436 relations: Abscess, Abstinence, Actinomyces israelii, Actinomycosis, Acute proliferative glomerulonephritis, American Society for Microbiology, Aminoglycoside, Amoxicillin, Ampicillin, Amputation, Anal sex, Animal attacks, Anthrax, Anthrax vaccines, Anti-tetanus immunoglobulin, Antibiotic, Antimicrobial resistance, Antiseptic, Antitoxin, Apamea (genus), Aspiration pneumonia, Asymptomatic, Atypical pneumonia, Austin Community College District, Autoclave, Azithromycin, B-cell lymphoma, Bacilli, Bacillus, Bacillus (shape), Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, Bacteria, Bacterial pneumonia, Bacterial taxonomy, Bacterial vaginosis, Bactericide, Bacteriostatic agent, Bacteroides fragilis, Bartonella, Bartonella henselae, Bartonella quintana, BCG vaccine, Benzylpenicillin, Biliary tract, Bismuth subsalicylate, Bleach, Blister, Body louse, Bordetella, ..., Bordetella pertussis, Borrelia, Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia duttoni, Borrelia garinii, Borrelia hermsii, Borrelia miyamotoi, Borrelia recurrentis, Borrelia turicatae, Botulism, Brain, Bronchitis, Brucella, Brucella abortus, Brucella canis, Brucella melitensis, Brucellosis, Bubonic plague, Burkholderia cenocepacia, Burn, Campylobacter, Campylobacter jejuni, Candidiasis, Canning, Catheter, Causality, Cefotaxime, Ceftriaxone, Cellulitis, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Cephalosporin, Chancre, Childbirth, Chlamydia (genus), Chlamydia psittaci, Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydophila, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Chloramphenicol, Cholera, Chronic gastritis, Ciprofloxacin, Clarithromycin, Clofazimine, Clostridium, Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium difficile (bacteria), Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium tetani, Coccobacillus, Coccus, Colitis, Collin College, Congenital syphilis, Conjunctivitis, Connective tissue, Cooling tower, Coronary artery disease, Corynebacterium, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Cough, Creighton University School of Medicine, Cystic fibrosis, Dapsone, Debridement, Dental plaque, Dermacentor variabilis, Diarrhea, Diphtheria, Disease, Disease burden, Disinfectant, DNA, DNA damage (naturally occurring), Doxycycline, DPT vaccine, Drug injection, Dysentery, Ehrlichia, Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichiosis, Endocarditis, Endometritis, Enteritis, Enterococcus, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli, Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Enzyme inhibitor, Epididymitis, Erysipelas, Erythema chronicum migrans, Erythromycin, Escherichia, Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Ethambutol, Exogenous bacteria, Exotoxin, Fatigue, Fecal microbiota transplant, Fecal–oral route, Fever, Flagellum, Flea, Fomite, Food and Agriculture Organization, Foodborne illness, Francisella, Francisella tularensis, Gas gangrene, Gastroenteritis, Gastrointestinal tract, Genetic recombination, Genome, Gentamicin, Genus, Gonorrhea, Gram stain, Granuloma, Guillain–Barré syndrome, Gumma (pathology), Gut flora, Haemophilus, Haemophilus 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An abscess is a collection of pus that has built up within the tissue of the body.
Abstinence is a self-enforced restraint from indulging in bodily activities that are widely experienced as giving pleasure.
Actinomyces israelii is a species of Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria within the Actinomyces.
Actinomycosis is a rare infectious bacterial disease caused by Actinomyces species.
Acute proliferative glomerulonephritis is a disorder of the glomeruli (glomerulonephritis), or small blood vessels in the kidneys.
The American Society for Microbiology (ASM), originally the Society of American Bacteriologists, is a professional organization for scientists who study viruses, bacteria, fungi, algae, and protozoa as well as other aspects of microbiology.
Aminoglycoside is a medicinal and bacteriologic category of traditional Gram-negative antibacterial therapeutic agents that inhibit protein synthesis and contain as a portion of the molecule an amino-modified glycoside (sugar); the term can also refer more generally to any organic molecule that contains aminosugar substructures.
Amoxicillin, also spelled amoxycillin, is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.
Ampicillin is an antibiotic used to prevent and treat a number of bacterial infections, such as respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, meningitis, salmonellosis, and endocarditis.
Amputation is the removal of a limb by trauma, medical illness, or surgery.
Anal sex or anal intercourse is generally the insertion and thrusting of the erect penis into a person's anus, or anus and rectum, for sexual pleasure.
Animal attacks are a cause of human injuries and fatalities worldwide.
Anthrax is an infection caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis.
Vaccines against the livestock and human disease anthrax—caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis—have had a prominent place in the history of medicine, from Pasteur’s pioneering 19th-century work with cattle (the first effective bacterial vaccine and the second effective vaccine ever) to the controversial late 20th century use of a modern product to protect American troops against the use of anthrax in biological warfare.
Anti-tetanus immunoglobulin, also known as tetanus immune globulin (TIG) and tetanus antitoxin, is a medication made up of antibodies against the tetanus toxin.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR or AR) is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication that once could successfully treat the microbe.
Antiseptics (from Greek ἀντί anti, "against" and σηπτικός sēptikos, "putrefactive") are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction.
An antitoxin is an antibody with the ability to neutralize a specific toxin.
Apamea is a genus of moths in the family Noctuidae.
Aspiration pneumonia is a type of lung infection that is due to a relatively large amount of material from the stomach or mouth entering the lungs.
In medicine, a disease is considered asymptomatic if a patient is a carrier for a disease or infection but experiences no symptoms.
Atypical pneumonia, also known as walking pneumonia, is the type of pneumonia not caused by one of the pathogens most commonly associated with the disease.
The Austin Community College District (ACC) is a community college system serving the Austin, Texas metropolitan area and surrounding Central Texas communities.
An autoclave is a pressure chamber used to carry out industrial processes requiring elevated temperature and pressure different from ambient air pressure.
Azithromycin is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.
The B-cell lymphomas are types of lymphoma affecting B cells.
Bacilli refers to a taxonomic class of bacteria.
Bacillus is a genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria and a member of the phylum Firmicutes.
A bacillus (plural bacilli) or bacilliform bacterium is a rod-shaped bacterium or archaeon.
Bacillus anthracis is the etiologic agent of anthrax—a common disease of livestock and, occasionally, of humans—and the only obligate pathogen within the genus Bacillus.
Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, aerobic, facultatively anaerobic, motile, beta hemolytic bacterium commonly found in soil and food.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Bacterial pneumonia is a type of pneumonia caused by bacterial infection.
Bacterial taxonomy is the taxonomy, i.e. the rank-based classification, of bacteria.
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a disease of the vagina caused by excessive growth of bacteria.
A bactericide or bacteriocide, sometimes abbreviated Bcidal, is a substance that kills bacteria.
A bacteriostatic agent or bacteriostat, abbreviated Bstatic, is a biological or chemical agent that stops bacteria from reproducing, while not necessarily killing them otherwise.
Bacteroides fragilis is an obligately anaerobic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium.
Bartonella is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria.
Bartonella henselae, formerly Rochalimæa, is a proteobacterium that is the causative agent of cat-scratch disease (bartonellosis).
Bartonella quintana, originally known as Rochalimaea quintana, and "Rickettsia quintana", is a micro-organism transmitted by the human body louse.
Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccine is a vaccine primarily used against tuberculosis (TB).
Benzylpenicillin, also known as penicillin G, is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections.
The biliary tract, (biliary tree or biliary system) refers to the liver, gall bladder and bile ducts, and how they work together to make, store and secrete bile.
Bismuth subsalicylate, sold under the brand name Pepto-Bismol, is an antacid medication used to treat temporary discomforts of the stomach and gastrointestinal tract, such as diarrhea, indigestion, heartburn and nausea.
Bleach is the generic name for any chemical product which is used industrially and domestically to whiten clothes, lighten hair color and remove stains.
A blister is a small pocket of body fluid (lymph, serum, plasma, blood, or pus) within the upper layers of the skin, typically caused by forceful rubbing (friction), burning, freezing, chemical exposure or infection.
The body louse (Pediculus humanus humanus, sometimes called Pediculus humanus corporis) is a louse that infests humans.
Bordetella is a genus of small (0.2 – 0.7 µm), Gram-negative coccobacilli of the phylum Proteobacteria.
Bordetella pertussis is a Gram-negative, aerobic, pathogenic, encapsulated coccobacillus of the genus Bordetella, and the causative agent of pertussis or whooping cough.
Borrelia is a genus of bacteria of the spirochete phylum.
Borrelia afzelii is a species of Borrelia a bacterium that can infect various species of vertebrates and invertebrates.
Borrelia burgdorferi is a bacterial species of the spirochete class of the genus Borrelia.
Borrelia duttoni is a species of Borrelia.
Borrelia garinii is a spirochete bacterium in the Borrelia genus.
Borrelia hermsii is a spirochete bacterium that has been implicated as a cause of tick-borne relapsing fever.
Borrelia miyamotoi is a spirochete bacterium in the genus Borrelia.
Borrelia recurrentis is a species of Borrelia, a spirochaete bacterium associated with relapsing fever.
Borrelia turicatae is a bacterial species of the spirochaete class of the genus Borrelia.
Botulism is a rare and potentially fatal illness caused by a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Bronchitis is inflammation of the bronchi (large and medium-sized airways) in the lungs.
Brucella is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria, named after David Bruce (1855–1931).
Brucella abortus is a Gram-negative proteobacterium in the family Brucellaceae and is one of the causative agents of brucellosis.
Brucella canis is a Gram-negative proteobacterium in the family Brucellaceae that causes brucellosis in dogs and other canids.
Brucella melitensis is a Gram-negative coccobacillus bacterium from the Brucellaceae family.
Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis caused by ingestion of unpasteurized milk or undercooked meat from infected animals, or close contact with their secretions.
Bubonic plague is one of three types of plague caused by bacterium Yersinia pestis.
Burkholderia cenocepacia, also known as Helycobacter, is a species of Gram-negative bacteria that is common in the environment, can form a biofilm with itself, is resistant to many antibiotics and may cause disease in plants.
A burn is a type of injury to skin, or other tissues, caused by heat, cold, electricity, chemicals, friction, or radiation.
Campylobacter (meaning "curved bacteria") is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria.
Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common causes of food poisoning in the United States and in Europe.
Candidiasis is a fungal infection due to any type of Candida (a type of yeast).
Canning is a method of preserving food in which the food contents are processed and sealed in an airtight container.
In medicine, a catheter is a thin tube made from medical grade materials serving a broad range of functions.
Causality (also referred to as causation, or cause and effect) is what connects one process (the cause) with another process or state (the effect), where the first is partly responsible for the second, and the second is partly dependent on the first.
Cefotaxime is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections.
Ceftriaxone, sold under the trade name Rocephin, is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.
Cellulitis is a bacterial infection involving the inner layers of the skin.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
The cephalosporins (sg.) are a class of β-lactam antibiotics originally derived from the fungus Acremonium, which was previously known as "Cephalosporium".
A chancre thefreedictionary is a painless genital ulcer most commonly formed during the primary stage of syphilis.
Childbirth, also known as labour and delivery, is the ending of a pregnancy by one or more babies leaving a woman's uterus by vaginal passage or C-section.
Chlamydia is a genus of pathogenic bacteria that are obligate intracellular parasites.
Chlamydia psittaci is a lethal intracellular bacterial species that may cause endemic avian chlamydiosis, epizootic outbreaks in mammals, and respiratory psittacosis in humans.
Chlamydia trachomatis, commonly known as chlamydia, is one of four bacterial species in the genus Chlamydia.
Chlamydophila is a controversial bacterial genus belonging to the family Chlamydiaceae, order Chlamydiales, class/phylum Chlamydiae.
Chlamydophila pneumoniae is a species of Chlamydophila, an obligate intracellular bacterium that infects humans and is a major cause of pneumonia.
Chloramphenicol is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
Chronic gastritis is a chronic inflammation of the gastric mucosa.
Ciprofloxacin is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections.
Clarithromycin, sold under the brand name Biaxin among others, is an antibiotic used to treat various bacterial infections.
Clofazimine, sold under the brand name Lamprene, is a medication used together with rifampicin and dapsone to treat leprosy.
Clostridium is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria, which includes several significant human pathogens, including the causative agent of botulism and an important cause of diarrhea, Clostridium difficile.
Clostridium botulinum is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic, spore-forming, motile bacterium with the ability to produce the neurotoxin botulinum.
Clostridium difficile (etymology and pronunciation), also known as C. difficile, C. diff, or sometimes CDF/cdf, is a species of Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium.
Clostridium perfringens (formerly known as C. welchii, or Bacillus welchii) is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic, spore-forming pathogenic bacterium of the genus Clostridium.
Clostridium tetani is a rod-shaped, anaerobic species of pathogenic bacteria, of the genus Clostridium.
A coccobacillus (plural coccobacilli) is a type of bacterium with a shape intermediate between cocci (spherical bacteria) and bacilli (rod-shaped bacteria).
A coccus (plural cocci) is any bacterium or archaeon that has a spherical, ovoid, or generally round shape.
Colitis is an inflammation of the colon.
Collin College is a community college district which serves Collin and Rockwall counties, located north and northeast of Dallas.
Congenital syphilis is syphilis present in utero and at birth, and occurs when a child is born to a mother with syphilis.
Conjunctivitis, also known as pink eye, is inflammation of the outermost layer of the white part of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelid.
Connective tissue (CT) is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue.
A cooling tower is a heat rejection device that rejects waste heat to the atmosphere through the cooling of a water stream to a lower temperature.
Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.
Corynebacterium is a genus of bacteria that are Gram-positive and aerobic.
Corynebacterium diphtheriae is the pathogenic bacterium that causes diphtheria.
A cough is a sudden and often repetitively occurring, protective reflex, which helps to clear the large breathing passages from fluids, irritants, foreign particles and microbes.
The Creighton University School of Medicine is the graduate medical school at Creighton University in Omaha, Nebraska, United States, and grants the Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder that affects mostly the lungs, but also the pancreas, liver, kidneys, and intestine.
Dapsone, also known as diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DDS), is an antibiotic commonly used in combination with rifampicin and clofazimine for the treatment of leprosy.
Debridement is the medical removal of dead, damaged, or infected tissue to improve the healing potential of the remaining healthy tissue.
Dental plaque is a biofilm or mass of bacteria that grows on surfaces within the mouth.
Dermacentor variabilis, also known as the American dog tick or wood tick, is a species of tick that is known to carry bacteria responsible for several diseases in humans, including Rocky Mountain spotted fever and tularemia (Francisella tularensis).
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
Diphtheria is an infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
Disease burden is the impact of a health problem as measured by financial cost, mortality, morbidity, or other indicators.
Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to the surface of non-living objects to destroy microorganisms that are living on the objects.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
DNA damage is distinctly different from mutation, although both are types of error in DNA.
Doxycycline is an antibiotic that is used in the treatment of a number of types of infections caused by bacteria and protozoa.
DPT (also DTP and DTwP) refers to a class of combination vaccines against three infectious diseases in humans: diphtheria, pertussis (whooping cough), and tetanus.
Drug injection is a method of introducing a drug into the bloodstream via a hollow hypodermic needle and a syringe, which is pierced through the skin into the body (usually intravenous, but also intramuscular or subcutaneous).
Dysentery is an inflammatory disease of the intestine, especially of the colon, which always results in severe diarrhea and abdominal pains.
Ehrlichia is a genus of rickettsiales bacteria that is transmitted to vertebrates by ticks.
Ehrlichia canis is an obligate, intracellular bacterium that acts as the causative agent of Ehrlichiosis, a disease most commonly affecting canine species.
Ehrlichia chaffeensis is an obligate intracellular gram-negative species of rickettsiales bacteria.
Ehrlichiosis is a tickborne bacterial infection, caused by bacteria of the family Anaplasmataceae, genera Ehrlichia and Anaplasma.
Endocarditis is an inflammation of the inner layer of the heart, the endocardium.
Endometritis is inflammation of the endometrium, the inner lining of the uterus.
Enteritis is inflammation of the small intestine.
Enterococcus is a large genus of lactic acid bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes.
Enterococcus faecalis – formerly classified as part of the group D Streptococcus system – is a Gram-positive, commensal bacterium inhabiting the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and other mammals.
Enterococcus faecium is a Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic or nonhemolytic bacterium in the genus Enterococcus.
Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) is a type of pathogenic bacteria whose infection causes a syndrome that is identical to shigellosis, with profuse diarrhea and high fever.
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a type of Escherichia coli and one of the leading bacterial causes of diarrhea in the developing world, as well as the most common cause of travelers' diarrhea.
4QI9) An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity.
Epididymitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the epididymis, a curved structure at the back of the testicle.
Erysipelas is an acute infection typically with a skin rash, usually on any of the legs and toes, face, arms, and fingers.
Erythema chronicum migrans (New Latin, literally, "chronic migrating redness") refers to a rash often seen in the early stage of Lyme disease, and can also (but less commonly) be caused by southern tick-associated rash illness (STARI).
Erythromycin is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.
Escherichia is a genus of Gram-negative, nonspore forming, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria from the family Enterobacteriaceae.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a serotype of the bacterial species Escherichia coli and is one of the Shiga toxin–producing types of E. coli.
Ethambutol (EMB, E) is a medication primarily used to treat tuberculosis.
Exogenous bacteria are microorganisms introduced to closed biological systems from the external world.
An exotoxin is a toxin secreted by bacteria.
Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.
Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT), also known as a stool transplant, is the process of transplantation of fecal bacteria from a healthy individual into a recipient.
The fecal–oral route (or oral–fecal route or fecal oral route) describes a particular route of transmission of a disease.
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.
A flagellum (plural: flagella) is a lash-like appendage that protrudes from the cell body of certain bacterial and eukaryotic cells.
Fleas are small flightless insects that form the order Siphonaptera.
A fomes (pronounced) or fomite is any nonliving object or substance capable of carrying infectious organisms, such as viruses or bacteria, and hence transferring them from one individual to another.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
Foodborne illness (also foodborne disease and colloquially referred to as food poisoning) is any illness resulting from the food spoilage of contaminated food, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, or parasites that contaminate food, as well as toxins such as poisonous mushrooms and various species of beans that have not been boiled for at least 10 minutes.
Francisella is a genus of pathogenic, Gram-negative bacteria.
Francisella tularensis is a pathogenic species of Gram-negative, rod-shaped coccobacillus, an aerobe bacterium.
Gas gangrene (also known as clostridial myonecrosis and myonecrosis) is a bacterial infection that produces gas in tissues in gangrene.
Gastroenteritis, also known as infectious diarrhea, is inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract -- the stomach and small intestine.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
Genetic recombination (aka genetic reshuffling) is the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
Gentamicin, sold under brand names Garamycin among others, is an antibiotic used to treat several types of bacterial infections.
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
Gonorrhea, also spelled gonorrhoea, is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
Gram stain or Gram staining, also called Gram's method, is a method of staining used to distinguish and classify bacterial species into two large groups (gram-positive and gram-negative).
Granuloma is an inflammation found in many diseases.
Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rapid-onset muscle weakness caused by the immune system damaging the peripheral nervous system.
A gumma is a soft, non-cancerous growth resulting from the tertiary stage of syphilis.
Gut flora, or gut microbiota, or gastrointestinal microbiota, is the complex community of microorganisms that live in the digestive tracts of humans and other animals, including insects.
Haemophilus is a genus of Gram-negative, pleomorphic, coccobacilli bacteria belonging to the family Pasteurellaceae.
Haemophilus influenzae (formerly called Pfeiffer's bacillus or Bacillus influenzae) is a Gram-negative, coccobacillary, facultatively anaerobic pathogenic bacterium belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family.
Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.
Helicobacter is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria possessing a characteristic helical shape.
Helicobacter pylori, previously known as Campylobacter pylori, is a gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium usually found in the stomach.
Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is a disease characterized by a triad of hemolytic anemia (anemia caused by destruction of red blood cells), acute kidney failure (uremia), and a low platelet count (thrombocytopenia).
Hemoptysis is the coughing up of blood or blood-stained mucus from the bronchi, larynx, trachea, or lungs.
Hepatosplenomegaly (commonly abbreviated HSM) is the simultaneous enlargement of both the liver (hepatomegaly) and the spleen (splenomegaly).
The Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine, often called Hib vaccine, is a vaccine used to prevent Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) infection.
Honey is a sweet, viscous food substance produced by bees and some related insects.
A hospital-acquired infection (HAI), also known as a nosocomial infection, is an infection that is acquired in a hospital or other health care facility.
Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) or nosocomial pneumonia refers to any pneumonia contracted by a patient in a hospital at least 48–72 hours after being admitted.
The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder).
The Human Microbiome Project (HMP) was a United States National Institutes of Health (NIH) research initiative to improve understanding of the microbial flora involved in human health and disease.
The human microbiota is the aggregate of microorganisms that resides on or within any of a number of human tissues and biofluids, including the skin, mammary glands, placenta, seminal fluid, uterus, ovarian follicles, lung, saliva, oral mucosa, conjunctiva, biliary and gastrointestinal tracts.
The human skin is the outer covering of the body.
A humidifier is a device that increases humidity (moisture) in a single room or an entire building.
Hyperbaric medicine is medical treatment in which an ambient pressure greater than sea level atmospheric pressure is a necessary component.
Immunodeficiency (or immune deficiency) is a state in which the immune system's ability to fight infectious disease and cancer is compromised or entirely absent.
Immunosuppression is a reduction of the activation or efficacy of the immune system.
Impetigo is a bacterial infection that involves the superficial skin.
Incision and drainage and clinical lancing are minor surgical procedures to release pus or pressure built up under the skin, such as from an abscess, boil, or infected paranasal sinus.
Incubation period is the time elapsed between exposure to a pathogenic organism, a chemical, or radiation, and when symptoms and signs are first apparent.
An infant (from the Latin word infans, meaning "unable to speak" or "speechless") is the more formal or specialised synonym for "baby", the very young offspring of a human.
Infant mortality refers to deaths of young children, typically those less than one year of age.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Insect bites and stings occur when an insect is agitated and seeks to defend itself through its natural defense mechanisms, or when an insect seeks to feed off the bitten person.
An insect repellent (also commonly called "bug spray") is a substance applied to skin, clothing, or other surfaces which discourages insects (and arthropods in general) from landing or climbing on that surface.
Intensive farming involves various types of agriculture with higher levels of input and output per cubic unit of agricultural land area.
Intracellular parasites are microparasites that are capable of growing and reproducing inside the cells of a host.
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
Isoniazid, also known as isonicotinylhydrazide (INH), is an antibiotic used for the treatment of tuberculosis.
Ixodes is a genus of hard-bodied ticks (family Ixodidae).
Jaundice, also known as icterus, is a yellowish or greenish pigmentation of the skin and whites of the eyes due to high bilirubin levels.
Keratitis is a condition in which the eye's cornea, the clear dome on the front surface of the eye, becomes inflamed.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
Kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer work.
Klebsiella pneumonia (KP) is a form of bacterial pneumonia associated with Klebsiella pneumoniae. It is typically due to aspiration and alcoholism may be a risk factor, though it is also commonly implicated in hospital-acquired urinary tract infections, and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) individuals.
Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative, non-motile, encapsulated, lactose-fermenting, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium.
Koch's postulates are four criteria designed to establish a causative relationship between a microbe and a disease.
Lactobacillus is a genus of Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic or microaerophilic, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacteria.
The genus Legionella is a pathogenic group of Gram-negative bacteria that includes the species L. pneumophila, causing legionellosis (all illnesses caused by Legionella) including a pneumonia-type illness called Legionnaires' disease and a mild flu-like illness called Pontiac fever.
Legionella pneumophila is a thin, aerobic, pleomorphic, flagellated, nonspore-forming, Gram-negative bacterium of the genus Legionella.
Legionnaires' disease is a form of atypical pneumonia caused by any type of Legionella bacteria.
Leprosy, also known as Hansen's disease (HD), is a long-term infection by the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae or Mycobacterium lepromatosis.
Leptospira (Greek leptos, "fine, thin" and Latin spira, "coil") is a genus of spirochaete bacteria, including a small number of pathogenic and saprophytic species.
Leptospira interrogans is a Gram negative, obligate aerobe spirochete, with periplasmic flagella.
Leptospira noguchii is a gram-negative, pathogenic organism.
Leptospira santarosai is a pathogenic species of Leptospira.
Leptospira weilii is a pathogenic species of Leptospira.
Leptospirosis is an infection caused by corkscrew-shaped bacteria called Leptospira.
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), also known as lipoglycans and endotoxins, are large molecules consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide composed of O-antigen, outer core and inner core joined by a covalent bond; they are found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
The following is a list of antibiotics.
This is the list of healthy vaginal microbiota (VMB), which is defined as the group of species and genera that generally are found to have lack of symptoms, absence of various infections, and result in good pregnancy outcomes.
Listeria is a genus of bacteria that, until 1992, contained 10 known species, each containing two subspecies.
Listeria monocytogenes is the species of pathogenic bacteria that causes the infection listeriosis.
Listeriosis is a bacterial infection most commonly caused by Listeria monocytogenes, although L. ivanovii and L. grayi have been reported in certain cases.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
Lyme disease, also known as Lyme borreliosis, is an infectious disease caused by bacteria of the Borrelia type which is spread by ticks.
Lymphadenopathy or adenopathy is disease of the lymph nodes, in which they are abnormal in size, number, or consistency.
Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) (also known as "Climatic bubo", "Durand–Nicolas–Favre disease", "Poradenitis inguinale", and "Strumous bubo") is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the invasive serovars L1, L2, L2a or L3 of Chlamydia trachomatis.
Lysis (Greek λύσις lýsis, "a loosing" from λύειν lýein, "to unbind") refers to the breaking down of the membrane of a cell, often by viral, enzymic, or osmotic (that is, "lytic") mechanisms that compromise its integrity.
The macrolides are a class of natural products that consist of a large macrocyclic lactone ring to which one or more deoxy sugars, usually cladinose and desosamine, may be attached.
Mechanical ventilation is the medical term for artificial ventilation where mechanical means is used to assist or replace spontaneous breathing. This may involve a machine called a ventilator or the breathing may be assisted by an anesthesiologist, certified registered nurse anesthetist, physician, physician assistant, respiratory therapist, paramedic, EMT, or other suitable person compressing a bag or set of bellows. Mechanical ventilation is termed "invasive" if it involves any instrument penetrating the trachea through the mouth, such as an endotracheal tube or the skin, such as a tracheostomy tube. There are two main types: positive pressure ventilation, where air (or another gas mix) is pushed into the trachea, and negative pressure ventilation, where air is, in essence, sucked into the lungs. There are many modes of mechanical ventilation, and their nomenclature has been revised over the decades as the technology has continually developed.
Medscape is a website providing access to medical information for clinicians; the organization also provides continuing education for physicians and health professionals.
The meninges (singular: meninx, from membrane, adjectival: meningeal) are the three membranes that envelop the brain and spinal cord.
Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges.
Meningococcal disease describes infections caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis (also termed meningococcus).
Methicillin, also known as meticillin, is a narrow-spectrum β-lactam antibiotic of the penicillin class.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) refers to a group of gram-positive bacteria that are genetically distinct from other strains of Staphylococcus aureus.
Metronidazole, marketed under the brand name Flagyl among others, is an antibiotic and antiprotozoal medication.
A microaerophile is a microorganism that requires oxygen to survive, but requires environments containing lower levels of oxygen than are present in the atmosphere (i.e. 2; typically 2–10% O2).
Microbial toxins are toxins produced by micro-organisms, including bacteria and fungi.
In animal anatomy, the mouth, also known as the oral cavity, buccal cavity, or in Latin cavum oris, is the opening through which many animals take in food and issue vocal sounds.
A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.
Muscle weakness or myasthenia (my- from Greek μυο meaning "muscle" + -asthenia ἀσθένεια meaning "weakness") is a lack of muscle strength.
Myalgia, or muscle pain, is a symptom of many diseases and disorders.
Mycobacterium is a genus of Actinobacteria, given its own family, the Mycobacteriaceae.
Mycobacterium avium complex is a group of mycobacteria comprising Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium avium, and Mycobacterium chimaera that are commonly grouped together because they infect humans together; this group in turn is part of the group of nontuberculous mycobacteria.
Mycobacterium leprae, also known as Hansen’s bacillus spirilly, mostly found in warm tropical countries, is a bacterium that causes leprosy (Hansen's disease).
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a species of pathogenic bacteria in the family Mycobacteriaceae and the causative agent of tuberculosis.
Mycobacterium ulcerans is a slow-growing mycobacterium that classically infects the skin and subcutaneous tissues, giving rise to indolent nonulcerated (nodules, plaques) and ulcerated lesions.
Mycoplasma is a genus of bacteria that lack a cell wall around their cell membrane.
Mycoplasma pneumonia (also known as "walking pneumonia" because it can spread bilaterally (“walk”) from one lung to the other) is a form of bacterial pneumonia caused by the bacterial species Mycoplasma pneumoniae.
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a very small bacterium in the class Mollicutes.
Mycoplasmataceae is a family of bacteria in the order Mycoplasmatales.
Nafcillin sodium is a narrow-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic of the penicillin class.
The National Health Service (NHS) is the name used for each of the public health services in the United Kingdom – the National Health Service in England, NHS Scotland, NHS Wales, and Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland – as well as a term to describe them collectively.
Necrotizing fasciitis (NF), commonly known as flesh-eating disease, is an infection that results in the death of the body's soft tissue.
Neisseria is a large genus of bacteria that colonize the mucosal surfaces of many animals.
Neisseria gonorrhoeae, also known as gonococcus (singular), or gonococci (plural) is a species of gram-negative diplococci bacteria isolated by Albert Neisser in 1879.
Neisseria meningitidis, often referred to as meningococcus, is a Gram-negative bacterium that can cause meningitis and other forms of meningococcal disease such as meningococcemia, a life-threatening sepsis.
Neonatal conjunctivitis, also known as ophthalmia neonatorum, is a form of conjunctivitis and a type of neonatal infection contracted by newborns during delivery.
Neonatal meningitis is a serious medical condition in infants.
Neonatal sepsis is a type of neonatal infection and specifically refers to the presence in a newborn baby of a bacterial blood stream infection (BSI) (such as meningitis, pneumonia, pyelonephritis, or gastroenteritis) in the setting of fever.
Nephritis is inflammation of the kidneys and may involve the glomeruli, tubules, or interstitial tissue surrounding the glomeruli and tubules.
Neuroborreliosis, also known as Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB), is a disorder of the central nervous system.
Night sweats, also known as nocturnal hyperhidrosis, is the occurrence of excessive sweating during sleep.
NmVac4-A/C/Y/W-135 is the commercial name of the Meningococcal meningitis polysaccharide serogroups A,C,Y and W-135 vaccine of JN-International Medical Corporation.
Nocardia is a genus of weakly staining Gram-positive, catalase-positive, rod-shaped bacteria.
Nocardia asteroides is a species of Nocardia.
Nocardiosis is an infectious disease affecting either the lungs (pulmonary nocardiosis) or the whole body (systemic nocardiosis).
Nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) is an inflammation of the urethra that is not caused by gonorrheal infection.
Norfloxacin is a synthetic antibacterial agent that belongs to the class of fluoroquinolone antibiotics.
A nostril (or naris, plural nares) is one of the two channels of the nose, from the point where they bifurcate to the external opening.
An opportunistic infection is an infection caused by pathogens (bacteria, viruses, fungi, or protozoa) that take advantage of an opportunity not normally available, such as a host with a weakened immune system, an altered microbiota (such as a disrupted gut microbiota), or breached integumentary barriers.
Oral microbiology is the study of the microorganisms (microbiota) of the oral cavity and their interactions between oral microorganisms or with the host.
Oral sex, sometimes referred to as oral intercourse, is sexual activity involving the stimulation of the genitalia of a person by another person using the mouth (including the lips, tongue or teeth) or throat.
Ornithodoros is a genus in the soft-bodied tick family, Argasidae.
Osteomyelitis (OM) is an infection of bone.
Otitis externa, also called swimmer's ear, is inflammation of the ear canal.
Otitis media is a group of inflammatory diseases of the middle ear.
Oxacillin sodium (trade name Bactocill) is a narrow-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic of the penicillin class developed by Beecham.
Paralysis is a loss of muscle function for one or more muscles.
Paratyphoid fever, also known simply as paratyphoid, is a bacterial infection caused by one of the three types of Salmonella enterica.
Pasteurization or pasteurisation is a process in which packaged and non-packaged foods (such as milk and fruit juice) are treated with mild heat (Today, pasteurization is used widely in the dairy industry and other food processing industries to achieve food preservation and food safety. This process was named after the French scientist Louis Pasteur, whose research in the 1880s demonstrated that thermal processing would inactivate unwanted microorganisms in wine. Spoilage enzymes are also inactivated during pasteurization. Most liquid products are heat treated in a continuous system where heat can be applied using plate heat exchanger and/or direct or indirect use of steam and hot water. Due to the mild heat there are minor changes to the nutritional quality of foods as well as the sensory characteristics. Pascalization or high pressure processing (HPP) and Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) are non-thermal processes that are also used to pasteurize foods.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
Escherichia coli (Anglicized to; commonly abbreviated E. coli) is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
The pelvic cavity is a body cavity that is bounded by the bones of the pelvis.
Pelvic inflammatory disease or pelvic inflammatory disorder (PID) is an infection of the upper part of the female reproductive system namely the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries, and inside of the pelvis.
Penicillin (PCN or pen) is a group of antibiotics which include penicillin G (intravenous use), penicillin V (use by mouth), procaine penicillin, and benzathine penicillin (intramuscular use).
Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a break in the lining of the stomach, first part of the small intestine or occasionally the lower esophagus.
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the two components of the nervous system, the other part is the central nervous system (CNS).
Pertussis vaccine is a vaccine that protects against whooping cough (pertussis).
Phage therapy or viral phage therapy is the therapeutic use of bacteriophages to treat pathogenic bacterial infections.
Phenoxymethylpenicillin, also known as penicillin V and penicillin VK, is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.
Plague is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis.
Plague vaccine is a vaccine used against Yersinia pestis.
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) is a pneumococcal vaccine and a conjugate vaccine used to protect infants, young children, and adults against disease caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus).
Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV)— the latest version is known as Pneumovax 23 (PPV-23)— is the first pneumococcal vaccine derived from a capsular polysaccharide, and an important landmark in medical history.
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.
Pneumonic plague is a severe lung infection caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis.
Pontiac fever is an acute, nonfatal respiratory disease caused by various species of Gram-negative bacteria in the genus Legionella.
Postpartum infections, also known as childbed fever and puerperal fever, are any bacterial infections of the female reproductive tract following childbirth or miscarriage.
A postpartum (or postnatal) period begins immediately after the birth of a child as the mother's body, including hormone levels and uterus size, returns to a non-pregnant state.
Prostatitis is inflammation of the prostate gland.
In medicine, a prosthesis (plural: prostheses; from Ancient Greek prosthesis, "addition, application, attachment") is an artificial device that replaces a missing body part, which may be lost through trauma, disease, or congenital conditions.
Pseudomonas is a genus of Gram-negative, Gammaproteobacteria, belonging to the family Pseudomonadaceae and containing 191 validly described species.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that can cause disease in plants and animals, including humans.
Pseudomonas infection refers to a disease caused by one of the species of the genus Pseudomonas.
Psittacosis—also known as parrot fever, and ornithosis—is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by a bacterium called Chlamydia psittaci and contracted from infected parrots, such as macaws, cockatiels and budgerigars, and pigeons, sparrows, ducks, hens, gulls and many other species of bird.
The Public Health Agency of Canada (French: Agence de la santé publique du Canada) is an agency of the Government of Canada that is responsible for public health, emergency preparedness, and response and infectious and chronic disease control and prevention.
Pulmonary hemorrhage (or pulmonary haemorrhage) is an acute bleeding from the lung, from the upper respiratory tract and the trachea, and the alveoli.
Pyrazinamide is a medication used to treat tuberculosis.
A quinolone antibiotic is any member of a large group of broad-spectrum bactericides that share a bicyclic core structure related to the compound 4-quinolone.
Raxibacumab is a human monoclonal antibody intended for the prophylaxis and treatment of inhaled anthrax.
The rectum is the final straight portion of the large intestine in humans and some other mammals, and the gut in others.
Relapsing fever is a vector-borne disease caused by infection with certain bacteria in the genus Borrelia, which are transmitted through the bites of lice or soft-bodied ticks (genus Ornithodoros).
In humans, the respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy of the respiratory system involved with the process of respiration.
Rheumatic fever (RF) is an inflammatory disease that can involve the heart, joints, skin, and brain.
The brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus), commonly called kennel tick, or pan-tropical dog tick, is a species of tick which is found worldwide, but more commonly in warmer climates.
The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation).
Rickettsia is a genus of nonmotile, Gram-negative, nonspore-forming, highly pleomorphic bacteria that can be present as cocci (0.1 μm in diameter), rods (1–4 μm long), or thread-like (10 μm long).
Rickettsia rickettsii (abbreviated as R. rickettsii) is a gram-negative, intracellular, coccobacillus bacterium that is around 0.8 to 2.0 micrometers long.
Rifampicin, also known as rifampin, is an antibiotic used to treat several types of bacterial infections, including tuberculosis, leprosy, and Legionnaire's disease.
Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), also known as blue disease, is the most lethal and most frequently reported rickettsial illness in the United States.
Rose spots are red macules 2-4 millimeters in diameter occurring in patients with enteric fever (which includes typhoid and paratyphoid).
S&P Global Inc. (prior to April 2016 McGraw Hill Financial, Inc., and prior to 2013 McGraw Hill Companies) is an American publicly traded corporation headquartered in New York City.
Safe sex is sexual activity engaged in by people who have taken precautions to protect themselves against sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as HIV.
Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped (bacillus) Gram-negative bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae.
Salmonella enterica subsp.
Salmonellosis is a symptomatic infection caused by bacteria of the Salmonella type.
Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and adequate treatment and disposal of human excreta and sewage.
Scarlet fever is a disease which can occur as a result of a group A ''streptococcus'' (group A strep) infection.
Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to infection causes injury to its own tissues and organs.
Septic arthritis, also known as joint infection or infectious arthritis, is the invasion of a joint by an infectious agent resulting in joint inflammation.
Sexual intercourse (or coitus or copulation) is principally the insertion and thrusting of the penis, usually when erect, into the vagina for sexual pleasure, reproduction, or both.
Sexually transmitted infections (STI), also referred to as sexually transmitted diseases (STD) or venereal diseases (VD), are infections that are commonly spread by sexual activity, especially vaginal intercourse, anal sex and oral sex.
Shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) and verotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC) are strains of the bacterium Escherichia coli that produce either Shiga toxin or Shiga-like toxin (verotoxin).
Shigella is a genus of gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, nonspore-forming, non-motile, rod-shaped bacteria genetically closely related to E. coli.
Shigella dysenteriae is a species of the rod-shaped bacterial genus Shigella.
Shigella sonnei is a species of Shigella.
Shigellosis is a type of diarrhea caused by a bacterial infection with Shigella.
Shock is the state of low blood perfusion to tissues resulting in cellular injury and inadequate tissue function.
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of blood disorders typically inherited from a person's parents.
Siderophores (Greek: "iron carrier") are small, high-affinity iron-chelating compounds secreted by microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi and serving to transport iron across cell membranes.
Silver nitrate is an inorganic compound with chemical formula.
Silver sulfadiazine, sold under the brand Silvadene among others, is a topical antibiotic used in partial thickness and full thickness burns to prevent infection.
Sinusitis, also known as a sinus infection or rhinosinusitis, is inflammation of the sinuses resulting in symptoms.
Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.
The term skin flora (also commonly referred to as skin microbiota) refers to the microorganisms which reside on the skin, typically human skin.
Infection of the skin is distinguished from dermatitis, Stating: "Excludes:...
Smoked fish is fish that has been cured by smoking.
A spasm is a sudden involuntary contraction of a muscle, a group of muscles, or a hollow organ such as the heart.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
Spectinomycin, sold under the tradename Trobicin among others, is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of gonorrhea infections.
The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.
A spirochaete or spirochete is a member of the phylum Spirochaetes, which contains distinctive diderm (double-membrane) bacteria, most of which have long, helically coiled (corkscrew-shaped or spiraled, hence the name) cells.
Sputum is mucus and is the name used for the coughed-up material (phlegm) from the lower airways (trachea and bronchi).
A staphylococcus infection or staph infection is an infection caused by members of the Staphylococcus genus of bacteria.
Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS), also known as pemphigus neonatorum or Ritter's disease, or localized bullous impetigo is a dermatological condition caused by Staphylococcus aureus.
Staphylococcus (from the σταφυλή, staphylē, "grape" and κόκκος, kókkos, "granule") is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria.
Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive, round-shaped bacterium that is a member of the Firmicutes, and it is a member of the normal flora of the body, frequently found in the nose, respiratory tract, and on the skin.
Staphylococcus epidermidis is a Gram-positive bacterium, and one of over 40 species belonging to the genus Staphylococcus.
Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a Gram-positive coccus belonging to the coagulase-negative genus Staphylococcus.
Sterilization (or sterilisation) refers to any process that eliminates, removes, kills, or deactivates all forms of life and other biological agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, spore forms, prions, unicellular eukaryotic organisms such as Plasmodium, etc.) present in a specified region, such as a surface, a volume of fluid, medication, or in a compound such as biological culture media.
Stomach cancer, also known as gastric cancer, is cancer developing from the lining of the stomach.
Streptococcal pharyngitis, also known as strep throat, is an infection of the back of the throat including the tonsils caused by group A streptococcus (GAS).
Streptococcus (term coined by Viennese surgeon Albert Theodor Billroth (1829-1894) from strepto- "twisted" + Modern Latin coccus "spherical bacterium," from Greek kokkos meaning "berry") is a genus of coccus (spherical) Gram-positive bacteria belonging to the phylum Firmicutes and the order Lactobacillales (lactic acid bacteria).
Streptococcus agalactiae (also known as group B streptococcus or GBS) is a gram-positive coccus (round bacterium) with a tendency to form chains (as reflected by the genus name Streptococcus).
Streptococcus mutans is a facultatively anaerobic, gram-positive coccus (round bacterium) commonly found in the human oral cavity and is a significant contributor to tooth decay.
Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus, is a Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic (under aerobic conditions) or beta-hemolytic (under anaerobic conditions), facultative anaerobic member of the genus Streptococcus.
Streptococcus pyogenes is a species of Gram-positive bacteria.
Streptomycin is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections.
Sulbactam is a β-lactamase inhibitor.
In surgery, a surgical incision is a cut made through the skin and soft tissue to facilitate an operation or procedure.
Swine brucellosis is a zoonosis affecting pigs, caused by the bacterium Brucella suis.
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.
Tetanus, also known as lockjaw, is an infection characterized by muscle spasms.
Tetanus vaccine, also known as tetanus toxoid (TT), is an inactive vaccine used to prevent tetanus.
Tetracycline, sold under the brand name Sumycin among others, is an antibiotic used to treat a number of infections.
Ticarcillin is a carboxypenicillin.
Tooth decay, also known as dental caries or cavities, is a breakdown of teeth due to acids made by bacteria.
Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a condition caused by bacterial toxins.
Trachoma is an infectious disease caused by bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis.
In molecular biology, transformation is the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the direct uptake and incorporation of exogenous genetic material from its surroundings through the cell membrane(s).
In medicine, public health, and biology, transmission is the passing of a pathogen causing communicable disease from an infected host individual or group to a particular individual or group, regardless of whether the other individual was previously infected.
Traveler's diarrhea (TD) is a stomach and intestinal infection.
Treponema is a genus of spiral-shaped bacteria.
Treponema pallidum is a spirochaete bacterium with subspecies that cause the diseases syphilis, bejel, and yaws.
Trichomonas vaginalis is an anaerobic, flagellated protozoan parasite and the causative agent of trichomoniasis.
Trichomoniasis (trich) is an infectious disease caused by the parasite Trichomonas vaginalis.
Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX), also known as co-trimoxazole among other names, is an antibiotic used to treat a variety of bacterial infections.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
Tuberculosis management refers to the medical treatment of the infectious disease tuberculosis (TB).
Tularemia, also known as rabbit fever, is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis.
Ty21a is a live attenuated bacterial vaccine that protects against typhoid.
Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to ''Salmonella'' typhi that causes symptoms.
Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases that include epidemic typhus, scrub typhus and murine typhus.
An ulcer is a discontinuity or break in a bodily membrane that impedes the organ of which that membrane is a part from continuing its normal functions.
The University of Nebraska–Lincoln, often referred to as Nebraska, UNL or NU, is a public research university in the city of Lincoln, in the state of Nebraska in the Midwestern United States.
Upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) are illnesses caused by an acute infection which involves the upper respiratory tract including the nose, sinuses, pharynx or larynx.
Ureaplasma urealyticum is a bacterium belonging to the genus Ureaplasma and the family Mycoplasmataceae in the order Mycoplasmatales.
In anatomy, the urethra (from Greek οὐρήθρα – ourḗthrā) is a tube that connects the urinary bladder to the urinary meatus for the removal of urine from the body.
Urethritis is inflammation of the urethra.
The urinary bladder is a hollow muscular organ in humans and some other animals that collects and stores urine from the kidneys before disposal by urination.
The urinary system, also known as the renal system or urinary tract, consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and the urethra.
A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract.
Urination is the release of urine from the urinary bladder through the urethra to the outside of the body.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
In mammals, the vagina is the elastic, muscular part of the female genital tract.
Vaginal flora or vaginal microbiota are the microorganisms that colonize the vagina.
Vancomycin is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections.
In epidemiology, a disease vector is any agent that carries and transmits an infectious pathogen into another living organism; most agents regarded as vectors are organisms, such as intermediate parasites or microbes, but it could be an inanimate medium of infection such as dust particles.
Vector control is any method to limit or eradicate the mammals, birds, insects or other arthropods (here collectively called "vectors") which transmit disease pathogens.
A vertically transmitted infection is an infection caused by pathogens (such as bacteria and viruses) that uses mother-to-child transmission, that is, transmission directly from the mother to an embryo, fetus, or baby during pregnancy or childbirth.
Not to be confused with Ty21a.
Vibrio is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria, possessing a curved-rod shape (comma shape), several species of which can cause foodborne infection, usually associated with eating undercooked seafood.
Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative, comma-shaped bacterium.
A viral disease (or viral infection) occurs when an organism's body is invaded by pathogenic viruses, and infectious virus particles (virions) attach to and enter susceptible cells.
The viridans streptococci are a large group of commensal streptococcal Gram-positive bacteria species that are either α-hemolytic, producing a green coloration on blood agar plates (hence the name "viridans", from Latin "vĭrĭdis", green), or nonhemolytic.
The Wadsworth Center, located in Albany, New York, is the research-intensive public health laboratory of the New York State Department of Health.
Waterhouse–Friderichsen syndrome (WFS) is defined as adrenal gland failure due to bleeding into the adrenal glands, commonly caused by severe bacterial infection: Typically it is caused by Neisseria meningitidis.
Weight loss, in the context of medicine, health, or physical fitness, refers to a reduction of the total body mass, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other connective tissue.
Whooping cough (also known as pertussis or 100-day cough) is a highly contagious bacterial disease.
Yersinia is a genus of bacteria in the family Yersiniaceae.
Yersinia enterocolitica is a Gram-negative bacillus-shaped bacterium, belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae.
Yersinia pestis (formerly Pasteurella pestis) is a Gram-negative, non-motile rod-shaped coccobacillus, with no spores.
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes Far East scarlet-like fever in humans, who occasionally get infected zoonotically, most often through the food-borne route.
Bacterial disease, Bacterial diseases, Bacterial infection, Bacterial infections, Bacterial pathogen, Deadly bacteria, Gram-negative infection of toe web, Gram-positive bacterial infection, Most dangerous bacteria genuses, Pathogenic Bacteria, Pathogenic bacterium, Pathogenic organisms.