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Index Patronage

Patronage is the support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows to another. [1]

155 relations: Academy of Gondishapur, Advertising, Advice and consent, Alchemy, Alexei Rykov, Ancient history, Angel investor, Architecture, Aristocracy, Art history, Astrology, Augusta National Golf Club, Augustus, Barangay, Barmakids, Ben Jonson, Benefactor (law), Benefice, Bloomberg Businessweek, British royal family, Brookings Institution, Calendar of saints, Carambola, Cathedral, Catholic Church, Charles J. Guiteau, Chrétien de Troyes, Church (building), Church of England, Church of Scotland, Church Patronage (Scotland) Act 1711, Civil service reform, Commission (art), Communist International, Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Community-supported agriculture, Connotation, Cooperative, Corporate social responsibility, Council of People's Commissars, Cronyism, Custom, Decree (canon law), Democracy, Disruption of 1843, Dividend, Empire, Erie Railroad, Executive (government), First Secession, ..., Florence, Free Church of Scotland (1843–1900), Gaelic Athletic Association, Gaelic football, Gaius Maecenas, General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Gilded Age, Golf, Grant (money), Grigory Zinoviev, Handicraft, History of Japan, History of science, House of Medici, Hugo Chávez, Hurling, Jabir ibn Hayyan, Jabril ibn Bukhtishu, James A. Garfield, Joseph Stalin, Lazar Kaganovich, Legislature, Leon Trotsky, Leonardo da Vinci, Lev Kamenev, Literature, Ludwig van Beethoven, Masters Tournament, Metropolitan Hotel (New York City), Michelangelo, Middle Ages, Mikhail Kalinin, Mikhail Tomsky, Music, Natural philosophy, Nepotism, New York City, New York State Senate, Nikolai Bukharin, Official, Oligarchy, One Thousand and One Nights, Open secret, Ordinary (officer), Oxford University Press, Padrino system, Painting, Papal States, Paper mill, Patron saint, Patronage in ancient Rome, Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act, Philip IV of Spain, Philosophy, Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Political corruption, Politician, Politics of the Philippines, Polo, Pope Benedict XII, Pravda, Premier of the Soviet Union, Premiere, President of the Philippines, President of the United States, Profintern, Protestantism, Quango, Red Army, Relief Church, Religious art, Renaissance, Roman emperor, Royal family, Sacred Congregation of Rites, Samuel Johnson, Scholarly method, Science, Sculpture, Senate of Canada, Sergo Ordzhonikidze, Shakman Decrees, Shakman v. Democratic Organization of Cook County, Sinecure, Southeast Asia, Soviet Union, Spain, Sponsor (commercial), Sports journalism, Stanford University Press, Tammany Hall, Tenth National Bank, The arts, United States, United States Civil Service Commission, United States House of Representatives, United States Senate, Usury, Vladimir Lenin, Vyacheslav Molotov, Westminster system, Wiley-Blackwell, William M. Tweed, William Shakespeare, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Expand index (105 more) »

Academy of Gondishapur

The Academy of Gondishapur (فرهنگستان گندی‌شاپور, Farhangestân-e Gondišâpur), also known as The Jondishapur University (دانشگاه جندی‌شاپور Dânešgâh-e Jondišapur), was one of the three Sasanian centers of education (Ctesiphon, Resaina, Gundeshapur) and academy of learning in the city of Gundeshapur, Iran during late antiquity, the intellectual center of the Sasanian Empire.

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Advertising is an audio or visual form of marketing communication that employs an openly sponsored, non-personal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea.

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Advice and consent

Advice and consent is an English phrase frequently used in enacting formulae of bills and in other legal or constitutional contexts.

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Alchemy is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa, Brazil and Asia.

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Alexei Rykov

Alexei Ivanovich Rykov (25 February 188115 March 1938) was a Russian Bolshevik revolutionary and a Soviet politician most prominent as Premier of Russia and the Soviet Union from 1924 to 1929 and 1924 to 1930 respectively.

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Ancient history

Ancient history is the aggregate of past events, "History" from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the post-classical history.

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Angel investor

An angel investor (also known as a business angel, informal investor, angel funder, private investor, or seed investor) is an affluent individual who provides capital for a business start-up, usually in exchange for convertible debt or ownership equity.

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Architecture is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or any other structures.

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Aristocracy (Greek ἀριστοκρατία aristokratía, from ἄριστος aristos "excellent", and κράτος kratos "power") is a form of government that places strength in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class.

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Art history

Art history is the study of objects of art in their historical development and stylistic contexts; that is genre, design, format, and style.

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Astrology is the study of the movements and relative positions of celestial objects as a means for divining information about human affairs and terrestrial events.

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Augusta National Golf Club

Augusta National Golf Club, located in Augusta, Georgia, is one of the most famous golf clubs in the world.

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Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.

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A barangay ((abbreviated as Brgy. or Bgy.), formerly referred to as barrio, is the smallest administrative division in the Philippines and is the native Filipino term for a village, district or ward. In metropolitan areas, the term often refers to an inner city neighbourhood, a suburb or a suburban neighborhood. The word barangay originated from balangay, a kind of boat used by a group of Austronesian peoples when they migrated to the Philippines. Municipalities and cities in the Philippines are subdivided into barangays, with the exception of the municipalities of Adams in Ilocos Norte and Kalayaan, Palawan which each contain only one barangay. The barangay itself is sometimes informally subdivided into smaller areas called purok (English: "zone"), barangay zones consisting of a cluster of houses, and sitios, which are territorial enclaves—usually rural—far from the barangay center., there were 42,029 barangays throughout the Philippines.

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The Barmakids (برمکیان Barmakīyān; البرامكة al-Barāmikah, from the Sanskrit प्रमुख pramukha, "leader, chief administrator, registrar"); also spelled Barmecides, were an Iranian influential family from Balkh in Bactria where they were originally hereditary Buddhist leaders (in the Nawbahar monastery), and subsequently came to great political power under the Abbasid caliphs of Baghdad.

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Ben Jonson

Benjamin Jonson (c. 11 June 1572 – 6 August 1637) was an English playwright, poet, actor, and literary critic, whose artistry exerted a lasting impact upon English poetry and stage comedy.

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Benefactor (law)

A benefactor is a person who gives some form of help to benefit a person, group or organization (the beneficiary), often gifting a monetary contribution in the form of an endowment to help a cause.

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A benefice or living is a reward received in exchange for services rendered and as a retainer for future services.

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Bloomberg Businessweek

Bloomberg Businessweek is an American weekly business magazine published by Bloomberg L.P. Businessweek was founded in 1929.

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British royal family

The British royal family comprises Queen Elizabeth II and her close relations.

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Brookings Institution

The Brookings Institution is a century-old American research group on Think Tank Row in Washington, D.C. It conducts research and education in the social sciences, primarily in economics, metropolitan policy, governance, foreign policy, and global economy and development.

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Calendar of saints

The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organizing a liturgical year by associating each day with one or more saints and referring to the day as the feast day or feast of said saint.

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Carambola, or starfruit, is the fruit of Averrhoa carambola, a species of tree native to Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia, Vietnam, Nepal, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Mauritius, and Seychelles.

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A cathedral is a Christian church which contains the seat of a bishop, thus serving as the central church of a diocese, conference, or episcopate.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Charles J. Guiteau

Charles Julius Guiteau (September 8, 1841June 30, 1882) was an American writer and lawyer who was convicted of the assassination of James A. Garfield, the 20th president of the United States.

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Chrétien de Troyes

Chrétien de Troyes was a late-12th-century French poet and trouvère known for his work on Arthurian subjects, and for originating the character Lancelot.

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Church (building)

A church building or church house, often simply called a church, is a building used for Christian religious activities, particularly for worship services.

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Church of England

The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.

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Church of Scotland

The Church of Scotland (The Scots Kirk, Eaglais na h-Alba), known informally by its Scots language name, the Kirk, is the national church of Scotland.

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Church Patronage (Scotland) Act 1711

The Church Patronage (Scotland) Act 1711 or Patronage Act is an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain (10 Ann. C A P. XII).

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Civil service reform

Civil service reform refers to movements for the improvement of the civil service in methods of appointment, rules of conduct, etc.

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Commission (art)

In art, a commission is the act of requesting the creation of a piece, often on behalf of another.

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Communist International

The Communist International (Comintern), known also as the Third International (1919–1943), was an international communist organization that advocated world communism.

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Communist Party of the Soviet Union

The Communist Party of the Soviet Union was the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet Union.

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Community-supported agriculture

Community-supported agriculture, commonly referred to as a CSA model, is a system that connects the producer and consumers within the food system more closely by allowing the consumer to subscribe to the harvest of a certain farm or group of farms.

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A connotation is a commonly understood cultural or emotional association that some word or phrase carries, in addition to its explicit or literal meaning, which is its denotation.

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A cooperative (also known as co-operative, co-op, or coop) is "an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social, and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly-owned and democratically-controlled enterprise".

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Corporate social responsibility

Corporate social responsibility (CSR, also called corporate sustainability, sustainable business, corporate conscience, corporate citizenship or responsible business) is a type of international private business self-regulation.

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Council of People's Commissars

The Council of People's Commissars (Совет народных комиссаров or Совнарком, translit. Soviet narodnykh kommissarov or Sovnarkom, also as generic SNK) was a government institution formed shortly after the October Revolution in 1917.

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Cronyism is the practice of partiality in awarding jobs and other advantages to friends, family relatives or trusted colleagues, especially in politics and between politicians and supportive organizations.

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Custom may refer to.

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Decree (canon law)

A decree (Latin: decretum, from decerno, "I judge") is, in a general sense, an order or law made by a superior authority for the direction of others.

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Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.

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Disruption of 1843

The Disruption of 1843 was a schism or division within the established Church of Scotland, in which 450 evangelical ministers of the Church broke away, over the issue of the Church's relationship with the State, to form the Free Church of Scotland.

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A dividend is a payment made by a corporation to its shareholders, usually as a distribution of profits.

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An empire is defined as "an aggregate of nations or people ruled over by an emperor or other powerful sovereign or government, usually a territory of greater extent than a kingdom, as the former British Empire, Spanish Empire, Portuguese Empire, French Empire, Persian Empire, Russian Empire, German Empire, Abbasid Empire, Umayyad Empire, Byzantine Empire, Ottoman Empire, or Roman Empire".

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Erie Railroad

The Erie Railroad was a railroad that operated in the northeastern United States, originally connecting New York City — more specifically Jersey City, New Jersey, where Erie's former terminal, long demolished, used to stand — with Lake Erie.

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Executive (government)

The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.

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First Secession

The First Secession was an exodus of ministers and members from the Church of Scotland in 1733.

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Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.

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Free Church of Scotland (1843–1900)

The Free Church of Scotland was a Scottish denomination which was formed in 1843 by a large withdrawal from the established Church of Scotland in a schism or division known as the Disruption of 1843.

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Gaelic Athletic Association

The Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA; Cumann Lúthchleas Gael, (CLG)) is an Irish international amateur sporting and cultural organisation, focused primarily on promoting indigenous Gaelic games and pastimes, which include the traditional Irish sports of hurling, camogie, Gaelic football, Gaelic handball and rounders.

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Gaelic football

Gaelic football (Irish: Peil Ghaelach; short name Peil or Caid), commonly referred to as football or Gaelic, is an Irish team sport.

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Gaius Maecenas

Gaius Cilnius Maecenas (15 April 68 BC – 8 BC) was an ally, friend and political advisor to Octavian (who was to become the first Emperor of Rome as Caesar Augustus) as well as an important patron for the new generation of Augustan poets, including both Horace and Virgil.

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General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was an office of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) that by the late 1920s had evolved into the most powerful of the Central Committee's various secretaries.

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Gilded Age

The Gilded Age in United States history is the late 19th century, from the 1870s to about 1900.

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Golf is a club-and-ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible.

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Grant (money)

Grants are non-repayable funds or products disbursed or gifted by one party (grant makers), often a government department, corporation, foundation or trust, to a recipient, often (but not always) a nonprofit entity, educational institution, business or an individual.

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Grigory Zinoviev

Grigory Yevseevich Zinoviev (– August 25, 1936), born Hirsch Apfelbaum, known also under the name Ovsei-Gershon Aronovich Radomyslsky, was a Bolshevik revolutionary and a Soviet Communist politician.

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A handicraft, sometimes more precisely expressed as artisanal handicraft or handmade, is any of a wide variety of types of work where useful and decorative objects are made completely by hand or by using only simple tools.

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History of Japan

The first human habitation in the Japanese archipelago has been traced to prehistoric times.

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History of science

The history of science is the study of the development of science and scientific knowledge, including both the natural and social sciences.

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House of Medici

The House of Medici was an Italian banking family and political dynasty that first began to gather prominence under Cosimo de' Medici in the Republic of Florence during the first half of the 15th century.

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Hugo Chávez

Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (28 July 1954 – 5 March 2013) was a Venezuelan politician who was President of Venezuela from 1999 to 2013.

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Hurling (iománaíocht, iomáint) is an outdoor team game of ancient Gaelic and Irish origin.

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Jabir ibn Hayyan

Abu Mūsā Jābir ibn Hayyān (جابر بن حیانl fa, often given the nisbas al-Bariqi, al-Azdi, al-Kufi, al-Tusi or al-Sufi; fl. c. 721c. 815), also known by the Latinization Geber, was a polymath: a chemist and alchemist, astronomer and astrologer, engineer, geographer, philosopher, physicist, and pharmacist and physician.

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Jabril ibn Bukhtishu

Jabril ibn Bukhtishu, (Jibril ibn Bakhtisha) also written as Bakhtyshu, was an 8-9th century physician from the Bukhtishu family of Assyrian Nestorian physicians from the Academy of Gundishapur.

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James A. Garfield

James Abram Garfield (November 19, 1831 – September 19, 1881) was the 20th President of the United States, serving from March 4, 1881, until his assassination later that year.

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Joseph Stalin

Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.

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Lazar Kaganovich

Lazar Moiseyevich Kaganovich (Ла́зарь Моисе́евич Кагано́вич; – 25 July 1991) was a Soviet politician and administrator and one of the main associates of Joseph Stalin.

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A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.

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Leon Trotsky

Leon Trotsky (born Lev Davidovich Bronstein; – 21 August 1940) was a Russian revolutionary, theorist, and Soviet politician.

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Leonardo da Vinci

Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519), more commonly Leonardo da Vinci or simply Leonardo, was an Italian polymath of the Renaissance, whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography.

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Lev Kamenev

Lev Borisovich Kamenev (born Rozenfeld; – 25 August 1936) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and a prominent Soviet politician.

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Literature, most generically, is any body of written works.

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Ludwig van Beethoven

Ludwig van Beethoven (baptised 17 December 1770Beethoven was baptised on 17 December. His date of birth was often given as 16 December and his family and associates celebrated his birthday on that date, and most scholars accept that he was born on 16 December; however there is no documentary record of his birth.26 March 1827) was a German composer and pianist.

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Masters Tournament

The Masters Tournament (usually referred to as simply The Masters, or the U.S. Masters outside of North America) is one of the four major championships in professional golf.

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Metropolitan Hotel (New York City)

The Metropolitan Hotel in Manhattan, New York City, opened September 1, 1852, and was demolished in 1895.

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Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni or more commonly known by his first name Michelangelo (6 March 1475 – 18 February 1564) was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect and poet of the High Renaissance born in the Republic of Florence, who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Mikhail Kalinin

Mikhail Ivanovich Kalinin (Михаи́л Ива́нович Кали́нин; 3 June 1946), known familiarly by Soviet citizens as "Kalinych", was a Bolshevik revolutionary and a Soviet Politician.

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Mikhail Tomsky

Mikhail Pavlovich Tomsky (Russian: Михаи́л Па́влович То́мский, born Mikhail Pavlovich Yefremovsometimes transliterated as Efremov; Михаи́л Па́влович Ефре́мов; 31 October 1880 – 22 August 1936) was a factory worker, trade unionist and Bolshevik leader.

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Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time.

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Natural philosophy

Natural philosophy or philosophy of nature (from Latin philosophia naturalis) was the philosophical study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science.

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Nepotism is based on favour granted to relatives in various fields, including business, politics, entertainment, sports, religion and other activities.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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New York State Senate

The New York State Senate is the upper house of the New York State Legislature, the New York State Assembly being the lower house.

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Nikolai Bukharin

Nikolai Ivanovich Bukharin (– 15 March 1938) was a Russian Bolshevik revolutionary, Soviet politician and prolific author on revolutionary theory.

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An official is someone who holds an office (function or mandate, regardless whether it carries an actual working space with it) in an organization or government and participates in the exercise of authority (either their own or that of their superior and/or employer, public or legally private).

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Oligarchy is a form of power structure in which power rests with a small number of people.

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One Thousand and One Nights

One Thousand and One Nights (ʾAlf layla wa-layla) is a collection of Middle Eastern folk tales compiled in Arabic during the Islamic Golden Age.

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Open secret

An open secret is a concept or idea that is "officially" (de jure) secret or restricted in knowledge, but de facto (in practice) may be widely known; or it refers to something that is widely known to be true but which none of the people most intimately concerned are willing to categorically acknowledge in public.

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Ordinary (officer)

An ordinary (from Latin ordinarius) is an officer of a church or civic authority who by reason of office has ordinary power to execute laws.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Padrino system

Padrino system, or patronage in the Filipino culture and politics is the value system where one gains favor, promotion, or political appointment through family affiliation (nepotism) or friendship (cronyism), as opposed to one's merit.

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Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a solid surface (support base).

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Papal States

The Papal States, officially the State of the Church (Stato della Chiesa,; Status Ecclesiasticus; also Dicio Pontificia), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula under the direct sovereign rule of the Pope, from the 8th century until 1870.

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Paper mill

A paper mill is a factory devoted to making paper from vegetable fibres such as wood pulp, old rags and other ingredients.

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Patron saint

A patron saint, patroness saint, patron hallow or heavenly protector is a saint who in Roman Catholicism, Anglicanism, Eastern Orthodoxy, or particular branches of Islam, is regarded as the heavenly advocate of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, clan, family or person.

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Patronage in ancient Rome

Patronage (clientela) was the distinctive relationship in ancient Roman society between the patronus (plural patroni, "patron") and their cliens (plural clientes, "client").

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Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act

The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act (ch. 27) is a United States federal law, enacted in 1883, which established that positions within the federal government should be awarded on the basis of merit instead of political affiliation.

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Philip IV of Spain

Philip IV of Spain (Felipe IV; 8 April 1605 – 17 September 1665) was King of Spain (as Philip IV in Castille and Philip III in Aragon) and Portugal as Philip III (Filipe III).

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Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.

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Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

The Politburo (p, full: Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, abbreviated Политбюро ЦК КПСС, Politbyuro TsK KPSS) was the highest policy-making government authority under the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

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Political corruption

Political corruption is the use of powers by government officials or their network contacts for illegitimate private gain.

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A politician is a person active in party politics, or a person holding or seeking office in government.

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Politics of the Philippines

Elections are administered by an independent Commission on Elections every three years starting 1992.

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Polo is a team sport played on horseback.

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Pope Benedict XII

Pope Benedict XII (Benedictus XII; 1285 – 25 April 1342), born Jacques Fornier, was Pope from 30 December 1334 to his death in April 1342.

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Pravda (a, "Truth") is a Russian broadsheet newspaper, formerly the official newspaper of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, when it was one of the most influential papers in the country with a circulation of 11 million.

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Premier of the Soviet Union

The Premier of the Soviet Union (Глава Правительства СССР) was the head of government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).

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A premiere or première is the debut (first public presentation) of a play, film, dance, or musical composition.

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President of the Philippines

The President of the Philippines (Pangulo ng Pilipinas, informally referred to as Presidente ng Pilipinas; or in Presidente de Filipinas) is the head of state and head of government of the Philippines.

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President of the United States

The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.

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The Red International of Labor Unions (RILU) (Russian: Красный интернационал профсоюзов — Krasnyi internatsional profsoyuzov), commonly known as the Profintern, was an international body established by the Communist International with the aim of coordinating Communist activities within trade unions.

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Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.

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A quango or QUANGO (less often QuANGO or QANGO) is a quasi-autonomous non-governmental organisation.

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Red Army

The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

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Relief Church

The Relief Church (or Presbytery of Relief) was a Scottish Presbyterian denomination founded in 1761.

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Religious art

Religious art or sacred art is artistic imagery using religious inspiration and motifs and is often intended to uplift the mind to the spiritual.

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The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.

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Roman emperor

The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC).

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Royal family

A royal family is the immediate family of a king or queen regnant, and sometimes his or her extended family.

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Sacred Congregation of Rites

The Sacred Congregation of Rites was a congregation of the Roman Curia, erected on 22 January 1588 by Pope Sixtus V by Immensa Aeterni Dei and its functions reassigned by Pope Paul VI on 8 May 1969.

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Samuel Johnson

Samuel Johnson LL.D. (18 September 1709 – 13 December 1784), often referred to as Dr.

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Scholarly method

The scholarly method or scholarship is the body of principles and practices used by scholars to make their claims about the world as valid and trustworthy as possible, and to make them known to the scholarly public.

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R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.

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Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions.

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Senate of Canada

The Senate of Canada (Sénat du Canada) is the upper house of the Parliament of Canada, along with the House of Commons and the Monarch (represented by the Governor General).

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Sergo Ordzhonikidze

Grigory Konstantinovich Ordzhonikidze (გრიგოლ კონსტანტინეს ძე ორჯონიკიძე Grigol Konstantines dze Orjonikidze; Григо́рий Константи́нович Орджоники́дзе Grigori Konstantinovich Ordzhonikidze), generally known as Sergo Ordzhonikidze (სერგო ორჯონიკიძე; Серго́ Орджоники́дзе);, Kutais Governorate – 18 February 1937, Moscow) was a Georgian Bolshevik, later member of the CPSU Politburo and close associate of Joseph Stalin. Ordzhonikidze, Stalin and Anastas Mikoyan comprised what was jokingly referred to as the "Caucasian Clique.".

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Shakman Decrees

The Shakman decrees were a series of Federal court orders regarding government employment in Chicago, which were issued in 1972, 1979, and 1983, in response to a lawsuit filed by civic reformer Michael Shakman.

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Shakman v. Democratic Organization of Cook County

Michael L. Shakman, et al.

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A sinecure (from Latin sine.

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Southeast Asia

Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

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Sponsor (commercial)

Sponsoring something (or someone) is the act of supporting an event, activity, person, or organization financially or through the provision of products or services.

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Sports journalism

Sports journalism is a form of writing that reports on sporting topics and competitions.

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Stanford University Press

The Stanford University Press (SUP) is the publishing house of Stanford University.

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Tammany Hall

Tammany Hall, also known as the Society of St.

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Tenth National Bank

The Tenth National Bank was an American bank that existed in the 19th Century.

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The arts

The arts refers to the theory and physical expression of creativity found in human societies and cultures.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Civil Service Commission

The United States Civil Service Commission was a government agency of the federal government of the United States and was created to select employees of federal government on merit rather than relationships.

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United States House of Representatives

The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber.

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United States Senate

The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprise the legislature of the United States.

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Usury is, as defined today, the practice of making unethical or immoral monetary loans that unfairly enrich the lender.

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Vladimir Lenin

Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.

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Vyacheslav Molotov

Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov (né Skryabin; 9 March 1890 – 8 November 1986) was a Soviet politician and diplomat, an Old Bolshevik, and a leading figure in the Soviet government from the 1920s, when he rose to power as a protégé of Joseph Stalin.

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Westminster system

The Westminster system is a parliamentary system of government developed in the United Kingdom.

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Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.

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William M. Tweed

William Magear Tweed (April 3, 1823 – April 12, 1878)—often erroneously referred to as "William Marcy Tweed" (see below), and widely known as "Boss" Tweed—was an American politician most notable for being the "boss" of Tammany Hall, the Democratic Party political machine that played a major role in the politics of 19th century New York City and State.

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William Shakespeare

William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.

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Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (27 January 1756 – 5 December 1791), baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the classical era.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patronage

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