52 relations: Berkeley Software Distribution, Blowfish (cipher), Brute-force attack, Chsh, Collision resistance, Colon (punctuation), Command-line interface, Crypt (C), Crypt (Unix), Cryptographic hash function, File system permissions, Front and back ends, Gecos field, Getent, Group identifier, Hash function, Home directory, Kerberos (protocol), Key derivation function, Key stretching, Lightweight Directory Access Protocol, Line (text file), Linux, Login, Logname, Ls, MD5, Name Service Switch, Network Information Service, Passwd, Password, Password cracking, Plaintext, Pluggable authentication module, Rainbow table, Salt (cryptography), SHA-2, Shell (computing), Su (Unix), SunOS, Superuser, Telnet, Text file, Unix, Unix security, UNIX System V, Unix time, Unix-like, User (computing), User identifier, ..., Vipw, Xenix. Expand index (2 more) » « Shrink index
Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) was a Unix operating system derivative developed and distributed by the Computer Systems Research Group (CSRG) of the University of California, Berkeley, from 1977 to 1995.
Blowfish is a symmetric-key block cipher, designed in 1993 by Bruce Schneier and included in a large number of cipher suites and encryption products.
In cryptography, a brute-force attack consists of an attacker trying many passwords or passphrases with the hope of eventually guessing correctly.
chsh (an abbreviation of "change shell") is a command on Unix-like operating systems that is used to change a login shell.
Collision resistance is a property of cryptographic hash functions: a hash function H is collision resistant if it is hard to find two inputs that hash to the same output; that is, two inputs a and b such that H(a).
The colon is a punctuation mark consisting of two equally sized dots centered on the same vertical line.
A command-line interface or command language interpreter (CLI), also known as command-line user interface, console user interface and character user interface (CUI), is a means of interacting with a computer program where the user (or client) issues commands to the program in the form of successive lines of text (command lines).
crypt is the library function which is used to compute a password hash that can be used to store user account passwords while keeping them relatively secure (a passwd file).
In Unix computing, crypt is a utility program used for encryption.
A cryptographic hash function is a special class of hash function that has certain properties which make it suitable for use in cryptography.
Most file systems have methods to assign permissions or access rights to specific users and groups of users.
In software engineering, the terms front end and back end refer to the separation of concerns between the presentation layer (front end), and the data access layer (back end) of a piece of software, or the physical infrastructure or hardware.
The gecos field, or GECOS field is an entry in the /etc/passwd file on Unix, and similar operating systems.
getent is a unix command that helps a user get entries in a number of important text files called databases.
In Unix-like systems, multiple users can be put into groups.
A hash function is any function that can be used to map data of arbitrary size to data of a fixed size.
A home directory is a file system directory on a multi-user operating system containing files for a given user of the system.
Kerberos is a computer network authentication protocol that works on the basis of tickets to allow nodes communicating over a non-secure network to prove their identity to one another in a secure manner.
In cryptography, a key derivation function (KDF) derives one or more secret keys from a secret value such as a master key, a password, or a passphrase using a pseudorandom function.
In cryptography, key stretching techniques are used to make a possibly weak key, typically a password or passphrase, more secure against a brute-force attack by increasing the time it takes to test each possible key.
The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) is an open, vendor-neutral, industry standard application protocol for accessing and maintaining distributed directory information services over an Internet Protocol (IP) network.
In computing, a line is a unit of organization for text files.
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel.
In computer security, logging in (or logging on or signing in or signing on) is the process by which an individual gains access to a computer system by identifying and authenticating themselves.
In computer software, logname (stands for Login Name) is a program in Unix and Unix-like operating systems that prints the name of the user executing the command.
In computing, ls is a command to list files in Unix and Unix-like operating systems.
The MD5 algorithm is a widely used hash function producing a 128-bit hash value.
The Name Service Switch (NSS) is a facility in Unix-like operating systems that provides a variety of sources for common configuration databases and name resolution mechanisms.
The Network Information Service, or NIS (originally called Yellow Pages or YP), is a client–server directory service protocol for distributing system configuration data such as user and host names between computers on a computer network.
passwd is a tool on most Unix and Unix-like operating systems used to change a user's password.
A password is a word or string of characters used for user authentication to prove identity or access approval to gain access to a resource (example: an access code is a type of password), which is to be kept secret from those not allowed access.
In cryptanalysis and computer security, password cracking is the process of recovering passwords from data that have been stored in or transmitted by a computer system.
In cryptography, plaintext or cleartext is unencrypted information, as opposed to information encrypted for storage or transmission.
A pluggable authentication module (PAM) is a mechanism to integrate multiple low-level authentication schemes into a high-level application programming interface (API).
A rainbow table is a precomputed table for reversing cryptographic hash functions, usually for cracking password hashes.
In cryptography, a salt is random data that is used as an additional input to a one-way function that "hashes" data, a password or passphrase.
SHA-2 (Secure Hash Algorithm 2) is a set of cryptographic hash functions designed by the United States National Security Agency (NSA).
In computing, a shell is a user interface for access to an operating system's services.
The Unix command su, sometimes described as substitute user, super user, switch user, or set user, is used by a computer user to execute commands with the privileges of another user account.
SunOS is a Unix-branded operating system developed by Sun Microsystems for their workstation and server computer systems.
In computing, the superuser is a special user account used for system administration.
Telnet is a protocol used on the Internet or local area network to provide a bidirectional interactive text-oriented communication facility using a virtual terminal connection.
A text file (sometimes spelled "textfile"; an old alternative name is "flatfile") is a kind of computer file that is structured as a sequence of lines of electronic text.
Unix (trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, development starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.
Unix security refers to the means of securing a Unix or Unix-like operating system.
UNIX System V (pronounced: "System Five") is one of the first commercial versions of the Unix operating system.
Unix time (also known as POSIX time or UNIX Epoch time) is a system for describing a point in time, defined as the number of seconds that have elapsed since 00:00:00 Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), Thursday, 1 January 1970,.
A Unix-like (sometimes referred to as UN*X or *nix) operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification.
A user is a person who utilizes a computer or network service.
Unix-like operating systems identify a user within the kernel by a value called a user identifier, often abbreviated to user ID or UID.
vipw is a small computer program which enables a Unix system administrator to comfortably edit the "passwd" and "Shadow password" files.
Xenix is a discontinued version of the Unix operating system for various microcomputer platforms, licensed by Microsoft from AT&T Corporation in the late 1970s.