencies.
Haplogroup R1a, or haplogroup R-M420, is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup which is distributed in a large region in Eurasia, extending from Scandinavia and Central Europe to southern Siberia and South Asia.
Haripur (Urdu: ہری پور, "The Town of Hari") is a district in the Hazara region of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan with an altitude of around above sea level.
Harnai (ہرنائی) is the capital of Harnai District in the Balochistan province of Pakistan.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Hashim Khan (ہاشم خان; – 18 August 2014) was a squash player from Pakistan.
Hayatullah Khan Durrani, PP (Pashto:; born 22 April 1962) is a Pakistani caver, mountaineer, environmentalist, organizer, and a rescuer.
The Hazaras (هزاره, آزره) are an ethnic group native to the region of Hazarajat in central Afghanistan, speaking the Hazaragi variant of Dari, itself an eastern variety of Persian and one of the two official languages of Afghanistan.
Henry Walter Bellew MRCP (30 August 1834 – 26 July 1892) was an Indian-born British medical officer who worked in Afghanistan.
The Hephthalites (or Ephthalites) were a people of Central Asia who were militarily important circa 450–560.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
Hindko (ہندکو ALA-LC) is a cover term for a diverse group of Lahnda (Western Punjabi) dialects spoken by people of various ethnic backgrounds in several discontinuous areas in northwestern Pakistan, primarily in the provinces of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
The Hindu Kush, also known in Ancient Greek as the Caucasus Indicus (Καύκασος Ινδικός) or Paropamisadae (Παροπαμισάδαι), in Pashto and Persian as, Hindu Kush is an mountain range that stretches near the Afghan-Pakistan border,, Quote: "The Hindu Kush mountains run along the Afghan border with the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan".
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
Hindustani (हिन्दुस्तानी, ہندوستانی, ||lit.
The history of Arabs in Afghanistan spans over one millennium, from the 11th century Islamic conquest when Arab ghazis arrived with their Islamic mission until recently when others from the Arab world arrived to defend fellow Muslims from the Soviet Union followed by NATO forces.
The history of India includes the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent; the advancement of civilisation from the Indus Valley Civilisation to the eventual blending of the Indo-Aryan culture to form the Vedic Civilisation; the rise of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism;Sanderson, Alexis (2009), "The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period." In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo, Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2009.
Jews are said to have resided in Afghanistan for nearly 1,500 years, but the community has been reduced greatly because of emigration.
The history of Jews (یہود) in Pakistan dates at least as far back as 1839, possibly as far as 1,500 to 2,000 years.
Horse racing is an equestrian performance sport, typically involving two or more horses ridden by jockeys (or sometimes driven without riders) over a set distance for competition.
The Hotak dynasty (د هوتکيانو ټولواکمني) was an Afghan monarchy of the Ghilji Pashtuns, established in April 1709 by Mirwais Hotak after leading a successful revolution against their declining Persian Safavid overlords in the region of Loy Kandahar ("Greater Kandahar") in what is now southern Afghanistan.
The House of Elders or Mesherano Jirga (مشرانو جرگه), is the upper house of the bicameral National Assembly of Afghanistan, alongside the lower House of the People (Wolesi Jirga).
The House of the People or Wolesi Jirga (مجلس نمایندگان افغانستان, د افغانستان ولسي جرگه) abbreviated WJ, is the lower house of the bicameral National Assembly of Afghanistan, alongside the upper House of Elders.
The Ḥudūd al-ʿĀlam (حدود العالم "Boundaries of the World" or "Limits of the World") is a 10th-century geography book written in Persian by an unknown author from Jowzjan.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
Ibn Battuta (محمد ابن بطوطة; fully; Arabic: أبو عبد الله محمد بن عبد الله اللواتي الطنجي بن بطوطة) (February 25, 13041368 or 1369) was a Moroccan scholar who widely travelled the medieval world.
Illinois Institute of Technology (Illinois Tech or IIT) is a private research university in Chicago, Illinois.
Imran Ahmad Khan Niazi PP, HI (born 5 October 1952) is the Chairman of Pakistan Movement of Justice and the candidate for the Prime Minister of Pakistan in the upcoming Pakistani general election, 2018.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian independence movement encompassed activities and ideas aiming to end the East India Company rule (1757–1857) and the British Indian Empire (1857–1947) in the Indian subcontinent.
Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (née Nehru; 19 November 1917 – 31 October 1984) was an Indian politician, stateswoman and a central figure of the Indian National Congress.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
The Indo-Iranian languages or Indo-Iranic languages, or Aryan languages, constitute the largest and easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Indus River (also called the Sindhū) is one of the longest rivers in Asia.
The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC), or Harappan Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation (5500–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.
The International Billiards & Snooker Federation (IBSF) is the organisation that governs non-professional snooker and English billiards around the world.
Interventionism is a policy of non-defensive (proactive) activity undertaken by a nation-state, or other geo-political jurisdiction of a lesser or greater nature, to manipulate an economy and/or society.
The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages in the Indo-European language family.
The Iranian peoples, or Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages.
The Iranian Plateau or the Persian Plateau is a geological formation in Western Asia and Central Asia.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islam is the second largest religion in India, with 14.2% of the country's population or roughly 172 million people identifying as adherents of Islam (2011 census) as an ethnoreligious group.
The Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (د افغانستان اسلامي امارات) was an Islamic state established in September 1996 when the Taliban began their rule of Afghanistan after the fall of Kabul.
Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts.
Mohammad Ismail Khan (Persian: محمد اسماعیل خان) (born 1946) is a politician in Afghanistan, who served as Minister of Water and Energy from 2005 to 2013.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The Israelites (בני ישראל Bnei Yisra'el) were a confederation of Iron Age Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods.
Mirza Nur-ud-din Beig Mohammad Khan Salim مرزا نور الدین محمد خان سلیم, known by his imperial name (جہانگیر) Jahangir (31 August 1569 – 28 October 1627), was the fourth Mughal Emperor who ruled from 1605 until his death in 1627.
Jahangir Khan, HI (جهانگير خان; born 10 December 1963 in Karachi, Pakistan) sometimes spelled "Jehangir Khan", is a former World No.
Jalālābād, or Dzalalabad, formerly called Ādīnapūr as documented by the 7th-century Xuanzang, is a city in eastern Afghanistan.
Mawlawi Jalaluddin Haqqani (جلال الدين حقاني) (1939 – 2014) is the leader of the Haqqani network, an insurgent group fighting in guerilla warfare initially against US-led NATO forces, and the present government of Afghanistan they support.
Sayyid Jamāl al-Dīn al-Afghānī (سید جمالالدین افغانی), also known as Sayyid Jamāl ad-Dīn Asadābādī (سید جمالالدین اسدآبادی) and commonly known as Al-Afghani (1838/1839 – 9 March 1897), was a political activist and Islamic ideologist in the Muslim world during the late 19th century, particularly in the Middle East, South Asia and Europe.
James William Spain (July 22, 1926 – January 2, 2008) was in the US Foreign Service with postings in Karachi, Islamabad, Istanbul, Ankara, Dar Es Salaam, and Colombo and four ambassadorships in Tanzania, Turkey, the United Nations (as deputy permanent representative), and Sri Lanka.
Jansher Khan (جان شیر خان; born 15 June 1969, in Peshawar, Pakistan) is a former World No.
The Jewish Virtual Library ("JVL", formerly known as JSOURCE) is an online encyclopedia published by the American–Israeli Cooperative Enterprise (AICE).
A jirga (occasionally jarga or jargah; Pashto) is a traditional assembly of leaders that make decisions by consensus and according to the teachings of Pashtunwali.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Junaid Khan (Pashto/جنید خان; born 24 December 1989, Swabi District) is a Pakistani international cricketer who bowls left arm fast.
Kabul (کابل) is the capital of Afghanistan and its largest city, located in the eastern section of the country.
Kader Khan (born 11 December 1937) is an Afghan-born Indian-Canadian film actor, screenwriter, comedian, and director.
The Kakar (Pashto: کاکړ, Urdu: کاکڑ, Hindi: काकड़) is a Gharghashti Pashtun tribe, based mostly in the Balochistan Province of Pakistan, and Loy Kandahar in Afghanistan.
Kandahār or Qandahār (کندهار; قندهار; known in older literature as Candahar) is the second-largest city in Afghanistan, with a population of about 557,118.
Karachi (کراچی; ALA-LC:,; ڪراچي) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Sindh.
Karak (Pashto: کرك, کرک) is the headquarters of Karak District in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
Karlāṇī (کرلاڼي) is a Pashtun tribal confederacy.
Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent.
Kayaking is the use of a kayak for moving across water.
The Khalaj people (خلجها) are a Turkic people that speak the Khalaj language, which is thought to be one of the closest languages to Old Turkic.
Abū Sulaymān Khālid ibn al-Walīd ibn al-Mughīrah al-Makhzūmī (أبو سليمان خالد بن الوليد بن المغيرة المخزومي‎; 585–642), also known as Sayf ullah al-Maslūl (سيف الله المسلول; Drawn Sword of God) was a companion of Muhammad.
The Khalji or Khilji dynasty was a Muslim dynasty which ruled large parts of the Indian subcontinent between 1290 and 1320.
Ghani Khan (Pashto: غني خان) ‎ (1914–1996) was a Pashtun philosopher and Pashto language poet, artist (painter and sculptor), writer and Pashtun nationalist politician of the 20th century.
Khan Abdul Wali Khan (خان عبدالولي خان, خان عبدالولی خان, born: 11 January 1917 – 26 January 2006) was a British Indian and later Pakistani secular democratic socialist and Pashtun leader, and served as president of National Awami Party.
Khan Roshan Khan (خان روشن خان; November 1914 – 19 November 1988) was a Pashtun historian, educationalist, and writer from Pakistan known primarily for being president of the Muslim League in Swabi and for writing books on the history of the Pashtun people.
Khandesh (Marathi:खानदेश) is a geographic region in Central India, which forms the northwestern portion of Maharashtra state.
Khanewal (Punjabi and خانیوال) is a city and the capital of Khanewal District in the Punjab province of Pakistan.
The Khattak (خټک), is a Pashtun tribe numbering over 3 million, which speaks a variant of the softer Kandahari Pashto.
Khattak dance (د خټکو اتڼ) is a swift martial attan dance usually performed while carrying a sword and a handkerchief by the tribesmen from the agile Khattak tribe of Pashtuns in Pakistan and some eastern parts of Afghanistan.
Khorasan (استان خراسان) (also transcribed as Khurasan and Khorassan, also called Traxiane during Hellenistic and Parthian times) was a province in north eastern Iran, but historically referred to a much larger area east and north-east of the Persian Empire.
Khost (خوست) is a city in eastern Afghanistan, and the largest city of Loya Paktia.
Khudai Khidmatgar (خدايي خدمتگار) literally translates as the servants of God, represented a non-violent struggle against the British Empire by the Pashtuns (also known as Pathans, Pakhtuns or Afghans) of the North-West Frontier Province of British India (now in Pakistan).
Khushāl Khān Khattak (1613 – 25 February 1689; خوشحال خان خټک Khʷushḥāl Khān Khaṭṭak), also called Khushāl Bābā (خوشحال بابا), was an Afghan or Pashtun warrior-poet, chief, and freedom fighter from the Khattak tribe of the Pashtuns.
Khwazakhela (خوازہ خیلہ, خوازه خېله) is a town and an administrative subdivision (Tehsil) of Swat District in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (abbreviated as KP; خیبر پختونخوا; خیبر پښتونخوا) is one of the four administrative provinces of Pakistan, located in the northwestern region of the country along the international border with Afghanistan.
Kohat (کوهاټ, کوہاٹ), is a city in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan which serves as the capital of the Kohat District.
Kunar (کونړ, کنر) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the northeastern part of the country.
Kunduz (کندز; قندوز) is a city in northern Afghanistan, which serves as the capital of Kunduz Province.
Kurram (د کورمې قبايلي سيمه; کرم ایجنسی) is a district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
The Kushan Empire (Βασιλεία Κοσσανῶν; Κυϸανο, Kushano; कुषाण साम्राज्य Kuṣāṇa Samrajya; BHS:; Chinese: 貴霜帝國; Kušan-xšaθr) was a syncretic empire, formed by the Yuezhi, in the Bactrian territories in the early 1st century.
Lahore (لاہور, لہور) is the capital city of the Pakistani province of Punjab, and is the country’s second-most populous city after Karachi.
Lakki Marwat or Lakki is the headquarters of Lakki Marwat District in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
Lanḍī Kōtal (لنډي کوتل; لنڈی کوتل) or Lwāṛgai (لواړګی) is a town in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan, and the administrative capital of Khyber Agency.
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family.
Lemar (Pashto:لمر, meaning "sun" in Pashto) is a television station based in Kabul, Afghanistan, which was founded in 2006.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the United States Library of Congress, freely available for use by researchers.
This is a table chart of the current governors of Afghanistan.
This article lists the heads of state of Afghanistan since the foundation of the first Afghan state, the Hotak Empire, in 1709.
The following is an incomplete list of Pashto language films.
This is a list of Pashto-language television channels in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and other parts of world.
The following is a list of Pashtun empires and dynasties.
Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write.
The Lodi dynasty (or Lodhi) was an Afghan dynasty that ruled the Delhi Sultanate from 1451 to 1526.
Loralai (لورالائی) is the Division Headquarter of Zhob Division and District Headquarter of Loralai District.
Professor Louis Dupree (August 23, 1925 – March 21, 1989) was an American archaeologist, anthropologist, and scholar of Afghan culture and history.
In the Pashtunwali, a code of laws of the Pashtun peoples living in areas of Afghanistan and Pakistan and neighboring countries, loya jirga (لويه جرګه, "grand assembly") is a special type of jirga that is mainly organized for choosing a new head of state in case of sudden death, adopting a new constitution, or to settle national or regional issue such as war.
Madhubala (born Mumtaz Jehan Begum Dehlavi; 14 February 1933 – 23 February 1969) was an Indian film actress who appeared in classic films of Hindi cinema.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule.
Mahmud Beg Tarzi (محمود طرزۍ, Dari Persian: محمود بیگ طرزی; August 23, 1865 – November 22, 1933) was a politician and one of Afghanistan's greatest intellectuals.
Maidan Shar (میدان ښار Maidān Shār/Maidān Khār; میدان شهر), also Maidan Shahr or Maidanshar, is the capital of Maidan Wardak Province, Afghanistan.
Majid Jahangir Khan (ماجد جہانگیر خان) is a former cricketer, batsman and captain of the Pakistan cricket team.
Malala Yousafzai (Malālah Yūsafzay: ملالہ یوسفزئی; ملاله یوسفزۍ; born 12 July 1997) is a Pakistani activist for female education and the youngest Nobel Prize laureate.
Malalai Kakar (ملالۍ کاکړ; 1967-28 September 2008) was the most high-profile policewoman in Afghanistan after the ousting of the Taliban in 2001.
Malalai of Maiwand (د ميوند ملالۍ), also known as Malala (ملاله), or Malalai Anna (ملالۍ انا, meaning Malalai the "Grandmother") is a national folk hero of Afghanistan who rallied local fighters against the British troops at the 1880 Battle of Maiwand.
Sir Malik Ghulam Muhammad (ملک غلام محمد 20 April 1895– 29 August 1956), was a Pakistani financier who served as the third Governor-General of Pakistan, appointed in this capacity in 1951 until being dismissed in 1955 due to health conditions.
Mansehra (Hindko/Urdu/Pashto) is a city located in Mansehra District in the eastern part of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
Mardān (Pashto,; Urdu; Pashto) is located in Mardan District in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan.
Maria Toorpakay Wazir (ماريه تورپېکۍ وزيره; ماریہ تورپیکئی وزیر; b. November 22, 1990 in South Waziristan, FATA) is a professional Pakistani squash player.
Marilyn Monroe (born Norma Jeane Mortenson; June 1, 1926 – August 5, 1962) was an American actress, model, and singer.
Martial arts are codified systems and traditions of combat practices, which are practiced for a number of reasons: as self-defense, military and law enforcement applications, mental and spiritual development; as well as entertainment and the preservation of a nation's intangible cultural heritage.
Mas'ud I of Ghazni (مسعود غزنوی), known as Amīr-i Shahīd (امیر شهید; "the martyr king") (998 – 17 January 1040), was sultan of the Ghaznavid Empire from 1030 to 1040.
Matriarchy is a social system in which females (most notably in mammals) hold the primary power positions in roles of political leadership, moral authority, social privilege and control of property at the specific exclusion of males - at least to a large degree.
The Maurya Empire was a geographically-extensive Iron Age historical power founded by Chandragupta Maurya which dominated ancient India between 322 BCE and 180 BCE.
The Medes (Old Persian Māda-, Μῆδοι, מָדַי) were an ancient Iranian people who lived in an area known as Media (northwestern Iran) and who spoke the Median language. At around 1100 to 1000 BC, they inhabited the mountainous area of northwestern Iran and the northeastern and eastern region of Mesopotamia and located in the Hamadan (Ecbatana) region. Their emergence in Iran is thought to have occurred between 800 BC and 700 BC, and in the 7th century the whole of western Iran and some other territories were under Median rule. Its precise geographical extent remains unknown. A few archaeological sites (discovered in the "Median triangle" in western Iran) and textual sources (from contemporary Assyrians and also ancient Greeks in later centuries) provide a brief documentation of the history and culture of the Median state. Apart from a few personal names, the language of the Medes is unknown. The Medes had an ancient Iranian religion (a form of pre-Zoroastrian Mazdaism or Mithra worshipping) with a priesthood named as "Magi". Later during the reigns of the last Median kings, the reforms of Zoroaster spread into western Iran.
Medina (المدينة المنورة,, "the radiant city"; or المدينة,, "the city"), also transliterated as Madīnah, is a city in the Hejaz region of the Arabian Peninsula and administrative headquarters of the Al-Madinah Region of Saudi Arabia.
Meena Keshwar Kamal (Pashto/مینا کشور کمال; February 27, 1956 – February 4, 1987), commonly known as Meena, was an Afghan revolutionary political activist, feminist, women's rights activist and founder of Revolutionary Association of the Women of Afghanistan (RAWA), who was assassinated in 1987.
A metropolitan area, sometimes referred to as a metro area or commuter belt, is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing.
The Mawlaw'īyya / Mevlevi Order (Mevlevilik or Mevleviyye طریقت مولویه) is a Sufi order in Konya (modern day Turkey) (capital of the Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate) founded by the followers of Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Balkhi-Rumi, a 13th-century Persian poet, Islamic theologian and Sufi mystic.
The Mianwali District (ضِلع مِيانوالى; Pashto,ضلع میانوالی), is a district in the northwest of Punjab province, Pakistan.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Mihtarlam (مهترلام, مهترلام), also spelled Mehtar Lam, is a town in Afghanistan, the capital of Laghman Province and center of Mihtarlam District.
Mingora (مینګورہ, Mīngawara) (مینگورہ) is a commercial city in the Swat District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Mīrāmshāh (Pashto/ميرامشا) or Mīrānshāh (ميرانشاه) is a town and administrative headquarters of North Waziristan, Pakistan.
Mīrwais Khān Hotak (مير ويس خان هوتک), also known as Shāh Mirwais Ghiljī (شاه ميرويس غلجي) (1673 – November 1715), was an influential tribal chief of the Ghilji Pashtuns from Kandahar, Afghanistan, who founded the Hotak dynasty that existed from 1709 to 1738.
Misbah-ul-Haq Khan Niazi (مصباح الحق خان نیازی) (born 28 May 1974), or Misbah-ul-Haq, is a former Pakistani cricketer who captained the Pakistani team in all three formats of the game.
Major General Mohammad Dawran (January 20, 1954) is Commander of the Afghan Air Force,http://www.pajhwok.com/en/2010/01/04/ministry-gets-firefighting-vehicles.
Mohammad Ishaq Aloko محمد اسحاق الکو; born 1935) is the Attorney General of Afghanistan since August 2008. He was appointed by President Hamid Karzai after Abdul Jabar Sabit was forced to resign from the post. An ethnic Pashtun, he was born in Kandahar, Afghanistan.
Mohammad Yunus (26 June 1916 – 17 June 2001) was a member of Indian Foreign Service.
Mohammadzai (محمد زی), also spelled "Moḥammadzay" (meaning sons of Mohammad in Pashto language) is a sub-tribe or clan of the Barakzai which is part of the Durrani confederacy of tribes.
Mohammed Daoud Khan or Daud Khan (July 18, 1909 – April 28, 1978) was the Prime Minister of Afghanistan from 1953 to 1963 and later the President of Afghanistan.
Mohammad Qasim Fahim (Pashto/محمد فهیم), also known as "Marshal Fahim"; 1957 – 9 March 2014) was a politician in Afghanistan who served as Vice President from June 2002 until December 2004 and from November 2009 until his death. Between September 2001 and December 2004, he also served as Defense Minister under the Afghan Transitional Administration. As military commander of the Northern Alliance, Fahim captured the Afghan capital Kabul in the fall of 2001 from the Taliban government. In 2004, President Hamid Karzai provided Fahim the honorary title Marshal and a year later, he became member of the House of Elders. He later became a recipient of the Ahmad Shah Baba Medal. Fahim was a member of Afghanistan's Tajik ethnic group. He was affiliated with the Jamiat Islami (Shura-e Nazar) party of Afghanistan.
Mullah Mohammed Omar (ملا محمد عمر, Mullā Muḥammad 'Umar; c. 1960 – 23 April 2013), widely known as Mullah Omar, was the supreme commander and spiritual leader of the Taliban.
Mohammed Zahir Shah (محمد ظاهرشاه, محمد ظاهر شاه; 16 October 1914 – 23 July 2007) was the last King of Afghanistan, reigning from 8 November 1933 until he was deposed on 17 July 1973.
Mohan Lal Zutshi (popularly known as Mohan Lal Kashmiri; 1812 – 1877) was a traveller, diplomat, and author.
Mohibullah Khan, often referred to by the nickname "Mo Khan", was a squash player from Pakistan.
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Mosesמֹשֶׁה, Modern Tiberian ISO 259-3; ܡܘܫܐ Mūše; موسى; Mωϋσῆς was a prophet in the Abrahamic religions.
Mountaineering is the sport of mountain climbing.
The Hon Mountstuart Elphinstone FRSE (6 October 1779 – 20 November 1859) was a Scottish statesman and historian, associated with the government of British India.
The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.
The Muhajir people (also spelled Mahajir and Mohajir) (مهاجر) are Muslim immigrants, of multi-ethnic origin, and their descendants, who migrated from various regions of India after the independence of Pakistan.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Muhammad Ali Jinnah (محمد علی جناح ALA-LC:, born Mahomedali Jinnahbhai; 25 December 1876 – 11 September 1948) was a lawyer, politician, and the founder of Pakistan.
Muhammad Essa Khan (Urdu/Pashto:; born on 20 November 1983) is a Pakistani footballer playing currently for KRL FC.
Muhammad Muhsin Khan (Arabic, Pashto, Urdū: محمد محسن خان), born 1345 AH / 1927 CE, is a doctor and author of Pashtun origin, most notable for his English translations of Sahih al-Bukhari and the Qur'an, entitled The Noble Qur'an, which he completed along with Muhammad Taqi-ud-Din al-Hilali.
Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad Ghori (معز الدین محمد غوری), born Shihab ad-Din (1149 – March 15, 1206), also known as Muhammad of Ghor, was Sultan of the Ghurid Empire along with his brother Ghiyath ad-Din Muhammad from 1173 to 1202 and as the sole ruler from 1202 to 1206.
Mujahideen (مجاهدين) is the plural form of mujahid (مجاهد), the term for one engaged in Jihad (literally, "holy war").
Mukha or makha is the traditional Pashtun archery sport played in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
Multan (Punjabi, Saraiki, مُلتان), is a Pakistani city and the headquarters of Multan District in the province of Punjab.
Munir Ahmad, better known as Munir Niazi, (منیر نیازی)(1928-2006) Sitara-e-Imtiaz Award recipient, was an Urdu and Punjabi poet from Pakistan.
A musical instrument is an instrument created or adapted to make musical sounds.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent mainly took place from the 12th to the 16th centuries, though earlier Muslim conquests made limited inroads into modern Afghanistan and Pakistan as early as the time of the Rajput kingdoms in the 8th century.
The Muslim conquests of Afghanistan began during the Muslim conquest of Persia as the Arab Muslims were drawn eastwards to Khorasan, Sistan and Transoxiana.
Myron Weiner (11 March 1931 – 3 June 1999) was an American political scientist and renowned scholar on India, South Asia, internal and international migration, ethnic conflict, child labor, democratization, political demography, and the politics and policies of developing countries.
Nader Shah Afshar (نادر شاه افشار; also known as Nader Qoli Beyg نادر قلی بیگ or Tahmāsp Qoli Khan تهماسپ قلی خان) (August 1688 – 19 June 1747) was one of the most powerful Iranian rulers in the history of the nation, ruling as Shah of Persia (Iran) from 1736 to 1747 when he was assassinated during a rebellion.
Naghma Shaperai (Pashto: نغمه ښاپېرۍ, born 1 January 1964) is a prominent Afghan singer who started her career in the early 1980s.
Najiba Faiz (نجیبہ فائز; born in 1988), is an Afghan—Pakistani host, television and film actress, known for playing variety of notable characters in films and in television.
The name Afghānistān (افغانستان, Afġānestān, Pashto: افغانستان, Afġānistān) means "land of the Afghans", which originates from the ethnonym "Afghan".
Nana (Kushan Greek: Νανα, Ναναια, Ναναϸαο, Sogdian nny) was a Kushan female divinity from ancient Bactria, a variation of pan-Asiatic Nana, a conflation of Sumero-Babylonian Inanna-Ishtar with a local divinity, in her Kushan form with the indigenous (Zoroastrian) Harahvati Aredvi Sura Anahita.
Nancy Hatch Dupree (October 3, 1927 – September 10, 2017) was an American historian whose work primarily focused on the history of modern Afghanistan.
Nangarhār (ننګرهار; ننگرهار) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the eastern part of the country.
The National Assembly (ملی شورا Mili Shura, شورای ملی Shura-i Milli), also known as the Afghan Parliament, is Afghanistan's national legislature.
National Geographic (formerly the National Geographic Magazine and branded also as NAT GEO or) is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society.
The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world.
A national language is a language (or language variant, e.g. dialect) that has some connection—de facto or de jure—with people and the territory they occupy.
Nāzo Tokhī (نازو توخۍ), commonly known as Nāzo Anā (نازو انا, "Nazo the grandmother"), was a Pashtun female poet and a literary figure of the Pashto language.
The Niazi (نيازي), Niazai, Nyazi, Nyazai, Niyazi or Niyazai is a Pashtun tribe which originated in eastern Afghanistan and northwestern Pakistan.
Nicholas Sims-Williams (born 11 April 1949, Chatham, Kent) is a professor of the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), University of London, where he is the Research Professor of Iranian and Central Asian Studies at the Department of the Languages and Cultures of Near and Middle East.
Ni'mat Allah al-Harawi (also known as Niamatullah) was a chronicler at the court of the Mughal Emperor Jahangir where he compiled a Persian history of the Afghans, the Makhzan-i-Afghani.
The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes created by the Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature.
The Noble Qur'an (with those words understood here as referring to this particular translation, rather than the Quran itself - also commonly called 'Noble' by Muslims) is a translation of the Qur'an by Muhammad Muhsin Khan (Arabic: محمد محسن خان, muḥammad muḥsin khān) and Muhammad Taqi-ud-Din al-Hilali (Arabic: محمد تقي الدين الهلالي, muḥammad taqiyyu-d-dīn al-hilālī).
Nonviolence is the personal practice of being harmless to self and others under every condition.
North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India.
The Afghan Northern Alliance, officially known as the United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan (جبهه متحد اسلامی ملی برای نجات افغانستان Jabha-yi Muttahid-i Islāmi-yi Millī barāyi Nijāt-i Afghānistān), was a united military front that came to formation in late 1996 after the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (Taliban) took over Kabul.
Northern Pashto or Northeastern Pashto, sometimes known as Yusufzai Pashto after its principal subdialect, is a Northern dialect of Pashto spoken in northern Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan and northeastern Afghanistan.
Nowruz (نوروز,; literally "new day") is the name of the Iranian New Year, also known as the Persian New Year, which is celebrated worldwide by various ethno-linguistic groups as the beginning of the New Year.
Sir Olaf Kirkpatrick Kruuse Caroe (15 November 1892 – 23 November 1981) was an administrator in British India, working for the Indian Civil Service and the Indian Political Service.
Weightlifting, also called '''Olympic-style weightlifting''', or Olympic weightlifting, is an athletic discipline in the modern Olympic programme in which the athlete attempts a maximum-weight single lift of a barbell loaded with weight plates.
Omar Zakhilwal (ډاکتر عمر زاخيلوال; born 1968) is a politician in Afghanistan,is the current Afghanistan ambassador to Pakistan and served as the Finance Minister and Chief Economic Advisor to the President Hamid Karzai.
Omer Tarin (real name: Omer Salim Khan), FRAS, FPAL, etc.; born 10 March 1967, is a Pakistani poet, research scholar, social activist and mystic.
Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) is the official name used by the U.S. government for the Global War on Terrorism.
Orakzai is a Pashtun tribe native to the Orakzai Agency, FATA of Pakistan and also reside in the North West Frontier Province.
Orakzai District (د اورکزو قبايلي سيمه) is a district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Oral tradition, or oral lore, is a form of human communication where in knowledge, art, ideas and cultural material is received, preserved and transmitted orally from one generation to another.
Ormuri (also known as Oormuri, Urmuri, Ormur, Ormui, Bargista, Baraks, and Baraki) is a language spoken in Waziristan.
Ossetian, also known as Ossete and Ossetic, is an Eastern Iranian language spoken in Ossetia, a region on the northern slopes of the Caucasus Mountains.
The Packard Humanities Institute (PHI) is a non-profit foundation, established in 1987, and located in Los Altos, California, which funds projects in a wide range of conservation concerns in the fields of archaeology, music, film preservation, and historic conservation, plus Greek epigraphy, with an aim to create tools for basic research in the Humanities.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Pakistan Air Force (PAF) (پاک فِضائیہ—, or alternatively پاکیستان هاوایی فوج, reporting name: PAF) is the aerial warfare branch of the Pakistan Armed Forces, tasked primarily with the aerial defence of Pakistan, with a secondary role of providing air support to the Pakistan Army and the Pakistan Navy.
The Pakistan national cricket team (پاکستان قومی کرکٹ ٹیم), popularly referred to as the Shaheens (شاہینز), Green Shirts and Men in Green, is administered by the Pakistan Cricket Board (PCB).
The Pakistan national football team represents Pakistan association football in FIFA-authorised events and is controlled by the Pakistan Football Federation, the governing body for football in Pakistan. Pakistan's home ground is Punjab Stadium, Lahore. Pakistan became a member of FIFA in 1948 joining the Asian Football Confederation. Pakistan's national team debuted in 1950. Pakistan contest the South Asian Football Federation Championship and South Asian Games, which alternate biennially. Pakistan won the Colombo Cup in 1952. Pakistan has great record in South Asian Games, won four gold medals in 1989, 1991, 2004, 2006 and won one bronze medal in 1987 respectively.
The Pakistan women's national cricket team represents Pakistan in international women's cricket.
Pakistani Americans (پاکستانی نژاد امریکی) are Americans whose ancestry originates from Pakistan or Pakistanis who migrated to and reside in the United States.
Pakthas are an ancient people that find reference in Sanskrit and Greek sources as a people living in the region which includes south-eastern province (Loya Paktia) in Afghanistan and Northern parts of Pakistan.
Paktia (پکتيا – Paktyā) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the east of the country.
The Pamir languages are an areal group of the Eastern Iranian languages, spoken by numerous people in the Pamir Mountains, primarily along the Panj River and its tributaries.
Pāṛachinār (پاڑه چنار; پاڑه چنار), formerly called Tutki, is the a city in Kurram Agency of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Pareshan Khattak (پری شان خٹک), (10 December 1932 – 16 April 2009) real name Gahami Jan Khattak, former Vice-Chancellor, Pashto poet and writer and former Chairman University Grants Commission.
The Partition of India was the division of British India in 1947 which accompanied the creation of two independent dominions, India and Pakistan.
Parveen Babi (4 April 1949 – 20 January 2005) was a popular Indian Hindi/Hindustani film actress, who appeared in 60 feature films and is most remembered for her glamorous roles alongside top heroes of the 1970s and early 1980s in blockbusters such as Deewaar, Amar Akbar Anthony, Namak Halaal, Suhaag and Shaan.
Pashto (پښتو Pax̌tō), sometimes spelled Pukhto, is the language of the Pashtuns.
The Pashto / Pukhto alphabet (پښتو الفبې or پښتو الپبې – Eastern dialect: pux̌to alifbe pukh'hto / pukhhto alifbe; Western dialect: paṣ̌to alipbe) is a modified form of the Persian alphabet known as Perso-Arabic, which is itself a derivative of the Arabic alphabet, with letters added to accommodate phonemes used in Pashto that are not found in either Arabic or Persian.
Pashto literature and poetry (پښتو ليكنې) refers to literature and poetry in Pashto language.
Pashto media includes Pashto literature, Pashto-language newspapers, magazines, television and radio stations, as well as Pashto films and Pashto internet.
Pashtun culture (پښتني هڅوب) is based on Islam and Pashtunwali, which is an ancient way of life, as well as speaking of the Pashto language and wearing Pashtun dress.
Pashtun diaspora refers to ethnic Pashtuns who live outside their traditional homeland of Pashtunistan, which is south of the Amu River in Afghanistan and west of the Indus River in Pakistan.
Pashtun nationalism (پښتون ملتپالنه) is a political and social movement which promotes the idea that the Pashtuns are deserving of a sovereign nation in their homeland of Pashtunistan, which consists of the Pashtun-majority parts of Afghanistan and Pakistan.
The Pashtun tribes, or Afghan tribes (پښتانه ټبرونه يا پښتانه قبايل), are the tribes of the Pashtun people, a large Eastern Iranian ethnic group who use the Pashto language and follow Pashtunwali code of conduct.
Pashtūnistān (پښتونستان; also called Pakhtūnistān, or Pathānistān, meaning the "land of Pashtuns") is the geographic historical region inhabited by the indigenous Pashtun people of modern-day Afghanistan and Pakistan, wherein Pashtun culture, language, and national identity have been based.
Pashtunization (پښتون جوړونه), also called Pathanization, is a process of cultural or linguistic change in which someone or something non-Pashtun becomes accultured to Pashtun influence.
Pashtunwali (پښتونوالی) or Pakhtunwali is a non-written ethical code and traditional lifestyle which the indigenous Pashtun people follow.
Pata Khazāna (پټه خزانه – The Hidden Treasure, alternative transcriptions: Peta Khazāna, Pota Khazana, Pata Xazāna) is the title of a disputed manuscript written in Pashto language.
Patna is the capital and largest city of the state of Bihar in India.
Patrilineality, also known as the male line, the spear side or agnatic kinship, is a common kinship system in which an individual's family membership derives from and is recorded through his or her father's lineage.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
Pehlwani is a form of wrestling from the South Asia.
The People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (حزب دموکراتيک خلق افغانستان, Hezb-e dimūkrātĩk-e khalq-e Afghānistān, د افغانستان د خلق دموکراټیک ګوند, Da Afghanistān da khalq dimukrātīk gund; abbreviated PDPA) was a political party established on 1 January 1965.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Peshawar (پېښور; پشاور; پشور) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
Peter Hopkirk (15 December 1930 – 22 August 2014) was a British journalist, author and historian who wrote six books about the British Empire, Russia and Central Asia.
Pharaoh (ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ Prro) is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BCE) until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until circa 1200 BCE.
Pīr Bāyazīd Khān (پير بايزيد خان), more commonly known as Pīr Rōshān or Pīr Rōkhān (پیر روښان, "the enlightened Pir"; پیر روشن) (1525 – 1581/1585), was an Afghan or Pashtun warrior-poet, Sufi master, and freedom fighter from the Ormur tribe of Waziristan.
Pishin or Pshin (پښين) is a city that is the capital of the Pishin District of Balochistan province, Pakistan.
PLOS One (stylized PLOS ONE, and formerly PLoS ONE) is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Public Library of Science (PLOS) since 2006.
Politics (from Politiká, meaning "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions that apply to members of a group.
The politics of Afghanistan consists of the council of ministers, provincial governors and the national assembly, with a president serving as the head of state and commander-in-chief of the Afghan Armed Forces.
Polo is a team sport played on horseback.
Popalzai or Popalzay (پوپلزی), also known as Popal, are Durrani (formerly called Abdali or Bor Tareen) Pashtuns of Afghanistan and Pakistan.
The Karzai administration was the government of Afghanistan under President Hamid Karzai, who became the head of state of Afghanistan in December 2001 after the Taliban government was overthrown.
The President's Award for Pride of Performance (تمغۂ حسنِ کارکردگی) is one of the awards conferred by the Government of Pakistan on Pakistani civilians in recognition of distinguished meritorious work in the fields of literature, arts, sports, medicine, and science.
Progress Publishers was a Moscow-based Soviet publisher founded in 1931.
A proxy war is an armed conflict between two states or non-state actors which act on the instigation or on behalf of other parties that are not directly involved in the hostilities.
Punjab is a state in northern India.
Punjab (Urdu, Punjabi:, panj-āb, "five waters") is Pakistan's second largest province by area, after Balochistan, and its most populous province, with an estimated population of 110,012,442 as of 2017.
Qais Abdur Rashīd or Qays ʿAbd ar-Rashīd (قيس عبد الرشيد) is said to be, in post-Islamic lore, the legendary founding father of the Pashtun people.
Qalāti Ghiljī (قلات غلجي), also called Qalāti Zābul or Qalāti Khaljī (قلات خلجي), or simply Qalāt or Kalat, is a city in southern Afghanistan and the capital of Zabul Province.
Qamar Zaman (born 1952, in Quetta, Pakistan) is a former squash player from Pakistan.
Qarabagh is a town located Afghanistan.
Quetta (کوټه; کویته; کوٹه; کوئٹہ) is the provincial capital and largest city of Balochistan, Pakistan.
Quhistan (persian:.قهستان) or Kohistan (کهستان, "mountainous land") was a region of medieval Persia (Iran), essentially the southern part of Khurasan.
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) is a broadcasting organization that broadcasts and reports news, information, and analysis to countries in Eastern Europe, Central Asia and the Middle East where it says that "the free flow of information is either banned by government authorities or not fully developed".
National Radio Television Afghanistan (RTA; د افغانستان ملي راډيو تلويزون Da Afġanistan Mīlī Radīo Telvizoon, رادیو تلویزیون ملی افغانستان Rādīo Telvizoon-e Mīlī-e Afġānestān, branded as ملی (meaning national)) is the public-broadcasting organization of Afghanistan, based in Kabul.
Abdur Rahmān Mohmand (1632–1706) (عبدالرحمان بابا), or Rahmān Bābā (رحمان بابا), was a renowned Pashtun Sufi Dervish and poet from Peshawar in the Mughal Empire (modern-day Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan).
Rajasthan (literally, "Land of Kings") is India's largest state by area (or 10.4% of India's total area).
Ramadan (رمضان,;In Arabic phonology, it can be, depending on the region. also known as Ramazan, romanized as Ramzan, Ramadhan, or Ramathan) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, and is observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting (Sawm) to commemorate the first revelation of the Quran to Muhammad according to Islamic belief.
Razmak (Pashto and رزمک) is one of the three subdivisions of North Waziristan Agency in Pakistan, the other two being Mirali and Miramshah.
The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
A regional language is a language spoken in an area of a sovereign state, whether it be a small area, a federal state or province, or some wider area.
Resolute Support Mission or Operation Resolute Support is a NATO-led train, advise and assist mission consisting of over 13,000 troops in the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, which began on January 1, 2015.
Revenge is a form of justice enacted in the absence or defiance of the norms of formal law and jurisprudence.
The Revolutionary Association of the Women of Afghanistan (RAWA) (Persian:جمعیت انقلابی زنان افغانستان, Jamiyat-e Enqelābi-ye Zanān-e Afghānestān, Pashto:د افغانستان د ښڅو انقلابی جمعیت) is a women's organization based in Quetta, Pakistan, that promotes women's rights and secular democracy.
Rock climbing is an activity in which participants climb up, down or across natural rock formations or artificial rock walls.
The Rohilla Pathans, or Rohilla Afghan, is a community of Urdu-speaking people of Pashtun ethnicity, historically found in Rohilkhand, a region in the state of Uttar Pradesh, North India.
Roshan Khan (روشن خان; 26 November 1929 – 6 January 2006) was a squash player from Nawakille, Peshawar, Pakistan.
Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group is an independent publishing house founded in 1949.
A royal family is the immediate family of a king or queen regnant, and sometimes his or her extended family.
Rubab, robab or rabab (رباب, रुबाब, Rübab, Rübab, رُباب rubāb, Tajik and Uzbek рубоб) is a lute-like musical instrument originating from central Afghanistan.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Safavid dynasty (دودمان صفوی Dudmān e Safavi) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history.
Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī (صحيح البخاري.), also known as Bukhari Sharif (بخاري شريف), is one of the Kutub al-Sittah (six major hadith collections) of Sunni Islam.
Saif Ali Khan (born Sajid Ali Khan on 16 August 1970) is an Indian film actor and producer.
Abdul Rashid Salim Salman Khan (born 27 December 1965), credited as Salman Khan (pronunciation) is an Indian film actor, producer, singer and television personality.
Sana Safi (ثنا ساپۍ - born 1989) is an Afghan broadcast journalist, currently working for BBC World Service.
Saraiki (سرائیکی, also spelt Siraiki, or less often Seraiki) is an Indo-Aryan language of the Lahnda (Western Punjabi) group, spoken in the south-western half of the province of Punjab in Pakistan.
Sarbaṇī (سربڼي) are the largest tribal group of Pashtuns.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
Saul (meaning "asked for, prayed for"; Saul; طالوت, Ṭālūt or شاؤل, Ša'ūl), according to the Hebrew Bible, was the first king of the Kingdom of Israel and Judah.
The Saur Revolution (إنقلاب ثور or ۷ ثور (literally 7th Saur); د ثور انقلاب), also called the April Revolution or April Coup, was a coup d'état (or self-proclaimed revolution) led by the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) against the rule of Afghan President Mohammed Daoud Khan on 27–28 April 1978.
Sayyid (also spelt Syed, Saiyed,Seyit,Seyd, Said, Sayed, Sayyed, Saiyid, Seyed and Seyyed) (سيد,; meaning "Mister"; plural سادة) is an honorific title denoting people (سيدة for females) accepted as descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad through his grandsons, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali (combined Hasnain), sons of Muhammad's daughter Fatimah and son-in-law Ali (Ali ibn Abi Talib).
A segmentary lineage society has equivalent parts ("segments") held together by shared values.
The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
Seleucus I Nicator (Σέλευκος Α΄ Νικάτωρ Séleukos Α΄ Nikátōr; "Seleucus the Victor") was one of the Diadochi.
Shah Rukh Khan (born Shahrukh Khan; 2 November 1965), also known as SRK, is an Indian film actor, producer and television personality.
Shuja Shah Durrani Khan (also known as Shāh Shujāʻ, Shah Shuja, Shoja Shah, Shuja al-Mulk) (4 November 1785 – 5 April 1842) was ruler of the Durrani Empire from 1803 to 1809.
Sahibzada Mohammad Shahid Khan Afridi (شاہدافریدی; شاهد اپریدی; born 1980), popularly known as Boom Boom, is a former Pakistani cricketer and former captain of the Pakistan national cricket team.
The Shahnameh, also transliterated as Shahnama (شاهنامه, "The Book of Kings"), is a long epic poem written by the Persian poet Ferdowsi between c. 977 and 1010 CE and is the national epic of Greater Iran.
Shamshad TV is a satellite television station in Afghanistan, which was launched in early 2006.
Shapur I (𐭱𐭧𐭯𐭥𐭧𐭥𐭩; New Persian: rtl), also known as Shapur I the Great, was the second shahanshah (king of kings) of the Sasanian Empire.
Sharana (ښرنه, شرنه), also Sharan or Kharana, is the capital of Paktika Province, Afghanistan.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
General Sher Mohammad Karimi (born November 11, 1945) is the Chief of Army Staff in the Military of Afghanistan.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Shindand is a town and the center of the Shindand District, Herat Province, Afghanistan.
Shughni is one of the Pamir languages of the Southeastern Iranian language group.
Shukria Barakzai (شکريه بارکزۍ) is an Afghan politician, journalist and a prominent Muslim feminist.
The Siege of Malakand was the 26 July – 2 August 1897 siege of the British garrison in the Malakand region of colonial British India's North West Frontier Province.Nevill p. 232 The British faced a force of Pashtun tribesmen whose tribal lands had been bisected by the Durand Line, the 1,519 mile (2,445 km) border between Afghanistan and British India drawn up at the end of the Anglo-Afghan wars to help hold back what the British feared to be the Russian Empire's spread of influence towards the Indian subcontinent. The unrest caused by this division of the Pashtun lands led to the rise of Saidullah, a Pashtun fakir who led an army of at least 10,000 against the British garrison in Malakand. Although the British forces were divided among a number of poorly defended positions, the small garrison at the camp of Malakand South and the small fort at Chakdara were both able to hold out for six days against the much larger Pashtun army. The siege was lifted when a relief column dispatched from British positions to the south was sent to assist General William Hope Meiklejohn, commander of the British forces at Malakand South. Accompanying this relief force was second lieutenant Winston Churchill, who later published his account as The Story of the Malakand Field Force: An Episode of Frontier War.
A Sikh (ਸਿੱਖ) is a person associated with Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the 15th century based on the revelation of Guru Nanak.
SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics) is a U.S.-based, worldwide, Christian non-profit organization, whose main purpose is to study, develop and document languages, especially those that are lesser-known, in order to expand linguistic knowledge, promote literacy, translate the Christian Bible into local languages, and aid minority language development.
Sindh (سنڌ; سِندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, in the southeast of the country.
Skateboarding is an action sport which involves riding and performing tricks using a skateboard, as well as a recreational activity, an art form, a entertainment industry job, and a method of transportation.
Snooker is a cue sport which originated among British Army officers stationed in India in the latter half of the 19th century.
Social equality is a state of affairs in which all people within a specific society or isolated group have the same status in certain respects, including civil rights, freedom of speech, property rights and equal access to certain social goods and services.
Sulaymān bin Dāwūd (سُـلـيـمـان بـن داوود, Solomon son of David) was, according to the Qur’an, a Malik (مَـلِـك, King) and Nabī (نَـبِي, prophet) of the Israelites. Islamic tradition generally holds that he was the third King of the Jewish people, and a just and wise ruler for the nation. Islam views Solomon as one of the elect of God, who was bestowed upon with many God-given gifts, including the ability to speak to animals and rule jinn. Muslims further maintain that he remained faithful to a one and only God throughout his life; constructed his Temple, which became one of the key houses of worship; reigned justly over the whole of the Israelites; was blessed with a level of Kingship which was given to none after him and before him; and fulfilled all of his commandments, being promised nearness to God in Paradise at the end of his life. Arab historians regarded Solomon as one of the greatest rulers around the world.
Soraya Tarzi, known mostly as Queen Soraya (Pashto/Dari: ملکه ثريا) (November 24, 1899 – April 20, 1968), was the Queen consort of Afghanistan in the early 20th century and the wife of King Amanullah Khan.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
South India is the area encompassing the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Puducherry, occupying 19% of India's area.
Kandahārī Pashtō (کندهارۍ پښتو), also known as Southern Pashto, Western Pashto, or Southwestern Pashto, is a Pashto dialect, spoken in southern and western Afghanistan, including the city of Kandahar.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Squash is a ball sport played by two (singles) or four players (doubles squash) in a four-walled court with a small, hollow rubber ball.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
Stratfor is an American geopolitical intelligence platform and publisher founded in 1996 in Austin, Texas, by George Friedman, who was the company's chairman.
String instruments, stringed instruments, or chordophones are musical instruments that produce sound from vibrating strings when the performer plays or sounds the strings in some manner.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
The Sulaiman Mountains (د كسي غرونه; Balochi/Urdu/کوه سليمان), or Kōh-e Sulaymān, are the southern extension of the Hindu Kush mountain system, located in the Zabul, Kandahar and Loya Paktia regions of Afghanistan, and in the southern Federally Administered Tribal Areas (South Waziristan and Frontier Region Dera Ismail Khan), most of northern Balochistan, and some of southwestern Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan.
Sulaymaniyah (Iraqi:السليمانية, as-Sulaymāniyyah), also called Slemani, is a city in Iraqi Kurdistan.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
The Sur Empire was an empire established by a Muslim dynasty of Pashtun origin who ruled a large territory in northern part of the Indian subcontinent for nearly 16 years, between 1540 and 1556, with Delhi serving as its capital.
Suriname (also spelled Surinam), officially known as the Republic of Suriname (Republiek Suriname), is a sovereign state on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America.
Surya (सूर्य, IAST: ‘'Sūrya’') is a Sanskrit word that means the Sun.
Swabi (Pashto and صوابۍ) or Sawabai is the capital of Swabi District in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
The State of Swat (Pashto: د يوسفزو رياست سوات) was a province ruled by local rulers known as the Akhunds, then until 1947 a princely state of the British Indian Empire, which was dissolved in 1969, when the Akhwand acceded to Pakistan.
Tabaqat-i Nasiri, named for Sultan Nasir-ud-Din, is an elaborate history of the Islamic world written in Persian by Minhaj-i-Siraj Juzjani and completed in 1260.
Tabassum Adnan (Urdu: تبسم عدنان) (born 1977) is a Pakistani women's rights activist from the Swat Valley.
The tabla is a membranophone percussion instrument originating from the Indian subcontinent, consisting of a pair of drums, used in traditional, classical, popular and folk music.
Tajik (تاجيک: Tājīk, Тоҷик) is a general designation for a wide range of native Persian-speaking people of Iranian origin, with current traditional homelands in present-day Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Uzbekistan.
The Taliban insurgency began shortly after the group's fall from power following the 2001 War in Afghanistan.
While in power in Afghanistan, the Taliban became notorious internationally for their sexism, misogyny, and violence against women.
Tarīnkōṭ (ترينکوټ), also spelled as Tarin Kowt, is the capital of Urozgan Province (also written "Uruzgan") in southern Afghanistan in the Tarinkot District.
A tattoo is a form of body modification where a design is made by inserting ink, dyes and pigments, either indelible or temporary, into the dermis layer of the skin to change the pigment.
Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.
The ten lost tribes were the ten of the twelve tribes of ancient Israel that were said to have been deported from the Kingdom of Israel after its conquest by the Neo-Assyrian Empire circa 722 BCE.
"The Great Game" was a political and diplomatic confrontation that existed for most of the nineteenth century between the British Empire and the Russian Empire over Afghanistan and neighbouring territories in Central and Southern Asia.
The Great Game: On Secret Service in High Asia (published as The Great Game: The Struggle for Empire in Central Asia in the USA) is a book on the history of the region by Peter Hopkirk.
The Hindu is an Indian daily newspaper, headquartered at Chennai.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
There are multiple claims or theories about the origins of the Pashtun tribes.
Timur Shah Durrani, (Pashto, Persian, Urdu, Arabic:; 1748 – May 18, 1793) was the second ruler of the Durrani Empire, from October 16, 1772 until his death in 1793.
Track and field is a sport which includes athletic contests established on the skills of running, jumping, and throwing.
A tribe is viewed developmentally, economically and historically as a social group existing outside of or before the development of states.
The Tribe of Joseph is one of the Tribes of Israel in biblical tradition.
Trinidad and Tobago, officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is a twin island sovereign state that is the southernmost nation of the West Indies in the Caribbean.
The Turi or Torai are a sub-tribe of the Karlani Pashtun tribe, inhabiting the Kurram Valley, in Kurram Agency in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan, with a smaller number living across the Durand line in the Paktia province of Afghanistan.
The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).
Twelver (translit; شیعه دوازدهامامی) or Imamiyyah (إمامية) is the largest branch of Shia Islam.
The Arabic term ulama (علماء., singular عالِم, "scholar", literally "the learned ones", also spelled ulema; feminine: alimah and uluma), according to the Encyclopedia of Islam (2000), in its original meaning "denotes scholars of almost all disciplines".
Umar Gul (Urdu:, عمرګل) (born 14 April 1984) is a Pakistani cricketer, who plays all three formats of the game as a right arm fast medium bowler for the Pakistani cricket team.
(أمة) is an Arabic word meaning "community".
The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.
The United Nations Public Administration Network mission statement is to promote the sharing of knowledge, experiences and best practices throughout the world in sound public policies, effective public administration and efficient civil services, through capacity-building and cooperation among the United Nations Member States, with emphasis on south-south cooperation and UNPAN's commitment to integrity and excellence.
The United States Ambassador to the United Nations is the leader of the U.S. delegation, the U.S. Mission to the United Nations.
The University of London (abbreviated as Lond. or more rarely Londin. in post-nominals) is a collegiate and a federal research university located in London, England.
The University of Nebraska Omaha, often referred to as Omaha or UNO, is a public research university located in Omaha, Nebraska, United States.
The University of Pennsylvania (commonly known as Penn or UPenn) is a private Ivy League research university located in University City section of West Philadelphia.
The University of Texas at Austin (UT, UT Austin, or Texas) is a public research university and the flagship institution of the University of Texas System.
The University of Texas Press (or UT Press) is a university press that is part of the University of Texas at Austin.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
Urgun (ارګون) or Urgin (اورګين) is the main town of the Urgun District of Paktika Province, Afghanistan.
The Uzbeks (Oʻzbek/Ўзбек, pl. Oʻzbeklar/Ўзбеклар) are a Turkic ethnic group; the largest Turkic ethnic group in Central Asia.
Vani (ونی), or Swara (سوارہ), is a cultural custom found in parts of Pakistan and Afghanistan whereby a young girl is forcibly married as part of punishment for a crime committed by her male relatives.
Vārāhamihira (505–587 CE), also called Vārāha or Mihira, was an Indian astronomer, mathematician, and astrologer who lived in Ujjain.
Vedic Sanskrit is an Indo-European language, more specifically one branch of the Indo-Iranian group.
Vida Samadzai is an Afghan-American actress, model and beauty pageant titleholder who was Miss Afghanistan in 2003.
Vladimir Fedorovich Minorsky (Владимир Фёдорович Минорский; – March 25, 1966) was a Russian Orientalist best known for his contributions to the study of Kurdish (as one of the foremost Kurdologists of his time) and Persian history, geography, literature, and culture.
Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net.
Wahhabism (الوهابية) is an Islamic doctrine and religious movement founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab.
Wakhi is an Indo-European language in the Eastern Iranian branch of the language family spoken today in Wakhan District, Afghanistan and also in Northern Pakistan, China, and Tajikistan.
Waṇētsī (وڼېڅي), also called Tarīnō (ترينو), Chalgarī (څلګري tsalgarī), or Waneci, is a Pashto dialect which is spoken by a small population of Tareen tribes in Pakistan and Afghanistan, primarily in Harnai and Sinjawi area east of Quetta, northern Balochistan, Pakistan.
Wāṇa or Wanna (واڼه, Wāṇə; وانا) is the largest town of South Waziristan Agency in Pakistan.
The Wazirs or Waziris (وزير) are a Karlani Pashtun tribe found mainly in the Pakistan-Afghanistan border region of North and South Waziristan.
Wazirwola (وزیر واله wazīrwāla, meaning "of the Wazirs"), or Waziri (وزیري)), is an east-central Pashto dialect spoken in North Waziristan, South Waziristan, Bannu and parts of Tank in Pakistan, and in certain adjacent districts of Paktika, Khost and Paktia provinces of Afghanistan.
Willem Vogelsang (born 1956 in Medemblik) is the deputy director of the International Institute for Asian Studies at the University of Leiden in the Netherlands.
Women's rights in Afghanistan are improving but very slowly on an international level.
Women's suffrage (colloquial: female suffrage, woman suffrage or women's right to vote) --> is the right of women to vote in elections; a person who advocates the extension of suffrage, particularly to women, is called a suffragist.
Wrestling is a combat sport involving grappling type techniques such as clinch fighting, throws and takedowns, joint locks, pins and other grappling holds.
Xuanzang (fl. c. 602 – 664) was a Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveller, and translator who travelled to India in the seventh century and described the interaction between Chinese Buddhism and Indian Buddhism during the early Tang dynasty.
Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan (آغا محمد یحییٰ خان; 4 February 1917 – 10 August 1980), widely known as Yahya Khan,, was the third President of Pakistan, serving in this post from 25 March 1969 until turning over his presidency in December 1971.
Mohammad Younis Khan (محمد یونس خان, Urdu) (born 29 November 1977) is a former Pakistani cricketer and former captain of the Pakistan national cricket team in all three formats of the game.
Mohammad Yousef Pashtun ('''یوسف پښتون '''.) is an Afghan Technocrat and Politician, serving as the Senior Adviser to the President of Afghanistan on Construction, Mines, Water & Energy.
Muhamad Yusuf Khan Khattak (Urdu:محمد یوسف خان خٹک; b. 18 November 1917 – 29 July 1991) best known as Yusuf Khattak, was a Pakistani politician, left-wing intellectual, lawyer, and noted Pakistan Movement activist from Khyber Pakhtunkwa.
The Yūsufzai, also called Yousafzai, is a tribe of Pashtun people found in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa of Pakistan, and in some eastern parts of Afghanistan.
Zakir Husain Khan (8 February 1897 – 3 May 1969) was the third President of India, from 13 May 1967 until his death on 3 May 1969.
Zalmai Rassoul (زلمی رسول; born 11 May 1943) is an Afghan politician who served as Foreign Minister of Afghanistan from January 2010 to October 2013.
Zalmay Mamozy Khalilzad (Pashto: زلمی خلیلزاد Zalmay Khalīlzād; born March 22, 1951) is a former US diplomat and a counselor at the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) and the president of Gryphon Partners and Khalilzad Associates, an international business consulting firm, based in Washington, DC He was the US Ambassador to the United Nations, under President George W. Bush.
Zareen Khan, (born 14 May 1987) also known as Zarine Khan is an Indian actress and model who mainly works in the Hindi film industry, though has also appeared in Tamil and Punjabi films.
Zeenat Quraishi Karzai (born 1970) is the wife of former Afghan President Hamid Karzai and was the First Lady of Afghanistan from 2001 to 2014.
Zhob (Pashto and), formerly known as Fort Sandeman or Appozai, is a city and district capital of Zhob District in Balochistan province of Pakistan.
Ziarat (زیارت) the capital of Ziarat District, Balochistan Province, Pakistan.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.
The 1st millennium BC encompasses the Iron Age and sees the rise of many successive empires, and spanned from 1000 BC to 1 BC.
The 2014 Nobel Peace Prize was shared, in two equal parts, between Kailash Satyarthi and Malala Yousafzai "for their struggle against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education".
The 2nd millennium BC spanned the years 2000 through 1001 BC.
Afgan, Afghan Pashtun, Afghan Pashtuns, Afghani people, Bar-Durani, Ethnic Afghan, Ethnic Afghans, Ethnic Pashtuns, Ethnic Pathans, Ethnic afghans, Hazarbuz, Khan (caste), Mahsud Dance, Pakhtana, Pakhton, Pakhtoon, Pakhtoon people, Pakhtoons, Pakhtun, Pakhtun people, Pakhtuns, Pakistani Pashtun, Pakistani Pashtuns, Pakthun, Paktoon, Paktoons, Paktun, Pashtana, Pashteen people, Pashteens, Pashthoon, Pashto people, Pashto speaking people, Pashto-speaking people, Pashton, Pashtoon, Pashtoon people, Pashtoons, Pashtun (Afghan), Pashtun (Pakistani), Pashtun (ethnic group), Pashtun Afghan, Pashtun Afghans, Pashtun Muslims, Pashtun Pakistani, Pashtun Pakistanis, Pashtun People, Pashtun Peoples, Pashtun ethnic group, Pashtun history, Pashtun people, Pashtun peoples, Pashtun society, Pashtuns Peoples, Pashtuns in Balochistan, Pasthun, Pastun, Pastun people, Pathaan, Pathan, Pathan people, Pathans, Phatan, Pukhton, Pukhtoon, Pukhtoon people, Pukhtoons, Pukhtun, Pukhtun people, Pukhtuns, Puktoon, Puktoons, Pushton, Pushtoon, Pushtoon people, Pushtoons, Pushtun, Pushtun People, Pushtun people, Pushtuns, Shakhi, Silipedia, Theory of Pashtun descent from Greek-Rajputs, Theory of Pashtun descent from ancient Greek-Rajputs, پشتون, پٹھان, پښتانه.