143 relations: African Regional Intellectual Property Organization, Algorithm, American Intellectual Property Law Association, Ancient Greece, Anne, Queen of Great Britain, Assignment (law), Austria, Biological patent, Breach of confidence, Business method patent, Certificate of contested validity, Charles Anthon, Chemical patent, Cloud computing, Common good, Common law, Commonwealth of Independent States, Contract, Counterclaim, Cross-licensing, Defensive publication, Design around, Design patent, DNA, Doctrine of equivalents, Electronic Frontier Foundation, Eurasian Patent Organization, European Patent Convention, European Patent Office, European Patent Organisation, Exclusive right, Externality, Fixed cost, France, Free trade, Free-rider problem, French Revolution, Gebrauchsmuster, Google, Industrial design right, Industrial espionage, Industrial Revolution, Injunction, Innovation, Intellectual property, Intellectual Property Office (United Kingdom), Intergovernmental organization, Invention, Inventive step and non-obviousness, Inventor (patent), ..., James VI and I, James Watt, John Locke, Joseph Stiglitz, Joshua Pearce, Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University, Labour law, Land patent, Latin, Lawsuit, Letters patent, Liberty Fund, License, List of people associated with patent law, London Agreement (2000), LOT Network, Maintenance fee (patent), Marginal cost, Market liquidity, Massachusetts General Court, Mortgage law, Munich Intellectual Property Law Center, Natural and legal rights, Non-disclosure agreement, Novelty (patent), Office action, Open-source hardware, Open-source model, Opposition proceeding, Opposition to copyright, Organisation Africaine de la Propriété Intellectuelle, Outline of patents, Overhead (business), Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property, Parliamentary sovereignty, Patent application, Patent attorney, Patent Busting Project, Patent claim, Patent classification, Patent Cooperation Treaty, Patent examiner, Patent office, Patent pending, Patent prosecution, Patent thicket, Patent troll, Patentability, Patentable subject matter, Philosophy, Plant breeders' rights, Potash, Printing patent, Prior art, Priority right, Prizes as an alternative to patents, Property, Public domain, Rent-seeking, Research and development, Reverse engineering, Rule of thumb, Samuel Hopkins (inventor), Samuel Winslow (patentee), Scotland, Settlement (litigation), Societal views on patents, Software patent, Sovereign state, Stack Exchange, Statute of Monopolies, Steam engine, Sufficiency of disclosure, Sybaris, Synthetic biology, Term of patent, The Crown, Thirteen Colonies, Title 35 of the United States Code, Trade secret, Tragedy of the anticommons, TRIPS Agreement, United States Congress, United States Constitution, United States Patent and Trademark Office, University of North Carolina School of Law, Utility (patent), Utility model, Venetian Patent Statute, Venice, World Intellectual Property Organization, World Trade Organization, 3D printing. Expand index (93 more) » « Shrink index
The African Regional Intellectual Property Organization (ARIPO), formerly African Regional Industrial Property Organization, is an intergovernmental organization for cooperation among African states in patent and other intellectual property matters.
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.
The American Intellectual Property Law Association (AIPLA), headquartered in Arlington County, Virginia, is a national, voluntary bar association constituted primarily of lawyers in private and corporate practice, in government service, and in the academic community, with approximately 14,000 members.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) was the Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland between 8 March 1702 and 1 May 1707.
An assignment is a legal term used in the context of the law of contract and of real estate.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
A biological patent is a patent on an invention in the field of biology that by law allows the patent holder to exclude others from making, using, selling, or importing the protected invention for a limited period of time.
The tort of breach of confidence is, in United States law, a common law tort that protects private information that is conveyed in confidence.
Business method patents are a class of patents which disclose and claim new methods of doing business.
In United Kingdom patent law, a certificate of contested validity is an order usually made by the Patent Office, Patents Court (a division of the High Court) or Patents County Court after a patent infringement action in which the validity of the patent is unsuccessfully challenged.
Charles Anthon (November 19, 1797 – July 29, 1867) was an American classical scholar.
A chemical patent, pharmaceutical patent or drug patent is a patent for an invention in the chemical or pharmaceuticals industry.
Cloud computing is an information technology (IT) paradigm that enables ubiquitous access to shared pools of configurable system resources and higher-level services that can be rapidly provisioned with minimal management effort, often over the Internet.
In philosophy, economics, and political science, the common good (also commonwealth, common weal or general welfare) refers to either what is shared and beneficial for all or most members of a given community, or alternatively, what is achieved by citizenship, collective action, and active participation in the realm of politics and public service.
Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.
The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS; r), also nicknamed the Russian Commonwealth (in order to distinguish it from the Commonwealth of Nations), is a political and economic intergovernmental organization of nine member states and one associate member, all of which are former Soviet Republics located in Eurasia (primarily in Central to North Asia), formed following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
A contract is a promise or set of promises that are legally enforceable and, if violated, allow the injured party access to legal remedies.
In a court of law, a party's claim is a counterclaim if one party asserts claims in response to the claims of another.
A cross-licensing agreement is a contract between two or more parties where each party grants rights to their intellectual property to the other parties.
A defensive publication, or defensive disclosure, is an intellectual property strategy used to prevent another party from obtaining a patent on a product, apparatus or method for instance.
In the field of patents, the phrase "to design around" means to invent an alternative to a patented invention that does not infringe the patent’s claims.
In the United States, a design patent is a form of legal protection granted to the ornamental design of a functional item.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
The doctrine of equivalents is a legal rule in many (but not all) of the world's patent systems that allows a court to hold a party liable for patent infringement even though the infringing device or process does not fall within the literal scope of a patent claim, but nevertheless is equivalent to the claimed invention.
The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) is an international non-profit digital rights group based in San Francisco, California.
The Eurasian Patent Organization (EAPO) is a regional organization set up in 1995 by the Eurasian Patent Convention (EAPC).
The European Patent Convention (EPC), also known as the Convention on the Grant of European Patents of 5 October 1973, is a multilateral treaty instituting the European Patent Organisation and providing an autonomous legal system according to which European patents are granted.
The European Patent Office (EPO) is one of the two organs of the European Patent Organisation (EPOrg), the other being the Administrative Council.
The European Patent Organisation (sometimes abbreviated EPOrg in order to distinguish it from the European Patent Office, one of the two organs of the organisation) is a public international organisation created in 1977 by its contracting states to grant patents in Europe under the European Patent Convention (EPC) of 1973.
In Anglo-Saxon law, an exclusive right, or exclusivity, is a de facto, non-tangible prerogative existing in law (that is, the power or, in a wider sense, right) to perform an action or acquire a benefit and to permit or deny others the right to perform the same action or to acquire the same benefit.
In economics, an externality is the cost or benefit that affects a party who did not choose to incur that cost or benefit.
In economics, fixed costs, indirect costs or overheads are business expenses that are not dependent on the level of goods or services produced by the business.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Free trade is a free market policy followed by some international markets in which countries' governments do not restrict imports from, or exports to, other countries.
In economics, the free-rider problem occurs when those who benefit from resources, public goods, or services do not pay for them, which results in an underprovision of those goods or services.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
In German and Austrian patent laws, the Gebrauchsmuster (GebrM), also known as German utility model or Austrian utility model, is a patent-like, intellectual property right protecting inventions.
Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware.
An industrial design right is an intellectual property right that protects the visual design of objects that are not purely utilitarian.
Industrial espionage, economic espionage, corporate spying or corporate espionage is a form of espionage conducted for commercial purposes instead of purely national security.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
An injunction is an equitable remedy in the form of a court order that compels a party to do or refrain from specific acts.
Innovation can be defined simply as a "new idea, device or method".
Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property that includes intangible creations of the human intellect, and primarily encompasses copyrights, patents, and trademarks.
The Intellectual Property Office of the United Kingdom (often The IPO) is, since 2 April 2007, the operating name of The Patent Office.
An intergovernmental organization or international governmental organisation (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as member states), or of other intergovernmental organizations.
An invention is a unique or novel device, method, composition or process.
The inventive step and non-obviousness reflect a general patentability requirement present in most patent laws, according to which an invention should be sufficiently inventive—i.e., non-obvious—in order to be patented.
In patent law, an inventor is the person, or persons in United States patent law, who contribute to the claims of a patentable invention.
James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625.
James Watt (30 January 1736 (19 January 1736 OS) – 25 August 1819) was a Scottish inventor, mechanical engineer, and chemist who improved on Thomas Newcomen's 1712 Newcomen steam engine with his Watt steam engine in 1781, which was fundamental to the changes brought by the Industrial Revolution in both his native Great Britain and the rest of the world.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
Joseph Eugene Stiglitz (born February 9, 1943) is an American economist and a professor at Columbia University.
Joshua M. Pearce is an academic engineer at Michigan Tech known for his work on protocrystallinity, photovoltaic technology, open-source-appropriate technology, and open-source hardware including RepRap 3D printers.
The Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University (also known as The Kellogg School or Kellogg) is the business school of Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois.
Labour law (also known as labor law or employment law) mediates the relationship between workers, employing entities, trade unions and the government.
A land patent is an exclusive land grant made by a sovereign entity with respect to a particular tract of land.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
A lawsuit (or suit in law) is "a vernacular term for a suit, action, or cause instituted or depending between two private persons in the courts of law." A lawsuit is any proceeding by a party or parties against another in a court of law.
Letters patent (always in the plural) are a type of legal instrument in the form of a published written order issued by a monarch, president, or other head of state, generally granting an office, right, monopoly, title, or status to a person or corporation.
Liberty Fund, Inc. is a nonprofit foundation headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana which promulgates the libertarian views of its founder, Pierre F. Goodrich through publishing, conferences, and educational resources.
A license (American English) or licence (British English) is an official permission or permit to do, use, or own something (as well as the document of that permission or permit).
This is a list of notable people associated with patent law and patent-related institutions.
The London Agreement, formally the Agreement on the application of Article 65 of the Convention on the Grant of European Patents and sometimes referred to as the London Protocol, is a patent law agreement concluded in London on 17 October 2000 and aimed at reducing the translation costs of European patents granted under the European Patent Convention (EPC).
The LOT (License on Transfer) Network is a nonprofit organization that was formed to combat patent assertion entities (PAEs), also known as patent trolls, by cross-licensing patents that fall into the hands of PAEs.
Maintenance fees or renewal fees are fees that are paid to maintain a granted patent in force.
In economics, marginal cost is the change in the opportunity cost that arises when the quantity produced is incremented by one unit, that is, it is the cost of producing one more unit of a good.
In business, economics or investment, market liquidity is a market's feature whereby an individual or firm can quickly purchase or sell an asset without causing a drastic change in the asset's price.
The Massachusetts General Court (formally styled the General Court of Massachusetts) is the state legislature of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
A mortgage is a security interest in real property held by a lender as a security for a debt, usually a loan of money.
The Munich Intellectual Property Law Center (MIPLC) is a center for both research and education in intellectual property, founded in 2003 and based in Munich, Germany.
Natural and legal rights are two types of rights.
A non-disclosure agreement (NDA), also known as a confidentiality agreement (CA), confidential disclosure agreement (CDA), proprietary information agreement (PIA) or secrecy agreement (SA), is a legal contract between at least two parties that outlines confidential material, knowledge, or information that the parties wish to share with one another for certain purposes, but wish to restrict access to or by third parties.
Novelty is a requirement for a patent claim to be patentable.
In the United States, an Office action is a document written by an examiner in a patent or trademark examination procedure and mailed to an applicant for a patent or trademark.
Open-source hardware (OSH) consists of physical artifacts of technology designed and offered by the open design movement.
The open-source model is a decentralized software-development model that encourages open collaboration.
An opposition proceeding is an administrative process available under the patent and trademark law of many jurisdictions which allows third parties to formally challenge the validity of a pending patent application ("pre-grant opposition"), of a granted patent ("post-grant opposition"), or of a trademark.
Opposition to copyright or anti-copyright refers to a movement dissenting the nature of current copyright law, often focusing on perceived negative philosophical, economical or social effects of such laws.
The Organisation Africaine de la Propriété Intellectuelle or OAPI (African Intellectual Property Organization) is an intellectual property organization, headquartered in Yaoundé, Cameroon.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to patents: Patent – set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state to an inventor or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for detailed public disclosure of an invention.
In business, overhead or overhead expense refers to an ongoing expense of operating a business.
The Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property, signed in Paris, France, on 20 March 1883, was one of the first intellectual property treaties.
Parliamentary sovereignty (also called parliamentary supremacy or legislative supremacy) is a concept in the constitutional law of some parliamentary democracies.
A patent application is a request pending at a patent office for the grant of a patent for the invention described and claimed by that application.
A patent attorney is an attorney who has the specialized qualifications necessary for representing clients in obtaining patents and acting in all matters and procedures relating to patent law and practice, such as filing an opposition.
The Patent Busting Project is an Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) initiative challenging patents that the organization claims are illegitimate and suppress innovation or limit online expression.
In a patent or patent application, the claims define, in technical terms, the extent, i.e. the scope, of the protection conferred by a patent, or the protection sought in a patent application.
A patent classification is a system for examiners of patent offices or other people to categorize (code) documents, such as published patent applications, according to the technical features of their content.
The Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) is an international patent law treaty, concluded in 1970.
A patent examiner (or, historically, a patent clerk) is an employee, usually a civil servant with a scientific or engineering background, working at a patent office.
A patent office is a governmental or intergovernmental organization which controls the issue of patents.
"Patent pending" (sometimes abbreviated by "pat. pend." or "pat. pending") or "patent applied for" are legal designations or expressions that can be used in relation to a product or process once a patent application for the product or process has been filed, but prior to the patent being issued or the application abandoned.
Patent prosecution describes the interaction between applicants and their representatives, and a patent office with regard to a patent, or an application for a patent.
A patent thicket carries a negative connotation and is best described as "a dense web of overlapping intellectual property rights that a company must hack its way through in order to actually commercialize new technology," or, in other words, "an overlapping set of patent rights” which requires innovators to reach licensing deals for multiple patents from multiple sources." The expression may come from SCM Corp.
In international law and business, patent trolling or patent hoarding is a categorical or pejorative term applied to a person or company that attempts to enforce patent rights against accused infringers far beyond the patent's actual value or contribution to the prior art, often through hardball legal tactics (frivolous litigation, vexatious litigation, strategic lawsuit against public participation (SLAPP), chilling effects, and the like).
Within the context of a national or multilateral body of law, an invention is patentable if it meets the relevant legal conditions to be granted a patent.
Patentable, statutory or patent-eligible subject matter is subject matter which is susceptible of patent protection.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Plant breeders' rights (PBR), also known as plant variety rights (PVR), are rights granted to the breeder of a new variety of plant that give the breeder exclusive control over the propagating material (including seed, cuttings, divisions, tissue culture) and harvested material (cut flowers, fruit, foliage) of a new variety for a number of years.
Potash is some of various mined and manufactured salts that contain potassium in water-soluble form.
The printing patent or printing privilege was a precursor of modern copyright.
Prior art (state of the art or background art), in most systems of patent law, is constituted by all information that has been made available to the public in any form before a given date that might be relevant to a patent's claims of originality.
In patent, industrial design rights and trademark laws, a priority right or right of priority is a time-limited right, triggered by the first filing of an application for a patent, an industrial design or a trademark respectively.
Some authors advocating patent reform have proposed the use of prizes as an alternative to patents.
Property, in the abstract, is what belongs to or with something, whether as an attribute or as a component of said thing.
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply.
In public choice theory and in economics, rent-seeking involves seeking to increase one's share of existing wealth without creating new wealth.
Research and development (R&D, R+D, or R'n'D), also known in Europe as research and technological development (RTD), refers to innovative activities undertaken by corporations or governments in developing new services or products, or improving existing services or products.
Reverse engineering, also called back engineering, is the process by which a man-made object is deconstructed to reveal its designs, architecture, or to extract knowledge from the object; similar to scientific research, the only difference being that scientific research is about a natural phenomenon.
The English phrase rule of thumb refers to a principle with broad application that is not intended to be strictly accurate or reliable for every situation.
Samuel Hopkins (December 9, 1743 – 1818) was an American inventor from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, On July 31, 1790, he was granted the first U.S. patent, under the new U.S. patent statute just signed into law by President Washington on April 10, 1790.
In 1641, Samuel Winslow was granted the first patent in North America by the Massachusetts General Court for a new process for making salt.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
In law, a settlement is a resolution between disputing parties about a legal case, reached either before or after court action begins.
Legal scholars, economists, activists, policymakers, industries, and trade organizations have held differing views on patents and engaged in contentious debates on the subject.
A software patent is a patent on a piece of software, such as a computer program, libraries, user interface, or algorithm.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
Stack Exchange is a network of question-and-answer (Q&A) websites on topics in varied fields, each site covering a specific topic, where questions, answers, and users are subject to a reputation award process.
The Statute of Monopolies was an Act of the Parliament of England notable as the first statutory expression of English patent law.
A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid.
Sufficiency of disclosure or enablement is a patent law requirement according to which a patent application must disclose a claimed invention in sufficient detail for the notional person skilled in the art to carry out that claimed invention.
Sybaris (Σύβαρις; Sibari) was an important city of Magna Graecia.
Synthetic biology is an interdisciplinary branch of biology and engineering.
The term of a patent is the maximum period during which it can be maintained in force.
The Crown is the state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth realms and their sub-divisions (such as Crown dependencies, provinces, or states).
The Thirteen Colonies were a group of British colonies on the east coast of North America founded in the 17th and 18th centuries that declared independence in 1776 and formed the United States of America.
Title 35 of the United States Code is a title of United States Code regarding patent law.
A trade secret is a formula, practice, process, design, instrument, pattern, commercial method, or compilation of information not generally known or reasonably ascertainable by others by which a business can obtain an economic advantage over competitors or customers.
The tragedy of the anticommons is a type of coordination breakdown, in which a single resource has numerous rightsholders who prevent others from using it, frustrating what would be a socially desirable outcome.
The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) is an international legal agreement between all the member nations of the World Trade Organization (WTO).
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.
The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) is an agency in the U.S. Department of Commerce that issues patents to inventors and businesses for their inventions, and trademark registration for product and intellectual property identification.
The University of North Carolina School of Law is a professional school within the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
In United States patent law, utility is a patentability requirement.
A utility model is a patent-like intellectual property right to protect inventions.
The Venetian Patent Statute of March 19, 1474, established in the Republic of Venice the first statutory patent system in Europe, and may be deemed to be the earliest codified patent system in the world.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) is one of the 15 specialized agencies of the United Nations (UN).
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
3D printing is any of various processes in which material is joined or solidified under computer control to create a three-dimensional object, with material being added together (such as liquid molecules or powder grains being fused together).
Anti-patent, Blanket patent, Inventions Patents, Patent Law, Patent harmonization, Patent holder, Patent holders, Patent information, Patent law, Patent laws, Patent protection, Patent right, Patent rights, Patent specification, Patented, Patenting, Patents, Public Patent, Public patent, Rights conferred by a patent, Royal privilege, Utility patent.