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Index Password

A password is a word or string of characters used for user authentication to prove identity or access approval to gain access to a resource (example: an access code is a type of password), which is to be kept secret from those not allowed access. [1]

166 relations: Access code, Access control, Algorithm, Anonymous (group), Authentication, Authorization, Automated teller machine, Backup, Bcrypt, Berkeley Software Distribution, Bill Gates, Biometrics, Booz Allen Hamilton, Bruce Schneier, Brute-force attack, Cable television, Cache (computing), Cain and Abel (software), Cantor Fitzgerald, CAPTCHA, CERT Coordination Center, Challenge–response authentication, Character (computing), Cognitive password, Cognitive science, Color, Compatible Time-Sharing System, Computer security, Computer virus, Crypt (Unix), Cryptographic hash function, Cryptography, Data Encryption Standard, Denial-of-service attack, Diceware, Dictionary attack, Disk encryption, Email, Entropy (information theory), Extortion, Face, Face perception, FIDO Alliance, Fingerprint, Floppy disk, Forbes, Gartner, Google, Graphics, Higgins project, ..., Homeland security, Human brain, IBM, Identity 2.0, Identity management, Image, Imperva, Invasion of Normandy, Iris (anatomy), John the Ripper, Kerberos (protocol), Key stretching, Keyfile, L0phtCrack, LAN Manager, Legacy system, Letter (alphabet), Liberty Alliance, Linux, List of Unicode characters, Login, LulzSec, Man-in-the-middle attack, Maniple (military unit), Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MD5, Memory, Microsoft, Military of ancient Rome, Mnemonic, Mobile phone, Modulo operation, Multi-factor authentication, Myspace, National Institute of Standards and Technology, National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace, NATO, Network packet, Normandy landings, Numerical digit, One-time password, Online banking, Operating system, Operation AntiSec, Passphrase, Passwd, PassWindow, Password cracking, Password fatigue, Password length parameter, Password manager, Password notification email, Password policy, Password psychology, Password strength, Password synchronization, Password-authenticated key agreement, PBKDF2, PC World, Personal identification number, Phishing, Plaintext, Polybius, Polynomial, Pre-shared key, Pretty Good Privacy, Public-key cryptography, QR code, Rainbow table, Random password generator, Robert Morris (cryptographer), RockYou, Roger Needham, RSA Conference, Rubber-hose cryptanalysis, Salt (cryptography), Scrypt, Secrecy, Secure Remote Password protocol, Secure Shell, Security hacker, Security token, Self-service password reset, September 11 attacks, SHA-1, Shared secret, Shoulder surfing (computer security), Side-channel attack, Single sign-on, SPEKE, String (computer science), Telephone tapping, The Pentagon, The Register, The Wall Street Journal, Transaction authentication number, Transport Layer Security, Tribune, United States Air Force, United States Central Command, United States Department of State, United States Marine Corps, United States Special Operations Command, University of London, Unix, Usability, Usability of web authentication systems, USB flash drive, User (computing), Web browser, Wi-Fi, Wi-Fi Protected Access, Windows CardSpace, Wired (magazine), Word, Zero-knowledge password proof. Expand index (116 more) »

Access code


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Access control

In the fields of physical security and information security, access control (AC) is the selective restriction of access to a place or other resource.

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In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.

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Anonymous (group)

Anonymous is a decentralized international hacktivist group that is widely known for its various DDOS cyber attacks against several governments, government institutions & government agencies, corporations, and the Church of Scientology.

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Authentication (from authentikos, "real, genuine", from αὐθέντης authentes, "author") is the act of confirming the truth of an attribute of a single piece of data claimed true by an entity.

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Authorization is the function of specifying access rights/privileges to resources related to information security and computer security in general and to access control in particular.

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Automated teller machine

An automated teller machine (ATM) is an electronic telecommunications device that enables customers of financial institutions to perform financial transactions, such as cash withdrawals, deposits, transfer funds, or obtaining account information, at any time and without the need for direct interaction with bank staff.

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In information technology, a backup, or the process of backing up, refers to the copying into an archive file of computer data so it may be used to restore the original after a data loss event.

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bcrypt is a password hashing function designed by Niels Provos and David Mazières, based on the Blowfish cipher, and presented at USENIX in 1999.

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Berkeley Software Distribution

Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) was a Unix operating system derivative developed and distributed by the Computer Systems Research Group (CSRG) of the University of California, Berkeley, from 1977 to 1995.

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Bill Gates

William Henry Gates III (born October 28, 1955) is an American business magnate, investor, author, philanthropist, humanitarian, and principal founder of Microsoft Corporation.

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Biometrics is the technical term for body measurements and calculations.

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Booz Allen Hamilton

Booz Allen Hamilton Inc. (informally: Booz Allen) is an American management and information technology consulting firm, sometimes referred to as a government-services company, headquartered in McLean, Virginia, in Greater Washington, D.C., with 80 other offices around the globe.

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Bruce Schneier

Bruce Schneier (born January 15, 1963, is an American cryptographer, computer security professional, privacy specialist and writer. He is the author of several books on general security topics, computer security and cryptography. Schneier is a fellow at the Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard Law School, a program fellow at the New America Foundation's Open Technology Institute. He has been working for IBM since they acquired Resilient Systems where Schneier was CTO. He is also a contributing writer for The Guardian news organization.

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Brute-force attack

In cryptography, a brute-force attack consists of an attacker trying many passwords or passphrases with the hope of eventually guessing correctly.

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Cable television

Cable television is a system of delivering television programming to paying subscribers via radio frequency (RF) signals transmitted through coaxial cables, or in more recent systems, light pulses through fiber-optic cables.

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Cache (computing)

In computing, a cache, is a hardware or software component that stores data so future requests for that data can be served faster; the data stored in a cache might be the result of an earlier computation, or the duplicate of data stored elsewhere.

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Cain and Abel (software)

Cain and Abel (often abbreviated to Cain) is a password recovery tool for Microsoft Windows.

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Cantor Fitzgerald

Cantor Fitzgerald is a financial services firm that was founded in 1945.

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A CAPTCHA (an acronym for "Completely Automated Public '''T'''uring test to tell Computers and Humans Apart") is a type of challenge–response test used in computing to determine whether or not the user is human.

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CERT Coordination Center

The CERT Coordination Center (CERT/CC) is the coordination center of the computer emergency response team (CERT) for the Software Engineering Institute (SEI), a non-profit United States federally funded research and development center.

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Challenge–response authentication

In computer security, challenge–response authentication is a family of protocols in which one party presents a question ("challenge") and another party must provide a valid answer ("response") to be authenticated.

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Character (computing)

In computer and machine-based telecommunications terminology, a character is a unit of information that roughly corresponds to a grapheme, grapheme-like unit, or symbol, such as in an alphabet or syllabary in the written form of a natural language.

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Cognitive password

A cognitive password is a form of knowledge-based authentication that requires a user to answer a question, presumably something they intrinsically know, to verify their identity.

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Cognitive science

Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes.

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Color (American English) or colour (Commonwealth English) is the characteristic of human visual perception described through color categories, with names such as red, orange, yellow, green, blue, or purple.

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Compatible Time-Sharing System

The Compatible Time-Sharing System (CTSS), was one of the first time-sharing operating systems; it was developed at the MIT Computation Center.

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Computer security

Cybersecurity, computer security or IT security is the protection of computer systems from theft of or damage to their hardware, software or electronic data, as well as from disruption or misdirection of the services they provide.

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Computer virus

A computer virus is a type of malicious software program ("malware") that, when executed, replicates itself by modifying other computer programs and inserting its own code.

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Crypt (Unix)

In Unix computing, crypt is a utility program used for encryption.

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Cryptographic hash function

A cryptographic hash function is a special class of hash function that has certain properties which make it suitable for use in cryptography.

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Cryptography or cryptology (from κρυπτός|translit.

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Data Encryption Standard

The Data Encryption Standard (DES) is a symmetric-key algorithm for the encryption of electronic data.

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Denial-of-service attack

In computing, a denial-of-service attack (DoS attack) is a cyber-attack in which the perpetrator seeks to make a machine or network resource unavailable to its intended users by temporarily or indefinitely disrupting services of a host connected to the Internet.

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Diceware is a method for creating passphrases, passwords, and other cryptographic variables using ordinary dice as a hardware random number generator.

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Dictionary attack

In cryptanalysis and computer security, a dictionary attack is a technique for defeating a cipher or authentication mechanism by trying to determine its decryption key or passphrase by trying hundreds or sometimes millions of likely possibilities, such as words in a dictionary.

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Disk encryption

Disk encryption is a technology which protects information by converting it into unreadable code that cannot be deciphered easily by unauthorized people.

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Electronic mail (email or e-mail) is a method of exchanging messages ("mail") between people using electronic devices.

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Entropy (information theory)

Information entropy is the average rate at which information is produced by a stochastic source of data.

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Extortion (also called shakedown, outwrestling and exaction) is a criminal offense of obtaining money, property, or services from an individual or institution, through coercion.

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The face is a central body region of sense and is also very central in the expression of emotion among humans and among numerous other species.

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Face perception

Face perception is an individual's understanding and interpretation of the face, particularly the human face, especially in relation to the associated information processing in the brain.

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FIDO Alliance

The FIDO ("Fast IDentity Online") Alliance is an industry consortium launched in February 2013 to address the lack of interoperability among strong authentication devices and the problems users face creating and remembering multiple usernames and passwords.

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A fingerprint in its narrow sense is an impression left by the friction ridges of a human finger.

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Floppy disk

A floppy disk, also called a floppy, diskette, or just disk, is a type of disk storage composed of a disk of thin and flexible magnetic storage medium, sealed in a rectangular plastic enclosure lined with fabric that removes dust particles.

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Forbes is an American business magazine.

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Gartner, Inc. is a global research and advisory firm providing insights, advice, and tools for leaders in IT, Finance, HR, Customer Service and Support, Legal and Compliance, Marketing, Sales, and Supply Chain functions across the world.

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Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware.

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Graphics (from Greek γραφικός graphikos, "belonging to drawing") are visual images or designs on some surface, such as a wall, canvas, screen, paper, or stone to inform, illustrate, or entertain.

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Higgins project

Higgins is an open source project dedicated to giving individuals more control over their personal identity, profile and social network data.

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Homeland security

Homeland security is an American umbrella term for "the national effort to ensure a homeland that is safe, secure, and resilient against terrorism and other hazards where American interests, aspirations, and ways of life can thrive to the national effort to prevent terrorist attacks within the United States, reduce the vulnerability of the U.S. to terrorism, and minimize the damage from attacks that do occur".

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Human brain

The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.

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The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.

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Identity 2.0

Identity 2.0, also called digital identity, is a set of methods for identity verification on the internet using emerging user-centric technologies such as Information Cards or OpenID.

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Identity management

Identity management, also known as identity and access management (IAM) is, in computer security, the security and business discipline that "enables the right individuals to access the right resources at the right times and for the right reasons".

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An image (from imago) is an artifact that depicts visual perception, for example, a photo or a two-dimensional picture, that has a similar appearance to some subject—usually a physical object or a person, thus providing a depiction of it.

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Imperva provides cyber security software and services to protect enterprise data and application software, ensure regulatory compliance, and improve performance and delivery.

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Invasion of Normandy

The Western Allies of World War II launched the largest amphibious invasion in history when they assaulted Normandy, located on the northern coast of France, on 6 June 1944.

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Iris (anatomy)

In humans and most mammals and birds, the iris (plural: irides or irises) is a thin, circular structure in the eye, responsible for controlling the diameter and size of the pupil and thus the amount of light reaching the retina.

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John the Ripper

John the Ripper is a free password cracking software tool.

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Kerberos (protocol)

Kerberos is a computer network authentication protocol that works on the basis of tickets to allow nodes communicating over a non-secure network to prove their identity to one another in a secure manner.

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Key stretching

In cryptography, key stretching techniques are used to make a possibly weak key, typically a password or passphrase, more secure against a brute-force attack by increasing the time it takes to test each possible key.

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A keyfile (or key-file) is a file on a computer which contains encryption or license keys.

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L0phtCrack is a login & password auditer and recovery application originally produced by Mudge from L0pht Heavy Industries.

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LAN Manager

LAN Manager was a Network operating system (NOS) available from multiple vendors and developed by Microsoft in cooperation with 3Com Corporation.

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Legacy system

In computing, a legacy system is an old method, technology, computer system, or application program, "of, relating to, or being a previous or outdated computer system." Often a pejorative term, referencing a system as "legacy" means that it paved the way for the standards that would follow it.

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Letter (alphabet)

A letter is a grapheme (written character) in an alphabetic system of writing.

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Liberty Alliance

The Liberty Alliance Project was an organization formed in September 2001 to establish standards, guidelines and best practices for identity management in computer systems.

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Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel.

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List of Unicode characters

This is a list of Unicode characters.

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In computer security, logging in (or logging on or signing in or signing on) is the process by which an individual gains access to a computer system by identifying and authenticating themselves.

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Lulz Security, commonly abbreviated as LulzSec, was a black hat computer hacking group that claimed responsibility for several high profile attacks, including the compromise of user accounts from Sony Pictures in 2011.

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Man-in-the-middle attack

In cryptography and computer security, a man-in-the-middle attack (MITM) is an attack where the attacker secretly relays and possibly alters the communication between two parties who believe they are directly communicating with each other.

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Maniple (military unit)

Maniple (Latin: manipulus, literally meaning "a handful") was a tactical unit of the Roman legion adopted from the Samnites during the Samnite Wars (343–290 BC).

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Massachusetts Institute of Technology

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.

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The MD5 algorithm is a widely used hash function producing a 128-bit hash value.

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Memory is the faculty of the mind by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.

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Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.

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Military of ancient Rome

The military of ancient Rome, according to Titus Livius, one of the more illustrious historians of Rome over the centuries, was a key element in the rise of Rome over “above seven hundred years” from a small settlement in Latium to the capital of an empire governing a wide region around the shores of the Mediterranean, or, as the Romans themselves said, ‘’mare nostrum’’, “our sea.” Livy asserts Titus Flavius Josephus, a contemporary historian, sometime high-ranking officer in the Roman army, and commander of the rebels in the Jewish revolt, describes the Roman people as if they were "born ready armed." At the time of the two historians, Roman society had already evolved an effective military and had used it to defend itself against the Etruscans, the Italics, the Greeks, the Gauls, the maritime empire of Carthage, and the Macedonian kingdoms.

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A mnemonic (the first "m" is silent) device, or memory device, is any learning technique that aids information retention or retrieval (remembering) in the human memory.

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Mobile phone

A mobile phone, known as a cell phone in North America, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area.

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Modulo operation

In computing, the modulo operation finds the remainder after division of one number by another (sometimes called modulus).

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Multi-factor authentication

Multi-factor authentication (MFA) is a method of confirming a user's claimed identity in which a user is granted access only after successfully presenting 2 or more pieces of evidence (or factors) to an authentication mechanism: knowledge (something they and only they know), possession (something they and only they have), and inherence (something they and only they are).

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Myspace (stylized as MySpace) is a social networking website offering an interactive, user-submitted network of friends, personal profiles, blogs, groups, photos, music, and videos.

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National Institute of Standards and Technology

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is one of the oldest physical science laboratories in the United States.

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National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace

The National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace (NSTIC) is a US government initiative announced in April 2011 to improve the privacy, security and convenience of sensitive online transactions through collaborative efforts with the private sector, advocacy groups, government agencies, and other organizations.

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The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.

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Network packet

A network packet is a formatted unit of data carried by a packet-switched network.

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Normandy landings

The Normandy landings were the landing operations on Tuesday, 6 June 1944 of the Allied invasion of Normandy in Operation Overlord during World War II.

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Numerical digit

A numerical digit is a single symbol (such as "2" or "5") used alone, or in combinations (such as "25"), to represent numbers (such as the number 25) according to some positional numeral systems.

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One-time password

A one-time password or pin (OTP) is a password that is valid for only one login session or transaction, on a computer system or other digital device.

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Online banking

Online banking, also known as internet banking, it is an electronic payment system that enables customers of a bank or other financial institution to conduct a range of financial transactions through the financial institution's website.

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Operating system

An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.

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Operation AntiSec

Operation Anti-Security, also referred to as Operation AntiSec or #AntiSec, is a series of hacking attacks performed by members of hacking group LulzSec and BlackSec, the group Anonymous, and others inspired by the announcement of the operation.

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A passphrase is a sequence of words or other text used to control access to a computer system, program or data.

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passwd is a tool on most Unix and Unix-like operating systems used to change a user's password.

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PassWindow is a technique of producing one-time passwords and facilitating transaction verification that is used as an online second-factor authentication method.

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Password cracking

In cryptanalysis and computer security, password cracking is the process of recovering passwords from data that have been stored in or transmitted by a computer system.

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Password fatigue

Password fatigue is the feeling experienced by many people who are required to remember an excessive number of passwords as part of their daily routine, such as to logon to a computer at work, undo a bicycle lock or conduct banking from an automated teller machine (ATM).

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Password length parameter

In telecommunication, a password length parameter is a basic parameter the value of which affects password strength against brute force attack and so is a contributor to computer security.

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Password manager

A password manager assists in generating and retrieving complex passwords, potentially storing such passwords in an encrypted database or calculating them on demand.

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Password notification email

Password notification email is a common password recovery technique used by websites.

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Password policy

A password policy is a set of rules designed to enhance computer security by encouraging users to employ strong passwords and use them properly.

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Password psychology

Living on the intersection of cryptography and psychology, password psychology is the study of what makes passwords or cryptographic keys easy to remember or guess.

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Password strength

Password strength is a measure of the effectiveness of a password against guessing or brute-force attacks.

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Password synchronization

Password synchronization is a process, usually supported by software such as password managers, through which a user maintains a single password across multiple IT systems.

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Password-authenticated key agreement

In cryptography, a password-authenticated key agreement method is an interactive method for two or more parties to establish cryptographic keys based on one or more party's knowledge of a password.

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In cryptography, PBKDF1 and PBKDF2 (Password-Based Key Derivation Function 2) are key derivation functions with a sliding computational cost, aimed to reduce the vulnerability of encrypted keys to brute force attacks.

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PC World

PC World, stylized PCWorld, is a global computer magazine published monthly by IDG.

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Personal identification number

A personal identification number (PIN, pronounced "pin"; is often spoken out loud "PIN number" by mistake) is a numeric or alpha-numeric password or code used in the process of authenticating or identifying a user to a system and system to a user.

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Phishing is the fraudulent attempt to obtain sensitive information such as usernames, passwords, and credit card details (and money), often for malicious reasons, by disguising as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication.

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In cryptography, plaintext or cleartext is unencrypted information, as opposed to information encrypted for storage or transmission.

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Polybius (Πολύβιος, Polýbios; – BC) was a Greek historian of the Hellenistic period noted for his work which covered the period of 264–146 BC in detail.

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In mathematics, a polynomial is an expression consisting of variables (also called indeterminates) and coefficients, that involves only the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and non-negative integer exponents of variables.

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Pre-shared key

In cryptography, a pre-shared key (PSK) is a shared secret which was previously shared between the two parties using some secure channel before it needs to be used.

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Pretty Good Privacy

Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) is an encryption program that provides cryptographic privacy and authentication for data communication.

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Public-key cryptography

Public-key cryptography, or asymmetric cryptography, is any cryptographic system that uses pairs of keys: public keys which may be disseminated widely, and private keys which are known only to the owner.

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QR code

QR code (abbreviated from Quick Response Code) is the trademark for a type of matrix barcode (or two-dimensional barcode) first designed in 1994 for the automotive industry in Japan.

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Rainbow table

A rainbow table is a precomputed table for reversing cryptographic hash functions, usually for cracking password hashes.

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Random password generator

A random password generator is software program or hardware device that takes input from a random or pseudo-random number generator and automatically generates a password.

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Robert Morris (cryptographer)

Robert H. Morris Sr. (July 25, 1932 – June 26, 2011) was an American cryptographer and computer scientist.

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RockYou is a company that developed widgets for MySpace and implemented applications for various social networks and Facebook.

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Roger Needham

Roger Michael Needham, CBE, FRS, FREng (9 February 1935 – 1 March 2003) was a British computer scientist.

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RSA Conference

The RSA Conference is a series of IT security conferences.

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Rubber-hose cryptanalysis

In cryptography, rubber-hose cryptanalysis is a euphemism for the extraction of cryptographic secrets (e.g. the password to an encrypted file) from a person by coercion or torture—such as beating that person with a rubber hose, hence the name—in contrast to a mathematical or technical cryptanalytic attack.

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Salt (cryptography)

In cryptography, a salt is random data that is used as an additional input to a one-way function that "hashes" data, a password or passphrase.

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In cryptography, scrypt (pronounced "ess crypt") is a password-based key derivation function created by Colin Percival, originally for the Tarsnap online backup service.

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Secrecy (also called clandestinity or furtiveness) is the practice of hiding information from certain individuals or groups who do not have the "need to know", perhaps while sharing it with other individuals.

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Secure Remote Password protocol

The Secure Remote Password protocol (SRP) is an augmented password-authenticated key agreement (PAKE) protocol, specifically designed to work around existing patents.

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Secure Shell

Secure Shell (SSH) is a cryptographic network protocol for operating network services securely over an unsecured network.

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Security hacker

A security hacker is someone who seeks to breach defenses and exploit weaknesses in a computer system or network.

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Security token

Security tokens are physical devices used to gain access to an electronically restricted resource.

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Self-service password reset

Self-service password reset (SSPR) is defined as any process or technology that allows users who have either forgotten their password or triggered an intruder lockout to authenticate with an alternate factor, and repair their own problem, without calling the help desk.

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September 11 attacks

The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.

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In cryptography, SHA-1 (Secure Hash Algorithm 1) is a cryptographic hash function which takes an input and produces a 160-bit (20-byte) hash value known as a message digest - typically rendered as a hexadecimal number, 40 digits long.

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Shared secret

In cryptography, a shared secret is a piece of data, known only to the parties involved, in a secure communication.

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Shoulder surfing (computer security)

In computer security, shoulder surfing is a type of social engineering technique used to obtain information such as personal identification numbers (PINs), passwords and other confidential data by looking over the victim's shoulder.

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Side-channel attack

In computer security, a side-channel attack is any attack based on information gained from the implementation of a computer system, rather than weaknesses in the implemented algorithm itself (e.g. cryptanalysis and software bugs).

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Single sign-on

Single sign-on (SSO) is a property of access control of multiple related, yet independent, software systems.

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SPEKE (Simple Password Exponential Key Exchange) is a cryptographic method for password-authenticated key agreement.

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String (computer science)

In computer programming, a string is traditionally a sequence of characters, either as a literal constant or as some kind of variable.

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Telephone tapping

Telephone tapping (also wire tapping or wiretapping in American English) is the monitoring of telephone and Internet conversations by a third party, often by covert means.

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The Pentagon

The Pentagon is the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense, located in Arlington County, Virginia, across the Potomac River from Washington, D.C. As a symbol of the U.S. military, The Pentagon is often used metonymically to refer to the U.S. Department of Defense.

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The Register

The Register (nicknamed El Reg) is a British technology news and opinion website co-founded in 1994 by Mike Magee, John Lettice and Ross Alderson.

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The Wall Street Journal

The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.

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Transaction authentication number

A transaction authentication number (TAN) is used by some online banking services as a form of single use one-time passwords to authorize financial transactions.

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Transport Layer Security

Transport Layer Security (TLS) – and its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), which is now deprecated by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) – are cryptographic protocols that provide communications security over a computer network.

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Tribune was the title of various elected officials in ancient Rome.

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United States Air Force

The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.

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United States Central Command

The United States Central Command (USCENTCOM or CENTCOM) is a theater-level Unified Combatant Command of the U.S. Department of Defense.

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United States Department of State

The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.

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United States Marine Corps

The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the United States Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting amphibious operations with the United States Navy.

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United States Special Operations Command

The United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM or SOCOM) is the Unified Combatant Command charged with overseeing the various Special Operations Component Commands of the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, and Air Force of the United States Armed Forces.

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University of London

The University of London (abbreviated as Lond. or more rarely Londin. in post-nominals) is a collegiate and a federal research university located in London, England.

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Unix (trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, development starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.

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Usability is the ease of use and learnability of a human-made object such as a tool or device.

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Usability of web authentication systems

Usability of web authentication systems refers to the efficiency and user acceptance of online authentication systems.

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USB flash drive

A USB flash drive, also variously known as a thumb drive, pen drive, gig stick, flash stick, jump drive, disk key, disk on key (after the original M-Systems DiskOnKey drive from 2000), flash-drive, memory stick (not to be confused with the Sony Memory Stick), USB stick or USB memory, is a data storage device that includes flash memory with an integrated USB interface.

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User (computing)

A user is a person who utilizes a computer or network service.

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Web browser

A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is a software application for accessing information on the World Wide Web.

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Wi-Fi or WiFi is technology for radio wireless local area networking of devices based on the IEEE 802.11 standards.

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Wi-Fi Protected Access

Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) and Wi-Fi Protected Access II (WPA2) are two security protocols and security certification programs developed by the Wi-Fi Alliance to secure wireless computer networks.

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Windows CardSpace

Windows CardSpace (codenamed InfoCard), is Microsoft's now-canceled client software for the Identity Metasystem.

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Wired (magazine)

Wired is a monthly American magazine, published in print and online editions, that focuses on how emerging technologies affect culture, the economy, and politics.

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In linguistics, a word is the smallest element that can be uttered in isolation with objective or practical meaning.

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Zero-knowledge password proof

In cryptography, a zero-knowledge password proof (ZKPP) is an interactive method for one party (the prover) to prove to another party (the verifier) that it knows a value of a password, without revealing anything other than the fact that it knows that password to the verifier.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Password

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