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Pathology

Index Pathology

Pathology (from the Ancient Greek roots of pathos (πάθος), meaning "experience" or "suffering" and -logia (-λογία), "study of") is a significant field in modern medical diagnosis and medical research, concerned mainly with the causal study of disease, whether caused by pathogens or non-infectious physiological disorder. [1]

227 relations: Affix, Age of Enlightenment, American Dental Association, American Osteopathic Board of Pathology, American Society for Clinical Pathology, Amoeba, Anatomical pathology, Anatomy, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek, Ancient Greek medicine, Animal, Antimicrobial resistance, Automated analyser, Autopsy, Bacteria, Baroque, Biochemistry, Biometrics, Biophysics, Biopsy, Blood test, Body fluid, Bone, Bone marrow, Bronchoscopy, Byzantine medicine, Cancer, Cancer staging, Cardiomyopathy, Cardiothoracic surgery, Causal inference, Causality, Cause (medicine), Cell (biology), China, Classical antiquity, Classical Greece, Clinical chemistry, Clinical pathology, Cognitive science, Coroner, CT scan, Cutaneous condition, Cytopathology, Dermatology, Dermatopathology, Diagnosis, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Disease, ..., Dissection, Doctor of Medicine, Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine, Elastography, Electrocardiography, Electroencephalography, Electron microscope, Endoscopy, Environmental medicine, Epidemiology, Epithelium, Experimental pathology, Fibrosis, Flow cytometry, Forensic pathology, Forensic science, Formaldehyde, Frozen section procedure, Functional imaging, Fungus, Gastrointestinal tract, General Medical Council, Genetics, Germ theory of disease, Glomerulus, Glossary of medicine, Gross examination, Gross pathology, Hematology, Hematopathology, Hippocrates, Hippocratic Oath, Histology, Histopathology, History by period, Horticulture, Human nutrition, Human tooth development, Humorism, Immunofluorescence, Immunohistochemistry, Immunology, Immunopathology, India, Infection, Infectious disease (medical specialty), Infiltration (medical), Inflammation, Injury, Insect, Integumentary system, Internal medicine, Interstitium, Kidney, Kingdom (biology), Lesion, List of distinct cell types in the adult human body, List of life sciences, List of pathologists, Livestock, Lung, Lymph node, Magnetic resonance imaging, Magnetoencephalography, Mammal, Medical diagnosis, Medical imaging, Medical jurisprudence, Medical laboratory, Medical license, Medical microbiology, Medical photography, Medical research, Medical school, Medical technologist, Medical ultrasound, Medicine, Medicine in ancient Rome, Medicine in the medieval Islamic world, Mental disorder, Microbiological culture, Microbiology, Micrography, Microscopy, Middle East, Minimally invasive procedures, Mite, Mold, Molecular biology, Molecular pathological epidemiology, Molecular pathology, Mouth, Natural philosophy, Nematode, Neoplasm, Nephrology, Neurology, Neuromuscular junction, Neuroscience, Neurosurgery, Non-communicable disease, Nuclear medicine, Oncology, Oomycete, Oral and maxillofacial pathology, Organ (anatomy), Organ transplantation, Otorhinolaryngology, Parasitic plant, Parasitology, Pathogen, Pathogenesis, Pathological lying, Pathophysiology, Pediatric pathology, Peripheral neuropathy, Pet, Pharmacist, Phonology, Physician, Physiology, Phytoplasma, Plant disease epidemiology, Plant pathology, Platelet, Polyp, Positron emission tomography, Precision medicine, Prion, Problem gambling, Prognosis, Proteomics, Protist, Protozoa, Psychiatry, Psychology, Psychopathy, Pulmonary pleurae, Radiography, Radiology, Rash, Red blood cell, Renaissance, Renal pathology, Residency (medicine), Robert Hooke, Royal College of Pathologists, Royal Society, Rudolf Virchow, Salivary gland, Sampling (medicine), Segmental resection, Skin biopsy, Soft tissue, Specialty (medicine), Spectroscopy, Speech-language pathology, Spleen, Surgery, Surgical pathology, Swallowing, Telepathology, Thermography, Thorax, Thymus, Tissue (biology), Tooth pathology, Toxicology, Tubule, Ultrasound, Urine, Vertebrate, Veterinary physician, Viroid, Virus, White blood cell, Zoonosis. Expand index (177 more) »

Affix

In linguistics, an affix is a morpheme that is attached to a word stem to form a new word or word form.

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Age of Enlightenment

The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".

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American Dental Association

The American Dental Association (ADA) is an American professional association established in 1859 which has more than 155,000 members.

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American Osteopathic Board of Pathology

The American Osteopathic Board of Pathology (AOBPa) is an organization that provides board certification to qualified Doctors of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.) who specialize in the diagnosis and characterization of disease in patients following thorough examination of biopsies and/or bodily fluids (pathologists).

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American Society for Clinical Pathology

The American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP) is a professional association based in Chicago, Illinois encompassing 130,000 pathologists and laboratory professionals.

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Amoeba

An amoeba (rarely spelled amœba, US English spelled ameba; plural am(o)ebas or am(o)ebae), often called amoeboid, is a type of cell or organism which has the ability to alter its shape, primarily by extending and retracting pseudopods.

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Anatomical pathology

Anatomical pathology (Commonwealth) or Anatomic pathology (U.S.) is a medical specialty that is concerned with the diagnosis of disease based on the macroscopic, microscopic, biochemical, immunologic and molecular examination of organs and tissues.

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Anatomy

Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Ancient Greek medicine

Ancient Greek medicine was a compilation of theories and practices that were constantly expanding through new ideologies and trials.

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Animal

Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.

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Antimicrobial resistance

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR or AR) is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication that once could successfully treat the microbe.

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Automated analyser

An automated analyser is a medical laboratory instrument designed to measure different chemicals and other characteristics in a number of biological samples quickly, with minimal human assistance.

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Autopsy

An autopsy (post-mortem examination, obduction, necropsy, or autopsia cadaverum) is a highly specialized surgical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse by dissection to determine the cause and manner of death or to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present for research or educational purposes.

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Bacteria

Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Baroque

The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.

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Biochemistry

Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.

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Biometrics

Biometrics is the technical term for body measurements and calculations.

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Biophysics

Biophysics is an interdisciplinary science that applies the approaches and methods of physics to study biological systems.

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Biopsy

A biopsy is a medical test commonly performed by a surgeon, interventional radiologist, or an interventional cardiologist involving extraction of sample cells or tissues for examination to determine the presence or extent of a disease.

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Blood test

A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a hypodermic needle, or via fingerprick.

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Body fluid

Body fluid, bodily fluids, or biofluids are liquids within the bodies of living people.

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Bone

A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.

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Bone marrow

Bone marrow is a semi-solid tissue which may be found within the spongy or cancellous portions of bones.

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Bronchoscopy

Bronchoscopy is an endoscopic technique of visualizing the inside of the airways for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

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Byzantine medicine

Byzantine medicine encompasses the common medical practices of the Byzantine Empire from about 400 AD to 1453 AD.

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Cancer

Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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Cancer staging

Cancer staging is the process of determining the extent to which a cancer has developed by growing and spreading.

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Cardiomyopathy

Cardiomyopathy is a group of diseases that affect the heart muscle.

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Cardiothoracic surgery

Cardiothoracic surgery (also known as thoracic surgery) is the field of medicine involved in surgical treatment of organs inside the thorax (the chest)—generally treatment of conditions of the heart (heart disease) and lungs (lung disease).

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Causal inference

Causal inference is the process of drawing a conclusion about a causal connection based on the conditions of the occurrence of an effect.

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Causality

Causality (also referred to as causation, or cause and effect) is what connects one process (the cause) with another process or state (the effect), where the first is partly responsible for the second, and the second is partly dependent on the first.

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Cause (medicine)

Cause, also known as etiology and aetiology, is the reason or origination of something.

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Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Classical antiquity

Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.

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Classical Greece

Classical Greece was a period of around 200 years (5th and 4th centuries BC) in Greek culture.

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Clinical chemistry

Clinical chemistry (also known as chemical pathology, clinical biochemistry or medical biochemistry) is the area of chemistry that is generally concerned with analysis of bodily fluids for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

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Clinical pathology

Clinical pathology (US, UK, Ireland, Commonwealth, Portugal, Brazil, Italy, Japan, Peru), Laboratory Medicine (Germany, Romania, Poland, Eastern Europe), Clinical analysis (Spain) or Clinical/Medical Biology (France, Belgium, Netherlands, Austria, North and West Africa...), is a medical specialty that is concerned with the diagnosis of disease based on the laboratory analysis of bodily fluids, such as blood, urine, and tissue homogenates or extracts using the tools of chemistry, microbiology, hematology and molecular pathology.

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Cognitive science

Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes.

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Coroner

A coroner is a person whose standard role is to confirm and certify the death of an individual within a jurisdiction.

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CT scan

A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.

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Cutaneous condition

A cutaneous condition is any medical condition that affects the integumentary system—the organ system that encloses the body and includes skin, hair, nails, and related muscle and glands.

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Cytopathology

Cytopathology (from Greek κύτος, kytos, "a hollow"; πάθος, pathos, "fate, harm"; and -λογία, -logia) is a branch of pathology that studies and diagnoses diseases on the cellular level.

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Dermatology

Dermatology (from ancient Greek δέρμα, derma which means skin and λογία, logia) is the branch of medicine dealing with the skin, nails, hair and its diseases.

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Dermatopathology

Dermatopathology (from Greek δέρμα, derma, "skin"; πάθος, pathos, "fate, harm"; and -λογία, -logia) is a joint subspecialty of dermatology and pathology and to a lesser extent of surgical pathology that focuses on the study of cutaneous diseases at a microscopic and molecular level.

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Diagnosis

Diagnosis is the identification of the nature and cause of a certain phenomenon.

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Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) and offers a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders.

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Disease

A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.

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Dissection

Dissection (from Latin dissecare "to cut to pieces"; also called anatomization) is the dismembering of the body of a deceased animal or plant to study its anatomical structure.

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Doctor of Medicine

A Doctor of Medicine (MD from Latin Medicinae Doctor) is a medical degree, the meaning of which varies between different jurisdictions.

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Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine

Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.) is a professional doctoral degree for physicians and surgeons offered by medical schools in the United States.

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Elastography

Elastography is a medical imaging modality that maps the elastic properties and stiffness of soft tissue.

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Electrocardiography

Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG) is the process of recording the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time using electrodes placed on the skin.

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Electroencephalography

Electroencephalography (EEG) is an electrophysiological monitoring method to record electrical activity of the brain.

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Electron microscope

An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.

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Endoscopy

An endoscopy (looking inside) is used in medicine to look inside the body.

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Environmental medicine

Environmental medicine is a multidisciplinary field involving medicine, environmental science, chemistry and others, overlapping with environmental pathology.

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Epidemiology

Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.

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Epithelium

Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.

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Experimental pathology

Experimental pathology, also known as investigative pathology is the scientific study of disease processes through the microscopic or molecular examination of organs, tissues, cells, or body fluids from diseased organisms.

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Fibrosis

Fibrosis is the formation of excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ or tissue in a reparative or reactive process.

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Flow cytometry

In biotechnology, flow cytometry is a laser- or impedance-based, biophysical technology employed in cell counting, cell sorting, biomarker detection and protein engineering, by suspending cells in a stream of fluid and passing them through an electronic detection apparatus.

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Forensic pathology

Forensic pathology is pathology that focuses on determining the cause of death by examining a corpse.

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Forensic science

Forensic science is the application of science to criminal and civil laws, mainly—on the criminal side—during criminal investigation, as governed by the legal standards of admissible evidence and criminal procedure.

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Formaldehyde

No description.

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Frozen section procedure

The frozen section procedure is a pathological laboratory procedure to perform rapid microscopic analysis of a specimen.

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Functional imaging

Functional imaging (or physiological imaging), is a medical imaging technique of detecting or measuring changes in metabolism, blood flow, regional chemical composition, and absorption.

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Fungus

A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.

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Gastrointestinal tract

The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.

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General Medical Council

The General Medical Council (GMC) is a public body that maintains the official register of medical practitioners within the United Kingdom.

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Genetics

Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.

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Germ theory of disease

The germ theory of disease is the currently accepted scientific theory of disease.

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Glomerulus

Glomerulus is a common term used in anatomy to describe globular structures of entwined vessels, fibers, or neurons.

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Glossary of medicine

This glossary of medical terms is a list of definitions about medicine, its sub-disciplines, and related fields.

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Gross examination

Gross examination or "grossing" is the process by which pathology specimens are inspected with the bare eye to obtain diagnostic information, while being processed for further microscopic examination. Gross examination of surgical specimens is typically performed by a pathologist, or by a pathologists' assistant working within a pathology practice.

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Gross pathology

Gross pathology refers to macroscopic manifestations of disease in organs, tissues, and body cavities.

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Hematology

Hematology, also spelled haematology, is the branch of medicine concerned with the study of the cause, prognosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases related to blood.

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Hematopathology

Hematopathology or hemopathology is the study of diseases and disorders affecting blood cells, their production, and any organs and tissues involved in hematopoiesis, such as bone marrow, the spleen, and the thymus.

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Hippocrates

Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.

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Hippocratic Oath

The Hippocratic Oath is an oath historically taken by physicians.

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Histology

Histology, also microanatomy, is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy.

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Histopathology

Histopathology (compound of three Greek words: ἱστός histos "tissue", πάθος pathos "suffering", and -λογία -logia "study of") refers to the microscopic examination of tissue in order to study the manifestations of disease.

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History by period

This history by period summarizes significant eras in the history of the world, from the ancient world to the present day.

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Horticulture

Horticulture is the science and art of growing plants (fruits, vegetables, flowers, and any other cultivar).

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Human nutrition

Human nutrition deals with the provision of essential nutrients in food that are necessary to support human life and health.

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Human tooth development

Tooth development or odontogenesis is the complex process by which teeth form from embryonic cells, grow, and erupt into the mouth.

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Humorism

Humorism, or humoralism, was a system of medicine detailing the makeup and workings of the human body, adopted by Ancient Greek and Roman physicians and philosophers, positing that an excess or deficiency of any of four distinct bodily fluids in a person—known as humors or humours—directly influences their temperament and health.

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Immunofluorescence

Immunofluorescence is a technique used for light microscopy with a fluorescence microscope and is used primarily on microbiological samples.

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Immunohistochemistry

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) involves the process of selectively imaging antigens (proteins) in cells of a tissue section by exploiting the principle of antibodies binding specifically to antigens in biological tissues.

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Immunology

Immunology is a branch of biology that covers the study of immune systems in all organisms.

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Immunopathology

Immunopathology is a branch of medicine that deals with immune responses associated with disease.

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India

India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Infection

Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.

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Infectious disease (medical specialty)

Infectious disease, also known as infectious diseases, infectious medicine, infectious disease medicine or infectiology, is a medical specialty dealing with the diagnosis, control and treatment of infections.

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Infiltration (medical)

Infiltration is the diffusion or accumulation (in a tissue or cells) of foreign substances or in amounts in excess of the normal.

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Inflammation

Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.

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Injury

Injury, also known as physical trauma, is damage to the body caused by external force.

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Insect

Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.

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Integumentary system

The integumentary system comprises the skin and its appendages acting to protect the body from various kinds of damage, such as loss of water or abrasion from outside.

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Internal medicine

Internal medicine or general medicine (in Commonwealth nations) is the medical specialty dealing with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of adult diseases.

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Interstitium

The interstitium is a contiguous fluid-filled space existing between the skin and the body organs, including muscles and the circulatory system.

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Kidney

The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.

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Kingdom (biology)

In biology, kingdom (Latin: regnum, plural regna) is the second highest taxonomic rank, just below domain.

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Lesion

A lesion is any abnormal damage or change in the tissue of an organism, usually caused by disease or trauma.

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List of distinct cell types in the adult human body

There are many different types of cell in the human body.

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List of life sciences

The life sciences or biological sciences comprise the branches of science that involve the scientific study of life and organisms – such as microorganisms, plants, and animals including human beings – as well as related considerations like bioethics.

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List of pathologists

A list of people notable in the field of pathology.

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Livestock

Livestock are domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities such as meat, eggs, milk, fur, leather, and wool.

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Lung

The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.

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Lymph node

A lymph node or lymph gland is an ovoid or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, and of the adaptive immune system, that is widely present throughout the body.

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Magnetic resonance imaging

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.

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Magnetoencephalography

Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a functional neuroimaging technique for mapping brain activity by recording magnetic fields produced by electrical currents occurring naturally in the brain, using very sensitive magnetometers.

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Mammal

Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.

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Medical diagnosis

Medical diagnosis (abbreviated Dx or DS) is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs.

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Medical imaging

Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).

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Medical jurisprudence

Medical jurisprudence or legal medicine is the branch of science and medicine involving the study and application of scientific and medical knowledge to legal problems, such as inquests, and in the field of law.

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Medical laboratory

A medical laboratory or clinical laboratory is a laboratory where tests are carried out on clinical specimens in order to obtain information about the health of a patient in order to provide diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.

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Medical license

A medical license is an occupational license that permits a person to legally practice medicine.

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Medical microbiology

Medical microbiology, the large subset of microbiology that is applied to medicine, is a branch of medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases.

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Medical photography

Medical photography is a specialized area of photography that concerns itself with the documentation of the clinical presentation of patients, medical and surgical procedures, medical devices and specimens from autopsy.

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Medical research

Biomedical research (or experimental medicine) encompasses a wide array of research, extending from "basic research" (also called bench science or bench research), – involving fundamental scientific principles that may apply to a ''preclinical'' understanding – to clinical research, which involves studies of people who may be subjects in clinical trials.

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Medical school

A medical school is a tertiary educational institution —or part of such an institution— that teaches medicine, and awards a professional degree for physicians and surgeons.

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Medical technologist

A Medical Technologist (also known as Medical laboratory scientist, Clinical Laboratory Scientist, Medical Laboratory Technologist) is an allied health professional that analyzes and tests body fluids and tissues.

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Medical ultrasound

Medical ultrasound (also known as diagnostic sonography or ultrasonography) is a diagnostic imaging technique based on the application of ultrasound.

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Medicine

Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.

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Medicine in ancient Rome

Medicine in ancient Rome combined various techniques using different tools, methodology, and ingredients.

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Medicine in the medieval Islamic world

In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine is the science of medicine developed in the Islamic Golden Age, and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of Islamic civilization.

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Mental disorder

A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.

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Microbiological culture

A microbiological culture, or microbial culture, is a method of multiplying microbial organisms by letting them reproduce in predetermined culture medium under controlled laboratory conditions.

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Microbiology

Microbiology (from Greek μῑκρος, mīkros, "small"; βίος, bios, "life"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of microorganisms, those being unicellular (single cell), multicellular (cell colony), or acellular (lacking cells).

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Micrography

Micrography (from Greek, literally small-writing – "Μικρογραφία"), also called microcalligraphy, is a Jewish form of calligrams developed in the 9th century, with parallels in Christianity and Islam, utilizing minute Hebrew letters to form representational, geometric and abstract designs.

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Microscopy

Microscopy is the technical field of using microscopes to view objects and areas of objects that cannot be seen with the naked eye (objects that are not within the resolution range of the normal eye).

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Middle East

The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).

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Minimally invasive procedures

Minimally invasive procedures (also known as minimally invasive surgeries) encompass surgical techniques that limit the size of incisions needed and so lessen wound healing time, associated pain and risk of infection.

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Mite

Mites are small arthropods belonging to the class Arachnida and the subclass Acari (also known as Acarina).

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Mold

A mold or mould (is a fungus that grows in the form of multicellular filaments called hyphae.

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Molecular biology

Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.

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Molecular pathological epidemiology

Molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE, also molecular pathologic epidemiology) is a discipline combining epidemiology and pathology.

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Molecular pathology

Molecular pathology is an emerging discipline within pathology which is focused in the study and diagnosis of disease through the examination of molecules within organs, tissues or bodily fluids.

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Mouth

In animal anatomy, the mouth, also known as the oral cavity, buccal cavity, or in Latin cavum oris, is the opening through which many animals take in food and issue vocal sounds.

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Natural philosophy

Natural philosophy or philosophy of nature (from Latin philosophia naturalis) was the philosophical study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science.

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Nematode

The nematodes or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda (also called Nemathelminthes).

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Neoplasm

Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.

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Nephrology

Nephrology (from Greek nephros "kidney", combined with the suffix -logy, "the study of") is a specialty of medicine and pediatrics that concerns itself with the kidneys: the study of normal kidney function and kidney disease, the preservation of kidney health, and the treatment of kidney disease, from diet and medication to renal replacement therapy (dialysis and kidney transplantation).

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Neurology

Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.

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Neuromuscular junction

A neuromuscular junction (or myoneural junction) is a chemical synapse formed by the contact between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber.

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Neuroscience

Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system.

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Neurosurgery

Neurosurgery, or neurological surgery, is the medical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, surgical treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders which affect any portion of the nervous system including the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system.

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Non-communicable disease

A non-communicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is not caused by infectious agents (non-infectious or non-transmissible).

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Nuclear medicine

Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty involving the application of radioactive substances in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.

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Oncology

Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer.

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Oomycete

Oomycota or oomycetes form a distinct phylogenetic lineage of fungus-like eukaryotic microorganisms.

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Oral and maxillofacial pathology

Oral and maxillofacial pathology (also termed oral pathology, stomatognathic disease, dental disease, or mouth disease) refers to the diseases of the mouth ("oral cavity" or "stoma"), jaws ("maxillae" or "gnath") and related structures such as salivary glands, temporomandibular joints, facial muscles and perioral skin (the skin around the mouth).

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Organ (anatomy)

Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.

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Organ transplantation

Organ transplantation is a medical procedure in which an organ is removed from one body and placed in the body of a recipient, to replace a damaged or missing organ.

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Otorhinolaryngology

Otorhinolaryngology (also called otolaryngology and otolaryngology–head and neck surgery) is a surgical subspecialty within medicine that deals with conditions of the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) and related structures of the head and neck.

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Parasitic plant

A parasitic plant is a plant that derives some or all of its nutritional requirement from another living plant.

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Parasitology

Parasitology is the study of parasites, their hosts, and the relationship between them.

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Pathogen

In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.

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Pathogenesis

The pathogenesis of a disease is the biological mechanism (or mechanisms) that leads to the diseased state.

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Pathological lying

Pathological lying (also called pseudologia fantastica and mythomania) is a behavior of habitual or compulsive lying.

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Pathophysiology

Pathophysiology or physiopathology is a convergence of pathology with physiology.

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Pediatric pathology

Pediatric pathology is the sub-specialty of surgical pathology which deals with the diagnosis and characterization of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases of children.

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Peripheral neuropathy

Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is damage to or disease affecting nerves, which may impair sensation, movement, gland or organ function, or other aspects of health, depending on the type of nerve affected.

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Pet

A pet or companion animal is an animal kept primarily for a person's company, protection, or entertainment rather than as a working animal, livestock, or laboratory animal.

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Pharmacist

Pharmacists, also known as chemists (Commonwealth English) or druggists (North American and, archaically, Commonwealth English), are health professionals who practice in pharmacy, the field of health sciences focusing on safe and effective medication use.

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Phonology

Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.

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Physician

A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.

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Physiology

Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.

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Phytoplasma

Phytoplasmas are obligate bacterial parasites of plant phloem tissue and of the insect vectors that are involved in their plant-to-plant transmission.

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Plant disease epidemiology

Plant disease epidemiology is the study of disease in plant populations.

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Plant pathology

Plant pathology (also phytopathology) is the scientific study of diseases in plants caused by pathogens (infectious organisms) and environmental conditions (physiological factors).

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Platelet

Platelets, also called thrombocytes (from Greek θρόμβος, "clot" and κύτος, "cell"), are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to react to bleeding from blood vessel injury by clumping, thereby initiating a blood clot.

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Polyp

A polyp in zoology is one of two forms found in the phylum Cnidaria, the other being the medusa.

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Positron emission tomography

Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.

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Precision medicine

Precision medicine (PM) is a medical model that proposes the customization of healthcare, with medical decisions, treatments, practices, or products being tailored to the individual patient.

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Prion

Prions are misfolded proteins that are associated with several fatal neurodegenerative diseases in animals and humans.

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Problem gambling

Problem gambling (or ludomania, but usually referred to as "gambling addiction" or "compulsive gambling") is an urge to gamble continuously despite harmful negative consequences or a desire to stop.

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Prognosis

Prognosis (Greek: πρόγνωσις "fore-knowing, foreseeing") is a medical term for predicting the likely or expected development of a disease, including whether the signs and symptoms will improve or worsen (and how quickly) or remain stable over time; expectations of quality of life, such as the ability to carry out daily activities; the potential for complications and associated health issues; and the likelihood of survival (including life expectancy).

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Proteomics

Proteomics is the large-scale study of proteins.

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Protist

A protist is any eukaryotic organism that has cells with nuclei and is not an animal, plant or fungus.

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Protozoa

Protozoa (also protozoan, plural protozoans) is an informal term for single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic, which feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.

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Psychiatry

Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.

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Psychology

Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.

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Psychopathy

Psychopathy, sometimes considered synonymous with sociopathy, is traditionally defined as a personality disorder characterized by persistent antisocial behavior, impaired empathy and remorse, and bold, disinhibited, and egotistical traits.

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Pulmonary pleurae

The pulmonary pleurae (sing. pleura) are the two pleurae of the invaginated sac surrounding each lung and attaching to the thoracic cavity.

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Radiography

Radiography is an imaging technique using X-rays to view the internal form of an object.

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Radiology

Radiology is the science that uses medical imaging to diagnose and sometimes also treat diseases within the body.

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Rash

A rash is a change of the human skin which affects its color, appearance, or texture.

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Red blood cell

Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.

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Renaissance

The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.

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Renal pathology

Renal pathology is a subspecialty of anatomic pathology that deals with the diagnosis and characterization of medical diseases (non-tumor) of the kidneys.

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Residency (medicine)

Residency is a stage of graduate medical training.

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Robert Hooke

Robert Hooke FRS (– 3 March 1703) was an English natural philosopher, architect and polymath.

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Royal College of Pathologists

The Royal College of Pathologists is a professional membership organisation committed to promoting excellence in the practice of pathology.

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Royal Society

The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.

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Rudolf Virchow

Rudolf Ludwig Carl Virchow (13 October 1821 – 5 September 1902) was a German physician, anthropologist, pathologist, prehistorian, biologist, writer, editor, and politician, known for his advancement of public health.

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Salivary gland

The salivary glands in mammals are exocrine glands that produce saliva through a system of ducts.

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Sampling (medicine)

In medicine, sampling is gathering of matter from the body to aid in the process of a medical diagnosis and/or evaluation of an indication for treatment, further medical tests or other procedures.

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Segmental resection

Segmental resection (or segmentectomy) is a surgical procedure to remove part of an organ or gland, as a sub-type of a resection, which might involve removing the whole body part.

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Skin biopsy

Skin biopsy is a biopsy technique in which a skin lesion is removed to be sent to a pathologist to render a microscopic diagnosis.

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Soft tissue

In anatomy, soft tissue includes the tissues that connect, support, or surround other structures and organs of the body, not being hard tissue such as bone.

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Specialty (medicine)

A specialty, or speciality, in medicine is a branch of medical practice.

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Spectroscopy

Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.

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Speech-language pathology

Speech-language pathology is a field of expertise practiced by a clinician known as a speech-language pathologist (SLP), also sometimes referred to as a speech and language therapist or a speech therapist. SLP is considered a "related health profession" along with audiology, optometry, occupational therapy, clinical psychology, physical therapy, and others.

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Spleen

The spleen is an organ found in virtually all vertebrates.

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Surgery

Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.

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Surgical pathology

Surgical pathology is the most significant and time-consuming area of practice for most anatomical pathologists.

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Swallowing

Swallowing, sometimes called deglutition in scientific contexts, is the process in the human or animal body that allows for a substance to pass from the mouth, to the pharynx, and into the esophagus, while shutting the epiglottis.

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Telepathology

Telepathology is the practice of pathology at a distance.

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Thermography

Infrared thermography (IRT), thermal imaging, and thermal video are examples of infrared imaging science.

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Thorax

The thorax or chest (from the Greek θώραξ thorax "breastplate, cuirass, corslet" via thorax) is a part of the anatomy of humans and various other animals located between the neck and the abdomen.

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Thymus

The thymus is a specialized primary lymphoid organ of the immune system.

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Tissue (biology)

In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.

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Tooth pathology

Tooth pathology (or tooth diseases, tooth disorders or dental pathology), is any condition of the teeth that can be congenital or acquired.

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Toxicology

Toxicology is a discipline, overlapping with biology, chemistry, pharmacology, and medicine, that involves the study of the adverse effects of chemical substances on living organisms and the practice of diagnosing and treating exposures to toxins and toxicants.

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Tubule

A tubule is.

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Ultrasound

Ultrasound is sound waves with frequencies higher than the upper audible limit of human hearing.

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Urine

Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.

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Vertebrate

Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).

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Veterinary physician

A veterinary physician, usually called a vet, which is shortened from veterinarian (American English) or veterinary surgeon (British English), is a professional who practices veterinary medicine by treating diseases, disorders, and injuries in animals.

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Viroid

Viroids are the smallest infectious pathogens known.

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Virus

A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.

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White blood cell

White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.

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Zoonosis

Zoonoses are infectious diseases that can be transmitted between animals and humans.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pathology

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