234 relations: Abidjan, Acetarsol, Acetylcholine, Actinomycetales, Albert Calmette, Albert Edelfelt, Alexandre Yersin, Algeria, Algiers, Alpha blocker, Ancylostomiasis, André Chantemesse, André Michel Lwoff, Anemia, Antananarivo, Anthrax, Antibody, Antigen, Antihistamine, Antitoxin, Arsenic, Athens, August von Wassermann, École normale supérieure (Paris), Élie Metchnikoff, Émile Duclaux, Bacillus subtilis, Bacteria, Bacteriophage, Bangui, Bank of France, BCG vaccine, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Biology, Biomedicine, Boivin, Brazil, Brussels, Bubo, Bubonic plague, Bucharest, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Cameroon, Camille Guérin, Cancer, Casablanca, Cayenne, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Central African Republic, ..., Cervical cancer, Charles Chamberland, Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran, Charles Nicolle, Claude Bernard, Colorectal cancer, Constantin Levaditi, Coonoor, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Covert-One series, Croup, Curare, Curative care, Dakar, Daniel Bovet, Dengue fever, Developing country, Diastase, Diphtheria, Disease, Dysentery, E-book, Eduard Buchner, Emil von Behring, Enzyme, Epidemic, Epidemiology, Erich Hoffmann, Ernest Duchesne, Ernest Fourneau, Etiology, Félix d'Herelle, Flea, Fournier, François Jacob, Françoise Barré-Sinoussi, France, French Guiana, Fritz Schaudinn, Gabriel Bertrand, Gallamine triethiodide, Gayle Lynds, Genetic engineering, Genome, Georges-Fernand Widal, Gerard van Swieten, Greece, Guadeloupe, Hanoi, Hélène Sparrow, Heart rate, Helicobacter pylori, Hepatitis B, HIV, HIV/AIDS, Ho Chi Minh City, Hong Kong, Howard Taylor Ricketts, Human papillomavirus infection, Immune system, Immunity (medical), Immunology, Infection, Influenza, Influenza pandemic, Iran, Ivory Coast, Jacques Monod, Jacques-Joseph Grancher, Jean Laigret, Jean-Pierre Changeux, Jules Bordet, Karl Joseph Eberth, Karl Landsteiner, Kindia, Le Figaro, Louis Pasteur, Louse, Luc Montagnier, Madagascar, Malaria, Marcellin Berthelot, Medical test, Medicinal chemistry, Medicine, Microorganism, Molecular biology, Montevideo, Montreal, Morocco, Musée Pasteur, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycology, Neuromuscular-blocking drug, Neurotransmitter, New Caledonia, New York City, Nha Trang, Niamey, Niger, Nobel Prize, Nonprofit organization, Nouméa, Oncogene, Ourcq, Parasitology, Paris, Pasteur Institute of India, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Pasteur Institute of Lille, Pasteurization, Paul-Louis Simond, Penicillium glaucum, Peptic ulcer disease, Pest house, Phagocyte, Pharmacist, Phnom Penh, Physiology, Pierre Paul Émile Roux, Piperoxan, Plague (disease), Pointe-à-Pitre, Poliomyelitis, Preventive healthcare, Protozoa, Provirus, Quarantine, Rabies, Research center, Rickettsia prowazekii, Robert Koch, Robert Ludlum, Romania, Rudolf Weigl, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saint Petersburg, São Paulo, Scientist, Seine, Senegal, Seoul, Shanghai, Shigella, Silicosis, Sofia, South Korea, Stanislaus von Prowazek, Subtypes of HIV, Sulfanilamide, Sulfonamide (medicine), Syphilis, Tehran, Terrorism, Tetanus, Transcriptional regulation, Treponema pallidum, Tuberculin, Tuberculosis, Tumor marker, Tunis, Tunisia, Typhoid fever, Typhus, United Nations, Uruguay, Vaccine, Valence (chemistry), Vector (epidemiology), Veterinary physician, Vibrio, Victor Hugo, Vietnam, Virology, Virus, Wehrmacht, World Health Organization, World War I, World War II, Yaoundé, Yeast, Yellow fever, Yersinia pestis. Expand index (184 more) » « Shrink index
Abidjan is the economic capital of Côte d'Ivoire and is one of the most populous French-speaking cities in Africa.
Acetarsol is an anti-infective.
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
The Actinomycetales are an order of Actinobacteria.
Léon Charles Albert Calmette ForMemRS (12 July 1863 – 29 October 1933) was a French physician, bacteriologist and immunologist, and an important officer of the Pasteur Institute.
Albert Gustaf Aristides Edelfelt (21 July 1854 – 18 August 1905) was a Finnish painter.
Alexandre Emile Jean Yersin (22 September 1863 – 1 March 1943) was a Swiss and naturalized French physician and bacteriologist.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Algiers (الجزائر al-Jazā’er, ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻ, Alger) is the capital and largest city of Algeria.
Alpha-blockers, also known as α-blockers or α-adrenoreceptor antagonists, are a class of pharmacological agents that act as antagonists on α-adrenergic receptors (α-adrenoceptors).
Ancylostomiasis (also anchylostomiasis or ankylostomiasis) is a hookworm disease caused by infection with Ancylostoma hookworms.
André Chantemesse (23 October 1851 – 25 February 1919) was a French bacteriologist born in Le Puy-en-Velay, Haute-Loire.
André Michel Lwoff (8 May 1902 – 30 September 1994) was a French microbiologist and Nobel laureate.
Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.
Antananarivo (French: Tananarive), also known by its colonial shorthand form Tana, is the capital and largest city of Madagascar.
Anthrax is an infection caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response (to produce an antibody) in the host organism.
Antihistamines are drugs which treat allergic rhinitis and other allergies.
An antitoxin is an antibody with the ability to neutralize a specific toxin.
Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
August Paul von Wassermann (21 February 1866 – 16 March 1925) was a German bacteriologist and hygienist.
The École normale supérieure (also known as Normale sup', Ulm, ENS Paris, l'École and most often just as ENS) is one of the most selective and prestigious French grandes écoles (higher education establishment outside the framework of the public university system) and a constituent college of Université PSL.
Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov (Илья́ Ильи́ч Ме́чников, also written as Élie Metchnikoff; 15 July 1916) was a Russian zoologist best known for his pioneering research in immunology.
Émile Duclaux (24 June 1840 – May 2, 1904) was a French microbiologist and chemist born in Aurillac, Cantal.
Bacillus subtilis, known also as the hay bacillus or grass bacillus, is a Gram-positive, catalase-positive bacterium, found in soil and the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants and humans.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
A bacteriophage, also known informally as a phage, is a virus that infects and replicates within Bacteria and Archaea.
Bangui (or Bangî in Sango, formerly written Bangi in English) is the capital and largest city of the Central African Republic.
The Bank of France known in French as the Banque de France, headquartered in Paris, is the central bank of France; it is linked to the European Central Bank (ECB).
Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccine is a vaccine primarily used against tuberculosis (TB).
The (BnF, English: National Library of France) is the national library of France, located in Paris.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
Biomedicine (i.e. medical biology) is a branch of medical science that applies biological and physiological principles to clinical practice.
Boivin is a surname from France.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.
A bubo (Greek βουβών, boubôn, "groin") (plural form: boubônes) is the swelling of the lymph nodes.
Bubonic plague is one of three types of plague caused by bacterium Yersinia pestis.
Bucharest (București) is the capital and largest city of Romania, as well as its cultural, industrial, and financial centre.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Jean-Marie Camille Guérin (22 December 1872 – 9 June 1961) was a French veterinarian, bacteriologist and immunologist who, together with Albert Calmette, developed the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), a vaccine for immunization against tuberculosis.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Casablanca (ad-dār al-bayḍāʾ; anfa; local informal name: Kaẓa), located in the central-western part of Morocco bordering the Atlantic Ocean, is the largest city in Morocco.
Cayenne is the capital city of French Guiana, an overseas region and department of France located in South America.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
The Central African Republic (CAR; Sango: Ködörösêse tî Bêafrîka; République centrafricaine, or Centrafrique) is a landlocked country in Central Africa.
Cervical cancer is a cancer arising from the cervix.
Charles Chamberland (12 March 1851 – 2 May 1908) was a French microbiologist from Chilly-le-Vignoble in the department of Jura who worked with Louis Pasteur.
Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran (18 June 1845 – 18 May 1922) was a French physician who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1907 for his discoveries of parasitic protozoans as causative agents of infectious diseases such as malaria and trypanosomiasis.
Charles Jules Henry Nicolle (21 September 1866 Rouen – 28 February 1936 Tunis) was a French bacteriologist who received the Nobel Prize in Medicine for his identification of lice as the transmitter of epidemic typhus.
Claude Bernard (12 July 1813 – 10 February 1878) was a French physiologist.
Colorectal cancer (CRC), also known as bowel cancer and colon cancer, is the development of cancer from the colon or rectum (parts of the large intestine).
Constantin Levaditi (1 August 1874 – 5 September 1953) was a Romanian physician and microbiologist, a major figure in virology and immunology (especially in the study of poliomyelitis and syphilis).
Coonoor is a Taluk and a municipality in the Nilgiris district in the state of Tamil Nadu, India.
Corynebacterium diphtheriae is the pathogenic bacterium that causes diphtheria.
The Covert-One series is a sequence of thriller novels written by several authors after the death of Robert Ludlum, presumably according to some of his ideas.
Croup, also known as laryngotracheobronchitis, is a type of respiratory infection that is usually caused by a virus.
Curare or is a common name for various plant extract alkaloid arrow poisons originating from Central and South America.
Curative care or curative medicine is the health care given for medical conditions where a cure is considered achievable, or even possibly so, and directed to this end.
Dakar is the capital and largest city of Senegal.
Daniel Bovet (23 March 1907 – 8 April 1992) was a Swiss-born Italian pharmacologist who won the 1957 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of drugs that block the actions of specific neurotransmitters.
Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne tropical disease caused by the dengue virus.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
A diastase (from Greek διάστασις, "separation") is any one of a group of enzymes that catalyses the breakdown of starch into maltose.
Diphtheria is an infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
Dysentery is an inflammatory disease of the intestine, especially of the colon, which always results in severe diarrhea and abdominal pains.
An electronic book (or e-book or eBook) is a book publication made available in digital form, consisting of text, images, or both, readable on the flat-panel display of computers or other electronic devices.
Eduard Buchner (20 May 1860 – 13 August 1917) was a German chemist and zymologist, awarded the 1907 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on fermentation.
Emil von Behring (Emil Adolf von Behring), born as Emil Adolf Behring (15 March 1854 – 31 March 1917), was a German physiologist who received the 1901 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, the first one awarded, for his discovery of a diphtheria antitoxin.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
An epidemic (from Greek ἐπί epi "upon or above" and δῆμος demos "people") is the rapid spread of infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time, usually two weeks or less.
Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.
Erich Hoffmann (April 25, 1868 – May 8, 1959) was a German dermatologist who was a native of Witzmitz, Pomerania.
Ernest Duchesne (30 May 1874 – 12 April 1912) was a French physician who noted that certain molds kill bacteria.
Ernest Fourneau (4 October 1872 – 5 August 1949) was a French medicinal chemist who played a major role in the discovery of synthetic local anesthetics, as well as in the synthesis of suramin.
Etiology (alternatively aetiology or ætiology) is the study of causation, or origination.
Félix d'Hérelle (April 25, 1873 – February 22, 1949) was a French-Canadian microbiologist.
Fleas are small flightless insects that form the order Siphonaptera.
Fournier is a French surname.
François Jacob (17 June 1920 – 19 April 2013) was a French biologist who, together with Jacques Monod, originated the idea that control of enzyme levels in all cells occurs through regulation of transcription.
Françoise Barré-Sinoussi (born 30 July 1947) is a French virologist and Director of the Regulation of Retroviral Infections Division (Unité de Régulation des Infections Rétrovirales) and Professor at the Institut Pasteur in Paris, France.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
French Guiana (pronounced or, Guyane), officially called Guiana (Guyane), is an overseas department and region of France, on the north Atlantic coast of South America in the Guyanas.
Fritz Richard Schaudinn (19 September 1871 – 22 June 1906) was a German zoologist with Lithuanian roots.
Gabriel Bertrand (born 17 May 1867 in Paris, died 20 June 1962 in Paris) was a French pharmacologist, biochemist and bacteriologist.
Gallamine triethiodide (Flaxedil) is a non-depolarising muscle relaxant.
Gayle Lynds is an American author.
Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
Georges-Fernand-Isidor Widal; (born on March 9, 1862 in Dellys, Algeria and died in Paris on January 14, 1929) was a French physician.
Gerard van Swieten (7 May 1700 – 18 June 1772) was a Dutch-Austrian physician.
Guadeloupe (Antillean Creole: Gwadloup) is an insular region of France located in the Leeward Islands, part of the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean.
Hanoi (or; Hà Nội)) is the capital of Vietnam and the country's second largest city by population. The population in 2015 was estimated at 7.7 million people. The city lies on the right bank of the Red River. Hanoi is north of Ho Chi Minh City and west of Hai Phong city. From 1010 until 1802, it was the most important political centre of Vietnam. It was eclipsed by Huế, the imperial capital of Vietnam during the Nguyễn Dynasty (1802–1945). In 1873 Hanoi was conquered by the French. From 1883 to 1945, the city was the administrative center of the colony of French Indochina. The French built a modern administrative city south of Old Hanoi, creating broad, perpendicular tree-lined avenues of opera, churches, public buildings, and luxury villas, but they also destroyed large parts of the city, shedding or reducing the size of lakes and canals, while also clearing out various imperial palaces and citadels. From 1940 to 1945 Hanoi, as well as the largest part of French Indochina and Southeast Asia, was occupied by the Japanese. On September 2, 1945, Ho Chi Minh proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam). The Vietnamese National Assembly under Ho Chi Minh decided on January 6, 1946, to make Hanoi the capital of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. From 1954 to 1976, it was the capital of North Vietnam, and it became the capital of a reunified Vietnam in 1976, after the North's victory in the Vietnam War. October 2010 officially marked 1,000 years since the establishment of the city. The Hanoi Ceramic Mosaic Mural is a ceramic mosaic mural created to mark the occasion.
Hélène Sparrow (5 June 1891 – 13 November 1970) was a pioneer in world public health, a medical doctor and microbiologist.
Heart rate is the speed of the heartbeat measured by the number of contractions of the heart per minute (bpm).
Helicobacter pylori, previously known as Campylobacter pylori, is a gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium usually found in the stomach.
Hepatitis B is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that affects the liver.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Ho Chi Minh City (Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh; or; formerly Hô-Chi-Minh-Ville), also widely known by its former name of Saigon (Sài Gòn; or), is the largest city in Vietnam by population.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
Howard Taylor Ricketts (February 9, 1871 – May 3, 1910) was an American pathologist after whom the Rickettsiaceae family and the Rickettsiales are named.
Human papillomavirus infection is an infection by human papillomavirus (HPV).
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
In biology, immunity is the balanced state of multicellular organisms having adequate biological defenses to fight infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion, while having adequate tolerance to avoid allergy, and autoimmune diseases.
Immunology is a branch of biology that covers the study of immune systems in all organisms.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.
An influenza pandemic is an epidemic of an influenza virus that spreads on a worldwide scale and infects a large proportion of the world population.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Ivory Coast, also known as Côte d'Ivoire and officially as the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a sovereign state located in West Africa.
Jacques Lucien Monod (February 9, 1910 – May 31, 1976), a French biochemist, won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1965, sharing it with François Jacob and Andre Lwoff "for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis".
Jacques-Joseph Grancher (29 September 1843 in Felletin, Creuse – 13 July 1907) was a French pediatrician born in Felletin.
Jean Laigret (17 August 1893 – 11 March 1966) was a French biologist born in Blois.
Jean-Pierre Changeux (born 6 April 1936) is a French neuroscientist known for his research in several fields of biology, from the structure and function of proteins (with a focus on the allosteric proteins), to the early development of the nervous system up to cognitive functions.
Jules Jean Baptiste Vincent Bordet (13 June 1870 – 6 April 1961) was a Belgian immunologist and microbiologist.
Karl Joseph Eberth (21 September 1835 – 2 December 1926) was a German pathologist and bacteriologist who was a native of Würzburg.
Karl Landsteiner,, (June 14, 1868 – June 26, 1943) was an Austrian biologist, physician, and immunologist.
Kindia is the fourth largest city in Guinea, lying about 85 miles north east of the nation's capital Conakry.
Le Figaro is a French daily morning newspaper founded in 1826 and published in Paris.
Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French biologist, microbiologist and chemist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization.
Louse (plural: lice) is the common name for members of the order Phthiraptera, which contains nearly 5,000 species of wingless insect.
Luc Antoine Montagnier (born 18 August 1932) is a French virologist and joint recipient with Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Harald zur Hausen of the 2008 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
Pierre Eugène Marcellin Berthelot FRS FRSE (25 October 1827 – 18 March 1907) was a French chemist and politician noted for the ThomsenendashBerthelot principle of thermochemistry.
A medical test is a medical procedure performed to detect, diagnose, or monitor diseases, disease processes, susceptibility, and determine a course of treatment.
Medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical chemistry are disciplines at the intersection of chemistry, especially synthetic organic chemistry, and pharmacology and various other biological specialties, where they are involved with design, chemical synthesis and development for market of pharmaceutical agents, or bio-active molecules (drugs).
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.
Montevideo is the capital and largest city of Uruguay.
Montreal (officially Montréal) is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
The Musée Pasteur is a museum dedicated to scientist Louis Pasteur.
Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) is a slow-growing (16- to 20-hour generation time) aerobic bacterium and the causative agent of tuberculosis in cattle (known as bovine TB).
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a species of pathogenic bacteria in the family Mycobacteriaceae and the causative agent of tuberculosis.
Mycology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of fungi, including their genetic and biochemical properties, their taxonomy and their use to humans as a source for tinder, medicine, food, and entheogens, as well as their dangers, such as toxicity or infection.
Neuromuscular-blocking drugs block neuromuscular transmission at the neuromuscular junction, causing paralysis of the affected skeletal muscles.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
New Caledonia (Nouvelle-Calédonie)Previously known officially as the "Territory of New Caledonia and Dependencies" (Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et dépendances), then simply as the "Territory of New Caledonia" (French: Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie), the official French name is now only Nouvelle-Calédonie (Organic Law of 19 March 1999, article 222 IV — see). The French courts often continue to use the appellation Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Nha Trang is a coastal city and capital of Khánh Hòa Province, on the South Central Coast of Vietnam.
Niamey is the capital and largest city of the West African country Niger.
Niger, also called the Niger officially the Republic of the Niger, is a landlocked country in Western Africa named after the Niger River.
The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
A non-profit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity or non-profit institution, is dedicated to furthering a particular social cause or advocating for a shared point of view.
Nouméa is the capital and largest city of the French special collectivity of New Caledonia.
An oncogene is a gene that has the potential to cause cancer.
The Ourcq (Urc in 855) is an river in France, a tributary of the Marne.
Parasitology is the study of parasites, their hosts, and the relationship between them.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
The Pasteur Institute of India produces DPT vaccine and rabies vaccine for the Expanded Program on Immunization in India.
The Pasteur Institute of Iran (PII) was founded in Tehran, Iran in 1921 under the incentive of Firouz Nosrat-ed-Dowleh III, then minister of Foreign Affairs, and with the help of a land donation from his father Abdol-Hossein Farmanfarma.
The Pasteur Institute of Lille (Institut Pasteur de Lille, Pasteur-Lille) is a research centre and member of the Pasteur Institute network.
Pasteurization or pasteurisation is a process in which packaged and non-packaged foods (such as milk and fruit juice) are treated with mild heat (Today, pasteurization is used widely in the dairy industry and other food processing industries to achieve food preservation and food safety. This process was named after the French scientist Louis Pasteur, whose research in the 1880s demonstrated that thermal processing would inactivate unwanted microorganisms in wine. Spoilage enzymes are also inactivated during pasteurization. Most liquid products are heat treated in a continuous system where heat can be applied using plate heat exchanger and/or direct or indirect use of steam and hot water. Due to the mild heat there are minor changes to the nutritional quality of foods as well as the sensory characteristics. Pascalization or high pressure processing (HPP) and Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) are non-thermal processes that are also used to pasteurize foods.
Paul-Louis Simond (30 July 1858 – 3 March 1947) was a French physician, chief medical officer and biologist whose major contribution to science was his demonstration that the intermediates in the transmission of bubonic plague from rats to humans are the fleas Xenopsylla cheopis that dwell on infected rats.
Penicillium glaucum is a mold that is used in the making of some types of blue cheese, including Bleu de Gex, Rochebaron, and some varieties of Bleu d'Auvergne and Gorgonzola.
Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a break in the lining of the stomach, first part of the small intestine or occasionally the lower esophagus.
A pest house, plague house, pesthouse or fever shed was a type of building used for persons afflicted with communicable diseases such as tuberculosis, cholera, smallpox or typhus.
Phagocytes are cells that protect the body by ingesting harmful foreign particles, bacteria, and dead or dying cells.
Pharmacists, also known as chemists (Commonwealth English) or druggists (North American and, archaically, Commonwealth English), are health professionals who practice in pharmacy, the field of health sciences focusing on safe and effective medication use.
Phnom Penh (or; ភ្នំពេញ phnum pɨñ), formerly known as Krong Chaktomuk or Krong Chaktomuk Serimongkul (ក្រុងចតុមុខសិរិមង្គល), is the capital and most populous city in Cambodia.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
Pierre Paul Émile Roux FRS (17 December 1853, Confolens, Charente – 3 November 1933, Paris) was a French physician, bacteriologist and immunologist.
Piperoxan, also known as benodaine, is a drug which was the very first antihistamine to be discovered.
Plague is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis.
Pointe-à-Pitre (Creole: Lapwent) is the largest city of Guadeloupe, an overseas ''région'' and ''département'' of France located in the Lesser Antilles, of which it is a sous-préfecture, being the seat of the Arrondissement of Pointe-à-Pitre.
Poliomyelitis, often called polio or infantile paralysis, is an infectious disease caused by the poliovirus.
Preventive healthcare (alternately preventive medicine, preventative healthcare/medicine, or prophylaxis) consists of measures taken for disease prevention, as opposed to disease treatment.
Protozoa (also protozoan, plural protozoans) is an informal term for single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic, which feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.
A provirus is a virus genome that is integrated into the DNA of a host cell.
A quarantine is used to separate and restrict the movement of people; it is a 'a restraint upon the activities or communication of persons or the transport of goods designed to prevent the spread of disease or pests', for a certain period of time.
Rabies is a viral disease that causes inflammation of the brain in humans and other mammals.
A research center is a facility or building dedicated to research, commonly with the focus on a specific area.
Rickettsia prowazekii is a species of gram-negative, alphaproteobacteria, obligate intracellular parasitic, aerobic Bacillus bacteria that is the etiologic agent of epidemic typhus, transmitted in the feces of lice.
Robert Heinrich Hermann Koch (11 December 1843 – 27 May 1910) was a German physician and microbiologist.
Robert Ludlum (May 25, 1927 – March 12, 2001) was an American author of 27 thriller novels, best known as the creator of Jason Bourne from the original The Bourne Trilogy series.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
Rudolf Stefan Weigl (2 September 1883 – 11 August 1957) was a Polish biologist and inventor of the first effective vaccine against epidemic typhus.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of yeast.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
São Paulo is a municipality in the southeast region of Brazil.
A scientist is a person engaging in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge that describes and predicts the natural world.
The Seine (La Seine) is a river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin in the north of France.
Senegal (Sénégal), officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa.
Seoul (like soul; 서울), officially the Seoul Special Metropolitan City – is the capital, Constitutional Court of Korea and largest metropolis of South Korea.
Shanghai (Wu Chinese) is one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China and the most populous city proper in the world, with a population of more than 24 million.
Shigella is a genus of gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, nonspore-forming, non-motile, rod-shaped bacteria genetically closely related to E. coli.
Silicosis (also known as miner's phthisis, grinder's asthma, potter's rot and other occupation-related names, or by the invented name pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis) is a form of occupational lung disease caused by inhalation of crystalline silica dust, and is marked by inflammation and scarring in the form of nodular lesions in the upper lobes of the lungs.
Sofia (Со́фия, tr.) is the capital and largest city of Bulgaria.
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
Stanislaus Josef Mathias von Prowazek, Edler von Lanow (12 November, 1875 Jindřichův Hradec, Bohemia – 17 February, 1915, Cottbus), born Stanislav Provázek, was a Czech zoologist and parasitologist, who along with pathologist Henrique da Rocha Lima (1879-1956) discovered the pathogen of epidemic typhus.
One of the obstacles to treatment of the human immunodeficiency virus is its high genetic variability.
Sulfanilamide (also spelled sulphanilamide) is a sulfonamide antibacterial.
Sulfonamide (also called sulphonamide, sulfa drugs or sulpha drugs) is the basis of several groups of drugs.
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.
Tehran (تهران) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.
Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people; or fear to achieve a financial, political, religious or ideological aim.
Tetanus, also known as lockjaw, is an infection characterized by muscle spasms.
In molecular biology and genetics, transcriptional regulation is the means by which a cell regulates the conversion of DNA to RNA (transcription), thereby orchestrating gene activity.
Treponema pallidum is a spirochaete bacterium with subspecies that cause the diseases syphilis, bejel, and yaws.
Tuberculin, also known as purified protein derivative, is a combination of proteins that are used in the diagnosis of tuberculosis.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
A tumor marker is a biomarker found in blood, urine, or body tissues that can be elevated by the presence of one or more types of cancer.
Tunis (تونس) is the capital and the largest city of Tunisia.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to ''Salmonella'' typhi that causes symptoms.
Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases that include epidemic typhus, scrub typhus and murine typhus.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
Uruguay, officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay (República Oriental del Uruguay), is a sovereign state in the southeastern region of South America.
A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease.
In chemistry, the valence or valency of an element is a measure of its combining power with other atoms when it forms chemical compounds or molecules.
In epidemiology, a disease vector is any agent that carries and transmits an infectious pathogen into another living organism; most agents regarded as vectors are organisms, such as intermediate parasites or microbes, but it could be an inanimate medium of infection such as dust particles.
A veterinary physician, usually called a vet, which is shortened from veterinarian (American English) or veterinary surgeon (British English), is a professional who practices veterinary medicine by treating diseases, disorders, and injuries in animals.
Vibrio is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria, possessing a curved-rod shape (comma shape), several species of which can cause foodborne infection, usually associated with eating undercooked seafood.
Victor Marie Hugo (26 February 1802 – 22 May 1885) was a French poet, novelist, and dramatist of the Romantic movement.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Virology is the study of viruses – submicroscopic, parasitic particles of genetic material contained in a protein coat – and virus-like agents.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yaoundé (Jaunde) is the capital of Cameroon and, with a population of approximately 2.5 million, the second largest city in the country after the port city Douala.
Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.
Yellow fever is a viral disease of typically short duration.
Yersinia pestis (formerly Pasteurella pestis) is a Gram-negative, non-motile rod-shaped coccobacillus, with no spores.